GABRIELE GRADONI received the Ph.D. degree in electromagnetics from the Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy, in 2010. He was a Visiting Researcher with the Time, Quantum, and Electromagnetics Team, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, in 2008. From 2010 to 2013, he was a Research Associate with the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. From 2013 to 2016, he was a Research Fellow with the School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, UK. Since 2023 he has been a Full Professor of applied mathematics and electrical engineering with the University of Nottingham, UK. Since 2023 he has been a Full Professor of wireless communications with the University of Surrey, UK. His research interests include probabilistic and asymptotic methods for propagation in complex wave systems, wave chaos, and metasurfaces, with applications to electromagnetic compatibility and modern wireless communication systems. He is a member of the IEEE, and the Italian Electromagnetics Society. He received the URSI Commission B Young Scientist Award in 2010 and 2016, the Gaetano Latmiral Prize in 2015, and the and the Honorable Mention IEEE TEMC Richard B. Schulz Transactions Prize Paper Award in 2020. From 2014 to 2021, he has been the URSI Commission E Early Career Representative. Since 2020, he has been a Royal Society Industry Fellow at British Telecommunications, UK, and an Adjunct Professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, USA. Since December 2022 he has been a Visiting Fellow at the Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Cambridge, UK.
In this review, a model (the random coupling model) that gives a statistical description of the coupling of radiation into and out of large enclosures through localized and/or distributed ports is presented. The random coupling model combines both deterministic and statistical phenomena. The model makes use of wave chaos theory to extend the classical modal description of the cavity fields in the presence of boundaries that lead to chaotic ray trajectories. The model is based on a clear separation between the universal statistical behavior of the closed chaotic system, and the deterministic coupling port characteristics. Moreover, the ability of the random coupling model to describe interconnected cavities, aperture coupling, and the effects of short ray trajectories is discussed. A relation between the random coupling model and other formulations adopted in acoustics, optics, and statistical electromagnetics, is examined. In particular, a rigorous analogy of the random coupling model with the Statistical Energy Analysis used in acoustics is presented.