Dr Gabriele Parisi

Postgraduate Research Student
Nuclear Engineer


My research project

My qualifications

Master Degree in Nuclear Engineering
Polytechnic of Turin & Polytechnic of Milan
Bachelor Degree in Energy Engineering
Polytechnic of Turin


Research interests



Gabriele Parisi, Francesco Romano, Giuseppe Schettino (2022)Microdosimetry for hadron therapy: A state of the art of detection technology, In: Frontiers in physics101035956 Frontiers Media Sa

The interest in hadron therapy is growing fast thanks to the latest technological advances in accelerators and delivery technologies, to the development of more and more efficient and comprehensive treatment planning tools, and due to its increasing clinical adoption proving its efficacy. A precise and reliable beam quality assessment and an accurate and effective inclusion of the biological effectiveness of different radiation qualities are fundamental to exploit at best its advantages with respect to conventional radiotherapy. Currently, in clinical practice, the quality assurance (QA) is carried out by means of conventional dosimetry, while the biological effectiveness of the radiation is taken into account considering the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). The RBE is considered a constant value for protons and it is estimated as a function of the absorbed dose in case of carbon ions. In this framework, microdosimetry could bring a significant improvement to both QA and RBE estimation. By measuring the energy deposited by the radiation into cellular or sub-cellular volumes, microdosimetry could provide a unique characterisation of the beam quality on one hand, and a direct link to radiobiology on the other. Different detectors have been developed for microdosimetry, from the more conventional tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), silicon-based and diamond-based solid-state detectors, to & UDelta;E-E telescope detectors, gas electrons multiplier (GEM), hybrid microdosimeters and a micro-bolometer based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) technology. However, because of their different advantages and drawbacks, a standard device and an accredited experimental methodology have not been unequivocally identified yet. The establishment of accepted microdosimetry standard protocols and code of practice is needed before the technique could be employed in clinical practice. Hoping to help creating a solid ground on which future research, development and collaborations could be planned and inspired, a comprehensive state of the art of the detector technologies developed for microdosimetry is presented in this review, discussing their use in clinical hadron therapy conditions and considering their advantages and drawbacks.

Gabriele Parisi, Giuseppe Schettino, Francesco Romano (2022)A systematic study of the contribution of counting statistics to the final lineal energy uncertainty in microdosimetry, In: Physics in medicine & biology67(15)155002 IOP Publishing Ltd

Objectives. Microdosimetry is proving to be a reliable and powerful tool to be applied in different fields such as radiobiology, radiation protection and hadron therapy. However, accepted standard protocols and codes of practice are still missing. With this regard, a systematic and methodical uncertainty analysis is fundamental to build an accredited uncertainty budget of practical use. This work studied the contribution of counting statistics (i.e. number of events collected) to the final frequency-mean and dose-mean lineal energy uncertainties, aiming at providing guidelines for good experimental and simulation practice. The practical limitation of current technologies and the non-negligible probability of nuclear reactions require careful considerations and nonlinear approaches. Approach. Microdosimetric data were obtained by means of the particle tracking Monte Carlo code Geant4. The uncertainty analysis was carried out relying on a Monte Carlo based numerical analysis, as suggested by the BIPM's 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement'. Final uncertainties were systematically investigated for proton, helium and carbon ions at an increasing number of detected events, for a range of different clinical-relevant beam energies. Main results. Rare events generated by nuclear interactions in the detector sensitive volume were found to massively degrade microdosimetric uncertainties unless a very high statistics is collected. The study showed an increasing impact of such events for increasing beam energy and lighter ions. For instance, in the entrance region of a 250 MeV proton beam, about 5 * 10(7) events need to be collected to obtain a dose-mean lineal energy uncertainty below 10%. Significance. The results of this study help define the necessary conditions to achieve appropriate statistics in computational microdosimetry, pointing out the importance of properly taking into account nuclear interaction events. Their impact on microdosimetric quantities and on their uncertainty is significant and cannot be overlooked, particularly when characterising clinical beams and radiobiological response. This work prepared the ground for deeper investigations involving dedicated experiments and for the development of a method to properly evaluate the counting statistics uncertainty contribution in the uncertainty budget, whose accuracy is fundamental for the clinical transition of microdosimetry.

C. Verona, G. Parisi, S. Cesaroni, A. Crnjac, M. Jaks, M. Marinelli, S. Palomba, F. Romano, G. Schettino, G. Verona Rinati (2022)Characterisation of a monolithic ?E-E diamond telescope detector using low energy ion microbeams, In: Radiation measurements159106875 Elsevier

Telescope detectors have long been studied for their capability of discriminating the type of radiation detected. Silicon is the most widely used material for solid-state detectors. However, in many nuclear physics experiments and medical applications, diamond offers significant advantages due to its outstanding features, such as near tissue equivalence, high radiation hardness and reliable operation in harsh environments. A monolithic AE-E diamond-based telescope was fabricated. The thicknesses of the two detection stages were 2.5 mu m and 500 mu m for the AE and E stage, respectively. The device was characterised by means of IBIC (Ion Beam Induced Charge) analysis at the Ruder Bos?kovic acute accent Institute ion microbeam. The detector, irradiated with different low energy ions ranging from helium to oxygen, showed good homogeneity of the response on a well-defined sensitive volume with a charge collection efficiency close to 100%.The AE stage showed a very good linear response on a wide range of LET values in diamond (170-3140 keV/mu m). Due to its relatively low thickness, it can be successfully used as a microdosimeter. Time coincidence measurements have demonstrated the diamond telescope capability of discriminating and identifying the impinging ions. However, when the ratio between the energy deposited by the particle in the E stage and in the AE stage is small, the response of the E stage was observed to be affected by a cross-talk between the two stages of the device. A method to correct the E response for such effect was developed and successfully applied to the acquired data.