Geoffrey Grime

Dr Geoffrey Grime


Senior Research Staff
+44 (0)1483 682716
01 WT 02

Academic and research departments

Advanced Technology Institute.

My publications

Publications

Grime G.W., Sani S.F. Abdul, Palitsin Vladimir, Shafiqah A.S. Siti, Maah M.J., Alyahyawi Amjad, Bradley D.A. Simultaneous microbeam IBA and beam-induced luminescence analysis of strained doped silica fibre radiation dosimeters, In: Radiation Physics and Chemistry155pp. 173-177 Elsevier
We demonstrate that the simultaneous combination of ion beam analysis (IBA) and ion beam induced luminescence (IL) can reveal valuable information concerning the performance of strained doped silica fibre thermoluminescence microdosimeters. The micron scale spatial resolution and low detection limits of IBA allow the lateral distribution of dopant elements to be mapped and then correlated with the distribution of prompt radioluminescence. Measurement of the decay of the IL signal with dose provide information concerning the saturation of the subsequent TL signal at high doses. MeV ion beams can deposit relatively high energy in localized, well-quantified small volumes and so this method is valuable for studying high dose effects in TL dosimeters. We describe a simple modification of the target chamber microscope which enables sensitive low background light detection in two wavelength bands and present preliminary results from three types of germanium doped silica fibre dosimeter.
Sani SFA, Grime GW, Palitsin V, Mahdiraji GA, Rashid HAA, Maah MJ, Bradley DA (2015)Micro-PIXE analysis of doped SiO2 fibres intended as TL dosimeters for radiation measurements, In: X-RAY SPECTROMETRY44(2)pp. 33-40 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Sani SFA, Mahdiraji GA, Shafiqah ASS, Grime GW, Palitsin V, Hinder SJ, Tamchek N, Rashid HAA, Maah MJ, Watts JF, Bradley DA (2015)XPS and PIXE Analysis of Doped Silica Fibre for Radiation Dosimetry, In: JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY33(11)pp. 2268-2278 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Merchant MJ, Mistry P, Browton M, Clough AS, Gauntlett FE, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Grime GW (2005)Characterisation of the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre in-air scanning microbeam, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS231pp. 26-31
WATT F, BROOK AJ, GRIME GW (1990)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF THE ALGAE PANDORINA-MORUM (MULL) BORY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS49(1-4)pp. 465-471
VAJIC M, JAKSIC M, FAZINIC S, VALKOVIC V, GRIME GW, WATT F (1990)STUDIES OF TRACE-ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION AT THE COAL-ROCK INTERFACE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS49(1-4)pp. 336-339
BROOK AJ, WATT F, GRIME G (1990)A CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING IN AN ENGLISH LAKE BY PIXE - THE FLUX OF BARIUM AND STRONTIUM IN THE PHYTOPLANKTON, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS49(1-4)pp. 481-484
Powell JJ, Thomas-McKay E, Thoree V, Robertson J, Hewitt RE, Skepper JN, Brown A, Carlos Hernandez-Garrido J, Midgley PA, Mabbott NA, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Kirkby KJ, Donaldson DS, Williams IR, Rios D, Girardin SE, Tanriver Y, Haas CT, Bruggraber SFA, Laman JD, Lombardi G, Lechler R, Thompson RPH, Pele LC (2015)An endogenous nanomineral chaperones luminal antigen and peptidoglycan to intestinal immune cells, In: Nature Nanotechnology10(4)pp. 361-369 NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
BREESE MBH, LANDSBERG JP, KING PJC, GRIME GW, WATT F (1992)APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-TRANSMISSION ION MICROSCOPY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS64(1-4)pp. 505-511
BREESE MBH, ROMANO LT, SALTER CJ, GRIME GW, WATT F (1992)DETERMINATION OF SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2ND PHASES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH7(9)pp. 2373-2378 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, GRIME GW, WATT F (1992)MICROCIRCUIT IMAGING USING AN ION-BEAM-INDUCED CHARGE, In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS72(6)pp. 2097-2104 AMER INST PHYSICS
BREESE MBH, WATT F, GRIME GW, KING PJC (1991)PROTON MICROSCOPY OF A MICROCIRCUIT LAYER STRUCTURE, In: CULLIS AG, LONG NJ, (eds.), MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 1991117pp. 101-104
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F (1992)THE NUCLEAR MICROPROBE, In: ANNUAL REVIEW OF NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE SCIENCE42pp. 1-38 ANNUAL REVIEWS INC
Sandrik R, Grime GW (1996)Analysis of Ag-Co thin film alloys using PIXE and RBS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS109pp. 576-579
Palsgard E, Lindh U, Roomans GM, Grime GW (1996)Tetrahydrofuran freeze-substituted pancreas analysed by nuclear microscopy and X-ray microanalysis, In: JOURNAL OF TRACE AND MICROPROBE TECHNIQUES14(3)pp. 615-631 MARCEL DEKKER INC
de Kerckhove DG, Breese MBH, Grime GW (1998)An optimised beam rocking system to produce angle-resolved information from small areas, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS140(1-2)pp. 199-208 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, WILSHAW PR, GRIME GW (1995)IMAGING OF DEEP DEFECTS USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS103(3)pp. 365-370 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JAKSIC M, GRIME GW, HENDERSON J, WATT F (1991)QUANTITATIVE PIXE ANALYSIS USING A SCANNING PROTON MICROBEAM, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(4)pp. 491-498 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, WATT F, DUVAL AR, MENU M (1991)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF INHOMOGENEOUS THICK SAMPLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(1-3)pp. 353-362
JAMIESON DN, GRIME GW, WATT F (1989)THE NEW OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYTICAL FACILITY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS40-1pp. 669-674 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, KING PJC, BREESE MBH, SMULDERS PJM, WILKINSON AJ, BOOKER GR, PARKER EHC (1995)EVIDENCE FROM ION CHANNELING IMAGES FOR THE ELASTIC RELAXATION OF A SI0.85GE0.15 LAYER GROWN ON A PATTERNED SI SUBSTRATE, In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS67(24)pp. 3566-3568 AMER INST PHYSICS
GRIME GW, DAWSON M, MARSH M, MCARTHUR IC, WATT F (1991)THE OXFORD SUBMICRON NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY FACILITY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(1-3)pp. 52-63
Politis T, Abraham M, Northover P, Grime G (2002)PIXE, electron microprobe data, and experimental archaeology: Tell el-Ajjul and pilot studies of gold granulation joining practices in the mediterranean bronze age, In: Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings712pp. 441-450
This paper discusses the results of a pilot study using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of gold granulated objects from the Bronze Age site of Tell el-Ajjul in Southern Palestine obtained with the Oxford University proton microprobe. Using modern granulated samples with known smithing processes as points of comparison, it is demonstrated how information on ancient joining practices may be accurately gauged. The importance of characterizing objects of known provenance is emphasized in a discussion of archaeological context. It is argued that the building of a large Mediterranean-wide database of granulation analyses can add new depths to our understanding of temporal, social, cultural and technological relationships in the past.
Gomez-Morilla I, Thoree V, Powell JJ, Kirkby KJ, Grime GW (2006)Identification and quantitive analysis of calcium phosphate microparticles in intestinal tissue by nuclear microscopy, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS249pp. 665-669
BONELLO P, PEARCE RB, WATT F, GRIME GW (1991)AN INDUCED PAPILLA RESPONSE IN PRIMARY ROOTS OF SCOTS PINE CHALLENGED INVITRO WITH CYLINDROCARPON-DESTRUCTANS, In: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY39(3)pp. 213-228 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD
DUHLEV R, PITT CW, THOMAS PA, JAMES AG, GRIME GW (1993)STUDIES OF RB ION-EXCHANGED KTIOPO4 WAVE-GUIDES BY X-RAY-DIFFRACTION, SIMS, ELECTRON AND PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON WITH OPTICAL REFRACTIVE-INDEX PROFILES, In: Beltram F, Gornik E, (eds.), PHYSICAL CONCEPTS AND MATERIALS FOR NOVEL OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICE APPLICATIONS II: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM1985pp. 767-773
GRIME GW, WATT F, JAMIESON DN (1990)THE INFLUENCE OF ACCELERATOR PARAMETERS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUBMICRON QUADRUPOLE PROBE-FORMING SYSTEMS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS45(1-4)pp. 508-512
WATT F, GRIME GW, PERRY CC (1988)THE DAMAGE EFFECTS OF A 1-MICRON PROTON-BEAM ON A SINGLE POLLEN GRAIN, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 331-336 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F, BLAIKIE RJ (1993)ADVANCES OF NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY IN MICROELECTRONICS ANALYSIS, In: VACUUM44(3-4)pp. 175-180 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
VALKOVIC V, JAKSIC M, WATT F, GRIME GW, WELLS J, HOPEWELL JW (1993)EFFECT OF IONIZING-RADIATION ON THE TRACE-ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF HAIR, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS75(1-4)pp. 173-176
WATT F, GRIME GW (1988)ELEMENTAL MAPPING OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES USING A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 356-366 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime GW, Ptasinski J, Salomonovic R, Maenhaut W (1997)Nuclear microprobe analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples: Comparison with bulk measurements and analyses of individual particles, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS130(1-4)pp. 576-581
LANDSBERG JP, MCDONALD B, ROBERTS JM, GRIME GW, WATT F (1990)IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF SENILE PLAQUES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING11(3)pp. 317-317 ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
GRIME GW (1993)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION, In: Kenway PB, Duke PJ, Lorimer GW, Mulvey T, Drummond IW, Love G, Michette AG, Stedman M, (eds.), X-RAY OPTICS AND MICROANALYSIS 1992130pp. 165-172
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, WHITEHURST J, BOOKER GR, GRIME GW, WATT F, ROMANO LT, PARKER EHC (1993)DISLOCATION IMAGING USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS73(6)pp. 2640-2653 AMER INST PHYSICS
PERRY CC, GRIME GW, WATT F (1988)AN X-RAY ANALYTICAL STUDY OF MANDIBLES FROM CALANUS-PACIFICUS, AN HERBIVOROUS COPEPOD, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 367-371 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Garwan MA, Musazay MS, Grime GW (1997)mu-PIXE trace element analysis of crude oil, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS130(1-4)pp. 649-653
Koay J, Grime GW (1994)The Oxford scanning proton microprobe, In: Analytical Proceedings including Analytical Communications31(6)pp. 187-192
The Scanning proton microprobe uses a focused beam of MeV protons to give analytical information by exploiting two physical processes, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). Scanning transmission ion microscopy may also be included in the nuclear microscopy package to give imaging data. PIXE is particularly appropriate for biomedical research as signals from hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, which are the main components of a biological matrix, are not detected and therefore signals from inorganic elements with z > 10 will not be swamped by signals from the matrix. Elements with z < 10 can, however, be detected using RBS when present at higher concentrations. Apart from the biomedical field, the SPM has wide-ranging applications spanning diverse areas such as archaeology, materials science and environmental chemistry. This paper reviews the theory of ion beam analysis, the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe and outlines some of the work currently being carried out at Oxford.
Bailey MJ, Coe S, Grant DM, Grime GW, Jeynes C (2009)Accurate determination of the Ca : P ratio in rough hydroxyapatite samples by SEM-EDS, PIXE and RBS - a comparative study, In: X-RAY SPECTROMETRY38(4)pp. 343-347 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Breese MBH, King PJC, Grime GW, Smulders PJM, Seiberling LE, Boshart MA (1996)Observation of planar oscillations of MeV protons in silicon using ion channeling patterns, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B53(13)pp. 8267-8276 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
Grime GW (2013)A compact beam focusing and steering element using quadrupoles with independently excited poles, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS306pp. 12-16 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Abraham M, Northover P, Grime G (2000)Incorporation of laser ablation into a proton probe system to study laser ablation of corrosion products, and enhance the probe's analytical capabilities, In: JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE1PII S1296-pp. S317-S324 ELSEVIER FRANCE-EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER
GRIME G, WATT F, SUTTON C (1991)MICROSCOPES WITH PROTON POWER, In: NEW SCIENTIST130(1771)pp. 32-35 NEW SCIENTIST PUBL EXPEDITING INC
JAMIESON DN, GRIME GW, WATT F, WILLIAMS DA (1989)MEV PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF SILICON ON INSULATOR STRUCTURES, In: INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES(100)pp. 87-92 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
DAVISON W, GRIME GW, WOOF C (1992)CHARACTERIZATION OF LACUSTRINE IRON SULFIDE PARTICLES WITH PROTON-INDUCED X-RAY-EMISSION, In: LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY37(8)pp. 1770-1777 AMER SOC LIMNOLOGY OCEANOGRAPH
Li G, Palsgard E, Grime GW, Triffitt JT (1997)Elemental analysis of rapidly regenerating bone tissues by scanning proton microprobe, In: JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH12(9)pp. P37-P37 BLACKWELL SCIENCE INC
GRIME GW, WATT F (1988)FOCUSING PROTONS AND LIGHT-IONS TO MICRON AND SUB-MICRON DIMENSIONS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 227-234 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, WATT F (1988)SOFTWARE MASKING FOR THE ACCURATE DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTAL QUANTITIES IN DISCRETE AREAS OF A MICRO-PIXE SCAN, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 300-302 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
WATT F, GRIME GW, BROOK AJ, GADD GM, PERRY CC, PEARCE RB, TURNAU K, WATKINSON SC (1991)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(1-3)pp. 123-143
BREESE MBH, WATT F, GRIME GW, KING PJC (1991)PROTON MICROSCOPY OF A MICROCIRCUIT LAYER STRUCTURE, In: INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES(117)pp. 101-104 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
LANDSBERG JP, MCDONALD B, ROBERTS JM, GRIME GW, WATT F (1991)IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF SENILE PLAQUES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(1-3)pp. 180-185
BROOK AJ, GRIME GW, WATT F (1988)A STUDY OF BARIUM ACCUMULATION IN DESMIDS USING THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE (SPM), In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 372-377 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb RP, Gwilliam R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ, Teo EJ, Breese MBH, Bettiol AA, Blackwood DJ, Watt F (2005)New developments in the applications of proton beam writing, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS237(1-2)pp. 188-192
Grime GW, Watt F (1984)BEAM OPTICS OF QUADRUPOLE PROBE-FORMING SYSTEMS., In: Beam Opt of Quadrupole Probe-Form Syst
This book presents the theory of quadrupole focusing with the practical development of microprobe systems in mind. The introductory chapter outlines the analytical processes and provides a background to the problems of designing quadrupole probe-forming systems. Following a description of the quadrupole lens and the mathematical models used to describe the fields within both magnetic and electrostatic quadrupole lenses, the authors describe two techniques for calculating the path of a charged particle through a beam-optical system; matrix methods and numerical raytracing. The minimum spot size achieved by a quadrupole system is influenced strongly by parasitic aberrations due to imperfections in the construction and alignment of the instrument. The authors assess the importance of the various effects by reference to their influence in three existing microprobe systems. Finally, they describe briefly some novel and interesting alternatives to the quadrupole lens as the focusing element. Refs.
GRIME GW, WATT F (1988)PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1ST INTERNATIONAL-CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR MICROPROBE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS - OXFORD, UK, 1-4 SEPTEMBER 1987 - PREFACE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. R5-R5 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb R, Jeynes C, Gwilliarn R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ (2006)Proton beam lithography at the University of Surrey's Ion Beam Centre, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS242(1-2)pp. 387-389
ROMANO LT, BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F (1991)CHANNELING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF Y1BA2CU3O7-DELTA SINGLE-CRYSTALS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(1-3)pp. 234-238
Jeynes C, Bailey MJ, Bright NJ, Christopher ME, Grime GW, Jones BN, Palitsin VV, Webb RP (2012)"total IBA" - Where are we?, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms271pp. 107-118 Elsevier
The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information – the secret of “Total IBA” is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far “Total IBA” can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.
Matjačić L., Palitsin V., Grime G.W., Abdul-Karim N., Webb R.P. (2019)Simultaneous molecular and elemental mapping under ambient conditions by coupling AP MeV SIMS and HIPIXE, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms450pp. 353-356 Elsevier
Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) consists of a set of analytical techniques addressing elemental composition of inorganic material normally conducted using ion beams in the MeV kinetic energy range. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ions (MeV SIMS) is the only IBA technique which can provide extensive molecular information about organic materials. MeV ions can be extracted into air hence offering the potential to apply MeV SIMS under atmospheric pressure. At the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, a fully ambient MeV SIMS setup has been developed and termed “Ambient Pressure MeV SIMS”. This AP MeV SIMS can be optimized for analysis and imaging of organic molecules. MeV SIMS relies upon electronic sputtering of the target material and this is much more efficient in insulating or organic targets, and less efficient in conducting metallic materials. PIXE, on the other hand, is efficient at providing good signals from elemental metallic systems, but does not readily provide molecular information from organics. The combination of the two techniques – preferably simultaneously with the same beam – provides useful complementary information which can readily be combined. Here we present pioneering preliminary work in simultaneous molecular and elemental imaging of a complex sample comprising of two organic species and two metallic species by combining AP MeV SIMS with Heavy Ion Particle Induced X-ray emission (HIPIXE).
Koay J, Osborn RW, Grime GW, Rees S (1996)PIXE analysis of Fusarium culmorum fungus treated with chemical agents, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS109pp. 332-335
Cereda E, Marcazzan GMB, Pedretti M, Grime GW, Baldacci A (1996)Influence of the elemental composition of individual fly ash particles on the efficiency of the electrostatic precipitators, In: JOURNAL OF AEROSOL SCIENCE27(4)pp. 607-+ ELSEVIER SCI LTD
DAVISON W, GRIME GW, MORGAN JAW, CLARKE K (1991)DISTRIBUTION OF DISSOLVED IRON IN SEDIMENT PORE WATERS AT SUBMILLIMETER RESOLUTION, In: NATURE352(6333)pp. 323-325 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
Smit Z, Petru S, Grime G, Vidmar T, Budnar M, Zorko B, Ravnikar M (1998)Usewear-induced deposition on prehistoric flint tools, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS140(1-2)pp. 209-216 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime GW (1996)The ''Q factor'' method: Quantitative microPIXE analysis using RBS normalisation, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS109pp. 170-174
Goodall R, Moore JC, Pecz B, Grime GW, Salter CJ, Grovenor CRM (2001)Fabrication of cube-textured Ag-buffered Ni substrates by electro-epitaxial deposition, In: SUPERCONDUCTOR SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY14(3)pp. 124-129 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Purton LMA, Shields GA, Brasier MD, Grime GW (1999)Metabolism controls Sr/Ca ratios in fossil aragonitic mollusks, In: GEOLOGY27(12)pp. 1083-1086 GEOLOGICAL SOC AMER, INC
Incerti S, Smith RW, Merchant M, Grime GW, Meot F, Serani L, Moretto P, Touzeau C, Barberet P, Habchi C, Nguyen DT (2005)A comparison of ray-tracing software for the design of quadrupole microbeam systems, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS231pp. 76-85
Breese MBH, Grime GW, Linford W, Harold M (1999)An extended magnetic quadrupole lens for a high-resolution nuclear microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS158(1-4)pp. 48-52
Cereda E, Marcazzan GMB, Grime GW, Mattachini F (1996)Macroscopic and microscopic approach to the study of enrichment phenomena in the electrostatic precipitation of coal fly ash particles, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS109pp. 696-700
GRIME GW (1993)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION, In: INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES(130)pp. 165-172 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Mistry P, Gornez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb R, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ (2005)New developments on the Surrey microbeam applications to lithography, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS231pp. 428-432
JAKSIC M, WATT F, GRIME GW, CEREDA E, MARCAZZAN GMB, VALKOVIC V (1991)PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF THE TRACE-ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION IN FLY-ASH PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS56-7pp. 699-703
Rajta I, Grime GW, Kertesz Z, Borbely-Kiss I, Koltay E (1998)Characterisation of single aerosol particles from Debrecen region, Hungary using microPIXE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 324-328
King PJC, Breese MBH, Meekeson D, Smulders PJM, Wilshaw PR, Grime GW (1996)Imaging of the strain field around precipitate particles using transmission ion channeling, In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS80(5)pp. 2671-2679 AMER INST PHYSICS
GRIME GW, BEAUMONT JH, WEST JB (1975)HOLOGRAPHIC DIFFRACTION GRATINGS USED IN NORMAL INCIDENCE MONOCHROMATORS FOR SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, In: APPLIED OPTICS14(10)pp. 2317-2318 OPTICAL SOC AMER
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F (1993)THE GENERATION AND APPLICATIONS OF ION-BEAM-INDUCED CHARGE IMAGES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 301-311
Alves LC, Alves E, Grime GW, da Silva MF, Soares JC (1999)Nuclear microbeam study of advanced materials for fusion reactor technology, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS158(1-4)pp. 671-677
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, GRIME GW (1994)SENSITIVITY OF ION-INDUCED CHARGE PULSES TO THE ELECTRICAL AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES OF 60-DEGREES DISLOCATIONS, In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS65(25)pp. 3227-3229 AMER INST PHYSICS
Watjen U, Barsony I, Grime GW, Rajta I (1999)On the interpretation of micro-PIXE measurements on a prototype microstructured reference material, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS150(1-4)pp. 532-537
Grime GW (2010)Proton Microprobe (Method and Background)pp. 2296-2300
The principles of proton microprobe analysis are outlined and compared to electron beam analysis. Sample preparation methods are summarized, and the types of suitable sample are enumerated. The information that can be achieved from the analysis in terms of elemental composition and images is also described. © 1999 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
ROMANO LT, BREESE MBH, JAMIESON DN, CHEN C, GRIME GW, WATT F (1991)ATOMIC POSITION OF FE IN YBA2(CU1-XFEX)3O7-Y USING ION CHANNELING, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B44(13)pp. 6927-6931 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
GOURLAY ID, GRIME GW (1994)CALCIUM-OXALATE CRYSTALS IN AFRICAN ACACIA SPECIES AND THEIR ANALYSIS BY SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE (SPM), In: IAWA JOURNAL15(2)pp. 137-148 INT ASSOC WOOD ANATOMISTS
Palsgard E, Johansson C, Li G, Grime GW, Triffitt JT (1997)Bone growth and bone development in the presence of implants or after induced leg-lengthening studied using the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS130(1-4)pp. 431-438
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, GRIME GW (1993)DISLOCATION IMAGING USING ION-BEAM-INDUCED CHARGE, In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS62(25)pp. 3309-3311 AMER INST PHYSICS
GRIME GW, WATT F (1990)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - ELEMENTAL MAPPING USING HIGH-ENERGY ION-BEAM TECHNIQUES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS50(1-4)pp. 197-207
Grime Geoffrey (2011)Editorial, In: X-Ray Spectrometry40(3)pp. 119-121
The 12th International Conference on Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and its Analytical Applications was held on the campus of the University of Surrey in Guildford, U.K. between 29 th June and 2nd July 2010. The PIXE conferences have been held at approximately three year intervals since the mid 1970s and have reflected the development of the PIXE technique and its expanding range of applications. This special issue of X-Ray Spectrometry contains papers based on conference contributions which have been selected to represent the latest developments in PIXE and its applications.
Garman EF, Grime GW (2005)Elemental analysis of proteins by microPIXE, In: PROGRESS IN BIOPHYSICS & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY89(2)pp. 173-205 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Jamieson DN, Grime GW, de Kerckhove DG, Breese MBH (1999)Characterisation of lens aberrations and parasitic fields using beam rocking, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS158(1-4)pp. 81-84
GRIME GW, DAWSON M (1994)A PC-BASED DATA-ACQUISITION PACKAGE FOR NUCLEAR MICROBEAM SYSTEMS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS89(1-4)pp. 223-228
VAUGHAN D, SPRATT J, GRIME G, TAMANA H, CRIDDLE A (1994)TRACE-ELEMENTS IN PLATINUM-GROUP MINERALS STUDIED USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS89(1-4)pp. 213-218
Grime GW (2010)High Energy Ion Beam Analysispp. 844-853
The use of high energy ion beams (mainly of protons or alpha particles) for chemical analysis is described. The equipment necessary for achieving this is summarized. The main detection systems are proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). © 1999 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F, WILLIAMS D (1993)MEV ION-BEAM LITHOGRAPHY OF PMMA, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 169-174
DeBock LA, VanGrieken RE, Camuffo D, Grime GW (1996)Microanalysis of museum aerosols to elucidate the soiling of paintings: Case of the Correr Museum, Venice, Italy, In: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY30(11)pp. 3341-3350 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
GRIME GW, WATT F, BLOWER GD, TAKACS J, JAMIESON DN (1982)REAL AND PARASITIC ABERRATIONS OF QUADRUPOLE PROBE-FORMING SYSTEMS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH197(1)pp. 97-109 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Landsberg J, McDonald B, Grime G, Watt F (1993)Microanalysis of senile plaques using nuclear microscopy., In: J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol6(2)pp. 97-104
Silver-staining "senile" plaques occurring in the brain are a major part of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The elemental composition of these structures, and the possible presence of aluminum and silicon in these structures, has been the subject of an increasing research effort over the last decade. However, the results have often been contradictory. Using a scanning proton microprobe, the elemental composition of senile plaques has been determined. This instrument, similar to an electron probe, uses a focused beam of protons scanned across a sample to map the elements. The technique is absolutely quantitative and is sensitive down to the parts per million level. Tissue from six cases of clinically and pathologically characterized cases of Alzheimer's disease and two aged neurologically normal controls was scanned. It was found that aluminum and silicon occur at a level of 50 ppm or greater in the cores of 20% of senile plaques and that the total occurrence of aluminum or silicon in scans containing plaques was not above background. The major uncertainties affecting interpretation of results of this kind are discussed, and it is suggested that the least controllable factor is contamination in the reagents used to prepare and stain the tissue. This indicates that until plaques can be unambiguously identified and analyzed in untreated tissue, no conclusion can be reached on whether senile plaques contain aluminum and silicon.
JAMIESON DN, ROMANO LT, GRIME GW, WATT F (1990)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - A NEW WAY OF ANALYZING MATERIALS, In: MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION25(1)pp. 3-15 ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
JAMIESON DN, GRIME GW, WATT F, WILLIAMS DA (1989)MEV PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF SILICON ON INSULATOR STRUCTURES, In: CULLIS AG, HUTCHINSON JL, (eds.), MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 1989100pp. 87-92
GRIME GW, TRIFFITT JT, WILLIAMSON MC, ATHANASOU NA (1994)NUCLEAR MICROBEAM ANALYSIS OF WEAR PARTICLES IN TISSUE SURROUNDING FAILED HIP-JOINT IMPLANTS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS89(1-4)pp. 145-148
Pinheiro T, Alves LC, de Almeida AB, Palhano MJ, Palsgard E, Grime GW (1999)Airborne particulate matter localisation in the human respiratory system, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS158(1-4)pp. 499-504
Grime G, Doyle B (2005)J.L. (Iain) Campbell - Dedication, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS241(1-4)pp. XVI-XVII ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F (1993)STUDY OF NUCLEAR MICROPROBE BEAM HALO USING IBIC, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 243-246
Smit Z, Grime GW, Petru S, Rajta I (1999)Microdistribution and composition of usewear polish on prehistoric stone tools, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS150(1-4)pp. 565-570
GRIME GW, WATT F, WOGELIUS RA, JAMTVEIT B (1993)PROCESSING MICROPIXE LINESCAN DATA - STUDIES OF ARSENIC ZONING IN SKARN GARNETS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 410-414
CRIDDLE AJ, TAMANA H, SPRATT J, REESON KJ, VAUGHAN D, GRIME G (1993)MICRO-PIXE ANALYSIS OF PLATINUM-GROUP MINERALS FROM PLACER DEPOSITS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 444-449
WATT F, GRIME GW, BLOWER GD, TAKACS J (1981)A COUPLED TRIPLET CONFIGURATION OF THE OXFORD MICRO-PROBE, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE28(2)pp. 1413-1416 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, SMULDERS PJM, GRIME GW (1995)DECHANNELING OF MEV PROTONS BY 60-DEGREES DISLOCATIONS, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B51(5)pp. 2742-2750 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
Kramer U, Grime GW, Smith JAC, Hawes CR, Baker AJM (1997)Micro-PIXE as a technique for studying nickel localization in leaves of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS130(1-4)pp. 346-350
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, ROMANO LT, GRIME GW, WATT F (1991)THE CALCULATION OF PIXE MINIMUM YIELDS USING RBS CHANNELING, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS62(1)pp. 133-138 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Watt F, Grime GW, Cookson JA (1987)Principles and applications of high-energy ion microbeams Taylor & Francis
King PJC, Breese MBH, Smulders PJM, Wilshaw PR, Grime GW (1996)Defect imaging and channeling studies using channeling scanning transmission ion microscopy, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS118(1-4)pp. 426-430
Abraham MH, Grime GW, Northover JP, Smith CW (1999)PIXE and RES as a tool for the analysis of historic copper halfpennies, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS150(1-4)pp. 651-655
GRIME GW, DAVISON W (1993)THE USE OF NUCLEAR MICROPROBE TECHNIQUES TO STUDY THE CHEMISTRY OF LACUSTRINE SEDIMENTS AND PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 430-435
de Kerckhove DG, Breese MBH, Marsh MA, Grime GW (1998)Maskless fabrication of 3-dimensional microstructures in PMMA using a nuclear microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 379-384
TEMLETT JA, LANDSBERG JP, WATT F, GRIME GW (1994)INCREASED IRON IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA COMPACTA OF THE MPTP-LESIONED HEMIPARKINSONIAN AFRICAN-GREEN MONKEY - EVIDENCE FROM PROTON MICROPROBE ELEMENTAL MICROANALYSIS, In: JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY62(1)pp. 134-146 LIPPINCOTT-RAVEN PUBL
Davison W, Fones GR, Grime GW (1997)Dissolved metals in surface sediment and a microbial mat at 100-mu m resolution, In: NATURE387(6636)pp. 885-888 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
BOGDANOVIC I, FAZINIC S, JAKSIC M, GRIME GW, VALKOVIC V (1994)USE OF STIM IN THE PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS85(1-4)pp. 732-735
Wogelius RA, Fraser DG, Wall GRT, Grime GW (1997)Trace element and isotopic zonation in vein calcite from the Mendip Hills, UK, with spatial-process correlation analysis, In: GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA61(10)pp. 2037-2051 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Fones GR, Davison W, Grime GW (1998)Development of constrained DET for measurements of dissolved iron in surface sediments at sub-mm resolution, In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT221(2-3)pp. 127-137 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, SMULDERS PJM, WILSHAW PR, GRIME GW (1995)OBSERVATION OF A BLOCKING TO CHANNELING TRANSITION FOR MEV PROTONS AT STACKING-FAULTS IN SILICON, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS74(3)pp. 411-414 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, DELLITH M (1993)THE EFFECT OF ION-INDUCED DAMAGE ON IBIC IMAGES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 332-338
Gilmour JD, Wogelius RA, Grime GW, Turner G (1997)Trace-element and major-element zoning in Allan Hills 84001 carbonate., In: METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE32(4)pp. A48-A49 METEORITICAL SOC
BEAUMONT JH, GRIME GW, HART M (1976)HIGH-RESOLUTION, HIGH-INTENSITY SMALL-ANGLE SCATTERING CAMERA FOR SYNCHROTRON X-RADIATION, In: JOURNAL OF PHYSICS E-SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS9(8)pp. 680-683 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Jeynes Christopher, Palitsin Vladimir, Kokkoris M., Hamilton A., Grime Geoffrey On the accuracy of Total-IBA, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms465pp. 85-100 Elsevier
“Total-IBA” implies the synergistic use of multiple IBA techniques. It has been claimed that Total–IBA inherits the accuracy of the most accurate IBA technique used. A specific example is now given of this where (in vacuo) EBS/PIXE of a glass sample uniform in depth is validated against absolutely calibrated EPMA of the same sample. The EPMA results had a mass closure gap of 2.0 ± 0.6 wt%; the full PIXE analysis determined the composition of this missing 2 wt%. The PIXE calibration was against a single certified glass sample, with uncertainties per line ~10%. Benchmarking also demonstrates ~10% underestimation of the Si scattering cross-section at proton energies ~3 MeV. But the Total-IBA determination of the silica content had a low standard uncertainty of about 2%. This is due to the strong constraints of both the chemical prior and also the mass closure properties of the EBS. Irradiation-induced sodium migration in this soda-lime glass is explored.
Fones GR, Davison W, Grime GW (1997)Micron-scale structure of trace metals in pore waters., In: ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY213pp. 237-GEOC AMER CHEMICAL SOC
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, BOOKER GR, WHITEHURST J, WILSHAW PR, GRIME GW, WATT F, GORINGE MJ (1993)DISLOCATION IMAGING WITH A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE USING CHANNELING SCANNING-TRANSMISSION ION MICROSCOPY (CSTIM), In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 320-331
Grime GW, Watt F (1984)Beam optics of quadrupole probe-forming systems Taylor & Francis
DAVISON W, ZHANG H, GRIME GW (1994)PERFORMANCE-CHARACTERISTICS OF GEL PROBES USED FOR MEASURING THE CHEMISTRY OF PORE WATERS, In: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY28(9)pp. 1623-1632 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
WATT F, GRIME GW, BLOWER GD, TAKACS J (1980)THE OXFORD PROTON MICRO-PROBE, In: BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY25(7)pp. 759-759 AMER INST PHYSICS
Smith RC, Thomson D, Grime GW, Webb RP, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ, Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I (2007)Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 437-441
Szewciw LJ, de Kerckhove DG, Grime GW, Fudge DS (2010)Calcification provides mechanical reinforcement to whale baleen alpha-keratin, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES277(1694)pp. 2597-2605 ROYAL SOC
GRIME GW, DAWSON M (1995)RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN DATA-ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING ON THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS104(1-4)pp. 107-113
Purton LMA, Shields GA, Brasier MD, Grime GW (1999)Metabolism controls Sr/Cr ratios in tossil aragonitic mollusks, In: Geology27(12)pp. 1083-1086
Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in biomineral CaCO3 have recently been regarded as more reliable than δ18O values as proxy for paleotemperature because they are less affected by salinity or polar ice volume. We argue, however, that vital effects can exert a greater control than paleotemperature over fossil Sr/Ca. Seasonal perturbations in isotopic data from the Eocene bivalve Venericardia planicosta reveal a gradually decreasing annual growth rate through ontogeny. High-resolution Sr/Ca ratios, analyzed with a new proton-microbe technique, increase markedly through ontogeny, however, suggesting that more Sr was incorporated as growth rate slowed rather than as a result of changing paleotemperature. Comparative δ18O and Sr/Ca data from the broadly coeval marine gastropod Clavilithes macrospira, which exhibits a linear growth rate through ontogeny, also shows a significant increase in Sr concentration with age as well as seasonal, possibly temperature-related variations. Our observations show that neither growth, calcification rate, nor temperature can be the sole factor controlling Sr incorporation into molluscan aragonite. Metabolic activity, related to factors such as temperature, salinity, age, and growth rate, is likely to exert the primary control over Sr/Ca ratios in aragonitic mollusks.
Kirkby KJ, Grime GW, Webb RP, Kirkby NF, Folkard M, Prise K, Vojnovic B (2006)A scanning focused vertical ion nanobeam: A new UK facility for cell irradiation and analysis, In: RADIATION RESEARCH166(4)pp. 654-655
REISS HD, GRIME GW, LI MQ, TAKACS J, WATT F (1985)DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS IN THE LILY POLLEN-TUBE TIP, DETERMINED WITH THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: PROTOPLASMA126(1-2)pp. 147-152 SPRINGER-VERLAG WIEN
Abraham M, Gomez-Morilla I, Marsh M, Grime G (2003)Proton induced structuring of a photostructurable glass, In: Ikuta K, Orlando TM, Merhari L, Taylor DP, (eds.), THREE-DIMENSIONAL NANOENGINEERED ASSEMBLIES739pp. 13-18
GRIME GW, WATT F, CHAPMAN J (1987)SUBMICRON ELEMENTAL MAPPING WITH THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS22(1-3)pp. 109-114 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime GW, Sofield CJ, Gomez-Morilla I, Gwilliam R, Ynsa MD, Enguita O (2005)Rapid direct micromachining of PTFE using MeV ions in an oxygen rich atmosphere, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS231pp. 378-383
Folkard M, Prise KM, Vojnovic B, Grime G, Kirkby KJ (2009)The use of Microbeams to Investigate Radiation Damage in Living Cells, In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes67pp. 436-439
Morgan AJ, Sturzenbaum SR, Winters C, Grime GW, Abd Aziz NA, Kille P (2004)Differential metallothionein expression in earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) tissues, In: ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY57(1)pp. 11-19
GRIME GW, WATT F, MANN S, PERRY CC, WEBB J, WILLIAMS RJP (1985)BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: TRENDS IN BIOCHEMICAL SCIENCES10(1)pp. 6-10 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
FRASER DG, WATT F, GRIME GW, TAKACS J (1984)DIRECT DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM ENRICHMENT ON GRAIN-BOUNDARIES IN A GARNET LHERZOLITE XENOLITH BY PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS, In: NATURE312(5992)pp. 352-354 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
VAUX DJT, WATT F, GRIME GW, TAKACS J (1985)HEPATIC COPPER DISTRIBUTION IN PRIMARY BILIARY-CIRRHOSIS SHOWN BY THE SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY38(6)pp. 653-658 BRITISH MED JOURNAL PUBL GROUP
Brothers JH, Grime GW, Swann CP (2002)Albemarle Iron Works (1771-1772): Why did this operation fail?, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS189pp. 340-343
PERRY CC, MANN S, WILLIAMS RJP, WATT F, GRIME GW, TAKACS J (1984)A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE STUDY OF MACROHAIRS FROM THE LEMMA OF THE GRASS PHALARIS-CANARIENSIS L, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES222(1229)pp. 439-+
Kirkby KJ, Grime GW, Webb RP, Kirkby NF, Folkard M, Prise K, Vojnovic B (2007)A scanning focussed vertical ion nanobeam: A new UK facility for cell irradiation and analysis, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 97-100
Rombouts PMM, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb RP, Cuenca L, Rodriguez R, Browton M, Wardell N, Underwood B, Kirkby NF, Kirkby KJ (2007)A microPIXE investigation of the interaction of cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with the culture medium, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 231-235
Al-Shehri S, Palitsin Vladimir, Webb Roger, Grime Geoffrey (2015)Fabrication of three-dimensional SU-8 microchannels by proton beam writing for microfluidics applications: Fluid flow characterisation, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms348pp. 223-228
The proton beam writing (PBW) technique was used to fabricate microfluidic structures in SU-8 resist. A network of the buried channels was fabricated as part of a project to develop functional microfluidic device for neuronal studies and self-powered microfluidics. Protons with energies between 2.5 MeV and 0.75 MeV were used to fabricate the buried channels with a minimum feature size of around 1 μm and depths of 40–55 μm. Roughness of channels sidewalls was around 2.5 nm rms. Exposure regime and examples of functional networks fabricated using PBW are described. COMSOL Multiphysics® software was used to model the flow characteristics of fluid in the SU-8 microchannels structured by PBW. The results obtained using PBW are compared with the structures fabricated by UV-lithography.
Gomez-Morilla I, Abraham MH, de Kerckhove DG, Grime GW (2005)Micropatterning of Foturan photosensitive glass following exposure to MeV proton beams, In: JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING15(4)pp. 706-709 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
WATT F, GRIME GW, BLOWER GD, TAKACS J, VAUX DJT (1982)THE OXFORD 1-MU-M PROTON MICRO-PROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH197(1)pp. 65-77 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Palsgard E, Grime GW (1996)Direct measurement of elemental distributions in insulin-producing cells using nuclear microscopy, In: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY42(1)pp. 49-57 CELLULAR & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
ILGREN EB, VAUX DJT, WATT F, GRIME GW, TAKACS J (1984)ELEMENTAL MAPPING OF HUMAN NERVOUS-TISSUE USING THE SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS12(1)pp. 25-28 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Gomez-Morilla I, Sofield CJ, Grime GW, Gwilliam R (2005)Rapid deep micromachining of polytetrafluoroethylene by MeV icon bombardment in oxygen-rich atmospheres, In: JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING15(4)pp. 698-701 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
GRIME GW, TAKACS J (1981)AN ION ACCELERATOR FACILITY FOR THE PREPARATION OF NUCLEAR BOMBARDMENT TARGETS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH189(1)pp. 199-203 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Abraham M, Northover P, Grime G (2002)The incorporation of laser ablation for sampling into a proton x-ray emission system, In: Vandiver PB, Goodway M, Mass JL, (eds.), MATERIALS ISSUES IN ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY VI712pp. 101-112
Campbell JL, Babaluk JA, Cooper M, Grime GW, Halden NM, Nejedly Z, Rajta I, Reist JD (2002)Strontium distribution in young-of-the-year Dolly Varden otoliths: Potential for stock discrimination, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS189pp. 185-189
Enguita O, Fernandez-Jimenez MT, Garcia G, Climent-Font A, Calderon T, Grime GW (2004)The new external microbeam facility at the 5 MV Tandetron accelerator laboratory in Madrid: beam characterisation and first results, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS219pp. 384-388
Merchant MJ, Palitsin V, Grime GW (2009)The use of the Wien filter to eliminate object slit scattering in MeV ion nanobeam systems, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS267(12-13)pp. 2021-2023
de Kerckhove DG, Breese MBH, Wilkinson AJ, Grime GW (1998)Detection of small lattice strains using beam rocking on a nuclear microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 1240-1243
Grime GW, Guttmann-Bond E (2011)The identification of plaggen soils using external beam microPIXE analysis, In: X-Ray Spectrometry40(3)pp. 210-214
GRIME GW, TAKACS J, WATT F (1984)A WIDE AREA SCANNING SYSTEM FOR THE OXFORD PROTON MICROPROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS3(1-3)pp. 589-593 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
WATT F, GRIME GW, TAKACS J, VAUX DJT (1984)THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE - A MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATION, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS3(1-3)pp. 599-605 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Kirkby KJ, Webb R, Merchant MJ, Grime GW (2007)A survey of two-stage focusing systems for nanobeam design, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 8-14
Abraham MH, Marsh MA, Grime GW (2001)The new external beam facility of the Oxford scanning proton microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 66-70
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, WILSHAW PR, GRIME GW (1995)STACKING-FAULT IMAGING USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B51(5)pp. 2732-2741 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
REESON KJ, STANLEY CJ, JEYNES C, GRIME G, WATT F (1990)PIXE ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE TRACE-ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN A SERIES OF GALENA (PBS) SPECIMENS FROM DIFFERENT LOCALITIES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS45(1-4)pp. 327-332
Grime GW (2013)WinTRAX: A raytracing software package for the design of multipole focusing systems, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS306pp. 76-80 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
VAUX DJT, GRIME GW, WATT F (1987)SOME MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH13pp. 115-133 HUMANA PRESS INC
Salamanca MAO, Ager FJ, Ynsa MD, Tubio BMG, Respaldiza MA, Lopez JG, Fernandez-Gomez F, de la Bandera ML, Grime GW (2001)External microbeam set-up at the CNA (Sevilla) and its application to the study of Tartesic jewellery, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 664-669
CEREDA E, MARCAZZAN GMB, PEDRETTI M, GRIME GW, BALDACCI A (1995)THE MICROSCOPIC NATURE OF COAL FLY-ASH PARTICLES INVESTIGATED BY MEANS OF NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT29(17)pp. 2323-2329 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
GRIME GW (1974)HOLOGRAPHIC DIFFRACTION GRATINGS RECORDED IN PHOTORESIST, In: JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHIC SCIENCE22(1)pp. 36-41 ROYAL PHOTOGRAPHIC SOC
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F (1993)THE USE OF PIXE AND STIM IN MICROELECTRONICS ANALYSIS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS75(1-4)pp. 341-346
WOGELIUS RA, REFSON K, FRASER DG, GRIME GW, GOFF JP (1995)PERICLASE SURFACE HYDROXYLATION DURING DISSOLUTION, In: GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA59(9)pp. 1875-1881 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Kearsley A T, Colaux J L, Ross D K, Wozniakiewicz P J, Gerlach L, Anz-Meador P, Griffin T, Reed B, Opiela J, Palitsin V V, Grime G W, Webb R P, Cole M J, Jeynes C, Spratt J, Salge T, Price M C, Burchell M J (2017)Hypervelocity impact in low earth orbit: finding subtle impactor signatures on the Hubble Space Telescope, In: Procedia Engineering204pp. 492-499 Elsevier
Return of materials from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during shuttle orbiter service missions has allowed inspection of large numbers of hypervelocity impact features from long exposure at about 615 km altitude in low Earth orbit (LEO) [1,2]. Here we describe the application of advanced X-ray microanalysis techniques on scanning electron microscopes (SEM), microprobes and a 2 MV Tandetron, to nearly 400 impacts on the painted metal surface of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) radiator shield [3,4]. We identified artificial Orbital Debris (OD) and natural Micrometeoroid (MM) origins for small [5] and even for larger particles [6], which usually may leave little or no detectable trace on HST solar arrays, as they penetrate through the full cell thickness [2,7].
Jeynes C., Palitsin V.V., Grime G.W., Pascual-Izarra C., Taborda A., Reis M.A., Barradas N.P. (2020)External Beam Total-IBA using DataFurnace, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms481pp. 47-61 Elsevier
The self-consistent Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) of cultural heritage samples using the external beam is technically demanding. We report on the calibration of an analysis of glass samples from the Rosslyn Chapel where the interest will ultimately be in the full characterisation of the weathered glass. Such an analysis requires a comprehensive Total-IBA approach using p-PIGE and He-PIXE to obtain ”bulk” and surface Na, with H-PIXE/EBS for multielemental depth profiling to 10 μm and He-PIXE/EBS for higher depth resolution near the surface; also with two PIXE detectors as usual for the high and low energy parts of the spectrum. A revised NDF v.10 code capable of a self-consistent handling of all these signals at state-of-the-art accuracy is described, together with the calibration protocols required for such an analysis. Other capabilities of the NDF code not previously discussed are also reviewed.
Abraham MH, Grime GW, Marsh MA, Northover JP (2001)The study of thick corrosion layers on archaeological metals using controlled laser ablation in conjuction with an external beam microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 688-692
Jeynes JC, Merchant MJ, Barazzuol L, Barry M, Guest D, Palitsin VV, Grime GW, Tullis ID, Barber PR, Vojnovic B, Kirkby KJ (2013)"Broadbeam" irradiation of mammalian cells using a vertical microbeam facility., In: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics52(4)pp. 513-521 Springer Berlin Heidelberg
A "broadbeam" facility is demonstrated for the vertical microbeam at Surrey's Ion Beam Centre, validating the new technique used by Barazzuol et al. (Radiat Res 177:651-662, 2012). Here, droplets with a diameter of about 4 mm of 15,000 mammalian cells in suspension were pipetted onto defined locations on a 42-mm-diameter cell dish with each droplet individually irradiated in "broadbeam" mode with 2 MeV protons and 4 MeV alpha particles and assayed for clonogenicity. This method enables multiple experimental data points to be rapidly collected from the same cell dish. Initially, the Surrey vertical beamline was designed for the targeted irradiation of single cells with single counted ions. Here, the benefits of both targeted single-cell and broadbeam irradiations being available at the same facility are discussed: in particular, high-throughput cell irradiation experiments can be conducted on the same system as time-intensive focused-beam experiments with the added benefits of fluorescent microscopy, cell recognition and time-lapse capabilities. The limitations of the system based on a 2 MV tandem accelerator are also discussed, including the uncertainties associated with particle Poisson counting statistics, spread of linear energy transfer in the nucleus and a timed dose delivery. These uncertainties are calculated with Monte Carlo methods. An analysis of how this uncertainty affects relative biological effect measurements is made and discussed.
CARIDI A, CEREDA E, GRIME GW, JAKSIC M, MARCAZZAN GMB, VALKOVIC V, WATT F (1993)APPLICATION OF PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS TO THE STUDY OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION OF SINGLE FLY-ASH PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 524-529
ELLIOTT TA, GRIME GW (1993)EXAMINING THE DIAGENETIC ALTERATION OF HUMAN BONE MATERIAL FROM A RANGE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL BURIAL SITES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 537-547
Incerti S, Zhang Q, Andersson F, Moretto P, Grime GW, Merchant MJ, Nguyen DT, Habchi C, Pouthier T, Seznec H (2007)Monte Carlo simulation of the CENBG microbeam and nanobeam lines with the Geant4 toolkit, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 20-27
JAKSIC M, KRMPOTICNEMANIC J, WATT F, GRIME GW, VALKOVIC V (1988)TRACE-METAL ENRICHMENT ON THE SURFACE OF THE NASAL-SEPTUM BONE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 417-419 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
CEREDA E, MARCAZZAN GMB, PEDRETTI M, GRIME GW, BALDACCI A (1995)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY FOR THE STUDY OF COAL COMBUSTION RELATED PHENOMENA, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS99(1-4)pp. 414-418
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, WILSHAW PR, GRIME GW (1995)APPLICATION OF TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING TO THE IMAGING OF STACKING-FAULTS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS104(1-4)pp. 233-237
Dekov VM, Damyanov ZK, Kamenov GD, Bonev IK, Rajta I, Grime GW (2001)Sorosite (eta-Cu6Sn5)-bearing native tin and lead assemblage from the Mir zone (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26 degrees N), In: OCEANOLOGICA ACTA24(3)pp. 205-220 GAUTHIER-VILLARS/EDITIONS ELSEVIER
GRIME GW, PEARCE RB (1995)EXTERNAL-BEAM ANALYSIS OF LIVING SYCAMORE XYLEM INFECTED BY PATHOGENIC FUNGI, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS104(1-4)pp. 299-305
Purton-Hildebrand LMA, Grime GW, Shields GA, Brasier MD (2001)The use of external micro-PIXE to investigate the factors determining the Sr : Ca ratio in the shells of fossil aragonitic molluscs, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 506-510
Merchant MJ, Grime GW, Palitsin V (2010)The influence of stray DC magnetic fields in MeV ion nanobeam systems, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS268(11-12)pp. 1933-1937
deKerckhove DG, Breese MBH, Grime GW (1997)A beam rocking system for the Oxford nuclear microprobe: A new approach to channeling analysis, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS129(4)pp. 534-542 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime G.W., Al-Shehri S., Palitsin V. (2019)A simple edge-following scanning algorithm for proton beam writing and other direct-write lithographies, In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering29(3)

The quality of the structures fabricated using proton beam writing (PBW) and other direct-write microfabrication methods is strongly influenced by the path followed by the writing beam during the exposure. In particular, it is necessary to avoid paths in which the beam makes large jumps or changes in direction close to the edges of the structure, and ideally the scan path should follow the outline of the pattern to be exposed (sometimes referred to as turtle scanning). While this is relatively easy to implement when the patterns to be created can be built up from simple geometric shapes (circles, rectangles, etc), it has not been possible to do this in the case of arbitrarily complex images, at least using software available to the PBW community.

This paper describes a simple edge-following algorithm (EFA) which uses a method of spiral searching around each pixel to determine a scan path which not only optimizes the conformity of the scan path to the edges of the required pattern, but also minimizes jumps (and hence blanking time) and scan reversals which can cause artefacts due to scanning system transients. The EFA operates on a 1-bit BMP format input image file and has been implemented in the OMDAQ-3 software package (Oxford Microbeams Ltd).

The paper is illustrated with examples of complex structures written using the EFA at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre which demonstrate enhanced edge smoothness compared with simple blanked raster scanning.

BRUNTON A, WATT F, GRIME GW, GADD GM (1988)ELEMENT LOCALIZATION IN POLYMORPHIC FUNGI USING THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 378-382 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, GRIME GW, SEIBERLING LE, BOSHART MA (1995)MANIPULATION OF ION CHANNELING PATTERNS USING MAGNETIC QUADRUPOLE LENSES, In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS67(15)pp. 2132-2134 AMER INST PHYSICS
GRIME G, SWIETLICKI E, ARTAXO P, RABELLO MLC, WATT F (1993)NUCLEAR MICROPROBE ANALYSIS AND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF INDIVIDUAL ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL-PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS75(1-4)pp. 521-525
GRIME GW, WATT F (1993)A SURVEY OF RECENT PIXE APPLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOMETRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES USING THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE FACILITY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS75(1-4)pp. 495-503
CHRISTENSEN M, GRIME G, MENU M, WALTER P (1993)USEWEAR STUDIES OF FLINT TOOLS WITH MICROPIXE AND MICRORBS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 530-536
Gomez-Morilla I, Simon A, Simon R, Williams CT, Kiss AZ, Grime GW (2006)An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of X-ray microanalysis techniques using BCR-126A glass reference material, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS249pp. 897-902
CEREDA E, MARCAZZAN GMB, PEDRETTI M, GRIME GW, BALDACCI A (1995)OCCURRENCE MODE OF MAJOR AND TRACE-ELEMENTS IN INDIVIDUAL FLY-ASH PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS104(1-4)pp. 625-629
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, WILSHAW PR, SMULDERS PJM, GRIME GW (1995)TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING IMAGES OF CRYSTAL DEFECTS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS99(1-4)pp. 419-422
Palsgard E, Ugarte M, Rajta I, Grime GW (2001)The role of zinc in the dark-adapted retina studied directly using microPIXE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 489-492
Graham DL, Lowe PN, Grime GW, Marsh M, Rittinger K, Smerdon SJ, Gamblin SJ, Eccleston JF (2002)MgF3- as a transition state analog of phosphoryl transfer, In: CHEMISTRY & BIOLOGY9(3)PII S1074-pp. 375-381 CELL PRESS
HUGHES NP, PERRY CC, WILLIAMS RJP, WATT F, GRIME GW (1988)A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE STUDY OF STINGING EMERGENCES FROM THE LEAF OF THE COMMON STINGING NETTLE URTICA-DIOICA L, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 383-387 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KING P, BREESE M, WILSHAW P, BOOKER G, GRIME G (1994)CRYSTAL DEFECT IMAGING USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, In: ANNALES DE CHIMIE-SCIENCE DES MATERIAUX19(5-6)pp. 257-267 MASSON EDITEUR
This thesis describes the use of proton beam writing (PBW) for the fabrica- tion for microfluidic and microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. In particular, the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) micro or nanostruc- tures with high aspect ratios is of growing interest in these fields. PBW is the only technique that has the capability to satisfy these requirements while providing full control of the geometrical parameters, such as the sur- face roughness and side wall angle. This technique is a direct microfabri- cation method that employs a focused, energetic (MeV) proton beam to structure the input pattern in resist materials. In the present work, a network of buried channels is fabricated as part of a project to develop a functional microfluidic device for neuronal studies and self-powered microfluidics (capillary micropump). Proton beam with energies of 0.75 to 2.5 MeV is used to fabricate the channels in 3D with a minimum feature size of approximately 1 μm and depths of 40 to 60 μm. The roughness of the sidewalls of the written channels is approximately 3 nm root mean square roughness (Rrms). Radio frequency (RF) MEMS switches, which consist of an overhanging structure, are also written using PBW, and new MEMS switch designs are proposed. These designs are constructed so as to provide full control of the main cantilever beam parameters, such as the thickness, spring constant, and actuation. The three main stages of the lithography process, i.e., pre-exposure, expo- sure, and post-exposure, are investigated and optimised for application to poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA), pure SU-8 polymer, and SU-8/silver- nanoparticle nanocomposites (SU-8/AgNp). During the exposure process, the proton beam energies, doses, and scanning method are also optimised, in order to attain a good-quality structure (i.e., a robust structure with smooth and straight walls). The mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites, which are irradiated with a range of proton beam doses, are measured. Note that the structures written in this work are numerically validated prior to the writing process using COMSOL Multiphysics R software. The fluid flow in the written buried channels is investigated using numerical methods.