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Dr Geoffrey Grime


Senior Research Staff
+44 (0)1483 682716
01 WT 02

Academic and research departments

Advanced Technology Institute.

My publications

Publications

Al-Shehri S, Palitsin V, Webb RP, Grime GW (2015) Fabrication of three-dimensional SU-8 microchannels by proton beam writing for microfluidics applications: Fluid flow characterisation, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 348 pp. 223-228
The proton beam writing (PBW) technique was used to fabricate microfluidic structures in SU-8 resist. A network of the buried channels was fabricated as part of a project to develop functional microfluidic device for neuronal studies and self-powered microfluidics. Protons with energies between 2.5 MeV and 0.75 MeV were used to fabricate the buried channels with a minimum feature size of around 1 ¼m and depths of 40?55 ¼m. Roughness of channels sidewalls was around 2.5 nm rms. Exposure regime and examples of functional networks fabricated using PBW are described. COMSOL Multiphysics® software was used to model the flow characteristics of fluid in the SU-8 microchannels structured by PBW. The results obtained using PBW are compared with the structures fabricated by UV-lithography.
GRIME GW, DAWSON M (1995) RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN DATA-ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING ON THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 104 (1-4) pp. 107-113 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Folkard M, Prise KM, Vojnovic B, Grime G, Kirkby KJ (2009) The use of Microbeams to Investigate Radiation Damage in Living Cells, Applied Radiation and Isotopes 67 pp. 436-439
GRIME GW, DAVISON W (1993) THE USE OF NUCLEAR MICROPROBE TECHNIQUES TO STUDY THE CHEMISTRY OF LACUSTRINE SEDIMENTS AND PARTICLES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 430-435 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
WATT F, GRIME GW, BLOWER GD, TAKACS J (1981) A COUPLED TRIPLET CONFIGURATION OF THE OXFORD MICRO-PROBE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE 28 (2) pp. 1413-1416 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
VAUX DJT, WATT F, GRIME GW, TAKACS J (1985) HEPATIC COPPER DISTRIBUTION IN PRIMARY BILIARY-CIRRHOSIS SHOWN BY THE SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY 38 (6) pp. 653-658 BRITISH MED JOURNAL PUBL GROUP
BROOK AJ, GRIME GW, WATT F (1988) A STUDY OF BARIUM ACCUMULATION IN DESMIDS USING THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE (SPM), NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (3) pp. 372-377 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Davison W, Fones GR, Grime GW (1997) Dissolved metals in surface sediment and a microbial mat at 100-mu m resolution, NATURE 387 (6636) pp. 885-888 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
Fones GR, Davison W, Grime GW (1998) Development of constrained DET for measurements of dissolved iron in surface sediments at sub-mm resolution, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 221 (2-3) pp. 127-137 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Merchant MJ, Grime GW, Palitsin V (2010) The influence of stray DC magnetic fields in MeV ion nanobeam systems, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 268 (11-12) pp. 1933-1937 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Jeynes JC, Merchant MJ, Barazzuol L, Barry M, Guest D, Palitsin VV, Grime GW, Tullis ID, Barber PR, Vojnovic B, Kirkby KJ (2013) "Broadbeam" irradiation of mammalian cells using a vertical microbeam facility., Radiat Environ Biophys 52 (4) pp. 513-521
A "broadbeam" facility is demonstrated for the vertical microbeam at Surrey's Ion Beam Centre, validating the new technique used by Barazzuol et al. (Radiat Res 177:651-662, 2012). Here, droplets with a diameter of about 4 mm of 15,000 mammalian cells in suspension were pipetted onto defined locations on a 42-mm-diameter cell dish with each droplet individually irradiated in "broadbeam" mode with 2 MeV protons and 4 MeV alpha particles and assayed for clonogenicity. This method enables multiple experimental data points to be rapidly collected from the same cell dish. Initially, the Surrey vertical beamline was designed for the targeted irradiation of single cells with single counted ions. Here, the benefits of both targeted single-cell and broadbeam irradiations being available at the same facility are discussed: in particular, high-throughput cell irradiation experiments can be conducted on the same system as time-intensive focused-beam experiments with the added benefits of fluorescent microscopy, cell recognition and time-lapse capabilities. The limitations of the system based on a 2 MV tandem accelerator are also discussed, including the uncertainties associated with particle Poisson counting statistics, spread of linear energy transfer in the nucleus and a timed dose delivery. These uncertainties are calculated with Monte Carlo methods. An analysis of how this uncertainty affects relative biological effect measurements is made and discussed.
JAKSIC M, WATT F, GRIME GW, CEREDA E, MARCAZZAN GMB, VALKOVIC V (1991) PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF THE TRACE-ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION IN FLY-ASH PARTICLES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 56-7 pp. 699-703 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Smith RC, Thomson D, Grime GW, Webb RP, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ (2007) Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 260 (1) pp. 437-441 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Smit Z, Petru S, Grime G, Vidmar T, Budnar M, Zorko B, Ravnikar M (1998) Usewear-induced deposition on prehistoric flint tools, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 140 (1-2) pp. 209-216 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Graham DL, Lowe PN, Grime GW, Marsh M, Rittinger K, Smerdon SJ, Gamblin SJ, Eccleston JF (2002) MgF3- as a transition state analog of phosphoryl transfer, CHEMISTRY & BIOLOGY 9 (3) PII S1074-5521(02)00112-6 pp. 375-381 CELL PRESS
Incerti S, Zhang Q, Andersson F, Moretto P, Grime GW, Merchant MJ, Nguyen DT, Habchi C, Pouthier T, Seznec H (2007) Monte Carlo simulation of the CENBG microbeam and nanobeam lines with the Geant4 toolkit, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 260 (1) pp. 20-27 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, WATT F, DUVAL AR, MENU M (1991) NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF INHOMOGENEOUS THICK SAMPLES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 54 (1-3) pp. 353-362 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F (1992) THE NUCLEAR MICROPROBE, ANNUAL REVIEW OF NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE SCIENCE 42 pp. 1-38 ANNUAL REVIEWS INC
BONELLO P, PEARCE RB, WATT F, GRIME GW (1991) AN INDUCED PAPILLA RESPONSE IN PRIMARY ROOTS OF SCOTS PINE CHALLENGED INVITRO WITH CYLINDROCARPON-DESTRUCTANS, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY 39 (3) pp. 213-228 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD
GRIME GW, TAKACS J (1981) AN ION ACCELERATOR FACILITY FOR THE PREPARATION OF NUCLEAR BOMBARDMENT TARGETS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH 189 (1) pp. 199-203 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, WHITEHURST J, BOOKER GR, GRIME GW, WATT F, ROMANO LT, PARKER EHC (1993) DISLOCATION IMAGING USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 73 (6) pp. 2640-2653 AMER INST PHYSICS
CEREDA E, MARCAZZAN GMB, PEDRETTI M, GRIME GW, BALDACCI A (1995) NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY FOR THE STUDY OF COAL COMBUSTION RELATED PHENOMENA, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 99 (1-4) pp. 414-418 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Garman EF, Grime GW (2005) Elemental analysis of proteins by microPIXE., Prog Biophys Mol Biol 89 (2) pp. 173-205
The identification and quantification of metals bound to proteins is a crucial problem to be solved in structural biology. This paper describes the technique of particle induced X-ray emission with a microfocused beam (microPIXE) as a tool for analysing the elemental composition of liquid and crystalline protein samples. The proton beam induces characteristic X-ray emission from all elements in the protein, which can be interpreted in terms of the metal content of the protein molecule with a relative accuracy of between 10% and 20%. The compelling advantage of this method is that the sulphur atoms in the methionines and cysteines of the protein provide an internal calibration of the number of protein molecules present so that systematic errors are minimised and the technique is entirely internally self-consistent. This is achieved by the simultaneous measurement of the energy of backscattered protons (Rutherford backscattering), to enable us to determine the matrix composition and thickness, and so correct the PIXE data for the self-absorption of X-rays in the sample. The theoretical background to the technique is described, and the technical and experimental procedures are outlined. Examples of recent measurements are given which have informed a range of investigations in structural biology. The use of the technique is increasing and we envisage that future developments will enable it to become a routine high-throughput method.
Grime GW (2010) High Energy Ion Beam Analysis, pp. 844-853
The use of high energy ion beams (mainly of protons or alpha particles) for chemical analysis is described. The equipment necessary for achieving this is summarized. The main detection systems are proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). © 1999 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
Grime GW (2009) Materials Patterning and Characterisation at the Nanometre Scale Using Focused MeV Ion Beams: Present Achievements and Future Prospects, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A 115 (2) pp. 467-472 POLISH ACAD SCIENCES INST PHYSICS
Gomez-Morilla I, Thoree V, Powell JJ, Kirkby KJ, Grime GW (2006) Identification and quantitive analysis of calcium phosphate microparticles in intestinal tissue by nuclear microscopy, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 249 pp. 665-669 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
WATT F, GRIME GW, BLOWER GD, TAKACS J, VAUX DJT (1982) THE OXFORD 1-MU-M PROTON MICRO-PROBE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH 197 (1) pp. 65-77 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
DeBock LA, VanGrieken RE, Camuffo D, Grime GW (1996) Microanalysis of museum aerosols to elucidate the soiling of paintings: Case of the Correr Museum, Venice, Italy, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 30 (11) pp. 3341-3350 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Grime GW, Watt F (1984) BEAM OPTICS OF QUADRUPOLE PROBE-FORMING SYSTEMS., Beam Opt of Quadrupole Probe-Form Syst
This book presents the theory of quadrupole focusing with the practical development of microprobe systems in mind. The introductory chapter outlines the analytical processes and provides a background to the problems of designing quadrupole probe-forming systems. Following a description of the quadrupole lens and the mathematical models used to describe the fields within both magnetic and electrostatic quadrupole lenses, the authors describe two techniques for calculating the path of a charged particle through a beam-optical system; matrix methods and numerical raytracing. The minimum spot size achieved by a quadrupole system is influenced strongly by parasitic aberrations due to imperfections in the construction and alignment of the instrument. The authors assess the importance of the various effects by reference to their influence in three existing microprobe systems. Finally, they describe briefly some novel and interesting alternatives to the quadrupole lens as the focusing element. Refs.
Pinheiro T, Alves LC, de Almeida AB, Palhano MJ, Palsgard E, Grime GW (1999) Airborne particulate matter localisation in the human respiratory system, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 158 (1-4) pp. 499-504 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Al-Shehri S, Palitsin V, Webb RP, Grime GW (2015) Fabrication of three-dimensional SU-8 microchannels by proton beam writing for microfluidics applications: Fluid flow characterisation, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 348 pp. 223-228 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
DUHLEV R, PITT CW, THOMAS PA, JAMES AG, GRIME GW (1993) STUDIES OF RB ION-EXCHANGED KTIOPO4 WAVE-GUIDES BY X-RAY-DIFFRACTION, SIMS, ELECTRON AND PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON WITH OPTICAL REFRACTIVE-INDEX PROFILES, PHYSICAL CONCEPTS AND MATERIALS FOR NOVEL OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICE APPLICATIONS II: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM 1985 pp. 767-773 SPIE - INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING
BREESE MBH, WATT F, GRIME GW, KING PJC (1991) PROTON MICROSCOPY OF A MICROCIRCUIT LAYER STRUCTURE, MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 1991 117 pp. 101-104 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
KING P, BREESE M, WILSHAW P, BOOKER G, GRIME G (1994) CRYSTAL DEFECT IMAGING USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, ANNALES DE CHIMIE-SCIENCE DES MATERIAUX 19 (5-6) pp. 257-267 MASSON EDITEUR
Gomez-Morilla I, Abraham MH, de Kerckhove DG, Grime GW (2005) Micropatterning of Foturan photosensitive glass following exposure to MeV proton beams, JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING 15 (4) pp. 706-709 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
VAJIC M, JAKSIC M, FAZINIC S, VALKOVIC V, GRIME GW, WATT F (1990) STUDIES OF TRACE-ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION AT THE COAL-ROCK INTERFACE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 49 (1-4) pp. 336-339 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, WILSHAW PR, SMULDERS PJM, GRIME GW (1995) TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING IMAGES OF CRYSTAL DEFECTS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 99 (1-4) pp. 419-422 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Smit Z, Grime GW, Petru S, Rajta I (1999) Microdistribution and composition of usewear polish on prehistoric stone tools, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 150 (1-4) pp. 565-570 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
WOGELIUS RA, REFSON K, FRASER DG, GRIME GW, GOFF JP (1995) PERICLASE SURFACE HYDROXYLATION DURING DISSOLUTION, GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA 59 (9) pp. 1875-1881 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Brothers JH, Grime GW, Swann CP (2002) Albemarle Iron Works (1771-1772): Why did this operation fail?, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 189 pp. 340-343 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, GRIME GW (1994) SENSITIVITY OF ION-INDUCED CHARGE PULSES TO THE ELECTRICAL AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES OF 60-DEGREES DISLOCATIONS, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 65 (25) pp. 3227-3229 AMER INST PHYSICS
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, SMULDERS PJM, WILSHAW PR, GRIME GW (1995) OBSERVATION OF A BLOCKING TO CHANNELING TRANSITION FOR MEV PROTONS AT STACKING-FAULTS IN SILICON, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 74 (3) pp. 411-414 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
Merchant MJ, Mistry P, Browton M, Clough AS, Gauntlett FE, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Grime GW (2005) Characterisation of the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre in-air scanning microbeam, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 231 pp. 26-31 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Purton LMA, Shields GA, Brasier MD, Grime GW (1999) Metabolism controls Sr/Cr ratios in tossil aragonitic mollusks, Geology 27 (12) pp. 1083-1086
Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in biomineral CaCO3 have recently been regarded as more reliable than ´18O values as proxy for paleotemperature because they are less affected by salinity or polar ice volume. We argue, however, that vital effects can exert a greater control than paleotemperature over fossil Sr/Ca. Seasonal perturbations in isotopic data from the Eocene bivalve Venericardia planicosta reveal a gradually decreasing annual growth rate through ontogeny. High-resolution Sr/Ca ratios, analyzed with a new proton-microbe technique, increase markedly through ontogeny, however, suggesting that more Sr was incorporated as growth rate slowed rather than as a result of changing paleotemperature. Comparative ´18O and Sr/Ca data from the broadly coeval marine gastropod Clavilithes macrospira, which exhibits a linear growth rate through ontogeny, also shows a significant increase in Sr concentration with age as well as seasonal, possibly temperature-related variations. Our observations show that neither growth, calcification rate, nor temperature can be the sole factor controlling Sr incorporation into molluscan aragonite. Metabolic activity, related to factors such as temperature, salinity, age, and growth rate, is likely to exert the primary control over Sr/Ca ratios in aragonitic mollusks.
King PJC, Breese MBH, Smulders PJM, Wilshaw PR, Grime GW (1996) Defect imaging and channeling studies using channeling scanning transmission ion microscopy, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 118 (1-4) pp. 426-430 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, TRIFFITT JT, WILLIAMSON MC, ATHANASOU NA (1994) NUCLEAR MICROBEAM ANALYSIS OF WEAR PARTICLES IN TISSUE SURROUNDING FAILED HIP-JOINT IMPLANTS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 89 (1-4) pp. 145-148 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime GW, Guttmann-Bond E (2011) The identification of plaggen soils using external beam microPIXE analysis, X-Ray Spectrometry 40 (3) pp. 210-214
Grime GW (2005) Ion beam patterning, pp. 184-217
Dekov VM, Damyanov ZK, Kamenov GD, Bonev IK, Rajta I, Grime GW (2001) Sorosite (eta-Cu6Sn5)-bearing native tin and lead assemblage from the Mir zone (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26 degrees N), OCEANOLOGICA ACTA 24 (3) pp. 205-220 GAUTHIER-VILLARS/EDITIONS ELSEVIER
Palsgard E, Lindh U, Roomans GM, Grime GW (1996) Tetrahydrofuran freeze-substituted pancreas analysed by nuclear microscopy and X-ray microanalysis, JOURNAL OF TRACE AND MICROPROBE TECHNIQUES 14 (3) pp. 615-631 MARCEL DEKKER INC
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, SMULDERS PJM, WILKINSON AJ, BOOKER GR, PARKER EHC, GRIME GW (1995) EVIDENCE FROM ION CHANNELING IMAGES FOR THE ELASTIC RELAXATION OF A SI0.85GE0.15 LAYER GROWN ON A PATTERNED SI SUBSTRATE, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 67 (24) pp. 3566-3568 AMER INST PHYSICS
Grime GW, Abraham MH, Marsh MA (2001) The new external beam facility of the Oxford scanning proton microprobe, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 181 pp. 66-70 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, WATT F, JAMIESON DN (1990) THE INFLUENCE OF ACCELERATOR PARAMETERS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUBMICRON QUADRUPOLE PROBE-FORMING SYSTEMS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 45 (1-4) pp. 508-512 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
TEMLETT JA, LANDSBERG JP, WATT F, GRIME GW (1994) INCREASED IRON IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA COMPACTA OF THE MPTP-LESIONED HEMIPARKINSONIAN AFRICAN-GREEN MONKEY - EVIDENCE FROM PROTON MICROPROBE ELEMENTAL MICROANALYSIS, JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY 62 (1) pp. 134-146 LIPPINCOTT-RAVEN PUBL
GRIME GW (1974) HOLOGRAPHIC DIFFRACTION GRATINGS RECORDED IN PHOTORESIST, JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHIC SCIENCE 22 (1) pp. 36-41 ROYAL PHOTOGRAPHIC SOC
FRASER DG, WATT F, GRIME GW, TAKACS J (1984) DIRECT DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM ENRICHMENT ON GRAIN-BOUNDARIES IN A GARNET LHERZOLITE XENOLITH BY PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS, NATURE 312 (5992) pp. 352-354 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
VALKOVIC V, JAKSIC M, WATT F, GRIME GW, WELLS J, HOPEWELL JW (1993) EFFECT OF IONIZING-RADIATION ON THE TRACE-ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF HAIR, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 75 (1-4) pp. 173-176 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Koay J, Grime GW (1994) The Oxford scanning proton microprobe, Analytical Proceedings including Analytical Communications 31 (6) pp. 187-192
The Scanning proton microprobe uses a focused beam of MeV protons to give analytical information by exploiting two physical processes, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). Scanning transmission ion microscopy may also be included in the nuclear microscopy package to give imaging data. PIXE is particularly appropriate for biomedical research as signals from hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, which are the main components of a biological matrix, are not detected and therefore signals from inorganic elements with z > 10 will not be swamped by signals from the matrix. Elements with z
Grime GW (2013) WinTRAX: A raytracing software package for the design of multipole focusing systems, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
The software package TRAX was a simulation tool for modelling the path of charged particles through linear cylindrical multipole fields described by analytical expressions and was a development of the earlier OXRAY program (Grime and Watt, 1983; Grime et al., 1982) [1,2]. In a 2005 comparison of raytracing software packages (Incerti et al., 2005) [3], TRAX/OXRAY was compared with Geant4 and Zgoubi and was found to give close agreement with the more modern codes. TRAX was a text-based program which was only available for operation in a now rare VMS workstation environment, so a new program, WinTRAX, has been developed for the Windows operating system. This implements the same basic computing strategy as TRAX, and key sections of the code are direct translations from FORTRAN to C++, but the Windows environment is exploited to make an intuitive graphical user interface which simplifies and enhances many operations including system definition and storage, optimisation, beam simulation (including with misaligned elements) and aberration coefficient determination. This paper describes the program and presents comparisons with other software and real installations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
REESON KJ, STANLEY CJ, JEYNES C, GRIME G, WATT F (1990) PIXE ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE TRACE-ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN A SERIES OF GALENA (PBS) SPECIMENS FROM DIFFERENT LOCALITIES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 45 (1-4) pp. 327-332 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BOGDANOVIC I, FAZINIC S, JAKSIC M, GRIME GW, VALKOVIC V (1994) USE OF STIM IN THE PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PARTICLES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 85 (1-4) pp. 732-735 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Palsgard E, Grime GW (1996) Direct measurement of elemental distributions in insulin-producing cells using nuclear microscopy., Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 42 (1) pp. 49-57
The nuclear microprobe was used to study elemental distributions in cultured insulin-producing cells and in pancreatic tissue. To see whether insulin producing cells are polarized, the cells were stimulated in the presence of Sr as a Ca analogue. The cells were stimulated to secrete insulin and Sr was detected in cells after momentary stimulation. We did not detect a polarized distribution of Sr in the RINm5F-cells. The distributions of Ca and Zn were affected when beta-cells (ob/ob) from a primary culture flattened out onto a substrate. In uprounded beta-cells (ob/ob) the distribution of Ca and Zn was polarized. Pancreatic tissue (ob/ob) was prepared for elemental analysis using freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofurane (THF) followed by embedding in Araldite. The resulting samples can be sectioned at room temperature, easing physiological studies.
ARTAXO P, RABELLO MLC, WATT F, GRIME G, SWIETLICKI E (1993) NUCLEAR MICROPROBE ANALYSIS AND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF INDIVIDUAL ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL-PARTICLES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 75 (1-4) pp. 521-525 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Sandrik R, Grime GW (1996) Analysis of Ag-Co thin film alloys using PIXE and RBS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 109 pp. 576-579 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
de Kerckhove DG, Breese MBH, Wilkinson AJ, Grime GW (1998) Detection of small lattice strains using beam rocking on a nuclear microprobe, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 136 pp. 1240-1243 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime GW (1996) The ''Q factor'' method: Quantitative microPIXE analysis using RBS normalisation, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 109 pp. 170-174 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, WILSHAW PR, GRIME GW (1995) STACKING-FAULT IMAGING USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, PHYSICAL REVIEW B 51 (5) pp. 2732-2741 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
Grime GW (2013) A compact beam focusing and steering element using quadrupoles with independently excited poles, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 306 pp. 12-16
Beam steering elements for accelerator beam transport are conventionally and conveniently incorporated into beamlines by fitting magnetic dipole elements around the vacuum tube of the line. Two steerers in each plane (X and Y) together with a quadrupole doublet constitute a module providing full control of the direction, position and focus of the beam. In some installations however, there may be insufficient space on the beamline to mount separate steerer elements. To provide steering capabilities in such a situation we have used a magnetic quadrupole doublet with the coils of each pole independently excited to synthesise the desired combination of quadrupole, horizontal dipole and vertical dipole fields. This paper describes the quadrupole steerer and its multichannel power supply and presents calculated magnetic field distributions together with raytracing simulation of its performance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Merchant MJ, Palitsin V, Grime GW (2009) The use of the Wien filter to eliminate object slit scattering in MeV ion nanobeam systems, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 267 (12-13) pp. 2021-2023 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Goodall R, Moore JC, Pecz B, Grime GW, Salter CJ, Grovenor CRM (2001) Fabrication of cube-textured Ag-buffered Ni substrates by electro-epitaxial deposition, SUPERCONDUCTOR SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 14 (3) pp. 124-129 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
JAMIESON DN, GRIME GW, WATT F (1989) THE NEW OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYTICAL FACILITY, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 40-1 pp. 669-674 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Kramer U, Grime GW, Smith JAC, Hawes CR, Baker AJM (1997) Micro-PIXE as a technique for studying nickel localization in leaves of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 130 (1-4) pp. 346-350 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Garwan MA, Musazay MS, Grime GW (1997) mu-PIXE trace element analysis of crude oil, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 130 (1-4) pp. 649-653 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, BOOKER GR, WHITEHURST J, WILSHAW PR, GRIME GW, WATT F, GORINGE MJ (1993) DISLOCATION IMAGING WITH A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE USING CHANNELING SCANNING-TRANSMISSION ION MICROSCOPY (CSTIM), NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 320-331 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Breese MBH, King PJC, Grime GW, Smulders PJM, Seiberling LE, Boshart MA (1996) Observation of planar oscillations of MeV protons in silicon using ion channeling patterns, PHYSICAL REVIEW B 53 (13) pp. 8267-8276 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
Grime GW, Watt F (1984) Beam optics of quadrupole probe-forming systems, Taylor & Francis
Jeynes C, Grime GW (2012) Atomic Excitation Exploited by Energetic-Beam Characterization Methods, In: Kaufmann EN (eds.), Characterization of Materials Vol.1: Common Concepts pp. 74-90 Wiley
Many disparate methods of compositional analysis of materials are underpinned by the same fundamental atomic processes: the excitation of the electronic system of the atoms followed by its subsequent relaxation. These methods include the electron spectroscopies (XPS, AES) used for surface studies, the electron microscopies used for elemental and structural characterisation (SEM using EDS and WDX; TEM using EELS), the X-ray methods (XRF, XAS) and ion beam analysis (PIXE) used for elemental and chemical characterisation. All rely on measuring the characteristic energy absorbed or emitted by the unknown target atom when its electronic system is excited by ionisation due to charged particles or electromagnetic radiation. This excitation is defined by the energy levels of the atomic electrons, determined primarily by the atomic number of the atom. (Atoms can also be excited without ionisation, as in optical and infra-red spectroscopy: this is outside the scope of this article.)
The theoretical description of the electronic structure of atoms is a major intellectual triumph of the twentieth century and this body of knowledge is exploited in the theoretical description of each of these methods, but the treatment of any particular method is usually presented by specialists in that method in isolation from all others. In this chapter we present a brief synthetic overview of materials analysis using atomic excitation, highlighting those features and physical concepts which underpin all these apparently disparate analysis methods. We hope to encourage modern analysts to appreciate the truly complementary nature of the powerful methods at their disposal.
Webb R, Bailey M, Jeynes C, Grime G (2010) 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 268 (11-12)
King PJC, Breese MBH, Meekeson D, Smulders PJM, Wilshaw PR, Grime GW (1996) Imaging of the strain field around precipitate particles using transmission ion channeling, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 80 (5) pp. 2671-2679 AMER INST PHYSICS
Alves LC, Alves E, Grime GW, da Silva MF, Soares JC (1999) Nuclear microbeam study of advanced materials for fusion reactor technology, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 158 (1-4) pp. 671-677 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
TAMANA H, CRIDDLE A, GRIME G, VAUGHAN D, SPRATT J (1994) TRACE-ELEMENTS IN PLATINUM-GROUP MINERALS STUDIED USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 89 (1-4) pp. 213-218 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, SMULDERS PJM, GRIME GW (1995) DECHANNELING OF MEV PROTONS BY 60-DEGREES DISLOCATIONS, PHYSICAL REVIEW B 51 (5) pp. 2742-2750 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
Powell JJ, Thomas-McKay E, Thoree V, Robertson J, Hewitt RE, Skepper JN, Brown A, Hernandez-Garrido JC, Midgley PA, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Kirkby KJ, Mabbott NA, Donaldson DS, Williams IR, Rios D, Girardin SE, Haas CT, Bruggraber SF, Laman JD, Tanriver Y, Lombardi G, Lechler R, Thompson RP, Pele LC (2015) An endogenous nanomineral chaperones luminal antigen and peptidoglycan to intestinal immune cells., Nat Nanotechnol 10 (4) pp. 361-369
In humans and other mammals it is known that calcium and phosphate ions are secreted from the distal small intestine into the lumen. However, why this secretion occurs is unclear. Here, we show that the process leads to the formation of amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles that trap soluble macromolecules, such as bacterial peptidoglycan and orally fed protein antigens, in the lumen and transport them to immune cells of the intestinal tissue. The macromolecule-containing nanoparticles utilize epithelial M cells to enter Peyer's patches, small areas of the intestine concentrated with particle-scavenging immune cells. In wild-type mice, intestinal immune cells containing these naturally formed nanoparticles expressed the immune tolerance-associated molecule 'programmed death-ligand 1', whereas in NOD1/2 double knockout mice, which cannot recognize peptidoglycan, programmed death-ligand 1 was undetected. Our results explain a role for constitutively formed calcium phosphate nanoparticles in the gut lumen and show how this helps to shape intestinal immune homeostasis.
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F, BLAIKIE RJ (1993) ADVANCES OF NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY IN MICROELECTRONICS ANALYSIS, VACUUM 44 (3-4) pp. 175-180 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
WATT F, GRIME GW (1988) ELEMENTAL MAPPING OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES USING A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (3) pp. 356-366 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, WATT F (1988) FOCUSING PROTONS AND LIGHT-IONS TO MICRON AND SUB-MICRON DIMENSIONS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (3) pp. 227-234 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Gomez-Morilla I, Sofield CJ, Grime GW, Gwilliam R (2005) Rapid deep micromachining of polytetrafluoroethylene by MeV icon bombardment in oxygen-rich atmospheres, JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING 15 (4) pp. 698-701 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
de Kerckhove DG, Breese MBH, Grime GW (1998) An optimised beam rocking system to produce angle-resolved information from small areas, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 140 (1-2) pp. 199-208 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JAMIESON DN, GRIME GW, WATT F, WILLIAMS DA (1989) MEV PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF SILICON ON INSULATOR STRUCTURES, INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES (100) pp. 87-92 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
BRUNTON A, WATT F, GRIME GW, GADD GM (1988) ELEMENT LOCALIZATION IN POLYMORPHIC FUNGI USING THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (3) pp. 378-382 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Mistry P, Gornez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb R, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ (2005) New developments on the Surrey microbeam applications to lithography, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 231 pp. 428-432 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Abraham M, Northover P, Grime G (2000) Incorporation of laser ablation into a proton probe system to study laser ablation of corrosion products, and enhance the probe's analytical capabilities, Journal of Cultural Heritage 1 (2)
The Oxford University Scanning Proton Microprobe Unit has been responsible for many advances in the field of focused proton beams for analytical microscopy, including being the first to develop the optimized electro-magnetic lenses used to focus high-energy protons to the micron and sub-micron level. This has led to a revolution in using the proton microprobe as an analytical tool for the study of materials. Continuing the tradition of innovation at the Oxford SPM unit, the use of laser ablation to reduce the need for sampling or cleaning of art and archaeological objects, before analysis, is being investigated. Further, information on the makeup of corrosion layers and past conservation treatments is becoming available via this technique. © 2000 Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS.
ELLIOTT TA, GRIME GW (1993) EXAMINING THE DIAGENETIC ALTERATION OF HUMAN BONE MATERIAL FROM A RANGE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL BURIAL SITES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 537-547 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Morgan AJ, Sturzenbaum SR, Winters C, Grime GW, Abd Aziz NA, Kille P (2004) Differential metallothionein expression in earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) tissues, ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY 57 (1) pp. 11-19 ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
LANDSBERG JP, MCDONALD B, ROBERTS JM, GRIME GW, WATT F (1990) IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF SENILE PLAQUES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 11 (3) pp. 317-317 ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Palsgard E, Johansson C, Li G, Grime GW, Triffitt JT (1997) Bone growth and bone development in the presence of implants or after induced leg-lengthening studied using the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 130 (1-4) pp. 431-438 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, ROMANO LT, SALTER CJ, GRIME GW, WATT F (1992) DETERMINATION OF SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2ND PHASES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH 7 (9) pp. 2373-2378 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
CEREDA E, MARCAZZAN GMB, PEDRETTI M, GRIME GW, BALDACCI A (1995) THE MICROSCOPIC NATURE OF COAL FLY-ASH PARTICLES INVESTIGATED BY MEANS OF NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 29 (17) pp. 2323-2329 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Watjen U, Barsony I, Grime GW, Rajta I (1999) On the interpretation of micro-PIXE measurements on a prototype microstructured reference material, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 150 (1-4) pp. 532-537 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Cereda E, Marcazzan GMB, Pedretti M, Grime GW, Baldacci A (1996) Influence of the elemental composition of individual fly ash particles on the efficiency of the electrostatic precipitators, JOURNAL OF AEROSOL SCIENCE 27 (4) pp. 607-+ ELSEVIER SCI LTD
DAVISON W, ZHANG H, GRIME GW (1994) PERFORMANCE-CHARACTERISTICS OF GEL PROBES USED FOR MEASURING THE CHEMISTRY OF PORE WATERS, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 28 (9) pp. 1623-1632 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Kirkby KJ, Grime GW, Webb RP, Kirkby NF, Folkard M, Prise K, Vojnovic B (2006) A scanning focused vertical ion nanobeam: A new UK facility for cell irradiation and analysis, RADIATION RESEARCH 166 (4) pp. 654-655 RADIATION RESEARCH SOC
JAMIESON DN, GRIME GW, WATT F, WILLIAMS DA (1989) MEV PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF SILICON ON INSULATOR STRUCTURES, MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 1989 100 pp. 87-92 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Grime GW (1998) Analysis of individual environmental particles using microPIXE and nuclear microscopy, X-RAY SPECTROMETRY 27 (4) pp. 221-231 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Fones GR, Davison W, Grime GW (1997) Micron-scale structure of trace metals in pore waters., ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 213 pp. 237-GEOC AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Salamanca MAO, Ager FJ, Ynsa MD, Tubio BMG, Respaldiza MA, Lopez JG, Fernandez-Gomez F, de la Bandera ML, Grime GW (2001) External microbeam set-up at the CNA (Sevilla) and its application to the study of Tartesic jewellery, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 181 pp. 664-669 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GADD GM, WATT F, GRIME GW, BRUNTON AH (1988) ELEMENT LOCALIZATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN THE FUNGI AUREOBASIDIUM-PULLULANS AND ASPERGILLUS-NIGER, MEASURED USING THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, CYTOBIOS 56 (225) pp. 69-79 FACULTY PRESS
GRIME GW, WATT F, CHAPMAN J (1987) SUBMICRON ELEMENTAL MAPPING WITH THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 22 (1-3) pp. 109-114 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Campbell JL, Babaluk JA, Cooper M, Grime GW, Halden NM, Nejedly Z, Rajta I, Reist JD (2002) Strontium distribution in young-of-the-year Dolly Varden otoliths: Potential for stock discrimination, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 189 pp. 185-189 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Abraham M, Northover P, Grime G (2002) The incorporation of laser ablation for sampling into a proton x-ray emission system, MATERIALS ISSUES IN ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY VI 712 pp. 101-112 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
GRIME GW, PEARCE RB (1995) EXTERNAL-BEAM ANALYSIS OF LIVING SYCAMORE XYLEM INFECTED BY PATHOGENIC FUNGI, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 104 (1-4) pp. 299-305 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime G, Doyle B (2005) J.L. (Iain) Campbell - Dedication, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 241 (1-4) pp. XVI-XVII ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BROOK AJ, WATT F, GRIME G (1990) A CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING IN AN ENGLISH LAKE BY PIXE - THE FLUX OF BARIUM AND STRONTIUM IN THE PHYTOPLANKTON, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 49 (1-4) pp. 481-484 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Abraham M, Gomez-Morilla I, Marsh M, Grime G (2003) Proton induced structuring of a photostructurable glass, THREE-DIMENSIONAL NANOENGINEERED ASSEMBLIES 739 pp. 13-18 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
ILGREN EB, VAUX DJT, WATT F, GRIME GW, TAKACS J (1984) ELEMENTAL MAPPING OF HUMAN NERVOUS-TISSUE USING THE SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS 12 (1) pp. 25-28 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F (1993) THE GENERATION AND APPLICATIONS OF ION-BEAM-INDUCED CHARGE IMAGES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 301-311 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GOURLAY ID, GRIME GW (1994) CALCIUM-OXALATE CRYSTALS IN AFRICAN ACACIA SPECIES AND THEIR ANALYSIS BY SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE (SPM), IAWA JOURNAL 15 (2) pp. 137-148 INT ASSOC WOOD ANATOMISTS
Grime GW, Sofield CJ, Gomez-Morilla I, Gwilliam R, Ynsa MD, Enguita O (2005) Rapid direct micromachining of PTFE using MeV ions in an oxygen rich atmosphere, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 231 pp. 378-383 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Basnakova G, Spencer AJ, Palsgard E, Grime GW, Macaskie LE (1998) Identification of the nickel uranyl phosphate deposits on Citrobacter sp. cells by electron microscopy with electron probe X-ray microanalysis and by proton induced X-ray emission analysis, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 32 (6) pp. 760-765 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Kirkby KJ, Grime GW, Webb RP, Kirkby NF, Folkard M, Prise K, Vojnovic B (2007) A scanning focussed vertical ion nanobeam: A new UK facility for cell irradiation and analysis, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 260 (1) pp. 97-100 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, WATT F (1988) PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1ST INTERNATIONAL-CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR MICROPROBE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS - OXFORD, UK, 1-4 SEPTEMBER 1987 - PREFACE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (3) pp. R5-R5 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BEAUMONT JH, GRIME GW, HART M (1976) HIGH-RESOLUTION, HIGH-INTENSITY SMALL-ANGLE SCATTERING CAMERA FOR SYNCHROTRON X-RADIATION, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS E-SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 9 (8) pp. 680-683 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
PERRY CC, MANN S, WILLIAMS RJP, WATT F, GRIME GW, TAKACS J (1984) A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE STUDY OF MACROHAIRS FROM THE LEMMA OF THE GRASS PHALARIS-CANARIENSIS L, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 222 (1229) pp. 439-+
Li G, Palsgard E, Grime GW, Triffitt JT (1997) Elemental analysis of rapidly regenerating bone tissues by scanning proton microprobe, JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH 12 (9) pp. P37-P37 BLACKWELL SCIENCE INC
GRIME GW (1993) NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION, INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES (130) pp. 165-172 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, GRIME GW (1993) DISLOCATION IMAGING USING ION-BEAM-INDUCED CHARGE, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 62 (25) pp. 3309-3311 AMER INST PHYSICS
deKerckhove DG, Breese MBH, Grime GW (1997) A beam rocking system for the Oxford nuclear microprobe: A new approach to channeling analysis, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 129 (4) pp. 534-542 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Politis T, Abraham M, Northover P, Grime G (2002) PIXE, electron microprobe data, and experimental archaeology: Tell el-Ajjul and pilot studies of gold granulation joining practices in the mediterranean bronze age, Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings 712 pp. 441-450
This paper discusses the results of a pilot study using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of gold granulated objects from the Bronze Age site of Tell el-Ajjul in Southern Palestine obtained with the Oxford University proton microprobe. Using modern granulated samples with known smithing processes as points of comparison, it is demonstrated how information on ancient joining practices may be accurately gauged. The importance of characterizing objects of known provenance is emphasized in a discussion of archaeological context. It is argued that the building of a large Mediterranean-wide database of granulation analyses can add new depths to our understanding of temporal, social, cultural and technological relationships in the past.
ROMANO LT, BREESE MBH, JAMIESON DN, CHEN C, GRIME GW, WATT F (1991) ATOMIC POSITION OF FE IN YBA2(CU1-XFEX)3O7-Y USING ION CHANNELING, PHYSICAL REVIEW B 44 (13) pp. 6927-6931 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
GRIME GW, WATT F, WOGELIUS RA, JAMTVEIT B (1993) PROCESSING MICROPIXE LINESCAN DATA - STUDIES OF ARSENIC ZONING IN SKARN GARNETS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 410-414 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, WATT F, MANN S, PERRY CC, WEBB J, WILLIAMS RJP (1985) BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, TRENDS IN BIOCHEMICAL SCIENCES 10 (1) pp. 6-10 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
BREESE MBH, LANDSBERG JP, KING PJC, GRIME GW, WATT F (1992) APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-TRANSMISSION ION MICROSCOPY, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 64 (1-4) pp. 505-511 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime GW (2013) WinTRAX: A raytracing software package for the design of multipole focusing systems, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 306 pp. 76-80
The software package TRAX was a simulation tool for modelling the path of charged particles through linear cylindrical multipole fields described by analytical expressions and was a development of the earlier OXRAY program (Grime and Watt, 1983; Grime et al., 1982) [1,2]. In a 2005 comparison of raytracing software packages (Incerti et al., 2005) [3], TRAX/OXRAY was compared with Geant4 and Zgoubi and was found to give close agreement with the more modern codes. TRAX was a text-based program which was only available for operation in a now rare VMS workstation environment, so a new program, WinTRAX, has been developed for the Windows operating system. This implements the same basic computing strategy as TRAX, and key sections of the code are direct translations from FORTRAN to C++, but the Windows environment is exploited to make an intuitive graphical user interface which simplifies and enhances many operations including system definition and storage, optimisation, beam simulation (including with misaligned elements) and aberration coefficient determination. This paper describes the program and presents comparisons with other software and real installations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F (1993) STUDY OF NUCLEAR MICROPROBE BEAM HALO USING IBIC, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 243-246 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime GW (2005) A perspective on the tenth international conference on particle induced x-ray emission and its applications, X-RAY SPECTROMETRY 34 (4) pp. 265-268 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Rombouts PMM, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb RP, Cuenca L, Rodriguez R, Browton M, Wardell N, Underwood B, Kirkby NF, Kirkby KJ (2007) A microPIXE investigation of the interaction of cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with the culture medium, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 260 (1) pp. 231-235 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Abraham MH, Grime GW, Marsh MA, Northover JP (2001) The study of thick corrosion layers on archaeological metals using controlled laser ablation in conjuction with an external beam microprobe, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 181 pp. 688-692 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
LANDSBERG JP, MCDONALD B, ROBERTS JM, GRIME GW, WATT F (1991) IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF SENILE PLAQUES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 54 (1-3) pp. 180-185 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
CEREDA E, MARCAZZAN GMB, PEDRETTI M, GRIME GW, BALDACCI A (1995) OCCURRENCE MODE OF MAJOR AND TRACE-ELEMENTS IN INDIVIDUAL FLY-ASH PARTICLES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 104 (1-4) pp. 625-629 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, WILSHAW PR, GRIME GW (1995) IMAGING OF DEEP DEFECTS USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 103 (3) pp. 365-370 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, WATT F, GRIME GW, KING PJC (1991) PROTON MICROSCOPY OF A MICROCIRCUIT LAYER STRUCTURE, INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES (117) pp. 101-104 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
KING PJC, BREESE MBH, WILSHAW PR, GRIME GW (1995) APPLICATION OF TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING TO THE IMAGING OF STACKING-FAULTS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 104 (1-4) pp. 233-237 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Maenhaut W, Salomonovic R, Ptasinski J, Grime GW (1997) Nuclear microprobe analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples: Comparison with bulk measurements and analyses of individual particles, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 130 (1-4) pp. 576-581 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JAKSIC M, GRIME GW, HENDERSON J, WATT F (1991) QUANTITATIVE PIXE ANALYSIS USING A SCANNING PROTON MICROBEAM, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 54 (4) pp. 491-498 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Cereda E, Marcazzan GMB, Grime GW, Mattachini F (1996) Macroscopic and microscopic approach to the study of enrichment phenomena in the electrostatic precipitation of coal fly ash particles, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 109 pp. 696-700 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, WATT F, BLOWER GD, TAKACS J, JAMIESON DN (1982) REAL AND PARASITIC ABERRATIONS OF QUADRUPOLE PROBE-FORMING SYSTEMS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH 197 (1) pp. 97-109 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, TAKACS J, WATT F (1984) A WIDE AREA SCANNING SYSTEM FOR THE OXFORD PROTON MICROPROBE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 3 (1-3) pp. 589-593 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, BEAUMONT JH, WEST JB (1975) HOLOGRAPHIC DIFFRACTION GRATINGS USED IN NORMAL INCIDENCE MONOCHROMATORS FOR SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, APPLIED OPTICS 14 (10) pp. 2317-2318 OPTICAL SOC AMER
Bailey MJ, Coe S, Grant DM, Grime GW, Jeynes C (2009) Accurate determination of the Ca : P ratio in rough hydroxyapatite samples by SEM-EDS, PIXE and RBS - a comparative study, X-RAY SPECTROMETRY 38 (4) pp. 343-347 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Abdul Sani SF, Grime GW, Palitsin V, Mahdiraji GA, Abdul Rashid HA, Maah MJ, Bradley DA (2015) Micro-PIXE analysis of doped SiO2 fibres intended as TL dosimeters for radiation measurements, X-Ray Spectrometry 44 (2) pp. 33-40
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Sample elemental concentrations can be determined using the microbeam proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, providing non-destructive simultaneous low-background multi-element analysis. Present interest concerns analysis of Ge-doped SiO2 fibres intended as high spatial-resolution thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeters for radiation measurements in place of their more typical applications in telecommunications. During fibres fabrication, defined amounts of the Ge dopant are added, the dopant more usually having a determining role in the transmission properties of the fibre. Characteristic X-rays produced in PIXE analysis provide information on the relative distribution of elements within a sample, as in for instance Ge and Si concentrations, the Ge acting as point defect centres that promote TL. With the dopant tending to diffuse in and away from the fibre core, it is essential to define the sample matrix composition in order to accurately evaluate the X-ray yield. This is determined in part using simultaneous Rutherford Back Scattering analysis. In present work, PIXE/Rutherford Back Scattering measurements have been employed to ascertain dopant concentrations of fibres that have been fabricated at the University of Malaya with a view to improving TL yield. Present results concern cylindrical fibres, nominally with 4%, 6% and 8% weight peak Ge concentrations and flat fibres of nominal 6% weight Ge concentration. For the cylindrical fibres, Ge dopant concentration has been found to be in the range of 2.41-4.56%, 6.44-8.29% and 10.27-12.25% weight, respectively, while for the flat fibres, the Ge concentration range is broader, at 0.07-6.55% weight.
WATT F, GRIME GW, TAKACS J, VAUX DJT (1984) THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE - A MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATION, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 3 (1-3) pp. 599-605 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, DELLITH M (1993) THE EFFECT OF ION-INDUCED DAMAGE ON IBIC IMAGES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 332-338 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JAMIESON DN, ROMANO LT, GRIME GW, WATT F (1990) NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - A NEW WAY OF ANALYZING MATERIALS, MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION 25 (1) pp. 3-15 ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F, WILLIAMS D (1993) MEV ION-BEAM LITHOGRAPHY OF PMMA, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 169-174 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
CHRISTENSEN M, GRIME G, MENU M, WALTER P (1993) USEWEAR STUDIES OF FLINT TOOLS WITH MICROPIXE AND MICRORBS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 530-536 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, GRIME GW, WATT F (1992) MICROCIRCUIT IMAGING USING AN ION-BEAM-INDUCED CHARGE, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 72 (6) pp. 2097-2104 AMER INST PHYSICS
WATT F, GRIME GW, BROOK AJ, GADD GM, PERRY CC, PEARCE RB, TURNAU K, WATKINSON SC (1991) NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 54 (1-3) pp. 123-143 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Ugarte M, Grime GW, Lord G, Geraki K, Collingwood JF, Finnegan ME, Farnfield H, Merchant M, Bailey MJ, Ward NI, Foster PJ, Bishop PN, Osborne NN (2012) Concentration of various trace elements in the rat retina and their distribution in different structures., Metallomics 4 (12) pp. 1245-1254
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to quantify the total amount of trace elements in retina from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6). Concentration of trace elements within individual retinal areas in frozen sections of the fellow eye was established with the use of two methodologies: (1) particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) in combination with 3D depth profiling with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and (2) synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microscopy. The most abundant metal in the retina was zinc, followed by iron and copper. Nickel, manganese, chromium, cobalt, selenium and cadmium were present in very small amounts. The PIXE and SXRF analysis yielded a non-homogenous pattern distribution of metals in the retina. Relatively high levels of zinc were found in the inner part of the photoreceptor inner segments (RIS)/outer limiting membrane (OLM), inner nuclear layer and plexiform layers. Iron was found to accumulate in the retinal pigment epithelium/choroid layer and RIS/OLM. Copper in turn, was localised primarily in the RIS/OLM and plexiform layers. The trace elements iron, copper, and zinc exist in different amounts and locations in the rat retina.
Grime GW (2010) Proton Microprobe (Method and Background), pp. 2296-2300
The principles of proton microprobe analysis are outlined and compared to electron beam analysis. Sample preparation methods are summarized, and the types of suitable sample are enumerated. The information that can be achieved from the analysis in terms of elemental composition and images is also described. © 1999 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
Ugarte M, Grime GW, Osborne NN (2014) Distribution of trace elements in the mammalian retina and cornea by use of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE): Localisation of zinc does not correlate with that of metallothioneins, Metallomics 6 (2) pp. 274-278
Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) in combination with 3D depth profiling with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to establish the distribution and concentration of trace elements within individual corneal and retinal areas in frozen sections from adult male Wistar rats (n = 6). The distribution of endogenous trace elements in the cornea and retina is non-homogenous. The most abundant metal in the cornea is calcium followed by zinc. Iron and copper are present in small amounts localised particularly to the epithelium. Iron is also identified in keratocytes. Relatively high levels of calcium occur in the corneal epithelial cell bodies. Zinc has a wide intense distribution across the corneal epithelium (with greater levels in the basal part) and posterior stroma. In the retina, zinc is the most common metal followed by iron and copper. Relatively high levels of zinc exist in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), photoreceptor inner segments (RIS) and inner nuclear layer (INL). Chelatable zinc was localised with fluorescent TSQ in the RPE, RIS and plexiform layers. It is interesting to note that the highest levels of total zinc and the greatest intensity of chelatable zinc staining do not coincide. In the RPE and corneal epithelium, zinc co-localised with the zinc-containing metallothioneins (MT). However, there was a clear mismatch between the localisation of the most intense levels of zinc in the neuroretina (i.e. INL) and corneal posterior stroma with that reported for MT. For example, the presence of zinc is not particularly associated with the retinal ganglion cells, retinal area that contains MTs in significant amounts. While high amounts of zinc are present in the INL and corneal posterior stroma, which are largely devoid of MTs. This probably represents pools of static, catalytic and structural zinc associated with substances other than the MTs. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
GRIME GW, WATT F (1990) NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - ELEMENTAL MAPPING USING HIGH-ENERGY ION-BEAM TECHNIQUES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 50 (1-4) pp. 197-207 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Purton-Hildebrand LMA, Grime GW, Shields GA, Brasier MD (2001) The use of external micro-PIXE to investigate the factors determining the Sr : Ca ratio in the shells of fossil aragonitic molluscs, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 181 pp. 506-510 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Wogelius RA, Fraser DG, Wall GRT, Grime GW (1997) Trace element and isotopic zonation in vein calcite from the Mendip Hills, UK, with spatial-process correlation analysis, GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA 61 (10) pp. 2037-2051 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
CARIDI A, CEREDA E, GRIME GW, JAKSIC M, MARCAZZAN GMB, VALKOVIC V, WATT F (1993) APPLICATION OF PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS TO THE STUDY OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION OF SINGLE FLY-ASH PARTICLES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 524-529 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JAKSIC M, KRMPOTICNEMANIC J, WATT F, GRIME GW, VALKOVIC V (1988) TRACE-METAL ENRICHMENT ON THE SURFACE OF THE NASAL-SEPTUM BONE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (3) pp. 417-419 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime GW (2012) A compact beam focusing and steering element using quadrupoles with independently excited poles, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Beam steering elements for accelerator beam transport are conventionally and conveniently incorporated into beamlines by fitting magnetic dipole elements around the vacuum tube of the line. Two steerers in each plane (X and Y) together with a quadrupole doublet constitute a module providing full control of the direction, position and focus of the beam. In some installations however, there may be insufficient space on the beamline to mount separate steerer elements. To provide steering capabilities in such a situation we have used a magnetic quadrupole doublet with the coils of each pole independently excited to synthesise the desired combination of quadrupole, horizontal dipole and vertical dipole fields. This paper describes the quadrupole steerer and its multichannel power supply and presents calculated magnetic field distributions together with raytracing simulation of its performance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rajta I, Grime GW, Kertesz Z, Borbely-Kiss I, Koltay E (1998) Characterisation of single aerosol particles from Debrecen region, Hungary using microPIXE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 136 pp. 324-328 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
VAUX DJT, GRIME GW, WATT F (1987) SOME MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH 13 pp. 115-133 HUMANA PRESS INC
REISS HD, GRIME GW, LI MQ, TAKACS J, WATT F (1985) DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS IN THE LILY POLLEN-TUBE TIP, DETERMINED WITH THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, PROTOPLASMA 126 (1-2) pp. 147-152 SPRINGER-VERLAG WIEN
Ahmad M, Grime GW (2013) Micro-PIXE and Micro-RBS Characterization of Micropores in Porous Silicon Prepared Using Microwave-Assisted Hydrofluoric Acid Etching, MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS 19 (2) pp. 261-267 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb R, Jeynes C, Gwilliarn R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ (2006) Proton beam lithography at the University of Surrey's Ion Beam Centre, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 242 (1-2) pp. 387-389 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Breese MBH, Grime GW, Linford W, Harold M (1999) An extended magnetic quadrupole lens for a high-resolution nuclear microprobe, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 158 (1-4) pp. 48-52 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
CRIDDLE AJ, TAMANA H, SPRATT J, REESON KJ, VAUGHAN D, GRIME G (1993) MICRO-PIXE ANALYSIS OF PLATINUM-GROUP MINERALS FROM PLACER DEPOSITS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 77 (1-4) pp. 444-449 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
de Kerckhove DG, Breese MBH, Marsh MA, Grime GW (1998) Maskless fabrication of 3-dimensional microstructures in PMMA using a nuclear microprobe, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 136 pp. 379-384 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Palsgard E, Ugarte M, Rajta I, Grime GW (2001) The role of zinc in the dark-adapted retina studied directly using microPIXE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 181 pp. 489-492 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
de Kerckhove DG, Breese MBH, Jamieson DN, Grime GW (1999) Characterisation of lens aberrations and parasitic fields using beam rocking, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 158 (1-4) pp. 81-84 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
WATT F, BROOK AJ, GRIME GW (1990) NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF THE ALGAE PANDORINA-MORUM (MULL) BORY, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 49 (1-4) pp. 465-471 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime GW (2011) Special Issue: PIXE 2010, X-RAY SPECTROMETRY 40 (3) pp. 119-120 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Enguita O, Fernandez-Jimenez MT, Garcia G, Climent-Font A, Calderon T, Grime GW (2004) The new external microbeam facility at the 5 MV Tandetron accelerator laboratory in Madrid: beam characterisation and first results, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 219 pp. 384-388 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Watt F, Grime GW, Cookson JA (1987) Principles and applications of high-energy ion microbeams, Taylor & Francis
Abraham MH, Grime GW, Northover JP, Smith CW (1999) PIXE and RES as a tool for the analysis of historic copper halfpennies, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 150 (1-4) pp. 651-655 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW (1993) NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION, X-RAY OPTICS AND MICROANALYSIS 1992 130 pp. 165-172 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F (1993) THE USE OF PIXE AND STIM IN MICROELECTRONICS ANALYSIS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 75 (1-4) pp. 341-346 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME G, WATT F, SUTTON C (1991) MICROSCOPES WITH PROTON POWER, NEW SCIENTIST 130 (1771) pp. 32-35 NEW SCIENTIST PUBL EXPEDITING INC
Jeynes C, Bailey MJ, Bright NJ, Christopher ME, Grime GW, Jones BN, Palitsin VV, Webb RP (2012) "total IBA" - Where are we?, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 271 pp. 107-118
The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information - the secret of "Total IBA" is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far "Total IBA" can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Szewciw LJ, de Kerckhove DG, Grime GW, Fudge DS (2010) Calcification provides mechanical reinforcement to whale baleen alpha-keratin, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 277 (1694) pp. 2597-2605 ROYAL SOC
PERRY CC, GRIME GW, WATT F (1988) AN X-RAY ANALYTICAL STUDY OF MANDIBLES FROM CALANUS-PACIFICUS, AN HERBIVOROUS COPEPOD, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (3) pp. 367-371 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Gilmour JD, Wogelius RA, Grime GW, Turner G (1997) Trace-element and major-element zoning in Allan Hills 84001 carbonate., METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 32 (4) pp. A48-A49 METEORITICAL SOC
Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb RP, Gwilliam R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ, Teo EJ, Breese MBH, Bettiol AA, Blackwood DJ, Watt F (2005) New developments in the applications of proton beam writing, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 237 (1-2) pp. 188-192 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, ROMANO LT, GRIME GW, WATT F (1991) THE CALCULATION OF PIXE MINIMUM YIELDS USING RBS CHANNELING, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 62 (1) pp. 133-138 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Purton LMA, Shields GA, Brasier MD, Grime GW (1999) Metabolism controls Sr/Ca ratios in fossil aragonitic mollusks, GEOLOGY 27 (12) pp. 1083-1086 GEOLOGICAL SOC AMER, INC
Breese MBH, King PJC, Smulders PJM, Grime GW (1995) Dechanneling of MeV protons by 60°dislocations, Physical Review B 51 (5) pp. 2742-2750
This paper describes a model for interpreting experimental transmission ion channeling results for dechanneling by 60°misfit dislocations in epitaxial Si1-xGex/Si material in terms of rotated lattice planes of the Si1-xGex epilayer with respect to the silicon substrate. A Monte Carlo channeling simulation program is used to model the trajectories of the incident MeV protons through the epilayer and the thinned Si substrate in order to calculate the average transmitted proton energy as a function of the sample-tilt angle about the beam axis and the effective rotation angle of the epilayer. The conditions under which the 60°dislocations can be resolved from the surrounding perfect crystal and also resolved from adjacent 60°dislocations causing a slightly different amount of lattice plane rotation are discussed using this model. Good agreement is demonstrated with experimental results showing the variation in transmitted proton energy across a group of five 60°dislocations for different sample-tilt angles. © 1995 The American Physical Society.
HUGHES NP, PERRY CC, WILLIAMS RJP, WATT F, GRIME GW (1988) A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE STUDY OF STINGING EMERGENCES FROM THE LEAF OF THE COMMON STINGING NETTLE URTICA-DIOICA L, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (3) pp. 383-387 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
DAVISON W, GRIME GW, WOOF C (1992) CHARACTERIZATION OF LACUSTRINE IRON SULFIDE PARTICLES WITH PROTON-INDUCED X-RAY-EMISSION, LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY 37 (8) pp. 1770-1777 AMER SOC LIMNOLOGY OCEANOGRAPH
ROMANO LT, BREESE MBH, GRIME GW, WATT F (1991) CHANNELING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF Y1BA2CU3O7-DELTA SINGLE-CRYSTALS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 54 (1-3) pp. 234-238 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRIME GW, DAWSON M, MARSH M, MCARTHUR IC, WATT F (1991) THE OXFORD SUBMICRON NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY FACILITY, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 54 (1-3) pp. 52-63 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Merchant MJ, Grime GW, Kirkby KJ, Webb R (2007) A survey of two-stage focusing systems for nanobeam design, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 260 (1) pp. 8-14 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
WATT F, GRIME GW, PERRY CC (1988) THE DAMAGE EFFECTS OF A 1-MICRON PROTON-BEAM ON A SINGLE POLLEN GRAIN, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (3) pp. 331-336 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BREESE MBH, KING PJC, GRIME GW, SEIBERLING LE, BOSHART MA (1995) MANIPULATION OF ION CHANNELING PATTERNS USING MAGNETIC QUADRUPOLE LENSES, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 67 (15) pp. 2132-2134 AMER INST PHYSICS
GRIME GW, DAWSON M (1994) A PC-BASED DATA-ACQUISITION PACKAGE FOR NUCLEAR MICROBEAM SYSTEMS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 89 (1-4) pp. 223-228 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
WATT F, GRIME GW, BLOWER GD, TAKACS J (1980) THE OXFORD PROTON MICRO-PROBE, BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY 25 (7) pp. 759-759 AMER INST PHYSICS
GRIME GW, WATT F (1988) SOFTWARE MASKING FOR THE ACCURATE DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTAL QUANTITIES IN DISCRETE AREAS OF A MICRO-PIXE SCAN, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (3) pp. 300-302 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Incerti S, Smith RW, Merchant M, Grime GW, Meot F, Serani L, Moretto P, Touzeau C, Barberet P, Habchi C, Nguyen DT (2005) A comparison of ray-tracing software for the design of quadrupole microbeam systems, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 231 pp. 76-85 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
DAVISON W, GRIME GW, MORGAN JAW, CLARKE K (1991) DISTRIBUTION OF DISSOLVED IRON IN SEDIMENT PORE WATERS AT SUBMILLIMETER RESOLUTION, NATURE 352 (6333) pp. 323-325 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
GRIME GW, WATT F (1993) A SURVEY OF RECENT PIXE APPLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOMETRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES USING THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE FACILITY, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 75 (1-4) pp. 495-503 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Sani SFA, Mahdiraji GA, Shafiqah ASS, Grime GW, Palitsin V, Hinder SJ, Tamchek N, Rashid HAA, Maah MJ, Watts JF, Bradley DA (2015) XPS and PIXE Analysis of Doped Silica Fibre for Radiation Dosimetry, JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY 33 (11) pp. 2268-2278 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Merchant M J, Jeynes JCJ, Grime GW, Palitsin V, Tullis IDC, Barber P, Vojnovic B, Webb RP, Kirkby KJ (2012) A focused scanning vertical beam for charged particle irradiation of living cells with single counted particles, Radiation Research: an international journal forthcoming Radiation Research Society
The Surrey vertical beam is a new facility for targeted irradiation of cells
in medium with singly counted ions. A duo-plasmatron ion source and a 2
MV Tandem accelerator supply a range of ions from protons to calcium for
this beamline, with energy ranges from 0.5 to 12 MeV. A magnetic quadrupole
triplet lens is used to focus the beam of ions. We present the design of this
beamline, and early results showing the capability to count single ions with
98% certainty on CR-39 track etch. We also show that the beam targeting
accuracy is within 5 microns and selectively target human broblasts with a
H2AX immuno
uorescence to demonstrate which
cell nuclei were irradiated. We discuss future commissioning steps necessary to
achieve sub-micron targeting accuracy with this beamline.
Jeynes JCG, Merchant MJ, Barazzuol L, Barry M, Guest D, Palitsin VV, Grime GW, Kirkby KJ, Tullis IDC, Barber PR, Vojnovic B (2013) "Broadbeam" irradiation of mammalian cells using a vertical microbeam facility, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 52 (4) pp. 513-521
A "broadbeam" facility is demonstrated for the vertical microbeam at Surrey's Ion Beam Centre, validating the new technique used by Barazzuol et al. (Radiat Res 177:651-662, 2012). Here, droplets with a diameter of about 4 mm of 15,000 mammalian cells in suspension were pipetted onto defined locations on a 42-mm-diameter cell dish with each droplet individually irradiated in "broadbeam" mode with 2 MeV protons and 4 MeV alpha particles and assayed for clonogenicity. This method enables multiple experimental data points to be rapidly collected from the same cell dish. Initially, the Surrey vertical beamline was designed for the targeted irradiation of single cells with single counted ions. Here, the benefits of both targeted single-cell and broadbeam irradiations being available at the same facility are discussed: in particular, high-throughput cell irradiation experiments can be conducted on the same system as time-intensive focused-beam experiments with the added benefits of fluorescent microscopy, cell recognition and time-lapse capabilities. The limitations of the system based on a 2 MV tandem accelerator are also discussed, including the uncertainties associated with particle Poisson counting statistics, spread of linear energy transfer in the nucleus and a timed dose delivery. These uncertainties are calculated with Monte Carlo methods. An analysis of how this uncertainty affects relative biological effect measurements is made and discussed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Landsberg J, McDonald B, Grime G, Watt F (1993) Microanalysis of senile plaques using nuclear microscopy., J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 6 (2) pp. 97-104
Silver-staining "senile" plaques occurring in the brain are a major part of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The elemental composition of these structures, and the possible presence of aluminum and silicon in these structures, has been the subject of an increasing research effort over the last decade. However, the results have often been contradictory. Using a scanning proton microprobe, the elemental composition of senile plaques has been determined. This instrument, similar to an electron probe, uses a focused beam of protons scanned across a sample to map the elements. The technique is absolutely quantitative and is sensitive down to the parts per million level. Tissue from six cases of clinically and pathologically characterized cases of Alzheimer's disease and two aged neurologically normal controls was scanned. It was found that aluminum and silicon occur at a level of 50 ppm or greater in the cores of 20% of senile plaques and that the total occurrence of aluminum or silicon in scans containing plaques was not above background. The major uncertainties affecting interpretation of results of this kind are discussed, and it is suggested that the least controllable factor is contamination in the reagents used to prepare and stain the tissue. This indicates that until plaques can be unambiguously identified and analyzed in untreated tissue, no conclusion can be reached on whether senile plaques contain aluminum and silicon.
Koay J, Osborn RW, Grime GW, Rees S (1996) PIXE analysis of Fusarium culmorum fungus treated with chemical agents, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 109 pp. 332-335 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Gomez-Morilla I, Simon A, Simon R, Williams CT, Kiss AZ, Grime GW (2006) An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of X-ray microanalysis techniques using BCR-126A glass reference material, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 249 pp. 897-902 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Grime Geoffrey (2011) Editorial, X-Ray Spectrometry 40 (3) pp. 119-121
The 12th International Conference on Proton Induced X-ray
Emission (PIXE) and its Analytical Applications was held on the
campus of the University of Surrey in Guildford, U.K. between 29
th
June and 2nd July 2010. The PIXE conferences have been held
at approximately three year intervals since the mid 1970s and
have re?ected the development of the PIXE technique and its
expanding range of applications.
This special issue of X-Ray Spectrometry contains papers
based on conference contributions which have been selected
to represent the latest developments in PIXE and its applications.
Kearsley A T, Colaux J L, Ross D K, Wozniakiewicz P J, Gerlach L, Anz-Meador P, Griffin T, Reed B, Opiela J, Palitsin V V, Grime G W, Webb R P, Jeynes C, Spratt J, Salge T, Cole M J, Price M C, Burchell M J (2017) Hypervelocity impact in low earth orbit: finding subtle impactor signatures on the Hubble Space Telescope, Procedia Engineering 204 pp. 492-499 Elsevier
Return of materials from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during shuttle orbiter service missions has allowed inspection of large numbers of hypervelocity impact features from long exposure at about 615 km altitude in low Earth orbit (LEO) [1,2]. Here we describe the application of advanced X-ray microanalysis techniques on scanning electron microscopes (SEM), microprobes and a 2 MV Tandetron, to nearly 400 impacts on the painted metal surface of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) radiator shield [3,4]. We identified artificial Orbital Debris (OD) and natural Micrometeoroid (MM) origins for small [5] and even for larger particles [6], which usually may leave little or no detectable trace on HST solar arrays, as they penetrate through the full cell thickness [2,7].
Grime G.W., Sani S.F. Abdul, Palitsin Vladimir, Shafiqah A.S. Siti, Maah M.J., Alyahyawi Amjad, Bradley D.A. (2019) Simultaneous microbeam IBA and beam-induced luminescence analysis of strained doped silica fibre radiation dosimeters, Radiation Physics and Chemistry 155 pp. 173-177 Elsevier
We demonstrate that the simultaneous combination of ion beam analysis (IBA) and ion beam induced luminescence (IL) can reveal valuable information concerning the performance of strained doped silica fibre thermoluminescence microdosimeters. The micron scale spatial resolution and low detection limits of IBA allow the lateral distribution of dopant elements to be mapped and then correlated with the distribution of prompt radioluminescence. Measurement of the decay of the IL signal with dose provide information concerning the saturation of the subsequent TL signal at high doses. MeV ion beams can deposit relatively high energy in localized, well-quantified small volumes and so this method is valuable for studying high dose effects in TL dosimeters. We describe a simple modification of the target chamber microscope which enables sensitive low background light detection in two wavelength bands and present preliminary results from three types of germanium doped silica fibre dosimeter.
Matja
i? L., Palitsin V., Grime G.W., Abdul-Karim N., Webb R.P.
(2019) Simultaneous molecular and elemental mapping under ambient conditions by coupling AP MeV SIMS and HIPIXE, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 450 pp. 353-356 Elsevier
Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) consists of a set of analytical techniques addressing elemental composition of inorganic material normally conducted using ion beams in the MeV kinetic energy range. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ions (MeV SIMS) is the only IBA technique which can provide extensive molecular information about organic materials. MeV ions can be extracted into air hence offering the potential to apply MeV SIMS under atmospheric pressure. At the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, a fully ambient MeV SIMS setup has been developed and termed ?Ambient Pressure MeV SIMS?. This AP MeV SIMS can be optimized for analysis and imaging of organic molecules. MeV SIMS relies upon electronic sputtering of the target material and this is much more efficient in insulating or organic targets, and less efficient in conducting metallic materials. PIXE, on the other hand, is efficient at providing good signals from elemental metallic systems, but does not readily provide molecular information from organics. The combination of the two techniques ? preferably simultaneously with the same beam ? provides useful complementary information which can readily be combined. Here we present pioneering preliminary work in simultaneous molecular and elemental imaging of a complex sample comprising of two organic species and two metallic species by combining AP MeV SIMS with Heavy Ion Particle Induced X-ray emission (HIPIXE).
Grime G.W., Al-Shehri S., Palitsin V. (2019) A simple edge-following scanning algorithm for proton beam writing and other direct-write lithographies, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 29 (3)

The quality of the structures fabricated using proton beam writing (PBW) and other direct-write microfabrication methods is strongly influenced by the path followed by the writing beam during the exposure. In particular, it is necessary to avoid paths in which the beam makes large jumps or changes in direction close to the edges of the structure, and ideally the scan path should follow the outline of the pattern to be exposed (sometimes referred to as turtle scanning). While this is relatively easy to implement when the patterns to be created can be built up from simple geometric shapes (circles, rectangles, etc), it has not been possible to do this in the case of arbitrarily complex images, at least using software available to the PBW community.

This paper describes a simple edge-following algorithm (EFA) which uses a method of spiral searching around each pixel to determine a scan path which not only optimizes the conformity of the scan path to the edges of the required pattern, but also minimizes jumps (and hence blanking time) and scan reversals which can cause artefacts due to scanning system transients. The EFA operates on a 1-bit BMP format input image file and has been implemented in the OMDAQ-3 software package (Oxford Microbeams Ltd).

The paper is illustrated with examples of complex structures written using the EFA at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre which demonstrate enhanced edge smoothness compared with simple blanked raster scanning.