Geoffrey Grime

Dr Geoffrey Grime


Senior Research Staff
+44 (0)1483 682716
01 WT 02

Academic and research departments

Advanced Technology Institute.

My publications

Publications

JD Gilmour, RA Wogelius, GW Grime, G Turner (1997)Trace-element and major-element zoning in Allan Hills 84001 carbonate., In: METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE32(4)pp. A48-A49 METEORITICAL SOC
PJC KING, MBH BREESE, GR BOOKER, J WHITEHURST, PR WILSHAW, GW GRIME, F WATT, MJ GORINGE (1993)DISLOCATION IMAGING WITH A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE USING CHANNELING SCANNING-TRANSMISSION ION MICROSCOPY (CSTIM), In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 320-331
F Watt, GW Grime, JA Cookson (1987)Principles and applications of high-energy ion microbeams Taylor & Francis
W Davison, GR Fones, GW Grime (1997)Dissolved metals in surface sediment and a microbial mat at 100-mu m resolution, In: NATURE387(6636)pp. 885-888 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
GW GRIME, W DAVISON (1993)THE USE OF NUCLEAR MICROPROBE TECHNIQUES TO STUDY THE CHEMISTRY OF LACUSTRINE SEDIMENTS AND PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 430-435
GW GRIME, F WATT, RA WOGELIUS, B JAMTVEIT (1993)PROCESSING MICROPIXE LINESCAN DATA - STUDIES OF ARSENIC ZONING IN SKARN GARNETS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 410-414
LA DeBock, RE VanGrieken, D Camuffo, GW Grime (1996)Microanalysis of museum aerosols to elucidate the soiling of paintings: Case of the Correr Museum, Venice, Italy, In: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY30(11)pp. 3341-3350 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Christopher Jeynes, Vladimir Palitsin, M. Kokkoris, A. Hamilton, Geoffrey Grime (2020)On the accuracy of Total-IBA, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms465pp. 85-100 Elsevier

“Total-IBA” implies the synergistic use of multiple IBA techniques. It has been claimed that Total–IBA inherits the accuracy of the most accurate IBA technique used. A specific example is now given of this where (in vacuo) EBS/PIXE of a glass sample uniform in depth is validated against absolutely calibrated EPMA of the same sample. The EPMA results had a mass closure gap of 2.0 ± 0.6 wt%; the full PIXE analysis determined the composition of this missing 2 wt%. The PIXE calibration was against a single certified glass sample, with uncertainties per line ~10%. Benchmarking also demonstrates ~10% underestimation of the Si scattering cross-section at proton energies ~3 MeV. But the Total-IBA determination of the silica content had a low standard uncertainty of about 2%. This is due to the strong constraints of both the chemical prior and also the mass closure properties of the EBS. Irradiation-induced sodium migration in this soda-lime glass is explored.

RA Wogelius, DG Fraser, GRT Wall, GW Grime (1997)Trace element and isotopic zonation in vein calcite from the Mendip Hills, UK, with spatial-process correlation analysis, In: GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA61(10)pp. 2037-2051 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
AJ CRIDDLE, H TAMANA, J SPRATT, KJ REESON, D VAUGHAN, G GRIME (1993)MICRO-PIXE ANALYSIS OF PLATINUM-GROUP MINERALS FROM PLACER DEPOSITS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 444-449
GR Fones, W Davison, GW Grime (1997)Micron-scale structure of trace metals in pore waters., In: ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY213pp. 237-GEOC AMER CHEMICAL SOC
MBH BREESE, GW GRIME, F WATT (1993)STUDY OF NUCLEAR MICROPROBE BEAM HALO USING IBIC, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 243-246
GW Grime, F Watt (1984)Beam optics of quadrupole probe-forming systems Taylor & Francis
MBH BREESE, GW GRIME, M DELLITH (1993)THE EFFECT OF ION-INDUCED DAMAGE ON IBIC IMAGES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 332-338
G Grime, B Doyle (2005)J.L. (Iain) Campbell - Dedication, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS241(1-4)pp. XVI-XVII ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
J Landsberg, B McDonald, G Grime, F Watt (1993)Microanalysis of senile plaques using nuclear microscopy., In: J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol6(2)pp. 97-104

Silver-staining "senile" plaques occurring in the brain are a major part of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The elemental composition of these structures, and the possible presence of aluminum and silicon in these structures, has been the subject of an increasing research effort over the last decade. However, the results have often been contradictory. Using a scanning proton microprobe, the elemental composition of senile plaques has been determined. This instrument, similar to an electron probe, uses a focused beam of protons scanned across a sample to map the elements. The technique is absolutely quantitative and is sensitive down to the parts per million level. Tissue from six cases of clinically and pathologically characterized cases of Alzheimer's disease and two aged neurologically normal controls was scanned. It was found that aluminum and silicon occur at a level of 50 ppm or greater in the cores of 20% of senile plaques and that the total occurrence of aluminum or silicon in scans containing plaques was not above background. The major uncertainties affecting interpretation of results of this kind are discussed, and it is suggested that the least controllable factor is contamination in the reagents used to prepare and stain the tissue. This indicates that until plaques can be unambiguously identified and analyzed in untreated tissue, no conclusion can be reached on whether senile plaques contain aluminum and silicon.

MBH BREESE, PJC KING, PJM SMULDERS, GW GRIME (1995)DECHANNELING OF MEV PROTONS BY 60-DEGREES DISLOCATIONS, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B51(5)pp. 2742-2750 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
MJ Merchant, GW Grime, V Palitsin (2010)The influence of stray DC magnetic fields in MeV ion nanobeam systems, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS268(11-12)pp. 1933-1937
GW GRIME (1974)HOLOGRAPHIC DIFFRACTION GRATINGS RECORDED IN PHOTORESIST, In: JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHIC SCIENCE22(1)pp. 36-41 ROYAL PHOTOGRAPHIC SOC
F WATT, GW GRIME, GD BLOWER, J TAKACS (1981)A COUPLED TRIPLET CONFIGURATION OF THE OXFORD MICRO-PROBE, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE28(2)pp. 1413-1416 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
JH BEAUMONT, GW GRIME, M HART (1976)HIGH-RESOLUTION, HIGH-INTENSITY SMALL-ANGLE SCATTERING CAMERA FOR SYNCHROTRON X-RADIATION, In: JOURNAL OF PHYSICS E-SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS9(8)pp. 680-683 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
MBH BREESE, GW GRIME, F WATT (1993)THE GENERATION AND APPLICATIONS OF ION-BEAM-INDUCED CHARGE IMAGES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 301-311
GW GRIME, J TAKACS (1981)AN ION ACCELERATOR FACILITY FOR THE PREPARATION OF NUCLEAR BOMBARDMENT TARGETS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH189(1)pp. 199-203 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GW GRIME, F WATT, GD BLOWER, J TAKACS, DN JAMIESON (1982)REAL AND PARASITIC ABERRATIONS OF QUADRUPOLE PROBE-FORMING SYSTEMS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH197(1)pp. 97-109 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
DG deKerckhove, MBH Breese, GW Grime (1997)A beam rocking system for the Oxford nuclear microprobe: A new approach to channeling analysis, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS129(4)pp. 534-542 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
E Palsgard, GW Grime (1996)Direct measurement of elemental distributions in insulin-producing cells using nuclear microscopy, In: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY42(1)pp. 49-57 CELLULAR & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
F WATT, GW GRIME, GD BLOWER, J TAKACS (1980)THE OXFORD PROTON MICRO-PROBE, In: BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY25(7)pp. 759-759 AMER INST PHYSICS
GW GRIME, JH BEAUMONT, JB WEST (1975)HOLOGRAPHIC DIFFRACTION GRATINGS USED IN NORMAL INCIDENCE MONOCHROMATORS FOR SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, In: APPLIED OPTICS14(10)pp. 2317-2318 OPTICAL SOC AMER
A BRUNTON, F WATT, GW GRIME, GM GADD (1988)ELEMENT LOCALIZATION IN POLYMORPHIC FUNGI USING THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 378-382 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GW Grime (2013)WinTRAX: A raytracing software package for the design of multipole focusing systems, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS306pp. 76-80 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MBH BREESE, PJC KING, GW GRIME, LE SEIBERLING, MA BOSHART (1995)MANIPULATION OF ION CHANNELING PATTERNS USING MAGNETIC QUADRUPOLE LENSES, In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS67(15)pp. 2132-2134 AMER INST PHYSICS
E CEREDA, GMB MARCAZZAN, M PEDRETTI, GW GRIME, A BALDACCI (1995)OCCURRENCE MODE OF MAJOR AND TRACE-ELEMENTS IN INDIVIDUAL FLY-ASH PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS104(1-4)pp. 625-629
I Gomez-Morilla, A Simon, R Simon, CT Williams, AZ Kiss, GW Grime (2006)An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of X-ray microanalysis techniques using BCR-126A glass reference material, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS249pp. 897-902
LMA Purton-Hildebrand, GW Grime, GA Shields, MD Brasier (2001)The use of external micro-PIXE to investigate the factors determining the Sr : Ca ratio in the shells of fossil aragonitic molluscs, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 506-510
F WATT, AJ BROOK, GW GRIME (1990)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF THE ALGAE PANDORINA-MORUM (MULL) BORY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS49(1-4)pp. 465-471
GW GRIME, F WATT (1988)FOCUSING PROTONS AND LIGHT-IONS TO MICRON AND SUB-MICRON DIMENSIONS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 227-234 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
G Li, E Palsgard, GW Grime, JT Triffitt (1997)Elemental analysis of rapidly regenerating bone tissues by scanning proton microprobe, In: JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH12(9)pp. P37-P37 BLACKWELL SCIENCE INC
VM Dekov, ZK Damyanov, GD Kamenov, IK Bonev, I Rajta, GW Grime (2001)Sorosite (eta-Cu6Sn5)-bearing native tin and lead assemblage from the Mir zone (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26 degrees N), In: OCEANOLOGICA ACTA24(3)pp. 205-220 GAUTHIER-VILLARS/EDITIONS ELSEVIER
DN JAMIESON, GW GRIME, F WATT (1989)THE NEW OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYTICAL FACILITY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS40-1pp. 669-674 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GW GRIME, F WATT, DN JAMIESON (1990)THE INFLUENCE OF ACCELERATOR PARAMETERS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUBMICRON QUADRUPOLE PROBE-FORMING SYSTEMS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS45(1-4)pp. 508-512
MBH BREESE, F WATT, GW GRIME, PJC KING (1991)PROTON MICROSCOPY OF A MICROCIRCUIT LAYER STRUCTURE, In: INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES(117)pp. 101-104 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
PJC KING, MBH BREESE, PR WILSHAW, GW GRIME (1995)APPLICATION OF TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING TO THE IMAGING OF STACKING-FAULTS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS104(1-4)pp. 233-237
P BONELLO, RB PEARCE, F WATT, GW GRIME (1991)AN INDUCED PAPILLA RESPONSE IN PRIMARY ROOTS OF SCOTS PINE CHALLENGED INVITRO WITH CYLINDROCARPON-DESTRUCTANS, In: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY39(3)pp. 213-228 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD
C. Jeynes, V.V. Palitsin, G.W. Grime, C. Pascual-Izarra, A. Taborda, M.A. Reis, N.P. Barradas (2020)External Beam Total-IBA using DataFurnace, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms481pp. 47-61 Elsevier

The self-consistent Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) of cultural heritage samples using the external beam is technically demanding. We report on the calibration of an analysis of glass samples from the Rosslyn Chapel where the interest will ultimately be in the full characterisation of the weathered glass. Such an analysis requires a comprehensive Total-IBA approach using p-PIGE and He-PIXE to obtain ”bulk” and surface Na, with H-PIXE/EBS for multielemental depth profiling to 10 μm and He-PIXE/EBS for higher depth resolution near the surface; also with two PIXE detectors as usual for the high and low energy parts of the spectrum. A revised NDF v.10 code capable of a self-consistent handling of all these signals at state-of-the-art accuracy is described, together with the calibration protocols required for such an analysis. Other capabilities of the NDF code not previously discussed are also reviewed.

AJ BROOK, GW GRIME, F WATT (1988)A STUDY OF BARIUM ACCUMULATION IN DESMIDS USING THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE (SPM), In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 372-377 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
I Gomez-Morilla, V Thoree, JJ Powell, KJ Kirkby, GW Grime (2006)Identification and quantitive analysis of calcium phosphate microparticles in intestinal tissue by nuclear microscopy, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS249pp. 665-669
MH Abraham, GW Grime, MA Marsh, JP Northover (2001)The study of thick corrosion layers on archaeological metals using controlled laser ablation in conjuction with an external beam microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 688-692
F WATT, GW GRIME (1988)ELEMENTAL MAPPING OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES USING A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 356-366 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JP LANDSBERG, B MCDONALD, JM ROBERTS, GW GRIME, F WATT (1990)IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF SENILE PLAQUES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING11(3)pp. 317-317 ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
CC PERRY, GW GRIME, F WATT (1988)AN X-RAY ANALYTICAL STUDY OF MANDIBLES FROM CALANUS-PACIFICUS, AN HERBIVOROUS COPEPOD, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 367-371 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GW GRIME, RB PEARCE (1995)EXTERNAL-BEAM ANALYSIS OF LIVING SYCAMORE XYLEM INFECTED BY PATHOGENIC FUNGI, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS104(1-4)pp. 299-305
GW Grime, F Watt (1984)BEAM OPTICS OF QUADRUPOLE PROBE-FORMING SYSTEMS., In: Beam Opt of Quadrupole Probe-Form Syst

This book presents the theory of quadrupole focusing with the practical development of microprobe systems in mind. The introductory chapter outlines the analytical processes and provides a background to the problems of designing quadrupole probe-forming systems. Following a description of the quadrupole lens and the mathematical models used to describe the fields within both magnetic and electrostatic quadrupole lenses, the authors describe two techniques for calculating the path of a charged particle through a beam-optical system; matrix methods and numerical raytracing. The minimum spot size achieved by a quadrupole system is influenced strongly by parasitic aberrations due to imperfections in the construction and alignment of the instrument. The authors assess the importance of the various effects by reference to their influence in three existing microprobe systems. Finally, they describe briefly some novel and interesting alternatives to the quadrupole lens as the focusing element. Refs.

GW GRIME, F WATT (1988)PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1ST INTERNATIONAL-CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR MICROPROBE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS - OXFORD, UK, 1-4 SEPTEMBER 1987 - PREFACE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. R5-R5 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
F WATT, GW GRIME, CC PERRY (1988)THE DAMAGE EFFECTS OF A 1-MICRON PROTON-BEAM ON A SINGLE POLLEN GRAIN, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 331-336 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
AJ BROOK, F WATT, G GRIME (1990)A CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING IN AN ENGLISH LAKE BY PIXE - THE FLUX OF BARIUM AND STRONTIUM IN THE PHYTOPLANKTON, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS49(1-4)pp. 481-484
MJ Bailey, S Coe, DM Grant, GW Grime, C Jeynes (2009)Accurate determination of the Ca : P ratio in rough hydroxyapatite samples by SEM-EDS, PIXE and RBS - a comparative study, In: X-RAY SPECTROMETRY38(4)pp. 343-347 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
R DUHLEV, CW PITT, PA THOMAS, AG JAMES, GW GRIME (1993)STUDIES OF RB ION-EXCHANGED KTIOPO4 WAVE-GUIDES BY X-RAY-DIFFRACTION, SIMS, ELECTRON AND PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON WITH OPTICAL REFRACTIVE-INDEX PROFILES, In: PHYSICAL CONCEPTS AND MATERIALS FOR NOVEL OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICE APPLICATIONS II: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM1985pp. 767-773
V VALKOVIC, M JAKSIC, F WATT, GW GRIME, J WELLS, JW HOPEWELL (1993)EFFECT OF IONIZING-RADIATION ON THE TRACE-ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF HAIR, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS75(1-4)pp. 173-176
MA Garwan, MS Musazay, GW Grime (1997)mu-PIXE trace element analysis of crude oil, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS130(1-4)pp. 649-653
GW GRIME (1993)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION, In: X-RAY OPTICS AND MICROANALYSIS 1992130pp. 165-172
P Mistry, I Gomez-Morilla, GW Grime, RP Webb, R Gwilliam, A Cansell, M Merchant, KJ Kirkby, EJ Teo, MBH Breese, AA Bettiol, DJ Blackwood, F Watt (2005)New developments in the applications of proton beam writing, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS237(1-2)pp. 188-192
GW GRIME, F WATT (1988)SOFTWARE MASKING FOR THE ACCURATE DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTAL QUANTITIES IN DISCRETE AREAS OF A MICRO-PIXE SCAN, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 300-302 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
T Politis, M Abraham, P Northover, G Grime (2002)PIXE, electron microprobe data, and experimental archaeology: Tell el-Ajjul and pilot studies of gold granulation joining practices in the mediterranean bronze age, In: Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings712pp. 441-450

This paper discusses the results of a pilot study using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of gold granulated objects from the Bronze Age site of Tell el-Ajjul in Southern Palestine obtained with the Oxford University proton microprobe. Using modern granulated samples with known smithing processes as points of comparison, it is demonstrated how information on ancient joining practices may be accurately gauged. The importance of characterizing objects of known provenance is emphasized in a discussion of archaeological context. It is argued that the building of a large Mediterranean-wide database of granulation analyses can add new depths to our understanding of temporal, social, cultural and technological relationships in the past.

J Koay, GW Grime (1994)The Oxford scanning proton microprobe, In: Analytical Proceedings including Analytical Communications31(6)pp. 187-192

The Scanning proton microprobe uses a focused beam of MeV protons to give analytical information by exploiting two physical processes, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). Scanning transmission ion microscopy may also be included in the nuclear microscopy package to give imaging data. PIXE is particularly appropriate for biomedical research as signals from hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, which are the main components of a biological matrix, are not detected and therefore signals from inorganic elements with z > 10 will not be swamped by signals from the matrix. Elements with z < 10 can, however, be detected using RBS when present at higher concentrations. Apart from the biomedical field, the SPM has wide-ranging applications spanning diverse areas such as archaeology, materials science and environmental chemistry. This paper reviews the theory of ion beam analysis, the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe and outlines some of the work currently being carried out at Oxford.

W Maenhaut, R Salomonovic, J Ptasinski, GW Grime (1997)Nuclear microprobe analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples: Comparison with bulk measurements and analyses of individual particles, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS130(1-4)pp. 576-581
M Abraham, P Northover, G Grime (2000)Incorporation of laser ablation into a proton probe system to study laser ablation of corrosion products, and enhance the probe's analytical capabilities, In: JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE1PII S1296-pp. S317-S324 ELSEVIER FRANCE-EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER
PJC KING, MBH BREESE, PJM SMULDERS, AJ WILKINSON, GR BOOKER, EHC PARKER, GW GRIME (1995)EVIDENCE FROM ION CHANNELING IMAGES FOR THE ELASTIC RELAXATION OF A SI0.85GE0.15 LAYER GROWN ON A PATTERNED SI SUBSTRATE, In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS67(24)pp. 3566-3568 AMER INST PHYSICS
G GRIME, F WATT, C SUTTON (1991)MICROSCOPES WITH PROTON POWER, In: NEW SCIENTIST130(1771)pp. 32-35 NEW SCIENTIST PUBL EXPEDITING INC
JP LANDSBERG, B MCDONALD, JM ROBERTS, GW GRIME, F WATT (1991)IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF SENILE PLAQUES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(1-3)pp. 180-185
MBH Breese, PJC King, GW Grime, PJM Smulders, LE Seiberling, MA Boshart (1996)Observation of planar oscillations of MeV protons in silicon using ion channeling patterns, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B53(13)pp. 8267-8276 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
MBH BREESE, PJC KING, J WHITEHURST, GR BOOKER, GW GRIME, F WATT, LT ROMANO, EHC PARKER (1993)DISLOCATION IMAGING USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS73(6)pp. 2640-2653 AMER INST PHYSICS
PJC KING, MBH BREESE, PR WILSHAW, GW GRIME (1995)IMAGING OF DEEP DEFECTS USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS103(3)pp. 365-370 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GW Grime (2013)A compact beam focusing and steering element using quadrupoles with independently excited poles, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS306pp. 12-16 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GW GRIME, F WATT, AR DUVAL, M MENU (1991)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF INHOMOGENEOUS THICK SAMPLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(1-3)pp. 353-362
LT ROMANO, MBH BREESE, GW GRIME, F WATT (1991)CHANNELING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF Y1BA2CU3O7-DELTA SINGLE-CRYSTALS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(1-3)pp. 234-238
E Palsgard, U Lindh, GM Roomans, GW Grime (1996)Tetrahydrofuran freeze-substituted pancreas analysed by nuclear microscopy and X-ray microanalysis, In: JOURNAL OF TRACE AND MICROPROBE TECHNIQUES14(3)pp. 615-631 MARCEL DEKKER INC
M JAKSIC, GW GRIME, J HENDERSON, F WATT (1991)QUANTITATIVE PIXE ANALYSIS USING A SCANNING PROTON MICROBEAM, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(4)pp. 491-498 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
W DAVISON, GW GRIME, C WOOF (1992)CHARACTERIZATION OF LACUSTRINE IRON SULFIDE PARTICLES WITH PROTON-INDUCED X-RAY-EMISSION, In: LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY37(8)pp. 1770-1777 AMER SOC LIMNOLOGY OCEANOGRAPH
E Cereda, GMB Marcazzan, M Pedretti, GW Grime, A Baldacci (1996)Influence of the elemental composition of individual fly ash particles on the efficiency of the electrostatic precipitators, In: JOURNAL OF AEROSOL SCIENCE27(4)pp. 607-+ ELSEVIER SCI LTD
F WATT, GW GRIME, AJ BROOK, GM GADD, CC PERRY, RB PEARCE, K TURNAU, SC WATKINSON (1991)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(1-3)pp. 123-143
R Sandrik, GW Grime (1996)Analysis of Ag-Co thin film alloys using PIXE and RBS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS109pp. 576-579
DN JAMIESON, GW GRIME, F WATT, DA WILLIAMS (1989)MEV PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF SILICON ON INSULATOR STRUCTURES, In: INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES(100)pp. 87-92 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
GW GRIME, M DAWSON, M MARSH, IC MCARTHUR, F WATT (1991)THE OXFORD SUBMICRON NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY FACILITY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS54(1-3)pp. 52-63
DG de Kerckhove, MBH Breese, GW Grime (1998)An optimised beam rocking system to produce angle-resolved information from small areas, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS140(1-2)pp. 199-208 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MBH BREESE, GW GRIME, F WATT, RJ BLAIKIE (1993)ADVANCES OF NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY IN MICROELECTRONICS ANALYSIS, In: VACUUM44(3-4)pp. 175-180 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
C Jeynes, MJ Bailey, NJ Bright, ME Christopher, GW Grime, BN Jones, VV Palitsin, RP Webb (2012)"total IBA" - Where are we?, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms271pp. 107-118 Elsevier

The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information – the secret of “Total IBA” is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far “Total IBA” can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.

S Incerti, RW Smith, M Merchant, GW Grime, F Meot, L Serani, P Moretto, C Touzeau, P Barberet, C Habchi, DT Nguyen (2005)A comparison of ray-tracing software for the design of quadrupole microbeam systems, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS231pp. 76-85
LMA Purton, GA Shields, MD Brasier, GW Grime (1999)Metabolism controls Sr/Ca ratios in fossil aragonitic mollusks, In: GEOLOGY27(12)pp. 1083-1086 GEOLOGICAL SOC AMER, INC
E Cereda, GMB Marcazzan, GW Grime, F Mattachini (1996)Macroscopic and microscopic approach to the study of enrichment phenomena in the electrostatic precipitation of coal fly ash particles, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS109pp. 696-700
R Goodall, JC Moore, B Pecz, GW Grime, CJ Salter, CRM Grovenor (2001)Fabrication of cube-textured Ag-buffered Ni substrates by electro-epitaxial deposition, In: SUPERCONDUCTOR SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY14(3)pp. 124-129 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
M JAKSIC, F WATT, GW GRIME, E CEREDA, GMB MARCAZZAN, V VALKOVIC (1991)PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF THE TRACE-ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION IN FLY-ASH PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS56-7pp. 699-703
Z Smit, S Petru, G Grime, T Vidmar, M Budnar, B Zorko, M Ravnikar (1998)Usewear-induced deposition on prehistoric flint tools, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS140(1-2)pp. 209-216 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MJ Merchant, P Mistry, M Browton, AS Clough, FE Gauntlett, C Jeynes, KJ Kirkby, GW Grime (2005)Characterisation of the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre in-air scanning microbeam, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS231pp. 26-31
W DAVISON, GW GRIME, JAW MORGAN, K CLARKE (1991)DISTRIBUTION OF DISSOLVED IRON IN SEDIMENT PORE WATERS AT SUBMILLIMETER RESOLUTION, In: NATURE352(6333)pp. 323-325 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
GW Grime (1996)The ''Q factor'' method: Quantitative microPIXE analysis using RBS normalisation, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS109pp. 170-174
J Koay, RW Osborn, GW Grime, S Rees (1996)PIXE analysis of Fusarium culmorum fungus treated with chemical agents, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS109pp. 332-335
G.W. Grime, S.F. Abdul Sani, Vladimir Palitsin, A.S. Siti Shafiqah, M.J. Maah, Amjad Alyahyawi, D.A. Bradley (2019)Simultaneous microbeam IBA and beam-induced luminescence analysis of strained doped silica fibre radiation dosimeters, In: Radiation Physics and Chemistry155pp. 173-177 Elsevier

We demonstrate that the simultaneous combination of ion beam analysis (IBA) and ion beam induced luminescence (IL) can reveal valuable information concerning the performance of strained doped silica fibre thermoluminescence microdosimeters. The micron scale spatial resolution and low detection limits of IBA allow the lateral distribution of dopant elements to be mapped and then correlated with the distribution of prompt radioluminescence. Measurement of the decay of the IL signal with dose provide information concerning the saturation of the subsequent TL signal at high doses. MeV ion beams can deposit relatively high energy in localized, well-quantified small volumes and so this method is valuable for studying high dose effects in TL dosimeters. We describe a simple modification of the target chamber microscope which enables sensitive low background light detection in two wavelength bands and present preliminary results from three types of germanium doped silica fibre dosimeter.

P Mistry, I Gornez-Morilla, GW Grime, R Webb, C Jeynes, R Gwilliam, A Cansell, M Merchant, KJ Kirkby (2005)New developments on the Surrey microbeam applications to lithography, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS231pp. 428-432
MBH Breese, GW Grime, W Linford, M Harold (1999)An extended magnetic quadrupole lens for a high-resolution nuclear microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS158(1-4)pp. 48-52
SFA Sani, GW Grime, V Palitsin, GA Mahdiraji, HAA Rashid, MJ Maah, DA Bradley (2015)Micro-PIXE analysis of doped SiO2 fibres intended as TL dosimeters for radiation measurements, In: X-RAY SPECTROMETRY44(2)pp. 33-40 WILEY-BLACKWELL
L. Matjačić, V. Palitsin, G.W. Grime, N. Abdul-Karim, R.P. Webb (2019)Simultaneous molecular and elemental mapping under ambient conditions by coupling AP MeV SIMS and HIPIXE, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms450pp. 353-356 Elsevier

Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) consists of a set of analytical techniques addressing elemental composition of inorganic material normally conducted using ion beams in the MeV kinetic energy range. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ions (MeV SIMS) is the only IBA technique which can provide extensive molecular information about organic materials. MeV ions can be extracted into air hence offering the potential to apply MeV SIMS under atmospheric pressure. At the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, a fully ambient MeV SIMS setup has been developed and termed “Ambient Pressure MeV SIMS”. This AP MeV SIMS can be optimized for analysis and imaging of organic molecules. MeV SIMS relies upon electronic sputtering of the target material and this is much more efficient in insulating or organic targets, and less efficient in conducting metallic materials. PIXE, on the other hand, is efficient at providing good signals from elemental metallic systems, but does not readily provide molecular information from organics. The combination of the two techniques – preferably simultaneously with the same beam – provides useful complementary information which can readily be combined. Here we present pioneering preliminary work in simultaneous molecular and elemental imaging of a complex sample comprising of two organic species and two metallic species by combining AP MeV SIMS with Heavy Ion Particle Induced X-ray emission (HIPIXE).

SFA Sani, GA Mahdiraji, ASS Shafiqah, GW Grime, V Palitsin, SJ Hinder, N Tamchek, HAA Rashid, MJ Maah, JF Watts, DA Bradley (2015)XPS and PIXE Analysis of Doped Silica Fibre for Radiation Dosimetry, In: JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY33(11)pp. 2268-2278 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
M VAJIC, M JAKSIC, S FAZINIC, V VALKOVIC, GW GRIME, F WATT (1990)STUDIES OF TRACE-ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION AT THE COAL-ROCK INTERFACE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS49(1-4)pp. 336-339
GW GRIME, F WATT (1990)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - ELEMENTAL MAPPING USING HIGH-ENERGY ION-BEAM TECHNIQUES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS50(1-4)pp. 197-207
DN JAMIESON, LT ROMANO, GW GRIME, F WATT (1990)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - A NEW WAY OF ANALYZING MATERIALS, In: MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION25(1)pp. 3-15 ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
F WATT, GW GRIME, GD BLOWER, J TAKACS, DJT VAUX (1982)THE OXFORD 1-MU-M PROTON MICRO-PROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH197(1)pp. 65-77 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Lawrence C Carter, Ben J Williamson, Simon R Tapster, Catia Costa, GEOFFREY WILLIAM GRIME, CATIA DANIELA SANTOS COSTA, Gavyn K Rollinson (2021)Crystal mush dykes as conduits for mineralising fluids in the Yerington porphyry copper district, Nevada, In: Communications Earth & Environment259

Porphyry-type deposits are the world’s main source of copper and molybdenum and provide a large proportion of gold and other metals. However, the mechanism by which mineralising fluids are extracted from source magmas and transported upwards into the ore-forming environment is not clearly understood. Here we use field, micro-textural and geochemical techniques to investigate field relationships and samples from a circa 8 km deep cross-section through the archetypal Yerington porphyry district, Nevada. We identify an interconnected network of relatively low-temperature hydrothermal quartz that is connected to mineralised miarolitic cavities within aplite dykes. We propose that porphyry-deposit-forming fluids migrated from evolved, more water-rich internal regions of the underlying Luhr Hill granite via these aplite dykes which contained a permeable magmatic crystal mush of feldspar and quartz. The textures we describe provide petrographic evidence for the transport of fluids through crystal mush dykes. We suggest that this process should be considered in future models for the formation of porphyry- and similar-type deposits.

Kevin Pounot, Geoffrey W Grime, Alessandro Longo, Michaela Zamponi, Daria Noferini, Viviana Cristiglio, Tilo Seydel, Elspeth F Garman, Martin Weik, Vito Foderà, Giorgio Schirò (2021)Zinc determines dynamical properties and aggregation kinetics of human insulin, In: Biophysical Journal120(5)pp. 886-898 Elsevier

Protein aggregation is a widespread process leading to deleterious consequences in the organism, with amyloid aggregates being important not only in biology but also for drug design and biomaterial production. Insulin is a protein largely used in diabetes treatment, and its amyloid aggregation is at the basis of the so-called insulin-derived amyloidosis. Here, we uncover the major role of zinc in both insulin dynamics and aggregation kinetics at low pH, in which the formation of different amyloid superstructures (fibrils and spherulites) can be thermally induced. Amyloid aggregation is accompanied by zinc release and the suppression of water-sustained insulin dynamics, as shown by particle-induced x-ray emission and x-ray absorption spectroscopy and by neutron spectroscopy, respectively. Our study shows that zinc binding stabilizes the native form of insulin by facilitating hydration of this hydrophobic protein and suggests that introducing new binding sites for zinc can improve insulin stability and tune its aggregation propensity.

CC PERRY, S MANN, RJP WILLIAMS, F WATT, GW GRIME, J TAKACS (1984)A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE STUDY OF MACROHAIRS FROM THE LEMMA OF THE GRASS PHALARIS-CANARIENSIS L, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES222(1229)pp. 439-+
GW Grime, E Guttmann-Bond (2011)The identification of plaggen soils using external beam microPIXE analysis, In: X-Ray Spectrometry40(3)pp. 210-214
F WATT, GW GRIME, J TAKACS, DJT VAUX (1984)THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE - A MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATION, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS3(1-3)pp. 599-605 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
DG de Kerckhove, MBH Breese, AJ Wilkinson, GW Grime (1998)Detection of small lattice strains using beam rocking on a nuclear microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 1240-1243
GW GRIME, J TAKACS, F WATT (1984)A WIDE AREA SCANNING SYSTEM FOR THE OXFORD PROTON MICROPROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS3(1-3)pp. 589-593 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
HD REISS, GW GRIME, MQ LI, J TAKACS, F WATT (1985)DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS IN THE LILY POLLEN-TUBE TIP, DETERMINED WITH THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: PROTOPLASMA126(1-2)pp. 147-152 SPRINGER-VERLAG WIEN
MJ Merchant, V Palitsin, GW Grime (2009)The use of the Wien filter to eliminate object slit scattering in MeV ion nanobeam systems, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS267(12-13)pp. 2021-2023
DG FRASER, F WATT, GW GRIME, J TAKACS (1984)DIRECT DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM ENRICHMENT ON GRAIN-BOUNDARIES IN A GARNET LHERZOLITE XENOLITH BY PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS, In: NATURE312(5992)pp. 352-354 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
DJT VAUX, F WATT, GW GRIME, J TAKACS (1985)HEPATIC COPPER DISTRIBUTION IN PRIMARY BILIARY-CIRRHOSIS SHOWN BY THE SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY38(6)pp. 653-658 BRITISH MED JOURNAL PUBL GROUP
MJ Merchant, GW Grime, KJ Kirkby, R Webb (2007)A survey of two-stage focusing systems for nanobeam design, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 8-14
EB ILGREN, DJT VAUX, F WATT, GW GRIME, J TAKACS (1984)ELEMENTAL MAPPING OF HUMAN NERVOUS-TISSUE USING THE SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS12(1)pp. 25-28 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GW GRIME, F WATT, J CHAPMAN (1987)SUBMICRON ELEMENTAL MAPPING WITH THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS22(1-3)pp. 109-114 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
M Abraham, P Northover, G Grime (2002)The incorporation of laser ablation for sampling into a proton x-ray emission system, In: MATERIALS ISSUES IN ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY VI712pp. 101-112
GW GRIME, F WATT, S MANN, CC PERRY, J WEBB, RJP WILLIAMS (1985)BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: TRENDS IN BIOCHEMICAL SCIENCES10(1)pp. 6-10 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
LMA Purton, GA Shields, MD Brasier, GW Grime (1999)Metabolism controls Sr/Cr ratios in tossil aragonitic mollusks, In: Geology27(12)pp. 1083-1086

Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in biomineral CaCO3 have recently been regarded as more reliable than δ18O values as proxy for paleotemperature because they are less affected by salinity or polar ice volume. We argue, however, that vital effects can exert a greater control than paleotemperature over fossil Sr/Ca. Seasonal perturbations in isotopic data from the Eocene bivalve Venericardia planicosta reveal a gradually decreasing annual growth rate through ontogeny. High-resolution Sr/Ca ratios, analyzed with a new proton-microbe technique, increase markedly through ontogeny, however, suggesting that more Sr was incorporated as growth rate slowed rather than as a result of changing paleotemperature. Comparative δ18O and Sr/Ca data from the broadly coeval marine gastropod Clavilithes macrospira, which exhibits a linear growth rate through ontogeny, also shows a significant increase in Sr concentration with age as well as seasonal, possibly temperature-related variations. Our observations show that neither growth, calcification rate, nor temperature can be the sole factor controlling Sr incorporation into molluscan aragonite. Metabolic activity, related to factors such as temperature, salinity, age, and growth rate, is likely to exert the primary control over Sr/Ca ratios in aragonitic mollusks.

M Abraham, I Gomez-Morilla, M Marsh, G Grime (2003)Proton induced structuring of a photostructurable glass, In: THREE-DIMENSIONAL NANOENGINEERED ASSEMBLIES739pp. 13-18
P Mistry, I Gomez-Morilla, RC Smith, D Thomson, GW Grime, RP Webb, R Gwilliam, C Jeynes, A Cansell, M Merchant, KJ Kirkby (2007)Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 437-441
KJ Kirkby, GW Grime, RP Webb, NF Kirkby, M Folkard, K Prise, B Vojnovic (2007)A scanning focussed vertical ion nanobeam: A new UK facility for cell irradiation and analysis, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 97-100
AJ Morgan, SR Sturzenbaum, C Winters, GW Grime, NA Abd Aziz, P Kille (2004)Differential metallothionein expression in earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) tissues, In: ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY57(1)pp. 11-19
KJ Kirkby, GW Grime, RP Webb, NF Kirkby, M Folkard, K Prise, B Vojnovic (2006)A scanning focused vertical ion nanobeam: A new UK facility for cell irradiation and analysis, In: RADIATION RESEARCH166(4)pp. 654-655
JL Campbell, JA Babaluk, M Cooper, GW Grime, NM Halden, Z Nejedly, I Rajta, JD Reist (2002)Strontium distribution in young-of-the-year Dolly Varden otoliths: Potential for stock discrimination, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS189pp. 185-189
PMM Rombouts, I Gomez-Morilla, GW Grime, RP Webb, L Cuenca, R Rodriguez, M Browton, N Wardell, B Underwood, NF Kirkby, KJ Kirkby (2007)A microPIXE investigation of the interaction of cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with the culture medium, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 231-235
JH Brothers, GW Grime, CP Swann (2002)Albemarle Iron Works (1771-1772): Why did this operation fail?, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS189pp. 340-343
M Folkard, KM Prise, B Vojnovic, G Grime, KJ Kirkby (2009)The use of Microbeams to Investigate Radiation Damage in Living Cells, In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes67pp. 436-439
I Gomez-Morilla, CJ Sofield, GW Grime, R Gwilliam (2005)Rapid deep micromachining of polytetrafluoroethylene by MeV icon bombardment in oxygen-rich atmospheres, In: JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING15(4)pp. 698-701 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
GW GRIME, M DAWSON (1995)RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN DATA-ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING ON THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS104(1-4)pp. 107-113
LJ Szewciw, DG de Kerckhove, GW Grime, DS Fudge (2010)Calcification provides mechanical reinforcement to whale baleen alpha-keratin, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES277(1694)pp. 2597-2605 ROYAL SOC
I Gomez-Morilla, MH Abraham, DG de Kerckhove, GW Grime (2005)Micropatterning of Foturan photosensitive glass following exposure to MeV proton beams, In: JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING15(4)pp. 706-709 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
S Al-Shehri, Vladimir Palitsin, Roger Webb, Geoffrey Grime (2015)Fabrication of three-dimensional SU-8 microchannels by proton beam writing for microfluidics applications: Fluid flow characterisation, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms348pp. 223-228

The proton beam writing (PBW) technique was used to fabricate microfluidic structures in SU-8 resist. A network of the buried channels was fabricated as part of a project to develop functional microfluidic device for neuronal studies and self-powered microfluidics. Protons with energies between 2.5 MeV and 0.75 MeV were used to fabricate the buried channels with a minimum feature size of around 1 μm and depths of 40–55 μm. Roughness of channels sidewalls was around 2.5 nm rms. Exposure regime and examples of functional networks fabricated using PBW are described. COMSOL Multiphysics® software was used to model the flow characteristics of fluid in the SU-8 microchannels structured by PBW. The results obtained using PBW are compared with the structures fabricated by UV-lithography.

O Enguita, MT Fernandez-Jimenez, G Garcia, A Climent-Font, T Calderon, GW Grime (2004)The new external microbeam facility at the 5 MV Tandetron accelerator laboratory in Madrid: beam characterisation and first results, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS219pp. 384-388
GW Grime, CJ Sofield, I Gomez-Morilla, R Gwilliam, MD Ynsa, O Enguita (2005)Rapid direct micromachining of PTFE using MeV ions in an oxygen rich atmosphere, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS231pp. 378-383
MBH BREESE, F WATT, GW GRIME, PJC KING (1991)PROTON MICROSCOPY OF A MICROCIRCUIT LAYER STRUCTURE, In: MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 1991117pp. 101-104
MBH BREESE, JP LANDSBERG, PJC KING, GW GRIME, F WATT (1992)APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-TRANSMISSION ION MICROSCOPY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS64(1-4)pp. 505-511
JJ Powell, E Thomas-McKay, V Thoree, J Robertson, RE Hewitt, JN Skepper, A Brown, J Carlos Hernandez-Garrido, PA Midgley, I Gomez-Morilla, GW Grime, KJ Kirkby, NA Mabbott, DS Donaldson, IR Williams, D Rios, SE Girardin, CT Haas, SFA Bruggraber, JD Laman, Y Tanriver, G Lombardi, R Lechler, RPH Thompson, LC Pele (2015)An endogenous nanomineral chaperones luminal antigen and peptidoglycan to intestinal immune cells, In: Nature Nanotechnology10(4)pp. 361-369 NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
JA TEMLETT, JP LANDSBERG, F WATT, GW GRIME (1994)INCREASED IRON IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA COMPACTA OF THE MPTP-LESIONED HEMIPARKINSONIAN AFRICAN-GREEN MONKEY - EVIDENCE FROM PROTON MICROPROBE ELEMENTAL MICROANALYSIS, In: JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY62(1)pp. 134-146 LIPPINCOTT-RAVEN PUBL
T Pinheiro, LC Alves, AB de Almeida, MJ Palhano, E Palsgard, GW Grime (1999)Airborne particulate matter localisation in the human respiratory system, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS158(1-4)pp. 499-504
W DAVISON, H ZHANG, GW GRIME (1994)PERFORMANCE-CHARACTERISTICS OF GEL PROBES USED FOR MEASURING THE CHEMISTRY OF PORE WATERS, In: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY28(9)pp. 1623-1632 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Z Smit, GW Grime, S Petru, I Rajta (1999)Microdistribution and composition of usewear polish on prehistoric stone tools, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS150(1-4)pp. 565-570
P Mistry, I Gomez-Morilla, GW Grime, R Webb, C Jeynes, R Gwilliarn, A Cansell, M Merchant, KJ Kirkby (2006)Proton beam lithography at the University of Surrey's Ion Beam Centre, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS242(1-2)pp. 387-389
MBH BREESE, PJC KING, LT ROMANO, GW GRIME, F WATT (1991)THE CALCULATION OF PIXE MINIMUM YIELDS USING RBS CHANNELING, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS62(1)pp. 133-138 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MBH BREESE, LT ROMANO, CJ SALTER, GW GRIME, F WATT (1992)DETERMINATION OF SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2ND PHASES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH7(9)pp. 2373-2378 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
MBH BREESE, GW GRIME, F WATT (1992)THE NUCLEAR MICROPROBE, In: ANNUAL REVIEW OF NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE SCIENCE42pp. 1-38 ANNUAL REVIEWS INC
PJC KING, MBH BREESE, PJM SMULDERS, PR WILSHAW, GW GRIME (1995)OBSERVATION OF A BLOCKING TO CHANNELING TRANSITION FOR MEV PROTONS AT STACKING-FAULTS IN SILICON, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS74(3)pp. 411-414 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
GR Fones, W Davison, GW Grime (1998)Development of constrained DET for measurements of dissolved iron in surface sediments at sub-mm resolution, In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT221(2-3)pp. 127-137 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
DG de Kerckhove, MBH Breese, MA Marsh, GW Grime (1998)Maskless fabrication of 3-dimensional microstructures in PMMA using a nuclear microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 379-384
I Rajta, GW Grime, Z Kertesz, I Borbely-Kiss, E Koltay (1998)Characterisation of single aerosol particles from Debrecen region, Hungary using microPIXE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 324-328
I BOGDANOVIC, S FAZINIC, M JAKSIC, GW GRIME, V VALKOVIC (1994)USE OF STIM IN THE PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS85(1-4)pp. 732-735
MBH BREESE, PJC KING, GW GRIME (1994)SENSITIVITY OF ION-INDUCED CHARGE PULSES TO THE ELECTRICAL AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES OF 60-DEGREES DISLOCATIONS, In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS65(25)pp. 3227-3229 AMER INST PHYSICS
MBH BREESE, PJC KING, GW GRIME, F WATT (1992)MICROCIRCUIT IMAGING USING AN ION-BEAM-INDUCED CHARGE, In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS72(6)pp. 2097-2104 AMER INST PHYSICS
GW Grime (2010)High Energy Ion Beam Analysispp. 844-853

The use of high energy ion beams (mainly of protons or alpha particles) for chemical analysis is described. The equipment necessary for achieving this is summarized. The main detection systems are proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). © 1999 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

MH Abraham, GW Grime, JP Northover, CW Smith (1999)PIXE and RES as a tool for the analysis of historic copper halfpennies, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS150(1-4)pp. 651-655
H TAMANA, A CRIDDLE, G GRIME, D VAUGHAN, J SPRATT (1994)TRACE-ELEMENTS IN PLATINUM-GROUP MINERALS STUDIED USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS89(1-4)pp. 213-218
MBH BREESE, GW GRIME, F WATT, D WILLIAMS (1993)MEV ION-BEAM LITHOGRAPHY OF PMMA, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 169-174
PJC King, MBH Breese, PJM Smulders, PR Wilshaw, GW Grime (1996)Defect imaging and channeling studies using channeling scanning transmission ion microscopy, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS118(1-4)pp. 426-430
LT ROMANO, MBH BREESE, DN JAMIESON, C CHEN, GW GRIME, F WATT (1991)ATOMIC POSITION OF FE IN YBA2(CU1-XFEX)3O7-Y USING ION CHANNELING, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B44(13)pp. 6927-6931 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
EF Garman, GW Grime (2005)Elemental analysis of proteins by microPIXE, In: PROGRESS IN BIOPHYSICS & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY89(2)pp. 173-205 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Geoffrey Grime (2011)Editorial, In: X-Ray Spectrometry40(3)pp. 119-121

The 12th International Conference on Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and its Analytical Applications was held on the campus of the University of Surrey in Guildford, U.K. between 29 th June and 2nd July 2010. The PIXE conferences have been held at approximately three year intervals since the mid 1970s and have reflected the development of the PIXE technique and its expanding range of applications. This special issue of X-Ray Spectrometry contains papers based on conference contributions which have been selected to represent the latest developments in PIXE and its applications.

MBH BREESE, PJC KING, GW GRIME (1993)DISLOCATION IMAGING USING ION-BEAM-INDUCED CHARGE, In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS62(25)pp. 3309-3311 AMER INST PHYSICS
GW GRIME, JT TRIFFITT, MC WILLIAMSON, NA ATHANASOU (1994)NUCLEAR MICROBEAM ANALYSIS OF WEAR PARTICLES IN TISSUE SURROUNDING FAILED HIP-JOINT IMPLANTS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS89(1-4)pp. 145-148
U Kramer, GW Grime, JAC Smith, CR Hawes, AJM Baker (1997)Micro-PIXE as a technique for studying nickel localization in leaves of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS130(1-4)pp. 346-350
GW GRIME, M DAWSON (1994)A PC-BASED DATA-ACQUISITION PACKAGE FOR NUCLEAR MICROBEAM SYSTEMS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS89(1-4)pp. 223-228
GW Grime (2010)Proton Microprobe (Method and Background)pp. 2296-2300

The principles of proton microprobe analysis are outlined and compared to electron beam analysis. Sample preparation methods are summarized, and the types of suitable sample are enumerated. The information that can be achieved from the analysis in terms of elemental composition and images is also described. © 1999 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

DG de Kerckhove, MBH Breese, DN Jamieson, GW Grime (1999)Characterisation of lens aberrations and parasitic fields using beam rocking, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS158(1-4)pp. 81-84
U Watjen, I Barsony, GW Grime, I Rajta (1999)On the interpretation of micro-PIXE measurements on a prototype microstructured reference material, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS150(1-4)pp. 532-537
DN JAMIESON, GW GRIME, F WATT, DA WILLIAMS (1989)MEV PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF SILICON ON INSULATOR STRUCTURES, In: MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 1989100pp. 87-92
PJC King, MBH Breese, D Meekeson, PJM Smulders, PR Wilshaw, GW Grime (1996)Imaging of the strain field around precipitate particles using transmission ion channeling, In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS80(5)pp. 2671-2679 AMER INST PHYSICS
LC Alves, E Alves, GW Grime, MF da Silva, JC Soares (1999)Nuclear microbeam study of advanced materials for fusion reactor technology, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS158(1-4)pp. 671-677
E Palsgard, C Johansson, G Li, GW Grime, JT Triffitt (1997)Bone growth and bone development in the presence of implants or after induced leg-lengthening studied using the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS130(1-4)pp. 431-438
GW GRIME (1993)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY - A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION, In: INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES(130)pp. 165-172 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
ID GOURLAY, GW GRIME (1994)CALCIUM-OXALATE CRYSTALS IN AFRICAN ACACIA SPECIES AND THEIR ANALYSIS BY SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE (SPM), In: IAWA JOURNAL15(2)pp. 137-148 INT ASSOC WOOD ANATOMISTS
E Palsgard, M Ugarte, I Rajta, GW Grime (2001)The role of zinc in the dark-adapted retina studied directly using microPIXE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 489-492
M CHRISTENSEN, G GRIME, M MENU, P WALTER (1993)USEWEAR STUDIES OF FLINT TOOLS WITH MICROPIXE AND MICRORBS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 530-536
PJC KING, MBH BREESE, PR WILSHAW, PJM SMULDERS, GW GRIME (1995)TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING IMAGES OF CRYSTAL DEFECTS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS99(1-4)pp. 419-422
DJT VAUX, GW GRIME, F WATT (1987)SOME MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE, In: BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH13pp. 115-133 HUMANA PRESS INC
E CEREDA, GMB MARCAZZAN, M PEDRETTI, GW GRIME, A BALDACCI (1995)THE MICROSCOPIC NATURE OF COAL FLY-ASH PARTICLES INVESTIGATED BY MEANS OF NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT29(17)pp. 2323-2329 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
A T Kearsley, J L Colaux, D K Ross, P J Wozniakiewicz, L Gerlach, P Anz-Meador, T Griffin, B Reed, J Opiela, V V Palitsin, G W Grime, R P Webb, C Jeynes, J Spratt, T Salge, M J Cole, M C Price, M J Burchell (2017)Hypervelocity impact in low earth orbit: finding subtle impactor signatures on the Hubble Space Telescope, In: Procedia Engineering204pp. 492-499 Elsevier

Return of materials from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during shuttle orbiter service missions has allowed inspection of large numbers of hypervelocity impact features from long exposure at about 615 km altitude in low Earth orbit (LEO) [1,2]. Here we describe the application of advanced X-ray microanalysis techniques on scanning electron microscopes (SEM), microprobes and a 2 MV Tandetron, to nearly 400 impacts on the painted metal surface of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) radiator shield [3,4]. We identified artificial Orbital Debris (OD) and natural Micrometeoroid (MM) origins for small [5] and even for larger particles [6], which usually may leave little or no detectable trace on HST solar arrays, as they penetrate through the full cell thickness [2,7].

PJC KING, MBH BREESE, PR WILSHAW, GW GRIME (1995)STACKING-FAULT IMAGING USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B51(5)pp. 2732-2741 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC
GW Grime, MH Abraham, MA Marsh (2001)The new external beam facility of the Oxford scanning proton microprobe, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 66-70
JC Jeynes, MJ Merchant, L Barazzuol, M Barry, D Guest, VV Palitsin, GW Grime, ID Tullis, PR Barber, B Vojnovic, KJ Kirkby (2013)"Broadbeam" irradiation of mammalian cells using a vertical microbeam facility., In: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics52(4)pp. 513-521 Springer Berlin Heidelberg

A "broadbeam" facility is demonstrated for the vertical microbeam at Surrey's Ion Beam Centre, validating the new technique used by Barazzuol et al. (Radiat Res 177:651-662, 2012). Here, droplets with a diameter of about 4 mm of 15,000 mammalian cells in suspension were pipetted onto defined locations on a 42-mm-diameter cell dish with each droplet individually irradiated in "broadbeam" mode with 2 MeV protons and 4 MeV alpha particles and assayed for clonogenicity. This method enables multiple experimental data points to be rapidly collected from the same cell dish. Initially, the Surrey vertical beamline was designed for the targeted irradiation of single cells with single counted ions. Here, the benefits of both targeted single-cell and broadbeam irradiations being available at the same facility are discussed: in particular, high-throughput cell irradiation experiments can be conducted on the same system as time-intensive focused-beam experiments with the added benefits of fluorescent microscopy, cell recognition and time-lapse capabilities. The limitations of the system based on a 2 MV tandem accelerator are also discussed, including the uncertainties associated with particle Poisson counting statistics, spread of linear energy transfer in the nucleus and a timed dose delivery. These uncertainties are calculated with Monte Carlo methods. An analysis of how this uncertainty affects relative biological effect measurements is made and discussed.

RA WOGELIUS, K REFSON, DG FRASER, GW GRIME, JP GOFF (1995)PERICLASE SURFACE HYDROXYLATION DURING DISSOLUTION, In: GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA59(9)pp. 1875-1881 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
P KING, M BREESE, P WILSHAW, G BOOKER, G GRIME (1994)CRYSTAL DEFECT IMAGING USING TRANSMISSION ION CHANNELING, In: ANNALES DE CHIMIE-SCIENCE DES MATERIAUX19(5-6)pp. 257-267 MASSON EDITEUR
DL Graham, PN Lowe, GW Grime, M Marsh, K Rittinger, SJ Smerdon, SJ Gamblin, JF Eccleston (2002)MgF3- as a transition state analog of phosphoryl transfer, In: CHEMISTRY & BIOLOGY9(3)PII S1074-pp. 375-381 CELL PRESS
G.W. Grime, S. Al-Shehri, V. Palitsin (2019)A simple edge-following scanning algorithm for proton beam writing and other direct-write lithographies, In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering29(3)

The quality of the structures fabricated using proton beam writing (PBW) and other direct-write microfabrication methods is strongly influenced by the path followed by the writing beam during the exposure. In particular, it is necessary to avoid paths in which the beam makes large jumps or changes in direction close to the edges of the structure, and ideally the scan path should follow the outline of the pattern to be exposed (sometimes referred to as turtle scanning). While this is relatively easy to implement when the patterns to be created can be built up from simple geometric shapes (circles, rectangles, etc), it has not been possible to do this in the case of arbitrarily complex images, at least using software available to the PBW community. This paper describes a simple edge-following algorithm (EFA) which uses a method of spiral searching around each pixel to determine a scan path which not only optimizes the conformity of the scan path to the edges of the required pattern, but also minimizes jumps (and hence blanking time) and scan reversals which can cause artefacts due to scanning system transients. The EFA operates on a 1-bit BMP format input image file and has been implemented in the OMDAQ-3 software package (Oxford Microbeams Ltd). The paper is illustrated with examples of complex structures written using the EFA at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre which demonstrate enhanced edge smoothness compared with simple blanked raster scanning.

GW GRIME, F WATT (1993)A SURVEY OF RECENT PIXE APPLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOMETRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES USING THE OXFORD SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE FACILITY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS75(1-4)pp. 495-503
KJ REESON, CJ STANLEY, C JEYNES, G GRIME, F WATT (1990)PIXE ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE TRACE-ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN A SERIES OF GALENA (PBS) SPECIMENS FROM DIFFERENT LOCALITIES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS45(1-4)pp. 327-332
MBH BREESE, GW GRIME, F WATT (1993)THE USE OF PIXE AND STIM IN MICROELECTRONICS ANALYSIS, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS75(1-4)pp. 341-346
S Incerti, Q Zhang, F Andersson, P Moretto, GW Grime, MJ Merchant, DT Nguyen, C Habchi, T Pouthier, H Seznec (2007)Monte Carlo simulation of the CENBG microbeam and nanobeam lines with the Geant4 toolkit, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 20-27
A CARIDI, E CEREDA, GW GRIME, M JAKSIC, GMB MARCAZZAN, V VALKOVIC, F WATT (1993)APPLICATION OF PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS TO THE STUDY OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION OF SINGLE FLY-ASH PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 524-529
MAO Salamanca, FJ Ager, MD Ynsa, BMG Tubio, MA Respaldiza, JG Lopez, F Fernandez-Gomez, ML de la Bandera, GW Grime (2001)External microbeam set-up at the CNA (Sevilla) and its application to the study of Tartesic jewellery, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 664-669
P ARTAXO, MLC RABELLO, F WATT, G GRIME, E SWIETLICKI (1993)NUCLEAR MICROPROBE ANALYSIS AND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF INDIVIDUAL ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL-PARTICLES, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS75(1-4)pp. 521-525
M JAKSIC, J KRMPOTIC-NEMANIC, F WATT, GW GRIME, V VALKOVIC (1988)TRACE-METAL ENRICHMENT ON THE SURFACE OF THE NASAL-SEPTUM BONE, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 417-419 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
NP HUGHES, CC PERRY, RJP WILLIAMS, F WATT, GW GRIME (1988)A SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE STUDY OF STINGING EMERGENCES FROM THE LEAF OF THE COMMON STINGING NETTLE URTICA-DIOICA L, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 383-387 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
E CEREDA, GMB MARCAZZAN, M PEDRETTI, GW GRIME, A BALDACCI (1995)NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY FOR THE STUDY OF COAL COMBUSTION RELATED PHENOMENA, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS99(1-4)pp. 414-418
TA ELLIOTT, GW GRIME (1993)EXAMINING THE DIAGENETIC ALTERATION OF HUMAN BONE MATERIAL FROM A RANGE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL BURIAL SITES USING NUCLEAR MICROSCOPY, In: NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS77(1-4)pp. 537-547