Research interests




Godolphin JD (2019) Construction of Row-Column Factorial Designs, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B 

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Godolphin Janet (2017) Designs with Blocks of Size Two and Applications to Microarray Experiments, Annals of Statistics 46 (6A) pp. 2775-2805

DOI: 10.1214/17-AOS1638

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Godolphin JD (2015) A Link between the E-value and the Robustness of Block Designs, Journal of the American Statistical Association 

DOI: 10.1080/01621459.2015.1114949

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DAVID ARTHUR FAUX, JANET DIANA GODOLPHIN (2021)The floating point: Rounding error in timing devices, In: American Journal of Physics89(8)815pp. 815-816 American Association of Physics Teachers

A recent article by Faux and Godolphin explored issues of floating-point error in situations relevant to classical dynamics, numerical integration, cellular automata, statistical analysis, and digital timing. Examples were given that were suitable for discussion and student project work. One of the examples explored the properties of an algorithm, described in an IBM Knowledge Center document designed to convert a binary field representing the number of counts of a quartz oscillator to integers for digital display. In Ref. 1 it was demonstrated that the algorithm was vulnerable to rounding error resulting in an incorrect digital display. Investigation associated with this example form the focus of this note. The timing simulation results presented in Ref. 1 suggested that uncorrected rounding error in stopwatch timer displays could be impactful if used for precision timing, such as for race times or in experimental physics. Here we present and analyse race times obtained from swimming competitions. The data give a clear demonstration of anomalous stopwatch timing patterns, which can only be explained by rounding error. It is also shown that such rounding error can result in a set of times being wrongly ordered. In the context of a sporting event this could lead to the incorrect ranking of athletes and hence the incorrect awarding of race positions. As a spin off of Ref. 1, this note may be of interest to educators, with the results providing a resource for discussion and the approach providing a template for additional student projects.

David A Faux, Janet D Godolphin (2020)On the Fair Management of Close Races in Swimming, In: The journal of swimming research27(1) American Swimming Coaches Association

The sport of swimming faces particular problems of adjudication for close races. Swimming cannot benefit from technology in the same way as athletics and other sports in which photo finishes and visual differentiation is used to determine ranking. Swimming at the highest level relies almost entirely on the electronic timing system and displayed race times, presented to the nearest 0.01s, to determine the ranking of swimmers and to establish if a dead heat has occurred. At swimming events, electronic timing equipment records individual race times to 0.0001s. However, it is shown that any protocol used to display race times to the nearest 0.01s leads to unfairness in the categorization of a race as a dead heat. The key issues are discussed in the context of the controversial Michael Phelps and Milorad Ĉavić 100m butterfly event at the 2008 Beijing Games. An alternative approach for the categorization of a dead heat is proposed which is fairer to swimmers.

Erika J. Villedieu, Audrey Petite, Janet Godolphin, Nick Bacon (2020)Prevalence of pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastasis at presentation in dogs with cutaneous or subcutaneous soft tissue sarcoma, In: JAVMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION AMER VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOC

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pulmonary nodules at presentation in cases of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in dogs with no previous thoracic imaging. Animals: Client-owned dogs with a histologic diagnosis of STS. Procedures: Dogs were retrospectively included in this study if the first thoracic imaging performed was at the time of presentation to our referral center. De novo and recurrent tumors were included, and information regarding tumor grade, history (primary mass vs scar vs recurrence), duration, location and size was also collected. Results: One hundred and forty-six dogs were included. Routine staging was performed with computed tomography (131 dogs, 89.7%) or 3-view thoracic radiographs (15 dogs, 10.3%). STS were grade 1 in 55.5% of dogs, grade 2 in 27.4% and grade 3 in 17.1%. Pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastasis were present in 11.7% of cases overall and in 6.5%, 5.6% and 37.5% of grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3 STS cases, respectively. Tumor grade (low/intermediate versus high) and tumor duration ( 3 months) were significantly associated with presence of pulmonary nodules at presentation. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: This is the first large study reporting prevalence of pulmonary nodules at presentation in dogs with STS having had no previous thoracic imaging. The prevalence of pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastasis at presentation is low (

Edward Godolphin, JD Godolphin (2007)A note on the information matrix for multiplicative seasonal autoregressive moving-average models, In: JOURNAL OF TIME SERIES ANALYSIS28(5)pp. 783-791 BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
Andrea Galliano, Ivan A Kalmukov, JANET DIANA GODOLPHIN, Rui Ferreira, Daisy J Norgate, NICHOLAS JAMES BACON (2022)Intraoperative cell salvaging: ex vivo evaluation of two swab washing methods, In: American journal of veterinary research83(10) AVMA

OBJECTIVE To compare erythrocyte recovery by a cell salvage device between swab-washing by manual agitation or filtration. SAMPLE 12 recently expired units of canine packed RBCs. PROCEDURE The packed RBC units underwent quality analysis before donation from a pet blood bank. Each unit was volume-expanded with anticoagulant and subsequently divided into 2 equal aliquots used to soak surgical swabs before washing. Two different swab-washing techniques were evaluated—standard swab-washing–manual agitation (SW-MA) and swab-washing–filtration (SW-F)—with a novel prototype device. The resulting bloody fluid was processed using the Cell Saver Elite Autotransfusion System (Haemonetics). The volume, manual PCV, CBC, and RBC mass, calculated as the product of the volume and PCV, were measured before and after salvaging. Last, the RBC mass recovery was recorded as a percentage. RESULTS The RBC mass recovered from SW-MA and SW-F averaged 85.73% and 83.99%, respectively. There was no significant difference in RBC recovery between the 2 methods (P = .52). CLINICAL RELEVANCE SW-MA and SW-F recovered a similar quantity of RBCs from blood-soaked swabs in an ex vivo setting.

JD Godolphin, EJ Godolphin (2015)The robustness of resolvable block designs against the loss of whole blocks or replicates, In: Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference163pp. 34-42 Elsevier

This paper considers the robustness of resolvable incomplete block designs in the event of two patterns of missing observations: loss of whole blocks and loss of whole replicates. The approach used to assess designs is based on the concept of block intersection which exploits the resolvability property of the design. This improves on methods using minimal treatment concurrence which have been used previously. It is shown that several classes of designs, including affine resolvable designs, square and rectangular lattice designs and two-category concurrence α-designs and αn-designs, are maximally robust; some of these classes of designs are also shown to be most replicate robust.

JD Godolphin, EJ Godolphin (2015)The Use of Treatment Concurrences to Assess Robustness of Binary Block Designs Against the Loss of Whole Blocks, In: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics57(2)pp. 225-239 Wiley

© 2015 Australian Statistical Publishing Association Inc. Criteria are proposed for assessing the robustness of a binary block design against the loss of whole blocks, based on summing entries of selected upper non-principal sections of the concurrence matrix. These criteria improve on the minimal concurrence concept that has been used previously and provide new conditions for measuring the robustness status of a design. The robustness properties of two-associate partially balanced designs are considered and it is shown that two categories of group divisible designs are maximally robust. These results expand a classic result in the literature, obtained by Ghosh, which established maximal robustness for the class of balanced block designs.

JD Godolphin, HR Warren (2014)An efficient procedure for the avoidance of disconnected incomplete block designs, In: Computational Statistics and Data Analysis71pp. 1134-1146 Elsevier

Knowledge of the cardinality and the number of minimal rank reducing observation sets in experimental design is important information which makes a useful contribution to the statistician's tool-kit to assist in the selection of incomplete block designs. Its prime function is to guard against choosing a design that is likely to be altered to a disconnected eventual design if observations are lost during the course of the experiment. A method is given for identifying these observation sets based on the concept of treatment separation, which is a natural approach to the problem and provides a vastly more efficient computational procedure than a standard search routine for rank reducing observation sets. The properties of the method are derived and the procedure is illustrated by four applications which have been discussed previously in the literature. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Janet Godolphin (2017)Designs with Blocks of Size Two and Applications to Microarray Experiments, In: Annals of Statistics46(6A)pp. 2775-2805 Institute of Mathematical Statistics (IMS)

Designs with blocks of size two have numerous applications. In experimental situations where observation loss is common, it is im- portant for a design to be robust against breakdown. For designs with one treatment factor and a single blocking factor, with blocks of size two, conditions for connectivity and robustness are obtained using combinatorial arguments and results from graph theory. Lower bounds are given for the breakdown number in terms of design pa- rameters. For designs with equal or near equal treatment replication, the concepts of treatment and block partitions, and of linking blocks, are used to obtain information on the number of blocks required to guarantee various levels of robustness. The results provide guidance for construction of designs with good robustness properties. Robustness conditions are also established for row column designs in which one of the blocking factors involves blocks of size two. Such designs are particularly relevant for microarray experiments, where the high risk of observation loss makes robustness important. Dis- connectivity in row column designs can be classified as three types. Techniques are given to assess design robustness according to each type, leading to lower bounds for the breakdown number. Guidance is given for robust design construction. Cyclic designs and interwoven loop designs are shown to have good robustness properties.

J.D. Godolphin (2019)Two-level Factorial and Fractional Factorial Replicates in Blocks of Size Two, In: Computational Statistics and Data Analysis133pp. 120-137 Elsevier

For p two-level factors, designs comprising full replicates with runs in blocks of size two are investigated. The minimum number of replicates for estimation of all main effects and two-factor interactions is established and a construction method is developed based on replicate generators. Complete design classes are given in the minimum number of replicates for p ≤ 15. Designs in full replicates are used as root designs to obtain designs in fractional 2p‒r replicates, again to estimate main effects and two-factor interactions, and designs are recommended for p = 4; . . . ; 15. Guidance is given on design construction when only a subset of the interactions are of interest.

JD Godolphin (2004)Simple pilot procedures for the avoidance of disconnected experimental designs, In: JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY SERIES C-APPLIED STATISTICS53pp. 133-147 WILEY-BLACKWELL
J. D. Godolphin (2018)Construction of Row-Column Factorial Designs, In: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B81(2)pp. 335-360 Wiley

The arrangement of 2 n factorials in row-column designs to estimate main effects and two factor interactions is investigated. Single replicate constructions are given which enable estimation of all main effects and maximise the number of estimable two factor interactions. Constructions and guidance are given for multi-replicate designs in single arrays and in multiple arrays. Consideration is given to constructions for 2 n−t fractional factorials.

ST Bate, EJ Godolphin, JD Godolphin (2008)Choosing cross-over designs when few subjects are available, In: COMPUTATIONAL STATISTICS & DATA ANALYSIS52(3)pp. 1572-1586 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Janet Godolphin (2020)Construction of Blocked Factorial Designs to Estimate Main Effects and Selected Two-Factor Interactions, In: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B Wiley

Two-level factorial designs are widely used in industry. For experiments involving n factors, the construction of designs comprising 2n and 2n

JD Godolphin (2013)On the Connectivity Problem for m -Way Designs, In: Journal of Statistical Theory and Practice7(4)pp. 732-744

The problem of ascertaining conditions that ensure that an m-way design is connected has occupied the attention of research workers for very many years. One of the significant advances, as well as one of the earliest contributions, was provided by the classic work of J. N. Srivastava and D. A. Anderson in 1970, which gives a necessary and sufficient rank condition for an m-way design to be completely connected. In this article it is shown that the class of estimable parametric functions for an individual factor is derived directly from a simple extension of the Srivastava-Anderson result. This takes the form of a necessary and sufficient rank condition that is expressed in terms of the dimension of a segregated component of the kernel of the design matrix. The result has the interesting property that the connectivity status for all of the individual factors can be found simultaneously. Furthermore, it enables the formulation of several general results, which include the specification of conditions on designs exhibiting adjusted orthogonality. A number of examples are given to illustrate these results. © 2013 Copyright Grace Scientific Publishing, LLC.

JD Godolphin, HR Warren (2011)Improved conditions for the robustness of binary block designs against the loss of whole blocks, In: JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL PLANNING AND INFERENCE141(11)pp. 3498-3505 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
David A. Faux, Janet Godolphin (2018)Manual timing in physics experiments: error and uncertainty, In: American Journal of Physics American Association of Physics Teachers

Manual digital timing devices such as stopwatches are ubiquitous in the education sector for experimental work where automated electronic timing is unavailable or impractical. The disadvantage of manual timing is that the experimenter introduces an additional systematic error and random uncertainty to a measurement that hitherto could only be approximated and which masks useful information on uncertainty due to variations in the physical conditions of the experiment. A model for the reaction time of a timekeeper using a stopwatch for a single anticipated visual stimulus of the type encountered in physics experiments is obtained from a set of 4304 reaction times from timekeepers at swimming competitions. The reaction time is found to be well modelled by the normal distribution N (E, σ2) = N (0.11, 0.072) in units of seconds where E and σ2 are the systematic error and variance for a single time measurement. Consistency between timekeepers is shown to be very good. The reaction time for a stopwatch-operated start and stop experiment can therefore be modelled by N (0, 0.102), assuming that the average reaction time is the same in both cases. This makes a significant contribution to the uncertainty of most manually-timed measurements. This timing uncertainty can be subtracted out of the variation observed in repeat measurements in the real experiment to reveal the uncertainty solely associated with fluctuations in the physical conditions of the experiment.

Janet Godolphin (2019)Conditions for connectivity of incomplete block designs, In: Quality and Reliability Engineering International35(5)pp. 1279-1287 Wiley

In experimental situations where observation loss is common, it is important for a design to be robust against breakdown. For incomplete block designs, with one treatment factor and a single blocking factor, conditions for connectivity and robustness are developed using the concepts of treatment and block partitions, and of linking blocks. Lower bounds are given for the block breakdown number in terms of parameters of the design and its support. The results provide guidance for construction of designs with good robustness properties.

Janet Godolphin (2018)A note on the robustness of PBIBD(2)s against breakdown in the event 2 of observation loss, In: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics60(2)pp. 199-208 Wiley

Robustness against design breakdown following observation loss is investigated for Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs with two associate classes (PBIBD(2)s). New results are obtained which add to the body of knowledge on PBIBD(2)s. In particular, using an approach based on the E-value of a design, all PBIBD(2)s with triangular and Latin square association schemes are established as having optimal block breakdown number. Furthermore, for group divisible designs not covered by existing results in the literature, a sufficient condition for optimal block breakdown number establishes that all members of some design sub-classes have this property.

JD Godolphin (2006)The specification of rank reducing observation sets in experimental design, In: COMPUTATIONAL STATISTICS & DATA ANALYSIS51(3)pp. 1862-1874 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JD Godolphin (2015)A Link between the E-value and the Robustness of Block Designs, In: Journal of the American Statistical Association Taylor and Francis

Robustness of binary incomplete block designs against giving rise to a disconnected design in the event of observation loss is investigated. A link is established between the E-value of a planned design and the extent of observation loss that can be experienced whilst still guaranteeing an eventual design from which all treatment contrasts can be estimated. Patterns of missing observations covered include loss of entire blocks and loss of individual observations. Simple bounds are provided enabling practitioners to easily assess the robustness of a planned design.

Janet Diana Godolphin (2023)Impact of a cell salvage device on blood transfusions to dogs undergoing surgery at a referral veterinary hospital, In: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Wiley

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the number of homologous blood transfusions received by canine surgical patients after introducing a cell salvage device, trends in surgeries requiring blood transfusion and incidence of transfusion reactions. Study Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Single referral hospital Animals: All dogs undergoing surgery in a single center (November 2015 – February 2021). Interventions: Medical records of dogs undergoing surgical treatment, and those which received a blood transfusion, either autologous or homologous were reviewed. The surgical patients were the baseline population and the two transfusion groups were compared within this population to analyze the trends. Main results: A total of 37 and 86 dogs received autologous and homologous blood transfusions, respectively. There was an upward trend in the number of total monthly blood transfusions. No significant increase in the monthly number of homologous transfusions was observed prior to or after acquisition of the cell salvage device. There was an upward trend in total monthly surgeries, including those with higher risks of hemorrhage. Dogs receiving homologous blood transfusions had a higher incidence of clinical signs consistent with transfusion reactions (6.98%). Conclusion: The introduction of a cell salvage device demonstrated an upward trend in autologous blood transfusions. The use of a cell salvage device in hospitals with large surgical caseloads with high risk of hemorrhage may decrease the need for outsourced blood products. Use of a cell salvage device can result in a more responsible use of an increasingly scarce resource as well as decreasing the risk of a blood transfusion reaction in dogs.

DAVID ARTHUR FAUX, JANET DIANA GODOLPHIN (2021)The floating point: tales of the unexpected, In: American Journal of Physics American Association of Physics Teachers

Digital computation is central to almost all scientific endeavor and has become integral to university physics education. Students collect experimental data using digital devices, process data using spreadsheets and graphical software, and develop scientific programming skills for modeling, simulation and computational work. Issues associated with the floating-point representation of numbers are rarely explored. In this article, problems of floating point are divided into three categories: significant-figure limits, propagation of floating-point representation error, and rounding. For each category, examples are presented of unexpected ways in which the digital representation of floating-point numbers can impact the veracity of scientific results. These examples cover aspects of classical dynamics, numerical integration, cellular automata, statistical analysis, and digital timing. Suggestions are made for curriculum enhancement and project-style investigations that reinforce the issues covered at a level suitable for physics undergraduate students.

Ivan A Kalmukov, Andrea Galliano, Janet Godolphin, Rui Ferreira, Ines Cardoso, Daisy J Norgate, Nicholas J Bacon (2022)Ex vivo evaluation of a novel cell salvage device to recover canine erythrocytes, In: Veterinary surgery Wiley

Objective To determine the ability of a cell salvage device to recover canine erythrocytes by direct aspiration of diluted packed red blood cells (pRBC) and saline rinse from blood-soaked surgical swabs. Study design Experimental study. Sample population Twelve recently expired units of canine pRBC. Methods pRBC units donated from a pet blood bank (after quality analysis) were diluted with anticoagulant, divided into two equal aliquots, and subsequently harvested by direct suction (Su), or soaked into swabs, saline-rinsed and suctioned (Sw). The volume of product, manual packed cell volume (PCV), and red blood cell mass (rbcM) were measured and compared before and after salvaging. The rbcM recovery was recorded as percentage ([rbcM post salvage]/[rbcM presalvage]x100). Statistical analysis of all measured values was performed (significance p 

JD Godolphin (2006)Reducing the impact of missing values in factorial experiments arranged in blocks, In: QUALITY AND RELIABILITY ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL22(6)pp. 669-682
JD Godolphin, Edward Godolphin (2001)On the connectivity of row-column designs, In: UTILITAS MATHEMATICA60pp. 51-65 UTIL MATH PUBL INC
K Triantafyllopoulos, JD Godolphin, Edward Godolphin (2005)Process improvement in the microelectronic industry by a state space modelling, In: QUALITY AND RELIABILITY ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL21(5)pp. 465-475
JANET DIANA GODOLPHIN, Helen R. Warren (2021)Investigation into the Robustness of Balanced Incomplete Block Designs, In: Statistics and Applications19(1)pp. 467-482 Society of Statistics, Computer and Applications

A set of measures is developed which indicate the robustness of a Balanced Incomplete Block Design (BIBD) against yielding a disconnected eventual design in the event of observation loss. The measures have uses as a pilot procedure and as a tool to aid in design selection in situations in which significant observation loss is thought possible. The measures enable non-isomorphic BIBDs with the same parameters to be ranked. Investigation of a class of BIBDs suggests there is some correspondence between robustness against becoming disconnected and rankings associated with A-efficiency.

JANET DIANA GODOLPHIN, DAVID ARTHUR FAUX (2020)Assessment of the Performance of Timekeepers for Swimming Competitions, In: The journal of swimming research.(2)

In swimming competitions, race times are generally measured using full electronic timing with backup times provided by semi-manual and manual (stopwatch) timing. The official race time is taken to be the electronic time. However, the reliability of the semi-manual and manual times are important in determining swimmer performance, since either can be used as the official race time, for example, if the electronic time is missing. National swimming governing bodies oversee the training of officials. Timekeeper training includes a practical assessment of performance at manual timekeeping conducted at the poolside. No consistent test criterion is applied to this practical assessment due to the absence of robust reaction time data upon which to base a test. The recent publication of a substantial data set of timekeeper reaction times has allowed the timing characteristics of trained timekeepers to be described by means of a timing profile. Consideration of timekeeper candidates with timing profiles consistent with that of a trained timekeeper and of candidates with significantly different timing profiles enables the properties of practical timekeeping tests to be evaluated. Two tests with good properties are proposed to assess performance at manual timekeeping. Further, a test to assess performance at semi-manual timekeeping is proposed. This is an aspect of timekeeping which has no practical assessment under the current training regime.