Tomas Hodan, Daniel Barath, Jiri Matas (2020)EPOS: Estimating 6D Pose of Objects With Symmetries, In: 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)9157391pp. 11700-11709 IEEE

We present a new method for estimating the 6D pose of rigid objects with available 3D models from a single RGB input image. The method is applicable to a broad range of objects, including challenging ones with global or partial symmetries. An object is represented by compact surface fragments which allow handling symmetries in a systematic manner. Correspondences between densely sampled pixels and the fragments are predicted using an encoder-decoder network. At each pixel, the network predicts: (i) the probability of each object's presence, (ii) the probability of the fragments given the object's presence, and (iii) the precise 3D location on each fragment. A data-dependent number of corresponding 3D locations is selected per pixel, and poses of possibly multiple object instances are estimated using a robust and efficient variant of the PnP-RANSAC algorithm. In the BOP Challenge 2019, the method outperforms all RGB and most RGB-D and D methods on the T-LESS and LM-O datasets. On the YCB-V dataset, it is superior to all competitors, with a large margin over the second-best RGB method. Source code is at:

Slobodan Djukanovic, Jiri Matas, Tuomas Virtanen (2020)Robust Audio-Based Vehicle Counting in Low-to-Moderate Traffic Flow, In: 2020 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV)9304600pp. 1608-1614 IEEE

The paper presents a method for audio-based vehicle counting (VC) in low-to-moderate traffic using one-channel sound. We formulate VC as a regression problem, i.e., we predict the distance between a vehicle and the microphone. Minima of the proposed distance function correspond to vehicles passing by the microphone. V C is carried out via local minima detection in the predicted distance. We propose to set the minima detection threshold at a point where the probabilities of false positives and false negatives coincide so they statistically cancel each other in total vehicle number. The method is trained and tested on a traffic-monitoring dataset comprising 422 short, 20-second one-channel sound files with a total of 1421 vehicles passing by the microphone. Relative V C error in a traffic location not used in the training is below 2% within a wide range of detection threshold values. Experimental results show that the regression accuracy in noisy environments is improved by introducing a novel high-frequency power feature.

Milan Sulc, Lukas Picek, Jiri Matas, Thomas S. Jeppesen, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen (2020)Fungi Recognition: A Practical Use Case, In: 2020 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV)9093624pp. 2305-2313 IEEE

The paper presents a system for visual recognition of 1394 fungi species based on deep convolutional neural networks and its deployment in a citizen-science project. The system allows users to automatically identify observed specimens, while providing valuable data to biologists and computer vision researchers. The underlying classification method scored first in the FGVCx Fungi Classification Kaggle competition organized in connection with the Fine-Grained Visual Categorization (FGVC) workshop at CVPR 2018. We describe our winning submission and evaluate all technicalities that increased the recognition scores, and discuss the issues related to deployment of the system via the web- and mobile- interfaces.

Kristin Dana, Gang Hua, Stefan Roth, Dimitris Samaras, Richa Singh, Rama Chellappa, Jiri Matas, Long Quan, Mubarak Shah (2022)Message from the General and Program Chairs, In: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) Conference Proceedings2022- The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE)

Conference Title: 2022 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) Conference Start Date: 2022, June 18 Conference End Date: 2022, June 24 Conference Location: New Orleans, LA, USAWelcome to the 2022 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition in New Orleans, LA. CVPR continues to be IEEE/CVF's and PAMI-TC's premier and flagship annual meeting on computer vision, giving researchers in our community the opportunity to present their exciting advances in computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, robotics, and artificial intelligence, in theory and/or practice. With invited keynote talks, oral and poster presentations, tutorials, workshops, demos and exhibitions, as well as an amiable social setting, we have an exciting program planned for this week. Moreover, this year marks the first hybrid CVPR that you may once again join physically since the COVID-19 pandemic.

Yanlin Qian, Jani Käpylä, Joni-Kristian Kämäräinen, Samu Koskinen, Jiri Matas (2020)A Benchmark for Burst Color Constancy, In: Computer Vision – ECCV 2020 Workshopspp. 359-375 Springer International Publishing

Burst Color Constancy (CC) is a recently proposed approach that challenges the conventional single-frame color constancy. The conventional approach is to use a single frame - shot frame - to estimate the scene illumination color. In burst CC, multiple frames from the view finder sequence are used to estimate the color of the shot frame. However, there are no realistic large-scale color constancy datasets with sequence input for method evaluation. In this work, a new such CC benchmark is introduced. The benchmark comprises of (1) 600 real-world sequences recorded with a high-resolution mobile phone camera, (2) a fixed train-test split which ensures consistent evaluation, and (3) a baseline method which achieves high accuracy in the new benchmark and the dataset used in previous works. Results for more than 20 well-known color constancy methods including the recent state-of-the-arts are reported in our experiments.

Yash Patel, Tomáš Hodaň, Jiří Matas (2020)Learning Surrogates via Deep Embedding, In: Computer Vision – ECCV 2020pp. 205-221 Springer International Publishing

This paper proposes a technique for training a neural network by minimizing a surrogate loss that approximates the target evaluation metric, which may be non-differentiable. The surrogate is learned via a deep embedding where the Euclidean distance between the prediction and the ground truth corresponds to the value of the evaluation metric. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated in a post-tuning setup, where a trained model is tuned using the learned surrogate. Without a significant computational overhead and any bells and whistles, improvements are demonstrated on challenging and practical tasks of scene-text recognition and detection. In the recognition task, the model is tuned using a surrogate approximating the edit distance metric and achieves up to 39%\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$39\%$$\end{document} relative improvement in the total edit distance. In the detection task, the surrogate approximates the intersection over union metric for rotated bounding boxes and yields up to 4.25%\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$4.25\%$$\end{document} relative improvement in the F1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$F_{1}$$\end{document} score.

Lam Huynh, Phong Nguyen-Ha, Jiri Matas, Esa Rahtu, Janne Heikkilä (2020)Guiding Monocular Depth Estimation Using Depth-Attention Volume, In: Computer Vision – ECCV 2020pp. 581-597 Springer International Publishing

Recovering the scene depth from a single image is an ill-posed problem that requires additional priors, often referred to as monocular depth cues, to disambiguate different 3D interpretations. In recent works, those priors have been learned in an end-to-end manner from large datasets by using deep neural networks. In this paper, we propose guiding depth estimation to favor planar structures that are ubiquitous especially in indoor environments. This is achieved by incorporating a non-local coplanarity constraint to the network with a novel attention mechanism called depth-attention volume (DAV). Experiments on two popular indoor datasets, namely NYU-Depth-v2 and ScanNet, show that our method achieves state-of-the-art depth estimation results while using only a fraction of the number of parameters needed by the competing methods. Code is available at:

Tomáš Hodaň, Martin Sundermeyer, Bertram Drost, Yann Labbé, Eric Brachmann, Frank Michel, Carsten Rother, Jiří Matas (2020)BOP Challenge 2020 on 6D Object Localization, In: Computer Vision – ECCV 2020 Workshopspp. 577-594 Springer International Publishing

This paper presents the evaluation methodology, datasets, and results of the BOP Challenge 2020, the third in a series of public competitions organized with the goal to capture the status quo in the field of 6D object pose estimation from an RGB-D image. In 2020, to reduce the domain gap between synthetic training and real test RGB images, the participants were 350K photorealistic training images generated by BlenderProc4BOP, a new open-source and light-weight physically-based renderer (PBR) and procedural data generator. Methods based on deep neural networks have finally caught up with methods based on point pair features, which were dominating previous editions of the challenge. Although the top-performing methods rely on RGB-D image channels, strong results were achieved when only RGB channels were used at both training and test time – out of the 26 evaluated methods, the third method was trained on RGB channels of PBR and real images, while the fifth on RGB channels of PBR images only. Strong data augmentation was identified as a key component of the top-performing CosyPose method, and the photorealism of PBR images was demonstrated effective despite the augmentation. The online evaluation system stays open and is available on the project website:

Pavel Jahoda, Jan Cech, Jiri Matas (2020)Autonomous Car Chasing, In: Computer Vision – ECCV 2020 Workshopspp. 337-352 Springer International Publishing

We developed an autonomous driving system that can chase another vehicle using only images from a single RGB camera. At the core of the system is a novel dual-task convolutional neural network simultaneously performing object detection as well as coarse semantic segmentation. The system was firstly tested in CARLA simulations. We created a new challenging publicly available CARLA Car Chasing Dataset collected by manually driving the chased car. Using the dataset, we showed that the system that uses the semantic segmentation was able to chase the pursued car on average 16% longer than other versions of the system. Finally, we integrated the system into a sub-scale vehicle platform built on a high-speed RC car and demonstrated its capabilities by autonomously chasing another RC car.

L Ellis, N Dowson, J Matas, R Bowden (2007)Linear Predictors for Fast Simultaneous Modeling and Tracking, In: 2007 IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer Visionpp. 1-8 IEEE

An approach for fast tracking of arbitrary image features with no prior model and no offline learning stage is presented. Fast tracking is achieved using banks of linear displacement predictors learnt online. A multi-modal appearance model is also learnt on-the-fly that facilitates the selection of subsets of predictors suitable for prediction in the next frame. The approach is demonstrated in real-time on a number of challenging video sequences and experimentally compared to other simultaneous modeling and tracking approaches with favourable results.

K Lebeda, J Matas, R Bowden (2013)Tracking the untrackable: How to track when your object is featureless, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)7729 L(PART 2)pp. 347-359 Springer Berlin Heidelberg

We propose a novel approach to tracking objects by low-level line correspondences. In our implementation we show that this approach is usable even when tracking objects with lack of texture, exploiting situations, when feature-based trackers fails due to the aperture problem. Furthermore, we suggest an approach to failure detection and recovery to maintain long-term stability. This is achieved by remembering configurations which lead to good pose estimations and using them later for tracking corrections. We carried out experiments on several sequences of different types. The proposed tracker proves itself as competitive or superior to state-of-the-art trackers in both standard and low-textured scenes. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

Maksym Ivashechkin, Daniel Barath, Jiri Matas (2021)VSAC: Efficient and Accurate Estimator for H and F, In: 2021 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)pp. 15223-15232 IEEE

We present VSAC, a RANSAC-type robust estimator with a number of novelties. It benefits from the introduction of the concept of independent inliers that improves significantly the efficacy of the dominant plane handling and, also, allows near error-free rejection of incorrect models, without false positives. The local optimization process and its application is improved so that it is run on average only once. Further technical improvements include adaptive sequential hypothesis verification and efficient model estimation via Gaussian elimination. Experiments on four standard datasets show that VSAC is significantly faster than all its predecessors and runs on average in 1-2 ms, on a CPU. It is two orders of magnitude faster and yet as precise as MAGSAC++, the currently most accurate estimator of two-view geometry. In the repeated runs on EVD, HPatches, PhotoTourism, and Kusvod2 datasets, it never failed.

Alan Lukezic, Luka Cehovin Zajc, Tomas Vojir, Jiri Matas, Matej Kristan (2021)Performance Evaluation Methodology for Long-Term Single-Object Tracking, In: IEEE transactions on cybernetics51(12)6305pp. 6305-6318 IEEE

A long-term visual object tracking performance evaluation methodology and a benchmark are proposed. Performance measures are designed by following a long-term tracking definition to maximize the analysis probing strength. The new measures outperform existing ones in interpretation potential and in better distinguishing between different tracking behaviors. We show that these measures generalize the short-term performance measures, thus linking the two tracking problems. Furthermore, the new measures are highly robust to temporal annotation sparsity and allow annotation of sequences hundreds of times longer than in the current datasets without increasing manual annotation labor. A new challenging dataset of carefully selected sequences with many target disappearances is proposed. A new tracking taxonomy is proposed to position trackers on the short-term/long-term spectrum. The benchmark contains an extensive evaluation of the largest number of long-term trackers and comparison to state-of-the-art short-term trackers. We analyze the influence of tracking architecture implementations to long-term performance and explore various redetection strategies as well as the influence of visual model update strategies to long-term tracking drift. The methodology is integrated in the VOT toolkit to automate experimental analysis and benchmarking and to facilitate the future development of long-term trackers.

Sajid Javed, Martin Danelljan, Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Muhammad Haris Khan, Michael Felsberg, Jiri Matas (2023)Visual Object Tracking With Discriminative Filters and Siamese Networks: A Survey and Outlook, In: IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence45(5)pp. 6552-6574 IEEE

Accurate and robust visual object tracking is one of the most challenging and fundamental computer vision problems. It entails estimating the trajectory of the target in an image sequence, given only its initial location, and segmentation, or its rough approximation in the form of a bounding box. Discriminative Correlation Filters (DCFs) and deep Siamese Networks (SNs) have emerged as dominating tracking paradigms, which have led to significant progress. Following the rapid evolution of visual object tracking in the last decade, this survey presents a systematic and thorough review of more than 90 DCFs and Siamese trackers, based on results in nine tracking benchmarks. First, we present the background theory of both the DCF and Siamese tracking core formulations. Then, we distinguish and comprehensively review the shared as well as specific open research challenges in both these tracking paradigms. Furthermore, we thoroughly analyze the performance of DCF and Siamese trackers on nine benchmarks, covering different experimental aspects of visual tracking: datasets, evaluation metrics, performance, and speed comparisons. We finish the survey by presenting recommendations and suggestions for distinguished open challenges based on our analysis.

Dengxin Dai, Robby T. Tan, Vishal Patel, Jiri Matas, Bernt Schiele, Luc Van Gool (2021)Guest Editorial: Special Issue on "Computer Vision for All Seasons: Adverse Weather and Lighting Conditions", In: International journal of computer vision129(7)pp. 2031-2033 Springer Nature
Lam Huynh, Phong Nguyen, Jiri Matas, Esa Rahtu, Janne Heikkila (2022)Lightweight Monocular Depth with a Novel Neural Architecture Search Method, In: 2022 IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV)pp. 326-336 IEEE

This paper presents a novel neural architecture search method, called LiDNAS, for generating lightweight monocular depth estimation models. Unlike previous neural architecture search (NAS) approaches, where finding optimized networks is computationally demanding, the introduced novel Assisted Tabu Search leads to efficient architecture exploration. Moreover, we construct the search space on a pre-defined backbone network to balance layer diversity and search space size. The LiDNAS method outperforms the state-of-the-art NAS approach, proposed for disparity and depth estimation, in terms of search efficiency and output model performance. The LiDNAS optimized models achieve result superior to compact depth estimation state-of-the-art on NYU-Depth-v2, KITTI, and ScanNet, while being 7%-500% more compact in size, i.e the number of model parameters.

Tomas Sipka, Milan Sulc, Jiri Matas (2022)The Hitchhiker's Guide to Prior-Shift Adaptation, In: 2022 IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV)pp. 2031-2039 IEEE

In many computer vision classification tasks, class priors at test time often differ from priors on the training set. In the case of such prior shift, classifiers must be adapted correspondingly to maintain close to optimal performance. This paper analyzes methods for adaptation of probabilistic classifiers to new priors and for estimating new priors on an unlabeled test set. We propose a novel method to address a known issue of prior estimation methods based on confusion matrices, where inconsistent estimates of decision probabilities and confusion matrices lead to negative values in the estimated priors. Experiments on fine-grained image classification datasets provide insight into the best practice of prior shift estimation and classifier adaptation, and show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results in prior adaptation. Applying the best practice to two tasks with naturally imbalanced priors, learning from web-crawled images and plant species classification, increased the recognition accuracy by 1.1% and 3.4% respectively.

Denys Rozumnyi, Martin R. Oswald, Vittorio Ferrari, Jiri Matas, Marc Pollefeys (2021)DeFMO: Deblurring and Shape Recovery of Fast Moving Objects, In: 2021 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)pp. 3455-3464 IEEE

Objects moving at high speed appear significantly blurred when captured with cameras. The blurry appearance is especially ambiguous when the object has complex shape or texture. In such cases, classical methods, or even humans, are unable to recover the object's appearance and motion. We propose a method that, given a single image with its estimated background, outputs the object's appearance and position in a series of sub-frames as if captured by a high-speed camera (i.e. temporal super-resolution). The proposed generative model embeds an image of the blurred object into a latent space representation, disentangles the background, and renders the sharp appearance. Inspired by the image formation model, we design novel self-supervised loss function terms that boost performance and show good generalization capabilities. The proposed DeFMO method is trained on a complex synthetic dataset, yet it performs well on real-world data from several datasets. DeFMO outperforms the state of the art and generates high-quality temporal super-resolution frames.

Alan Lukezic, Jiri Matas, Matej Kristan (2020)D3S-A Discriminative Single Shot Segmentation Tracker, In: 2020 IEEE/CVF CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION (CVPR)9157386pp. 7131-7140 IEEE

Template-based discriminative trackers are currently the dominant tracking paradigm due to their robustness, but are restricted to bounding box tracking and a limited range of transformation models, which reduces their localization accuracy. We propose a discriminative single-shot segmentation tracker - D3S, which narrows the gap between visual object tracking and video object segmentation. A single-shot network applies two target models with complementary geometric properties, one invariant to a broad range of transformations, including non-rigid deformations, the other assuming a rigid object to simultaneously achieve high robustness and online target segmentation. Without per-dataset finetuning and trained only for segmentation as the primary output, D3S outperforms all trackers on VOT2016, VOT2018 and GOT-10k benchmarks and performs close to the state-of-the-art trackers on the TrackingNet. D3S outperforms the leading segmentation tracker SiamMask on video object segmentation benchmarks and performs on par with top video object segmentation algorithms, while running an order of magnitude faster, close to real-time.

Phong Nguyen, Animesh Karnewar, Lam Huynh, Esa Rahtu, Jiri Matas, Janne Heikkila (2021)RGBD-Net: Predicting Color and Depth Images for Novel Views Synthesis, In: 2021 International Conference on 3D Vision (3DV)pp. 1095-1105 IEEE

We propose a new cascaded architecture for novel view synthesis, called RGBD-Net, which consists of two core components: a hierarchical depth regression network and a depth-aware generator network. The former one predicts depth maps of the target views by using adaptive depth scaling, while the latter one leverages the predicted depths and renders spatially and temporally consistent target images. In the experimental evaluation on standard datasets, RGBD-Net not only outperforms the state-of-the-art by a clear margin, but it also generalizes well to new scenes without per-scene optimization. Moreover, we show that RGBD-Net can be optionally trained without depth supervision while still retaining high-quality rendering. Thanks to the depth regression network, RGBD-Net can be also used for creating dense 3D point clouds that are more accurate than those produced by some state-of-the-art multi-view stereo methods.

Alan Lukezic, Jiri Matas, Matej Kristan (2022)A Discriminative Single-Shot Segmentation Network for Visual Object Tracking, In: IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence44(12)9742pp. 9742-9755
Denys Rozumnyi, Jiri Matas, Filip Sroubek, Marc Pollefeys, Martin R. Oswald (2021)FMODetect: Robust Detection of Fast Moving Objects, In: 2021 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)pp. 3521-3529 IEEE

We propose the first learning-based approach for fast moving objects detection. Such objects are highly blurred and move over large distances within one video frame. Fast moving objects are associated with a deblurring and matting problem, also called deblatting. We show that the separation of deblatting into consecutive matting and deblurring allows achieving real-time performance, i.e. an order of magnitude speed-up, and thus enabling new classes of application. The proposed method detects fast moving objects as a truncated distance function to the trajectory by learning from synthetic data. For the sharp appearance estimation and accurate trajectory estimation, we propose a matting and fitting network that estimates the blurred appearance without background, followed by an energy minimization based deblurring. The state-of-the-art methods are outperformed in terms of recall, precision, trajectory estimation, and sharp appearance reconstruction. Compared to other methods, such as deblatting, the inference is of several orders of magnitude faster and allows applications such as real-time fast moving object detection and retrieval in large video collections.

Barbara Casillas-Pérez, Christopher D Pull, Filip Naiser, Elisabeth Naderlinger, Jiri Matas, Sylvia Cremer (2022)Early queen infection shapes developmental dynamics and induces long-term disease protection in incipient ant colonies, In: Ecology letters25(1)89pp. 89-100

Infections early in life can have enduring effects on an organism's development and immunity. In this study, we show that this equally applies to developing 'superorganisms'--incipient social insect colonies. When we exposed newly mated Lasius niger ant queens to a low pathogen dose, their colonies grew more slowly than controls before winter, but reached similar sizes afterwards. Independent of exposure, queen hibernation survival improved when the ratio of pupae to workers was small. Queens that reared fewer pupae before worker emergence exhibited lower pathogen levels, indicating that high brood rearing efforts interfere with the ability of the queen's immune system to suppress pathogen proliferation. Early-life queen pathogen exposure also improved the immunocompetence of her worker offspring, as demonstrated by challenging the workers to the same pathogen a year later. Transgenerational transfer of the queen's pathogen experience to her workforce can hence durably reduce the disease susceptibility of the whole superorganism.

Daniel Barath, Jiri Matas (2022)Graph-Cut RANSAC: Local Optimization on Spatially Coherent Structures, In: IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence44(9)pp. 4961-4974 IEEE

We propose Graph-Cut RANSAC, GC-RANSAC in short, a new robust geometric model estimation method where the local optimization step is formulated as energy minimization with binary labeling, applying the graph-cut algorithm to select inliers. The minimized energy reflects the assumption that geometric data often form spatially coherent structures - it includes both a unary component representing point-to-model residuals and a binary term promoting spatially coherent inlier-outlier labelling of neighboring points. The proposed local optimization step is conceptually simple, easy to implement, efficient with a globally optimal inlier selection given the model parameters. Graph-Cut RANSAC, equipped with "the bells and whistles" of USAC and MAGSAC++, was tested on a range of problems using a number of publicly available datasets for homography, 6D object pose, fundamental and essential matrix estimation. It is more geometrically accurate than state-of-the-art robust estimators, fails less often and runs faster or with speed similar to less accurate alternatives. The source code is available at .

Lukas Picek, Milan Sulc, Jiri Matas, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Thomas S. Jeppesen, Emil Lind (2022)Automatic Fungi Recognition: Deep Learning Meets Mycology, In: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)22(2)633 Mdpi

The article presents an AI-based fungi species recognition system for a citizen-science community. The system's real-time identification too - FungiVision - with a mobile application front-end, led to increased public interest in fungi, quadrupling the number of citizens collecting data. FungiVision, deployed with a human-in-the-loop, reaches nearly 93% accuracy. Using the collected data, we developed a novel fine-grained classification dataset - Danish Fungi 2020 (DF20) - with several unique characteristics: species-level labels, a small number of errors, and rich observation metadata. The dataset enables the testing of the ability to improve classification using metadata, e.g., time, location, habitat and substrate, facilitates classifier calibration testing and finally allows the study of the impact of the device settings on the classification performance. The continual flow of labelled data supports improvements of the online recognition system. Finally, we present a novel method for the fungi recognition service, based on a Vision Transformer architecture. Trained on DF20 and exploiting available metadata, it achieves a recognition error that is 46.75% lower than the current system. By providing a stream of labeled data in one direction, and an accuracy increase in the other, the collaboration creates a virtuous cycle helping both communities.

Javier Aldana-Iuit, Dmytro Mishkin, Ondrej Chum, Jiri Matas (2020)Saddle: Fast and repeatable features with good coverage, In: Image and vision computing97103807 Elsevier

A novel similarity-covariant feature detector that extracts points whose neighborhoods, when treated as a 3D intensity surface, have a saddle-like intensity profile is presented. The saddle condition is verified efficiently by intensity comparisons on two concentric rings that must have exactly two dark-to-bright and two bright-to-dark transitions satisfying certain geometric constraints. Saddle is a fast approximation of Hessian detector as ORB, that implements the FAST detector, is for Harris detector. We propose to use the matching strategy called the first geometric inconsistent with binary descriptors that is suitable for our feature detector, including experiments with fix point descriptors hand-crafted and learned. Experiments show that the Saddle features are general, evenly spread and appearing in high density in a range of images. The Saddle detector is among the fastest proposed. In comparison with detector with similar speed, the Saddle features show superior matching performance on number of challenging datasets. Compared to recently proposed deep-learning based interest point detectors and popular hand-crafted keypoint detectors, evaluated for repeatability in the ApolloScape dataset Huang et al. (2018), the Saddle detectors shows the best performance in most of the street-level view sequences a.k.a. traversals. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tetiana Martyniuk, Orest Kupyn, Yana Kurlyak, Igor Krashenyi, Jiri Matas, Viktoriia Sharmanska (2022)DAD-3DHeads: A Large-scale Dense, Accurate and Diverse Dataset for 3D Head Alignment from a Single Image, In: 2022 IEEE/CVF CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION (CVPR 2022)2022-pp. 20910-20920 IEEE

We present DAD-3DHeads, a dense and diverse large-scale dataset, and a robust model for 3D Dense Head Alignment in-the-wild. It contains annotations of over 3.5K landmarks that accurately represent 3D head shape compared to the ground-truth scans. The data-driven model, DAD-3DNet, trained on our dataset, learns shape, expression, and pose parameters, and performs 3D reconstruction of a FLAME mesh. The model also incorporates a landmark prediction branch to take advantage of rich supervision and co-training of multiple related tasks. Experimentally, DAD-3DNet outperforms or is comparable to the state-of-the-art models in (i) 3D Head Pose Estimation on AFLW2000-3D and BIWI, (ii) 3D Face Shape Reconstruction on NoW and Feng, and (iii) 3D Dense Head Alignment and 3D Landmarks Estimation on DAD-3DHeads dataset. Finally, diversity of DAD-3DHeads in camera angles, facial expressions, and occlusions enables a benchmark to study in-the-wild generalization and robustness to distribution shifts. The dataset webpage is

Lukas Picek, Milan Sulc, Yash Patel, Jiri Matas (2022)Plant recognition by AI: Deep neural nets, transformers, and kNN in deep embeddings, In: Frontiers in plant science13787527pp. 787527-787527 Frontiers Media Sa

The article reviews and benchmarks machine learning methods for automatic image-based plant species recognition and proposes a novel retrieval-based method for recognition by nearest neighbor classification in a deep embedding space. The image retrieval method relies on a model trained via the Recall@k surrogate loss. State-of-the-art approaches to image classification, based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Vision Transformers (ViT), are benchmarked and compared with the proposed image retrieval-based method. The impact of performance-enhancing techniques, e.g., class prior adaptation, image augmentations, learning rate scheduling, and loss functions, is studied. The evaluation is carried out on the PlantCLEF 2017, the ExpertLifeCLEF 2018, and the iNaturalist 2018 Datasets-the largest publicly available datasets for plant recognition. The evaluation of CNN and ViT classifiers shows a gradual improvement in classification accuracy. The current state-of-the-art Vision Transformer model, ViT-Large/16, achieves 91.15% and 83.54% accuracy on the PlantCLEF 2017 and ExpertLifeCLEF 2018 test sets, respectively; the best CNN model (ResNeSt-269e) error rate dropped by 22.91% and 28.34%. Apart from that, additional tricks increased the performance for the ViT-Base/32 by 3.72% on ExpertLifeCLEF 2018 and by 4.67% on PlantCLEF 2017. The retrieval approach achieved superior performance in all measured scenarios with accuracy margins of 0.28%, 4.13%, and 10.25% on ExpertLifeCLEF 2018, PlantCLEF 2017, and iNat2018-Plantae, respectively.

Tomas Vojir, Jiri Matas (2023)Image-Consistent Detection of Road Anomalies as Unpredictable Patches, In: 2023 IEEE/CVF WINTER CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER VISION (WACV)pp. 5480-5489 IEEE

We propose a novel method for anomaly detection primarily aiming at autonomous driving. The design of the method, called DaCUP (Detection of anomalies as Consistent Unpredictable Patches), is based on two general properties of anomalous objects: an anomaly is (i) not from a class that could be modelled and (ii) it is not similar (in appearance) to non-anomalous objects in the image. To this end, we propose a novel embedding bottleneck in an auto-encoder like architecture that enables modelling of a diverse, multi-modal known class appearance (e.g. road). Secondly, we introduce novel image-conditioned distance features that allow known class identification in a nearest-neighbour manner on-the-fly, greatly increasing its ability to distinguish true and false positives. Lastly, an inpainting module is utilized to model the uniqueness of detected anomalies and significantly reduce false positives by filtering regions that are similar, thus reconstructable from their neighbourhood. We demonstrate that filtering of regions based on their similarity to neighbour regions, using e.g. an inpainting module, is general and can be used with other methods for reduction of false positives. The proposed method is evaluated on several publicly available datasets for road anomaly detection and on a maritime benchmark for obstacle avoidance. The method achieves state-of-the-art performance in both tasks with the same hyper-parameters with no domain specific design.

Slobodan Djukanovic, Yash Patel, Jiri Matas, Tuomas Virtanen (2021)Neural network-based acoustic vehicle counting, In: 2021 29th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO)2021-561pp. 561-565 EURASIP

This paper addresses acoustic vehicle counting using one-channel audio. We predict the pass-by instants of vehicles from local minima of clipped vehicle-to-microphone distance. This distance is predicted from audio using a two-stage (coarse-fine) regression, with both stages realised via neural networks (NNs). Experiments show that the NN-based distance regression outperforms by far the previously proposed support vector regression. The 95% confidence interval for the mean of vehicle counting error is within [0.28%, −0.55%]. Besides the minima-based counting, we propose a deep learning counting that operates on the predicted distance without detecting local minima. Although outperformed in accuracy by the former approach, deep counting has a significant advantage in that it does not depend on minima detection parameters. Results also show that removing low frequencies in features improves the counting performance.

Daniel Barath, Dmytro Mishkin, Ivan Eichhardt, Ilia Shipachev, Jiri Matas (2021)Efficient Initial Pose-graph Generation for Global SfM, In: 2021 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)pp. 14541-14550 IEEE

We propose ways to speed up the initial pose-graph generation for global Structure-from-Motion algorithms. To avoid forming tentative point correspondences by FLANN and geometric verification by RANSAC, which are the most time-consuming steps of the pose-graph creation, we propose two new methods - built on the fact that image pairs usually are matched consecutively. Thus, candidate relative poses can be recovered from paths in the partly-built pose-graph. We propose a heuristic for the A * traversal, considering global similarity of images and the quality of the pose-graph edges. Given a relative pose from a path, descriptor-based feature matching is made "light-weight" by exploiting the known epipolar geometry. To speed up PROSAC-based sampling when RANSAC is applied, we propose a third method to order the correspondences by their inlier probabilities from previous estimations. The algorithms are tested on 402130 image pairs from the 1DSfM dataset and they speed up the feature matching 17 times and pose estimation 5 times. Source code:

Tomas Pavlin, Jan Cech, Jiri Matas (2021)Ballroom Dance Recognition from Audio Recordings, In: 2020 25th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR)pp. 2142-2149 IEEE

We propose a CNN-based approach to classify ten genres of ballroom dances given audio recordings, five latin and five standard, namely Cha Cha Cha, Jive, Paso Doble, Rumba, Samba, Quickstep, Slow Foxtrot, Slow Waltz, Tango and Viennese Waltz. We utilize a spectrogram of an audio signal and we treat it as an image that is an input of the CNN. The classification is performed independently by 5-seconds spectrogram segments in sliding window fashion and the results are then aggregated. The method was tested on following datasets: Publicly available Extended Ballroom dataset collected by Marchand and Peeters, 2016 and two YouTube datasets collected by us, one in studio quality and the other, more challenging, recorded on mobile phones. The method achieved accuracy 93.9%, 96.7% and 89.8% respectively. The method runs in real-time. We implemented a web application to demonstrate the proposed method.

Klara Janouskova, Jiri Matas, Lluis Gomez, Dimosthenis Karatzas (2021)Text Recognition - Real World Data and Where to Find Them, In: 2020 25TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PATTERN RECOGNITION (ICPR)9412868pp. 4489-4496 IEEE

We present a method for exploiting weakly annotated images to improve text extraction pipelines. The approach uses an arbitrary end-to-end text recognition system to obtain text region proposals and their, possibly erroneous, transcriptions. The method includes matching of imprecise transcriptions to weak annotations and an edit distance guided neighbourhood search. It produces nearly error-free, localised instances of scene text, which we treat as "pseudo ground truth" (PGT). The method is applied to two weakly-annotated datasets. Training with the extracted PGT consistently improves the accuracy of a state of the art recognition model, by 3.7% on average, across different benchmark datasets (image domains) and 24.5% on one of the weakly annotated datasets.

Jonas Serych, Jiri Matas (2023)Planar Object Tracking via Weighted Optical Flow, In: 2023 IEEE/CVF WINTER CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER VISION (WACV)pp. 1593-1602 IEEE

We propose WOFT - a novel method for planar object tracking that estimates a full 8 degrees-of-freedom pose, i.e. the homography w.r.t. a reference view. The method uses a novel module that leverages dense optical flow and assigns a weight to each optical flow correspondence, estimating a homography by weighted least squares in a fully differentiable manner. The trained module assigns zero weights to incorrect correspondences (outliers) in most cases, making the method robust and eliminating the need of the typically used non-differentiable robust estimators like RANSAC. The proposed weighted optical flow tracker (WOFT) achieves state-of-the-art performance on two benchmarks, POT-210 [23] and POIC [7], tracking consistently well across a wide range of scenarios.

Jiri Kralicek, Jiri Matas (2021)Fast Text vs. Non-text Classification of Images, In: J Llados, D Lopresti, S Uchida (eds.), DOCUMENT ANALYSIS AND RECOGNITION, ICDAR 2021, PT IV12824pp. 18-32 Springer Nature

We propose a fast method for classifying images as containing text, or with no scene text. The typical application is in processing large image streams, as encountered in social networks, for detection and recognition of scene text. The proposed classifier efficiently removes non-text images from consideration, thus allowing to apply the potentially computationally heavy scene text detection and OCR on only a fraction of the images. The proposed method, called Fast-Text-Classifier (FTC), utilizes a MobileNetV2 architecture as a feature extractor for fast inference. The text vs. non-text prediction is based on a block-level approach. FTC achieves 94.2% F-measure, 0.97 area under the ROC curve, and 74.8 ms and 8.6 ms inference times for CPU and GPU, respectively. A dataset of 1M images, automatically annotated with masks indicating text presence, is introduced and made public at

Xiaoyan Xing, Yanlin Qian, Sibo Feng, Yuhan Dong, Jiri Matas Point Cloud Color Constancy, In: arXiv (Cornell University)

In this paper, we present Point Cloud Color Constancy, in short PCCC, an illumination chromaticity estimation algorithm exploiting a point cloud. We leverage the depth information captured by the time-of-flight (ToF) sensor mounted rigidly with the RGB sensor, and form a 6D cloud where each point contains the coordinates and RGB intensities, noted as (x,y,z,r,g,b). PCCC applies the PointNet architecture to the color constancy problem, deriving the illumination vector point-wise and then making a global decision about the global illumination chromaticity. On two popular RGB-D datasets, which we extend with illumination information, as well as on a novel benchmark, PCCC obtains lower error than the state-of-the-art algorithms. Our method is simple and fast, requiring merely 16*16-size input and reaching speed over 500 fps, including the cost of building the point cloud and net inference.

Lukas Picek, Milan Sulc, Jiri Matas, Thomas S. Jeppesen, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Thomas Laessoe, Tobias Froslev (2022)Danish Fungi 2020-Not Just Another Image Recognition Dataset, In: 2022 IEEE WINTER CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER VISION (WACV 2022)pp. 3281-3291 IEEE

We introduce a novel fine-grained dataset and benchmark, the Danish Fungi 2020 (DF20). The dataset, constructed from observations submitted to the Atlas of Danish Fungi, is unique in its taxonomy-accurate class labels, small number of errors, highly unbalanced long-tailed class distribution, rich observation metadata, and well-defined class hierarchy. DF20 has zero overlap with ImageNet, allowing unbiased comparison of models fine-tuned from publicly available ImageNet checkpoints. The proposed evaluation protocol enables testing the ability to improve classification using metadata - e.g. precise geographic location, habitat, and substrate, facilitates classifier calibration testing, and finally allows to study the impact of the device settings on the classification performance. Experiments using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and the recent Vision Transformers (ViT) show that DF20 presents a challenging task. Interestingly, ViT achieves results superior to CNN baselines with 80.45% accuracy and 0.743 macro F1 score, reducing the CNN error by 9% and 12% respectively. A simple procedure for including metadata into the decision process improves the classification accuracy by more than 2.95 percentage points, reducing the error rate by 15%. The source code for all methods and experiments is available at

Vasyl Borsuk, Roman Vei, Orest Kupyn, Tetiana Martyniuk, Igor Krashenyi, Jiri Matas (2022)FEAR: Fast, Efficient, Accurate and Robust Visual Tracker, In: S Avidan, G Brostow, M Cisse, G M Farinella, T Hassner (eds.), COMPUTER VISION, ECCV 2022, PT XXII13682pp. 644-663 Springer Nature

We present FEAR, a family of fast, efficient, accurate, and robust Siamese visual trackers. We present a novel and efficient way to benefit from dual-template representation for object model adaption, which incorporates temporal information with only a single learnable parameter. We further improve the tracker architecture with a pixel-wise fusion block. By plugging-in sophisticated backbones with the abovementioned modules, FEAR-M and FEAR-L trackers surpass most Siamese trackers on several academic benchmarks in both accuracy and efficiency. Employed with the lightweight backbone, the optimized version FEAR-XS offers more than 10 times faster tracking than current Siamese trackers while maintaining near state-of-the-art results. FEAR-XS tracker is 2.4x smaller and 4.3x faster than LightTrack with superior accuracy. In addition, we expand the definition of the model efficiency by introducing FEAR benchmark that assesses energy consumption and execution speed. We show that energy consumption is a limiting factor for trackers on mobile devices. Source code, pretrained models, and evaluation protocol are available at

Lukáš Picek, Milan Šulc, Jiří Matas, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen (2022)Overview of FungiCLEF 2022: Fungi Recognition as an Open Set Classification Problem CEUR-WS

The main goal of the new LifeCLEF challenge, FungiCLEF 2022: Fungi Recognition as an Open Set Classification Problem, was to provide an evaluation ground for end-to-end fungi species recognition in an open class set scenario. An AI-based fungi species recognition system deployed in the Atlas of Danish Fungi helps mycologists to collect valuable data and allows users to learn about fungi species identification. Advances in fungi recognition from images and metadata will allow continuous improvement of the system deployed in this citizen science project. The training set is based on the Danish Fungi 2020 dataset and contains 295,938 photographs of 1,604 species. For testing, we provided a collection of 59,420 expert-approved observations collected in 2021. The test set includes 1,165 species from the training set and 1,969 unknown species, leading to an open-set recognition problem. This paper provides (i) a description of the challenge task and datasets, (ii) a summary of the evaluation methodology, (iii) a review of the systems submitted by the participating teams, and (iv) a discussion of the challenge results. © 2022 Copyright for this paper by its authors.

Yash Patel, Giorgos Tolias, Jiri Matas (2022)Recall@k Surrogate Loss with Large Batches and Similarity Mixup, In: 2022 IEEE/CVF CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION (CVPR)2022-pp. 7492-7501 IEEE

This work focuses on learning deep visual representation models for retrieval by exploring the interplay between a new loss function, the batch size, and a new regularization approach. Direct optimization, by gradient descent, of an evaluation metric, is not possible when it is non-differentiable, which is the case for recall in retrieval. A differentiable surrogate loss for the recall is proposed in this work. Using an implementation that sidesteps the hardware constraints of the GPU memory, the method trains with a very large batch size, which is essential for metrics computed on the entire retrieval database. It is assisted by an efficient mixup regularization approach that operates on pairwise scalar similarities and virtually increases the batch size further. The suggested method achieves state-of-the-art performance in several image retrieval benchmarks when used for deep metric learning. For instance-level recognition, the method outperforms similar approaches that train using an approximation of average precision.

Rail Chamidullin, Milan Šulc, Jiří Matas, Lukáš Picek (2021)A deep learning method for visual recognition of snake species CEUR-WS

The paper presents a method for image-based snake species identification. The proposed method is based on deep residual neural networks - ResNeSt, ResNeXt and ResNet - fine-tuned from ImageNet pre-trained checkpoints. We achieve performance improvements by: discarding predictions of species that do not occur in the country of the query; combining predictions from an ensemble of classifiers; and applying mixed precision training, which allows training neural networks with larger batch size. We experimented with loss functions inspired by the considered metrics: soft F1 loss and weighted cross entropy loss. However, the standard cross entropy loss achieved superior results both in accuracy and in F1 measures. The proposed method scored third in the SnakeCLEF 2021 challenge, achieving 91.6% classification accuracy, Country F1 Score of 0.860, and F1 Score of 0.830.

Tomas Vojir, Tomas Sipka, Rahaf Aljundi, Nikolay Chumerin, Daniel Olmeda Reino, Jiri Matas (2021)Road Anomaly Detection by Partial Image Reconstruction with Segmentation Coupling, In: 2021 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)pp. 15631-15640 IEEE

We present a novel approach to the detection of unknown objects in the context of autonomous driving. The problem is formulated as anomaly detection, since we assume that the unknown stuff or object appearance cannot be learned. To that end, we propose a reconstruction module that can be used with many existing semantic segmentation networks, and that is trained to recognize and reconstruct road (drivable) surface from a small bottleneck. We postulate that poor reconstruction of the road surface is due to areas that are outside of the training distribution, which is a strong indicator of an anomaly. The road structural similarity error is coupled with the semantic segmentation to incorporate information from known classes and produce final per-pixel anomaly scores. The proposed JSR-Net was evaluated on four datasets, Lost-and-found, Road Anomaly, Road Obstacles, and FishyScapes, achieving state-of-art performance on all, reducing the false positives significantly, while typically having the highest average precision for wide range of operation points.

Jan Kotera, Jiri Matas, Filip Sroubek (2020)Restoration of Fast Moving Objects, In: IEEE transactions on image processing299171560pp. 8577-8589 IEEE

If an object is photographed at motion in front of a static background, the object will be blurred while the background sharp and partially occluded by the object. The goal is to recover the object appearance from such blurred image. We adopt the image formation model for fast moving objects and consider objects undergoing 2D translation and rotation. For this scenario we formulate the estimation of the object shape, appearance, and motion from a single image and known background as a constrained optimization problem with appropriate regularization terms. Both similarities and differences with blind deconvolution are discussed with the latter caused mainly by the coupling of the object appearance and shape in the acquisition model. Necessary conditions for solution uniqueness are derived and a numerical solution based on the alternating direction method of multipliers is presented. The proposed method is evaluated on a new dataset.

Yanlin Qian, Miaojing Shi, Joni-Kristian Kamarainen, Jiri Matas (2021)Fast Fourier Intrinsic Network, In: 2021 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV)pp. 3168-3177 IEEE

We address the problem of decomposing an image into albedo and shading. We propose the Fast Fourier Intrinsic Network, FFI-Net in short, that operates in the spectral domain, splitting the input into several spectral bands. Weights in FFI-Net are optimized in the spectral domain, allowing faster convergence to a lower error. FFI-Net is lightweight and does not need auxiliary networks for training. The network is trained end-to-end with a novel spectral loss which measures the global distance between the network prediction and corresponding ground truth. FFI-Net achieves state-of-the-art performance on MPI-Sintel, MIT Intrinsic, and IIW datasets.

Denys Rozumnyi, Jan Kotera, Filip Sroubek, Jiri Matas (2020)Sub-frame Appearance and 6D Pose Estimation of Fast Moving Objects, In: 2020 IEEE/CVF CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION (CVPR)9157513pp. 6777-6785 IEEE

We propose a novel method that tracks fast moving objects, mainly non-uniform spherical, in full 6 degrees of freedom, estimating simultaneously their 3D motion trajectory, 3D pose and object appearance changes with a time step that is a fraction of the video frame exposure time. The sub-frame object localization and appearance estimation allows realistic temporal super-resolution and precise shape estimation. The method, called TbD-3D (Tracking by Deblatting in 3D) relies on a novel reconstruction algorithm which solves a piece-wise deblurring and matting problem. The 3D rotation is estimated by minimizing the reprojection error. As a second contribution, we present a new challenging dataset with fast moving objects that change their appearance and distance to the camera. High-speed camera recordings with zero lag between frame exposures were used to generate videos with different frame rates annotated with ground-truth trajectory and pose.

Slobodan Djukanovic, Jiri Matas, Tuomas Virtanen (2021)Acoustic Vehicle Speed Estimation From Single Sensor Measurements, In: IEEE sensors journal21(20)pp. 23317-23324 IEEE

The paper addresses acoustic vehicle speed estimation using single sensor measurements. We introduce a new speed-dependent feature based on the attenuation of the sound amplitude. The feature is predicted from the audio signal and used as input to a regression model for speed estimation. For this research, we have collected, annotated, and published a dataset of audio-video recordings of single vehicles passing by the camera at a known constant speed. The dataset contains 304 urban-environment real-field recordings of ten different vehicles. The proposed method is trained and tested on the collected dataset. Experiments show that it is able to accurately predict the pass-by instant of a vehicle and to estimate its speed with an average error of 7.39 km/h. When the speed is discretized into intervals of 10 km/h, the proposed method achieves the average accuracy of 53.2% for correct interval prediction and 93.4% when misclassification of one interval is allowed. Experiments also show that sound disturbances, such as wind, severely affect acoustic speed estimation.

Daniel Barath, Jana Noskova, Maksym Ivashechkin, Jiri Matas (2020)MAGSAC plus plus , a fast, reliable and accurate robust estimator, In: 2020 IEEE/CVF CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION (CVPR)pp. 1301-1309 IEEE

A new method for robust estimation, MAGSAC++ (1), is proposed. It introduces a new model quality (scoring) function that does not require the inlier-outlier decision, and a novel marginalization procedure formulated as an M-estimation with a novel class of M-estimators (a robust kernel) solved by an iteratively re-weighted least squares procedure. We also propose a new sampler, Progressive NAPSAC, for RANSAC-like robust estimators. Exploiting the fact that nearby points often originate from the same model in real-world data, it finds local structures earlier than global samplers. The progressive transition from local to global sampling does not suffer from the weaknesses of purely localized samplers. On six publicly available real-world datasets for homography and fundamental matrix fit-ting, MAGSAC++ produces results superior to the stateof-the-art robust methods. It is faster, more geometrically accurate and fails less often.

Yash Patel, Jiri Matas (2021)FEDS - Filtered Edit Distance Surrogate, In: J Llados, D Lopresti, S Uchida (eds.), DOCUMENT ANALYSIS AND RECOGNITION, ICDAR 2021, PT IV12824pp. 171-186 Springer Nature

This paper proposes a procedure to train a scene text recognition model using a robust learned surrogate of edit distance. The proposed method borrows from self-paced learning and filters out the training examples that are hard for the surrogate. The filtering is performed by judging the quality of the approximation, using a ramp function, enabling end-to-end training. Following the literature, the experiments are conducted in a post-tuning setup, where a trained scene text recognition model is tuned using the learned surrogate of edit distance. The efficacy is demonstrated by improvements on various challenging scene text datasets such as IIIT-5K, SVT, ICDAR, SVTP, and CUTE. The proposed method provides an average improvement of 11.2% on total edit distance and an error reduction of 9.5% on accuracy.

Lam Huynh, Phong Nguyen, Jiri Matas, Esa Rahtu, Janne Heikkila (2021)Boosting Monocular Depth Estimation with Lightweight 3D Point Fusion, In: 2021 IEEE/CVF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION (ICCV 2021)pp. 12747-12756 IEEE

In this paper, we propose enhancing monocular depth estimation by adding 3D points as depth guidance. Unlike existing depth completion methods, our approach performs well on extremely sparse and unevenly distributed point clouds, which makes it agnostic to the source of the 3D points. We achieve this by introducing a novel multi-scale 3D point fusion network that is both lightweight and efficient. We demonstrate its versatility on two different depth estimation problems where the 3D points have been acquired with conventional structure-from-motion and LiDAR. In both cases, our network performs on par with state-of-the-art depth completion methods and achieves significantly higher accuracy when only a small number of points is used while being more compact in terms of the number of parameters. We show that our method outperforms some contemporary deep learning based multi-view stereo and structure-from-motion methods both in accuracy and in compactness.

Daniel Barath, Jana Noskova, Jiri Matas (2022)Marginalizing Sample Consensus, In: IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence44(11)pp. 1-1 IEEE

A new method for robust estimation, MAGSAC++, is proposed. It introduces a new model quality (scoring) function that does not make inlier-outlier decisions, and a novel marginalization procedure formulated as an M-estimation with a novel class of M-estimators (a robust kernel) solved by an iteratively re-weighted least squares procedure. Instead of the inlier-outlier threshold, it requires only its loose upper bound which can be chosen from a significantly wider range. Also, we propose a new termination criterion and a technique for selecting a set of inliers in a data-driven manner as a post-processing step after the robust estimation finishes. On a number of publicly available real-world datasets for homography, fundamental matrix fitting and relative pose, MAGSAC++ produces results superior to the state-of-the-art robust methods. It is more geometrically accurate, fails fewer times, and it is often faster. It is shown that MAGSAC++ is significantly less sensitive to the setting of the threshold upper bound than the other state-of-the-art algorithms to the inlier-outlier threshold. Therefore, it is easier to be applied to unseen problems and scenes without acquiring information by hand about the setting of the inlier-outlier threshold. The source code and examples both in C++ and Python are available at

Dengxin Dai, Arun Balajee Vasudevan, Jiri Matas, Luc Van Gool (2023)Binaural SoundNet: Predicting Semantics, Depth and Motion With Binaural Sounds, In: IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence45(1)pp. 123-136 IEEE

Humans can robustly recognize and localize objects by using visual and/or auditory cues. While machines are able to do the same with visual data already, less work has been done with sounds. This work develops an approach for scene understanding purely based on binaural sounds. The considered tasks include predicting the semantic masks of sound-making objects, the motion of sound-making objects, and the depth map of the scene. To this aim, we propose a novel sensor setup and record a new audio-visual dataset of street scenes with eight professional binaural microphones and a 360$\mathrm{{\circ }}$& LCIRC;camera. The co-existence of visual and audio cues is leveraged for supervision transfer. In particular, we employ a cross-modal distillation framework that consists of multiple vision 'teacher' methods and a sound 'student' method - the student method is trained to generate the same results as the teacher methods do. This way, the auditory system can be trained without using human annotations. To further boost the performance, we propose another novel auxiliary task, coined Spatial Sound Super-Resolution, to increase the directional resolution of sounds. We then formulate the four tasks into one end-to-end trainable multi-tasking network aiming to boost the overall performance. Experimental results show that 1) our method achieves good results for all four tasks, 2) the four tasks are mutually beneficial - training them together achieves the best performance, 3) the number and orientation of microphones are both important, and 4) features learned from the standard spectrogram and features obtained by the classic signal processing pipeline are complementary for auditory perception tasks. The data and code are released on the project page:

Yuhe Jin, Dmytro Mishkin, Anastasiia Mishchuk, Jiri Matas, Pascal Fua, Kwang Moo Yi, Eduard Trulls (2021)Image Matching Across Wide Baselines: From Paper to Practice, In: International journal of computer vision129(2)pp. 517-547 Springer Nature

We introduce a comprehensive benchmark for local features and robust estimation algorithms, focusing on the downstream task-the accuracy of the reconstructed camera pose-as our primary metric. Our pipeline's modular structure allows easy integration, configuration, and combination of different methods and heuristics. This is demonstrated by embedding dozens of popular algorithms and evaluating them, from seminal works to the cutting edge of machine learning research. We show that with proper settings, classical solutions may still outperform the perceived state of the art. Besides establishing the actual state of the art, the conducted experiments reveal unexpected properties of structure from motion pipelines that can help improve their performance, for both algorithmic and learned methods. Data and code are online (, providing an easy-to-use and flexible framework for the benchmarking of local features and robust estimation methods, both alongside and against top-performing methods. This work provides a basis for the Image Matching Challenge (

Vassileios Balntas, Karel Lenc, Andrea Vedaldi, Tinne Tuytelaars, Jiri Matas, Krystian Mikolajczyk (2020)H-Patches: A Benchmark and Evaluation of Handcrafted and Learned Local Descriptors, In: IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence42(11)8712555pp. 2825-2841 IEEE

In this paper, a novel benchmark is introduced for evaluating local image descriptors. We demonstrate limitations of the commonly used datasets and evaluation protocols, that lead to ambiguities and contradictory results in the literature. Furthermore, these benchmarks are nearly saturated due to the recent improvements in local descriptors obtained by learning from large annotated datasets. To address these issues, we introduce a new large dataset suitable for training and testing modern descriptors, together with strictly defined evaluation protocols in several tasks such as matching, retrieval and verification. This allows for more realistic, thus more reliable comparisons in different application scenarios. We evaluate the performance of several state-of-the-art descriptors and analyse their properties. We show that a simple normalisation of traditional hand-crafted descriptors is able to boost their performance to the level of deep learning based descriptors once realistic benchmarks are considered. Additionally we specify a protocol for learning and evaluating using cross validation. We show that when training state-of-the-art descriptors on this dataset, the traditional verification task is almost entirely saturated.

Yanlin Qian, Song Yan, Alan Lukezic, Matej Kristan, Joni-Kristian Kamarainen, Jiri Matas (2021)DAL: A Deep Depth-Aware Long-term Tracker, In: 2020 25th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR)9412984pp. 7825-7832 IEEE

The best RGBD trackers provide high accuracy but are slow to run. On the other hand, the best RGB trackers are fast but clearly inferior on the RGBD datasets. In this work, we propose a deep depth-aware long-term tracker that achieves state-of-the-art RGBD tracking performance and is fast to run. We reformulate deep discriminative correlation filter (DCF) to embed the depth information into deep features. Moreover, the same depth-aware correlation filter is used for target redetection. Comprehensive evaluations show that the proposed tracker achieves state-of-the-art performance on the Princeton RGBD, STC, and the newly-released CDTB benchmarks and runs 20 fps.

Jan Docekal, Jakub Rozlivek, Jiri Matas, Matej Hoffmann (2022)Human keypoint detection for close proximity human-robot interaction, In: 2022 IEEE-RAS 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMANOID ROBOTS (HUMANOIDS)2022-pp. 450-457 IEEE

We study the performance of state-of-the-art human keypoint detectors in the context of close proximity humanrobot interaction. The detection in this scenario is specific in that only a subset of body parts such as hands and torso are in the field of view. In particular, (i) we survey existing datasets with human pose annotation from the perspective of close proximity images and prepare and make publicly available a new Human in Close Proximity (HiCP) dataset; (ii) we quantitatively and qualitatively compare state-of-the-art human whole-body 2D keypoint detection methods (OpenPose, MMPose, AlphaPose, Detectron2) on this dataset; (iii) since accurate detection of hands and fingers is critical in applications with handovers, we evaluate the performance of the MediaPipe hand detector; (iv) we deploy the algorithms on a humanoid robot with an RGB-D camera on its head and evaluate the performance in 3D human keypoint detection. A motion capture system is used as reference. The best performing whole-body keypoint detectors in close proximity were MMPose and AlphaPose, but both had difficulty with finger detection. Thus, we propose a combination of MMPose or AlphaPose for the body and MediaPipe for the hands in a single framework providing the most accurate and robust detection. We also analyse the failure modes of individual detectors-for example, to what extent the absence of the head of the person in the image degrades performance. Finally, we demonstrate the framework in a scenario where a humanoid robot interacting with a person uses the detected 3D keypoints for whole-body avoidance maneuvers.

Denys Rozumnyi, Jan Kotera, Filip Sroubek, Jiri Matas (2021)Tracking by Deblatting, In: International journal of computer vision129(9)pp. 2583-2604 Springer Nature

Objects moving at high speed along complex trajectories often appear in videos, especially videos of sports. Such objects travel a considerable distance during exposure time of a single frame, and therefore, their position in the frame is not well defined. They appear as semi-transparent streaks due to the motion blur and cannot be reliably tracked by general trackers. We propose a novel approach called Tracking by Deblatting based on the observation that motion blur is directly related to the intra-frame trajectory of an object. Blur is estimated by solving two intertwined inverse problems, blind deblurring and image matting, which we call deblatting. By postprocessing, non-causal Tracking by Deblatting estimates continuous, complete, and accurate object trajectories for the whole sequence. Tracked objects are precisely localized with higher temporal resolution than by conventional trackers. Energy minimization by dynamic programming is used to detect abrupt changes of motion, called bounces. High-order polynomials are then fitted to smooth trajectory segments between bounces. The output is a continuous trajectory function that assigns location for every real-valued time stamp from zero to the number of frames. The proposed algorithm was evaluated on a newly created dataset of videos from a high-speed camera using a novel Trajectory-IoU metric that generalizes the traditional Intersection over Union and measures the accuracy of the intra-frame trajectory. The proposed method outperforms the baselines both in recall and trajectory accuracy. Additionally, we show that from the trajectory function precise physical calculations are possible, such as radius, gravity, and sub-frame object velocity. Velocity estimation is compared to the high-speed camera measurements and radars. Results show high performance of the proposed method in terms of Trajectory-IoU, recall, and velocity estimation.

Lam Huynh, Matteo Pedone, Phong Nguyen, Jiri Matas, Esa Rahtu, Janne Heikkila (2021)Monocular Depth Estimation Primed by Salient Point Detection and Normalized Hessian Loss, In: 2021 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON 3D VISION (3DV 2021)pp. 228-238 IEEE

Deep neural networks have recently thrived on single image depth estimation. That being said, current developments on this topic highlight an apparent compromise between accuracy and network size. This work proposes an accurate and lightweight framework for monocular depth estimation based on a self-attention mechanism stemming from salient point detection. Specifically, we utilize a sparse set of keypoints to train a FuSaNet model that consists of two major components: Fusion-Net and Saliency-Net. In addition, we introduce a normalized Hessian loss term invariant to scaling and shear along the depth direction, which is shown to substantially improve the accuracy. The proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results on NYU-Depth-v2 and KITTI while using 3.1-38.4 times smaller model in terms of the number of parameters than baseline approaches. Experiments on the SUN-RGBD further demonstrate the generalizability of the proposed method.

Z Kalal, J Matas, K Mikolajczyk (2012)Tracking-Learning-Detection, In: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence34(7)pp. 1409-1422 IEEE

This paper investigates long-term tracking of unknown objects in a video stream. The object is defined by its location and extent in a single frame. In every frame that follows, the task is to determine the object's location and extent or indicate that the object is not present. We propose a novel tracking framework (TLD) that explicitly decomposes the long-term tracking task into tracking, learning and detection. The tracker follows the object from frame to frame. The detector localizes all appearances that have been observed so far and corrects the tracker if necessary. The learning estimates detector's errors and updates it to avoid these errors in the future. We study how to identify detector's errors and learn from them. We develop a novel learning method (P-N learning) which estimates the errors by a pair of "experts'': (i) P-expert estimates missed detections, and (ii) N-expert estimates false alarms. The learning process is modeled as a discrete dynamical system and the conditions under which the learning guarantees improvement are found. We describe our real-time implementation of the TLD framework and the P-N learning. We carry out an extensive quantitative evaluation which shows a significant improvement over state-of-the-art approaches.

H Cai, K Mikolajczyk, J Matas (2011)Learning linear discriminant projections for dimensionality reduction of image descriptors, In: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence33(2)pp. 338-352 IEEE

In this paper, we present Linear Discriminant Projections (LDP) for reducing dimensionality and improving discriminability of local image descriptors. We place LDP into the context of state-of-the-art discriminant projections and analyze its properties. LDP requires a large set of training data with point-to-point correspondence ground truth. We demonstrate that training data produced by a simulation of image transformations leads to nearly the same results as the real data with correspondence ground truth. This makes it possible to apply LDP as well as other discriminant projection approaches to the problems where the correspondence ground truth is not available, such as image categorization. We perform an extensive experimental evaluation on standard data sets in the context of image matching and categorization. We demonstrate that LDP enables significant dimensionality reduction of local descriptors and performance increases in different applications. The results improve upon the state-of-the-art recognition performance with simultaneous dimensionality reduction from 128 to 30.

Z Kalal, J Matas, K Mikolajczyk (2011)Tracking-Learning-Detection, In: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence34(7)pp. 1409-1422 IEEE

This paper investigates long-term tracking of unknown objects in a video stream. The object is defined by its location and extent in a single frame. In every frame that follows, the task is to determine the object's location and extent or indicate that the object is not present. We propose a novel tracking framework (TLD) that explicitly decomposes the long-term tracking task into tracking, learning and detection. The tracker follows the object from frame to frame. The detector localizes all appearances that have been observed so far and corrects the tracker if necessary. The learning estimates detector's errors and updates it to avoid these errors in the future. We study how to identify detector's errors and learn from them. We develop a novel learning method (P-N learning) which estimates the errors by a pair of "experts'': (i) P-expert estimates missed detections, and (ii) N-expert estimates false alarms. The learning process is modeled as a discrete dynamical system and the conditions under which the learning guarantees improvement are found. We describe our real-time implementation of the TLD framework and the P-N learning. We carry out an extensive quantitative evaluation which shows a significant improvement over state-of-the-art approaches.

K Mikolajczyk, T Tuytelaars, C Schmid, A Zisserman, J Matas, F Schaffalitzky, T Kadir, L van Gool (2005)A comparison of affine region detectors, In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER VISION65(1-2)pp. 43-72 SPRINGER
M Kristan, R Pflugfelder, A Leonardis, J Matas, F Porikli, L Cehovin, G Nebehay, G Fernandez, T Vojir, A Gatt, A Khajenezhad, A Salahledin, A Soltani-Farani, A Zarezade, A Petrosino, A Milton, B Bozorgtabar, B Li, CS Chan, C Heng, D Ward, D Kearney, D Monekosso, HC Karaimer, HR Rabiee, J Zhu, J Gao, J Xiao, J Zhang, J Xing, K Huang, K Lebeda, L Cao, ME Maresca, MK Lim, M EL Helw, M Felsberg, P Remagnino, R Bowden, R Goecke, R Stolkin, SY Lim, S Maher, S Poullot, S Wong, S Satoh, W Chen, W Hu, X Zhang, Y Li, Z Niu (2013)The Visual Object Tracking VOT2013 challenge results, In: 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION WORKSHOPS (ICCVW)pp. 98-111 IEEE

Visual tracking has attracted a significant attention in the last few decades. The recent surge in the number of publications on tracking-related problems have made it almost impossible to follow the developments in the field. One of the reasons is that there is a lack of commonly accepted annotated data-sets and standardized evaluation protocols that would allow objective comparison of different tracking methods. To address this issue, the Visual Object Tracking (VOT) workshop was organized in conjunction with ICCV2013. Researchers from academia as well as industry were invited to participate in the first VOT2013 challenge which aimed at single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance (model-free). Presented here is the VOT2013 benchmark dataset for evaluation of single-object visual trackers as well as the results obtained by the trackers competing in the challenge. In contrast to related attempts in tracker benchmarking, the dataset is labeled per-frame by visual attributes that indicate occlusion, illumination change, motion change, size change and camera motion, offering a more systematic comparison of the trackers. Furthermore, we have designed an automated system for performing and evaluating the experiments. We present the evaluation protocol of the VOT2013 challenge and the results of a comparison of 27 trackers on the benchmark dataset. The dataset, the evaluation tools and the tracker rankings are publicly available from the challenge website (http://votchallenge. net)

Z Kalal, K Mikolajczyk, J Matas (2010)Face-TLD: Tracking-learning-detection applied to faces, In: Proceedings - International Conference on Image Processing, ICIPpp. 3789-3792

A novel system for long-term tracking of a human face in unconstrained videos is built on Tracking-Learning-Detection (TLD) approach. The system extends TLD with the concept of a generic detector and a validator which is designed for real-time face tracking resistent to occlusions and appearance changes. The off-line trained detector localizes frontal faces and the online trained validator decides which faces correspond to the tracked subject. Several strategies for building the validator during tracking are quantitatively evaluated. The system is validated on a sitcom episode (23 min.) and a surveillance (8 min.) video. In both cases the system detectstracks the face and automatically learns a multi-view model from a single frontal example and an unlabeled video

L Ellis, N Dowson, J Matas, R Bowden (2011)Linear regression and adaptive appearance models for fast simultaneous modelling and tracking, In: International Journal of Computer Vision95pp. 154-179 Springer Netherlands
Matej Kristan, Ales Leonardis, Jiri Matas, Michael Felsberg, Roman Pflugfelder, Luka Cehovin Zajc, Tomas Vojir, Goutam Bhat, Alan Lukezic, Abdelrahman Eldesokey, Gustavo Fernandez, Alvaro Garcia-Martin, Alvaro Iglesias-Arias, A. Aydin Alatan, Abel Gonzalez-Garcia, Alfredo Petrosino, Alireza Memarmoghadam, Andrea Vedaldi, Andrej Muhic, Anfeng He, Arnold Smeulders, Asanka G. Perera, Bo Li, Boyu Chen, Changick Kim, Changsheng Xu, Changzhen Xiong, Cheng Tian, Chong Luo, Chong Sun, Cong Hao, Daijin Kim, Deepak Mishra, Deming Chen, Dong Wang, Dongyoon Wee, Efstratios Gavves, Erhan Gundogdu, Erik Velasco-Salido, Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Fan Yang, Fei Zhao, Feng Li, Francesco Battistone, George De Ath, Gorthi R. K. S. Subrahmanyam, Guilherme Bastos, Haibin Ling, Hamed Kiani Galoogahi, Hankyeol Lee, Haojie Li, Haojie Zhao, Heng Fan, Honggang Zhang, Horst Possegger, Houqiang Li, Huchuan Lu, Hui Zhi, Huiyun Li, Hyemin Lee, Hyung Jin Chang, Isabela Drummond, Jack Valmadre, Jaime Spencer Martin, Javaan Chahl, Jin Young Choi, Jing Li, Jinqiao Wang, Jinqing Qi, Jinyoung Sung, Joakim Johnander, Joao Henriques, Jongwon Choi, Joost van de Weijer, Jorge Rodriguez Herranz, Jose M. Martinez, Josef Kittler, Junfei Zhuang, Junyu Gao, Klemen Grm, Lichao Zhang, Lijun Wang, Lingxiao Yang, Litu Rout, Liu Si, Luca Bertinetto, Lutao Chu, Manqiang Che, Mario Edoardo Maresca, Martin Danelljan, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Mohamed Abdelpakey, Mohamed Shehata, Myunggu Kang, Namhoon Lee, Ning Wang, Ondrej Miksik, P. Moallem, Pablo Vicente-Monivar, Pedro Senna, Peixia Li, Philip Torr, Priya Mariam Raju, Qian Ruihe, Qiang Wang, Qin Zhou, Qing Guo, Rafael Martin-Nieto, Rama Krishna Gorthi, Ran Tao, Richard Bowden, Richard Everson, Runling Wang, Sangdoo Yun, Seokeon Choi, Sergio Vivas, Shuai Bai, Shuangping Huang, Sihang Wu, Simon Hadfield, Siwen Wang, Stuart Golodetz, Tang Ming, Tianyang Xu, Tianzhu Zhang, Tobias Fischer, Vincenzo Santopietro, Vitomir Struc, Wang Wei, Wangmeng Zuo, Wei Feng, Wei Wu, Wei Zou, Weiming Hu, Wengang Zhou, Wenjun Zeng, Xiaofan Zhang, Xiaohe Wu, Xiao-Jun Wu, Xinmei Tian, Yan Li, Yan Lu, Yee Wei Law, Yi Wu, Yiannis Demiris, Yicai Yang, Yifan Jiao, Yuhong Li, Yunhua Zhang, Yuxuan Sun, Zheng Zhang, Zheng Zhu, Zhen-Hua Feng, Zhihui Wang, Zhiqun He (2019)The Sixth Visual Object Tracking VOT2018 Challenge Results, In: L LealTaixe, S Roth (eds.), COMPUTER VISION - ECCV 2018 WORKSHOPS, PT I11129pp. 3-53 Springer Nature

The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2018 is the sixth annual tracker benchmarking activity organized by the VOT initiative. Results of over eighty trackers are presented; many are state-of-the-art trackers published at major computer vision conferences or in journals in the recent years. The evaluation included the standard VOT and other popular methodologies for short-term tracking analysis and a "real-time" experiment simulating a situation where a tracker processes images as if provided by a continuously running sensor. A long-term tracking subchallenge has been introduced to the set of standard VOT sub-challenges. The new subchallenge focuses on long-term tracking properties, namely coping with target disappearance and reappearance. A new dataset has been compiled and a performance evaluation methodology that focuses on long-term tracking capabilities has been adopted. The VOT toolkit has been updated to support both standard short-term and the new long-term tracking subchallenges. Performance of the tested trackers typically by far exceeds standard baselines. The source code for most of the trackers is publicly available from the VOT page. The dataset, the evaluation kit and the results are publicly available at the challenge website (

Z Kalal, J Matas, K Mikolajczyk (2008)Weighted Sampling for Large-Scale Boosting., In: M Everingham, CJ Needham, R Fraile (eds.), BMVCpp. 1-10
L Ellis, J Matas, R Bowden (2008)Online Learning and Partitioning of Linear Displacement Predictors for Tracking, In: Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conferencepp. 33-42

A novel approach to learning and tracking arbitrary image features is presented. Tracking is tackled by learning the mapping from image intensity differences to displacements. Linear regression is used, resulting in low computational cost. An appearance model of the target is built on-the-fly by clustering sub-sampled image templates. The medoidshift algorithm is used to cluster the templates thus identifying various modes or aspects of the target appearance, each mode is associated to the most suitable set of linear predictors allowing piecewise linear regression from image intensity differences to warp updates. Despite no hard-coding or offline learning, excellent results are shown on three publicly available video sequences and comparisons with related approaches made.

H Cai, K Mikolajczyk, J Matas (2008)Learning linear discriminant projections for dimensionality reduction of image descriptors, In: BMVC 2008 - Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference 2008pp. 51.5-51.10

This paper proposes a general method for improving image descriptors using discriminant projections. Two methods based on Linear Discriminant Analysis have been recently introduced in [3, 11] to improve matching performance of local descriptors and to reduce their dimensionality. These methods require large training set with ground truth of accurate point-to-point correspondences which limits their applicability. We demonstrate the theoretical equivalence of these methods and provide a means to derive projection vectors on data without available ground truth. It makes it possible to apply this technique and improve performance of any combination of interest point detectors-descriptors. We conduct an extensive evaluation of the discriminative projection methods in various application scenarios. The results validate the proposed method in viewpoint invariant matching and category recognition.

K Mikolajczyk, J Matas (2007)Improving descriptors for fast tree matching by optimal linear projection, In: 2007 IEEE 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION, VOLS 1-6pp. 337-344
M Kristan, J Matas, A Leonardis, M Felsberg, L Cehovin, GF Fernandez, T Vojır, G Hager, G Nebehay, R Pflugfelder, A Gupta, A Bibi, A Lukezic, A Garcia-Martin, A Petrosino, A Saffari, AS Montero, A Varfolomieiev, A Baskurt, B Zhao, B Ghanem, B Martinez, B Lee, B Han, C Wang, C Garcia, C Zhang, C Schmid, D Tao, D Kim, D Huang, D Prokhorov, D Du, D-Y Yeung, E Ribeiro, FS Khan, F Porikli, F Bunyak, G Zhu, G Seetharaman, H Kieritz, HT Yau, H Li, H Qi, H Bischof, H Possegger, H Lee, H Nam, I Bogun, J-C Jeong, J-I Cho, J-Y Lee, J Zhu, J Shi, J Li, J Jia, J Feng, J Gao, JY Choi, J Kim, J Lang, JM Martinez, J Choi, J Xing, K Xue, K Palaniappan, K Lebeda, K Alahari, K Gao, K Yun, KH Wong, L Luo, L Ma, L Ke, L Wen, L Bertinetto, M Pootschi, M Maresca, M Danelljan, M Wen, M Zhang, M Arens, M Valstar, M Tang, M-C Chang, MH Khan, N Fan, N Wang, O Miksik, P Torr, Q Wang, R Martin-Nieto, R Pelapur, Richard Bowden, R Laganière, S Moujtahid, S Hare, Simon Hadfield, S Lyu, S Li, S-C Zhu, S Becker, S Duffner, SL Hicks, S Golodetz, S Choi, T Wu, T Mauthner, T Pridmore, W Hu, W Hübner, X Wang, X Li, X Shi, X Zhao, X Mei, Y Shizeng, Y Hua, Y Li, Y Lu, Y Li, Z Chen, Z Huang, Z Chen, Z Zhang, Z He, Z Hong (2015)The Visual Object Tracking VOT2015 challenge results, In: ICCV workshop on Visual Object Tracking Challengepp. 564-586

The Visual Object Tracking challenge 2015, VOT2015, aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 62 trackers are presented. The number of tested trackers makes VOT 2015 the largest benchmark on short-term tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description is provided in the appendix. Features of the VOT2015 challenge that go beyond its VOT2014 predecessor are: (i) a new VOT2015 dataset twice as large as in VOT2014 with full annotation of targets by rotated bounding boxes and per-frame attribute, (ii) extensions of the VOT2014 evaluation methodology by introduction of a new performance measure. The dataset, the evaluation kit as well as the results are publicly available at the challenge website.

K Lebeda, S Hadfield, J Matas, R Bowden (2013)Long-Term Tracking Through Failure Cases, In: Proceeedings, IEEE workshop on visual object tracking challenge at ICCVpp. 153-160

Long term tracking of an object, given only a single instance in an initial frame, remains an open problem. We propose a visual tracking algorithm, robust to many of the difficulties which often occur in real-world scenes. Correspondences of edge-based features are used, to overcome the reliance on the texture of the tracked object and improve invariance to lighting. Furthermore we address long-term stability, enabling the tracker to recover from drift and to provide redetection following object disappearance or occlusion. The two-module principle is similar to the successful state-of-the-art long-term TLD tracker, however our approach extends to cases of low-textured objects. Besides reporting our results on the VOT Challenge dataset, we perform two additional experiments. Firstly, results on short-term sequences show the performance of tracking challenging objects which represent failure cases for competing state-of-the-art approaches. Secondly, long sequences are tracked, including one of almost 30000 frames which to our knowledge is the longest tracking sequence reported to date. This tests the re-detection and drift resistance properties of the tracker. All the results are comparable to the state-of-the-art on sequences with textured objects and superior on non-textured objects. The new annotated sequences are made publicly available

Karel Lebeda, Jiri Matas, Richard Bowden (2013)Tracking the Untrackable: How to Track When Your Object Is Featureless, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science7729pp. 343-355 Springer

We propose a novel approach to tracking objects by low-level line correspondences. In our implementation we show that this approach is usable even when tracking objects with lack of texture, exploiting situations, when feature-based trackers fails due to the aperture problem. Furthermore, we suggest an approach to failure detection and recovery to maintain long-term stability. This is achieved by remembering configurations which lead to good pose estimations and using them later for tracking corrections. We carried out experiments on several sequences of different types. The proposed tracker proves itself as competitive or superior to state-of-the-art trackers in both standard and low-textured scenes.

Z Kalal, J Matas, K Mikolajczyk (2009)Online learning of robust object detectors during unstable tracking, In: 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision Workshopspp. 1417-1424

This work investigates the problem of robust, longterm visual tracking of unknown objects in unconstrained environments. It therefore must cope with frame-cuts, fast camera movements and partial/total object occlusions/dissapearances. We propose a new approach, called Tracking-Modeling-Detection (TMD) that closely integrates adaptive tracking with online learning of the object-specific detector. Starting from a single click in the first frame, TMD tracks the selected object by an adaptive tracker. The trajectory is observed by two processes (growing and pruning event) that robustly model the appearance and build an object detector on the fly. Both events make errors, the stability of the system is achieved by their cancellation. The learnt detector enables re-initialization of the tracker whenever previously observed appearance reoccurs. We show the real-time learning and classification is achievable with random forests. The performance and the long-term stability of TMD is demonstrated and evaluated on a set of challenging video sequences with various objects such as cars, people and animals.

Z Kalal, K Mikolajczyk, J Matas (2010)Forward-backward error: Automatic detection of tracking failures, In: Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognitionpp. 2756-2759

This paper proposes a novel method for tracking failure detection. The detection is based on the Forward-Backward error, i.e. the tracking is performed forward and backward in time and the discrepancies between these two trajectories are measured. We demonstrate that the proposed error enables reliable detection of tracking failures and selection of reliable trajectories in video sequences. We demonstrate that the approach is complementary to commonly used normalized cross-correlation (NCC). Based on the error, we propose a novel object tracker called Median Flow. State-of-the-art performance is achieved on challenging benchmark video sequences which include non-rigid objects.

Matej Kristan, Roman P Pflugfelder, Ales Leonardis, Jiri Matas, Luka Cehovin, Georg Nebehay, Tomas Vojir, Gustavo Fernandez, Alan Lukezi, Aleksandar Dimitriev, Alfredo Petrosino, Amir Saffari, Bo Li, Bohyung Han, CherKeng Heng, Christophe Garcia, Dominik Pangersic, Gustav Häger, Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Franci Oven, Horst Possegger, Horst Bischof, Hyeonseob Nam, Jianke Zhu, JiJia Li, Jin Young Choi, Jin-Woo Choi, Joao F Henriques, Joost van de Weijer, Jorge Batista, Karel Lebeda, Kristoffer Ofjall, Kwang Moo Yi, Lei Qin, Longyin Wen, Mario Edoardo Maresca, Martin Danelljan, Michael Felsberg, Ming-Ming Cheng, Philip Torr, Qingming Huang, Richard Bowden, Sam Hare, Samantha YueYing Lim, Seunghoon Hong, Shengcai Liao, Simon Hadfield, Stan Z Li, Stefan Duffner, Stuart Golodetz, Thomas Mauthner, Vibhav Vineet, Weiyao Lin, Yang Li, Yuankai Qi, Zhen Lei, ZhiHeng Niu (2015)The Visual Object Tracking VOT2014 Challenge Results, In: COMPUTER VISION - ECCV 2014 WORKSHOPS, PT II8926pp. 191-217

The Visual Object Tracking challenge 2014, VOT2014, aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 38 trackers are presented. The number of tested trackers makes VOT 2014 the largest benchmark on short-term tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description is provided in the appendix. Features of the VOT2014 challenge that go beyond its VOT2013 predecessor are introduced: (i) a new VOT2014 dataset with full annotation of targets by rotated bounding boxes and per-frame attribute, (ii) extensions of the VOT2013 evaluation methodology, (iii) a new unit for tracking speed assessment less dependent on the hardware and (iv) the VOT2014 evaluation toolkit that significantly speeds up execution of experiments. The dataset, the evaluation kit as well as the results are publicly available at the challenge website (http://​votchallenge.​net).