Joanna Sakowska


Postgraduate Research Student

About

My research project

Publications

W. Cerny, J. D. Simon, T. S. Li, A. Drlica-Wagner, A. B. Pace, C. E. Martínez-Vázquez, A. H. Riley, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, S. Mau, P. S. Ferguson, D. Erkal, R. R. Munoz, C. R. Bom, J. L. Carlin, D. Carollo, Y. Choi, A. P. Ji, V. Manwadkar, D. Martínez-Delgado, A. E. Miller, N. E. D. Noël, J. D. Sakowska, D. J. Sand, G. S. Stringfellow, E. J. Tollerud, A. K. Vivas, J. A. Carballo-Bello, D. Hernandez-Lang, D. J. James, D. L. Nidever, J. L. Nilo Castellon, K. A. G. Olsen, A. Zenteno (2023)Pegasus IV: Discovery and Spectroscopic Confirmation of an Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy in the Constellation Pegasus, In: The Astrophysical journal942(2)111 IOP

We report the discovery of Pegasus IV, an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy found in archival data from the Dark Energy Camera processed by the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey. Pegasus IV is a compact, ultra-faint stellar system ( r 1 / 2 = 41 − 6 + 8 pc; M V = −4.25 ± 0.2 mag) located at a heliocentric distance of 90 − 6 + 4 kpc . Based on spectra of seven nonvariable member stars observed with Magellan/IMACS, we confidently resolve Pegasus IV’s velocity dispersion, measuring σ v = 3.3 − 1.1 + 1.7 km s −1 (after excluding three velocity outliers); this implies a mass-to-light ratio of M 1 / 2 / L V , 1 / 2 = 167 − 99 + 224 M ⊙ / L ⊙ for the system. From the five stars with the highest signal-to-noise spectra, we also measure a systemic metallicity of [Fe/H] = − 2.63 − 0.30 + 0.26 dex, making Pegasus IV one of the most metal-poor ultra-faint dwarfs. We tentatively resolve a nonzero metallicity dispersion for the system. These measurements provide strong evidence that Pegasus IV is a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy, rather than a star cluster. We measure Pegasus IV’s proper motion using data from Gaia Early Data Release 3, finding ( μ α * , μ δ ) = (0.33 ± 0.07, −0.21 ± 0.08) mas yr −1 . When combined with our measured systemic velocity, this proper motion suggests that Pegasus IV is on an elliptical, retrograde orbit, and is currently near its orbital apocenter. Lastly, we identify three potential RR Lyrae variable stars within Pegasus IV, including one candidate member located more than 10 half-light radii away from the system’s centroid. The discovery of yet another ultra-faint dwarf galaxy strongly suggests that the census of Milky Way satellites is still incomplete, even within 100 kpc.

W Cerny, C. E. Martínez-Vázquez, J. D. Sakowska, Alex Drlica-Wagner, Andrew B Pace, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, T. S. Li, A. H. Riley, D. Crnojević, C. R Bom, J. A. Carballo-Bello, J. L. Carlin, Anirudh Chiti, Y. Choi, M.L.M Collins, E Darragh-Ford, P. S. Ferguson, Marla Geha, D. Martínez-Delgado, S Mau, Pol Massana, Gustavo E. Medina, Rr Munoz, E. O. Nadler, N. E. D. Noël, K Olsen, A Pieres, J. D. Simon, Guy S Stringfellow, Erik J. Tollerud, A. K. Vivas, A. R. Walker, R. H. Wechsler, DELVE Collaborat (2023)Six More Ultra-faint Milky Way Companions Discovered in the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey, In: The Astrophysical Journal953(1) IOP Publishing

We report the discovery of six ultra-faint Milky Way satellites identified through matched-filter searches conducted using Dark Energy Camera (DECam) data processed as part of the second data release of the DECam Local Volume Exploration (DELVE) survey. Leveraging deep Gemini/GMOS-N imaging (for four candidates) as well as follow-up DECam imaging (for two candidates), we characterize the morphologies and stellar populations of these systems. We find that these candidates all share faint absolute magnitudes (M ( V ) & GE; -3.2 mag) and old, metal-poor stellar populations (& tau; > 10 Gyr, [Fe/H] < -1.4 dex). Three of these systems are more extended (r (1/2) > 15 pc), while the other three are compact (r (1/2) < 10 pc). From these properties, we infer that the former three systems (Bootes V, Leo Minor I, and Virgo II) are consistent with ultra-faint dwarf galaxy classifications, whereas the latter three (DELVE 3, DELVE 4, and DELVE 5) are likely ultra-faint star clusters. Using data from the Gaia satellite, we confidently measure the proper motion of Bootes V, Leo Minor I, and DELVE 4, and tentatively detect a proper-motion signal from DELVE 3 and DELVE 5; no signal is detected for Virgo II. We use these measurements to explore possible associations between the newly discovered systems and the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal, the Magellanic Clouds, and the Vast Polar Structure, finding several plausible associations. Our results offer a preview of the numerous ultra-faint stellar systems that will soon be discovered by the Vera C. Rubin Observatory and highlight the challenges of classifying the faintest stellar systems.

F Ashmead, V Manwadkar, J Poh, B. X Santiago, J. L. Nilo Castellon, F Andrade-Oliveira, M. E. S Pereira, P Doel, J Prat, M Rodriguez-Monroy, V Scarpine, E. A Zaborowski, A Drlica-Wagner, J. F Wu, R Morgan, C. R Bom, A. J Shajib, S Birrer, W Cerny, E. J Buckley-Geer, B Mutlu-Pakdil, P. S Ferguson, K Glazebrook, S. J. Gonzalez Lozano, Y Gordon, M Martinez, J O’Donnell, A Riley, J. D Sakowska, L Santana-Silva, D Sluse, C. Y Tan, E. J Tollerud, A Verma, J. A Carballo-Bello, Y Choi, D. J James, N Kuropatkin, C. E Martínez-Vázquez, D. L Nidever, N. E. D Noël, K. A. G Olsen, A. B Pace, S Mau, B Yanny, A Zenteno, T. M. C Abbott, M Aguena, O Alves, S Bocquet, D Brooks, D. L Burke, A Carnero Rosell, M Carrasco Kind, J Carretero, F. J Castander, C. J Conselice, M Costanzi, J De Vicente, S Desai, J. P Dietrich, S Everett, I Ferrero, B Flaugher, D Friedel, J Frieman, J García-Bellido, D Gruen, R. A Gruendl, G Gutierrez, S. R Hinton, D. L Hollowood, K Honscheid, K Kuehn, H Lin, J. L Marshall, P Melchior, J Mena-Fernández, F Menanteau, R Miquel, A Palmese, F Paz-Chinchón, A Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, A. K Romer, E Sanchez, I Sevilla-Noarbe, M Smith, E Suchyta, C To, N Weaverdyck (2023)Identification of Galaxy–Galaxy Strong Lens Candidates in the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey Using Machine Learning The American Astronomical Society

We perform a search for galaxy–galaxy strong lens systems using a convolutional neural network (CNN) applied to imaging data from the first public data release of the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey, which contains ∼520 million astronomical sources covering ∼4000 deg2 of the southern sky to a 5σ point–source depth of g = 24.3, r = 23.9, i = 23.3, and z = 22.8 mag. Following the methodology of similar searches using Dark Energy Camera data, we apply color and magnitude cuts to select a catalog of ∼11 million extended astronomical sources. After scoring with our CNN, the highest-scoring 50,000 images were visually inspected and assigned a score on a scale from 0 (not a lens) to 3 (very probable lens). We present a list of 581 strong lens candidates, 562 of which are previously unreported. We categorize our candidates using their human-assigned scores, resulting in 55 Grade A candidates, 149 Grade B candidates, and 377 Grade C candidates. We additionally highlight eight potential quadruply lensed quasars from this sample. Due to the location of our search footprint in the northern Galactic cap (b > 10 deg) and southern celestial hemisphere (decl. < 0 deg), our candidate list has little overlap with other existing ground-based searches. Where our search footprint does overlap with other searches, we find a significant number of high-quality candidates that were previously unidentified, indicating a degree of orthogonality in our methodology. We report properties of our candidates including apparent magnitude and Einstein radius estimated from the image separation.

W Cerny, A Drlica-Wagner, T. S Li, A. B Pace, K. A. G Olsen, N. E. D Noël, R. P van der Marel, J. L Carlin, Y Choi, D Erkal, M Geha, D. J James, C. E Martínez-Vázquez, P Massana, G. E Medina, A. E Miller, B Mutlu-Pakdil, D. L Nidever, J. D Sakowska, G. S Stringfellow, J. A Carballo-Bello, P. S Ferguson, N Kuropatkin, S Mau, E. J Tollerud, A. K Vivas DELVE 6: An Ancient, Ultra-Faint Star Cluster on the Outskirts of the Magellanic Clouds

We present the discovery of DELVE 6, an ultra-faint stellar system identified in the second data release of the DECam Local Volume Exploration (DELVE) survey. Based on a maximum-likelihood fit to its structure and stellar population, we find that DELVE 6 is an old ($\tau > 9.8$ Gyr, at 95% confidence) and metal-poor ($\rm [Fe/H] < -1.17$ dex, at 95% confidence) stellar system with an absolute magnitude of $M_V = -1.5^{+0.4}_{-0.6}$ mag and an azimuthally-averaged half-light radius of $r_{1/2} =10^{+4}_{-3}$ pc. These properties are consistent with the population of ultra-faint star clusters uncovered by recent surveys. Interestingly, DELVE 6 is located at an angular separation of $\sim 10\deg$ from the center of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), corresponding to a three-dimensional physical separation of $\sim 20$ kpc given the system's observed distance ($D_{\odot} = 80$ kpc). This also places the system $\sim 35$ kpc from the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), lying within recent constraints on the size of the LMC's dark matter halo. We tentatively measure the proper motion of DELVE 6 using data from $\textit{Gaia}$, which we find supports a potential association between the system and the LMC/SMC. Although future kinematic measurements will be necessary to determine its origins, we highlight that DELVE 6 may represent only the second or third ancient ($\tau > 9$ Gyr) star cluster associated with the SMC, or one of fewer than two dozen ancient clusters associated with the LMC. Nonetheless, we cannot currently rule out the possibility that the system is a distant Milky Way halo star cluster.

V Alfradique, C. R Bom, A Palmese, G Teixeira, L Santana-Silva, A Drlica-Wagner, A. H Riley, C. E Martínez-Vázquez, D. J Sand, G. S Stringfellow, G. E Medina, J. A Carballo-Bello, Y Choi, J Esteves, G Limberg, B Mutlu-Pakdil, N. E. D Noël, A. B Pace, J. D Sakowska, J. F Wu A dark siren measurement of the Hubble constant using gravitational wave events from the first three LIGO/Virgo observing runs and DELVE, In: arXiv.org

The current and next observation seasons will detect hundreds of gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary systems coalescence at cosmological distances. When combined with independent electromagnetic measurements, the source redshift will be known, and we will be able to obtain precise measurements of the Hubble constant $H_0$ via the distance-redshift relation. However, most observed mergers are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts, which prevents a direct redshift measurement. In this scenario, one of the possibilities is to use the dark sirens method that statistically marginalizes over all the potential host galaxies within the GW location volume to provide a probabilistic redshift to the source. Here we presented $H_{0}$ measurements using two new dark sirens compared to previous analyses using DECam data, GW190924$\_$021846 and GW200202$\_$154313. The photometric redshifts of the possible host galaxies of these two events are acquired from the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey (DELVE) carried out on the Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo in Chile. The combination of the $H_0$ posterior from GW190924$\_$021846 and GW200202$\_$154313 together with the bright siren GW170817 leads to $H_{0} = 68.84^{+15.51}_{-7.74}\, \rm{km/s/Mpc}$. Including these two dark sirens improves the 68% confidence interval (CI) by 7% over GW170817 alone. This demonstrates that the inclusion of well-localized dark sirens in such analysis improves the precision with which cosmological measurements can be made. Using a sample containing 10 well-localized dark sirens observed during the third LIGO/Virgo observation run, we determine a measurement of $H_{0} = 76.00^{+17.64}_{-13.45}\, \rm{km /s/Mpc}$.

M. E Heiger, T. S Li, A. B Pace, J. D Simon, A. P Ji, A Chiti, C. R Bom, J. A Carballo-Bello, J. L Carlin, W Cerny, Y Choi, A Drlica-Wagner, D. J James, C. E Martínez-Vázquez, G. E Medina, B Mutlu-Pakdil, M Navabi, N. E. D Noël, J. D Sakowska, G. S Stringfellow Reading Between the (Spectral) Lines: Magellan/IMACS spectroscopy of the Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxies Eridanus IV and Centaurus I

We present a spectroscopic analysis of Eridanus IV (Eri IV) and Centaurus I (Cen I), two ultra-faint dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way. Using IMACS/Magellan spectroscopy, we identify 28 member stars of Eri IV and 34 member stars of Cen I. For Eri IV, we measure a systemic velocity of $v_{sys} = -31.5^{+1.3}_{-1.2}\:\mathrm{km\:s^{-1}}$ and velocity dispersion $\sigma_{v}= 6.1^{+1.2}_{-0.9}\:\mathrm{km\:s^{-1}}$. Additionally, we measure the metallicities of 16 member stars of Eri IV. We find a metallicity of $\mathrm{[Fe/H]}=-2.87^{+0.08}_{-0.07}$ and resolve a dispersion of $\sigma_{\mathrm{[Fe/H]}} = 0.20\pm0.09$. The mean metallicity is marginally lower than all other known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, making it one of the most metal-poor galaxies discovered thus far. Eri IV also has a somewhat unusual right-skewed metallicity distribution. For Cen I, we find a velocity $v_{sys} = 44.9\pm0.8\:\mathrm{km\:s^{-1}}$ and velocity dispersion $\sigma_{v} = 4.2^{+0.6}_{-0.5} \:\mathrm{km\:s^{-1}}$. We measure the metallicities of 27 member stars of Cen I, and find a mean metallicity $\mathrm{[Fe/H]} = -2.57\pm0.08$ and metallicity dispersion $\sigma_{\mathrm{[Fe/H]}} = 0.38^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$. We calculate the systemic proper motion, orbit, and the astrophysical J-factor for each system, the latter of which indicates that Eri IV is a good target for indirect dark matter detection. We also find no strong evidence for tidal stripping of Cen I or Eri IV. Overall, our measurements confirm that Eri IV and Cen I are dark matter-dominated galaxies with properties largely consistent with other known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. The low metallicity, right-skewed metallicity distribution, and high J-factor make Eri IV an especially interesting candidate for further followup.

Manisha Shrestha, David J. Sand, Kate D. Alexander, K. Azalee Bostroem, Griffin Hosseinzadeh, Jeniveve Pearson, Mojgan Aghakhanloo, József Vinkó, Jennifer E. Andrews, Jacob E. Jencson, M. J. Lundquist, Samuel Wyatt, D. Andrew Howell, Curtis McCully, Estefania Padilla Gonzalez, Craig Pellegrino, Giacomo Terreran, Daichi Hiramatsu, Megan Newsome, Joseph Farah, Saurabh W. Jha, Nathan Smith, J. Craig Wheeler, Clara Martínez-Vázquez, Julio A. Carballo-Bello, Alex Drlica-Wagner, David J. James, Burçin Mutlu-Pakdil, Guy S. Stringfellow, Joanna D. Sakowska, Noelia E. D. Noël, Clécio R. Bom, Kyler Kuehn, (2023)Limit on Supernova Emission in the Brightest Gamma-Ray Burst, GRB 221009A, In: Astrophysical Journal Letters946(1)L25 The American Astronomical Society
Joanna D Sakowska, Noelia E. D Noël, Tomás Ruiz-Lara, Carme Gallart Star Formation History of the Small Magellanic Cloud: the shell substructure

We present the spatially resolved star formation history (SFH) of a shell-like structure located in the northeastern Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We quantitatively obtain the SFH using unprecedented deep photometric data (g~24 magnitude) from the SMASH survey and colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting techniques. We consider, for the first time, the SMC's line-of-sight depth and its optical effects on the CMDs. The SFH presents higher accuracy when a line-of-sight depth of ~3 Kpc is simulated. We find young star formation enhancements at ~150 Myr, ~200 Myr, ~450 Myr, ~650 Myr, and ~1 Gyr. Comparing the shell's SFH with the Large Magellanic Cloud's (LMC) northern arm SFH we show strong evidence of synchronicity from at least the past ~2.8 Gyr and, possibly, the past ~3.5 Gyr. Our results place constraints on the orbital history of the Magellanic Clouds which, potentially, have implications on their dynamical mass estimates.

W. Cerny, A. Drlica-Wagner, T. S. Li, A. B. Pace, K. A. G. Olsen, N. E. D. Noël, R. P. van der Marel, J. L. Carlin, Y. Choi, D. Erkal, M. Geha, D. J. James, C. E. Martínez-Vázquez, P. Massana, G. E. Medina, A. E. Miller, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, D. L. Nidever, J. D. Sakowska, G. S. Stringfellow, J. A. Carballo-Bello, P. S. Ferguson, N. Kuropatkin, S. Mau, E. J. Tollerud, A. K. Vivas (2023)DELVE 6: An Ancient, Ultra-faint Star Cluster on the Outskirts of the Magellanic Clouds, In: Astrophysical journal. Letters953(2) The American Astronomical Society
M. McNanna, K. Bechtol, S. Mau, E. O. Nadler, J. Medoff, A. Drlica-Wagner, W Cerny, D. Crnojevic, B. Mutlu-Pakdıl, A. K. Vivas, A. B. Pace, J. L. Carlin, M. L. M. Collins, P. S. Ferguson, D. Martinez-Delgado, C. E. Martinez-Vazquez, N. E. D. Noel, A. H. Riley, D. J. Sand, A. Smercina, E Tollerud, R Wechsler, T. M. C. Abbott, M. Aguena, O. Alves, D. Bacon, C. R. Bom, D. Brooks, D Burke, J Carballo-Bello, A. Carnero Rosell, J. Carretero, L. N. Da Costa, T. M. Davis, J De Vicente, H. T. Diehl, P. Doel, I Ferrero, J Frieman, G. Giannini, D. Gruen, G. Gutierrez, R. A. Gruendl, S. R. Hinton, D. L. Hollowood, K Honscheid, D. J. James, K Kuehn, J. L. Marshall, J. Mena-Fernandez, R. Miquel, M. E. S. Pereira, A. Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagon, J Sakowska, E. Sanchez, D. Sanchez Cid, B. Santiago, I Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, G. S. Stringfellow, E. Suchyta, M. E. C. Swanson, G. Tarle, N. Weaverdyck, P. Wiseman (2024)A Search for Faint Resolved Galaxies Beyond the Milky Way in DES Year 6: A New Faint, Diffuse Dwarf Satellite of NGC 55, In: The Astrophysical Journal961(1) IOP Publishing

We report results from a systematic wide-area search for faint dwarf galaxies at heliocentric distances from 0.3 to 2 Mpc using the full 6 yr of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Unlike previous searches over the DES data, this search specifically targeted a field population of faint galaxies located beyond the Milky Way virial radius. We derive our detection efficiency for faint, resolved dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume with a set of synthetic galaxies and expect our search to be complete to MV ∼ (−7, −10) mag for galaxies at D = (0.3, 2.0) Mpc. We find no new field dwarfs in the DES footprint, but we report the discovery of one high-significance candidate dwarf galaxy at a distance of 2.2−0.12+0.05Mpc, a potential satellite of the Local Volume galaxy NGC 55, separated by 47′ (physical separation as small as 30 kpc). We estimate this dwarf galaxy to have an absolute V-band magnitude of −8.0−0.3+0.5mag and an azimuthally averaged physical half-light radius of 2.2−0.4+0.5kpc, making this one of the lowest surface brightness galaxies ever found with μ=32.3magarcsec−2. This is the largest, most diffuse galaxy known at this luminosity, suggesting possible tidal interactions with its host.

C. E. Martínez-Vázquez, W. Cerny, A. K. Vivas, A Drlica-Wagner, A.B Pace, J. D. Simon, R. R. Munoz, A. R. Walker, S Allam, D. L. Tucker, M. Adamów, J. L. Carlin, Y. Choi, P. S. Ferguson, A. P. Ji, N Kuropatkin, T. S. Li, D Martinez-Delgado, S Mau, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, D. L. Nidever, A. H. Riley, Joanna D Sakowska, D. J. Sand, G. S. Stringfellow, (2021)RR Lyrae stars in the newly discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Centaurus I, In: The Astronomical journal162(6)

We report the detection of three RR Lyrae (RRL) stars (two RRc and one RRab) in the ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxy Centaurus I (CenI) and two Milky Way (MW) $\delta$ Scuti/SX Phoenicis stars based on multi-epoch $giz$ DECam observations. The two RRc stars are located within 2 times the half-light radius (r$_h$) of Cen I, while the RRab star (CenI-V3) is at $\sim6$ r$_h$. The presence of three distant RRL stars clustered this tightly in space represents a 4.7$\sigma$ excess relative to the smooth distribution of RRL in the Galactic halo. Using the newly detected RRL stars, we obtain a distance modulus to Cen I of $\mu_0 = 20.354 \pm 0.002$ mag ($\sigma=0.03$ mag), a heliocentric distance of D$_\odot = 117.7 \pm 0.1$ kpc ($\sigma=1.6$ kpc), with systematic errors of $0.07$ mag and $4$ kpc. The location of the Cen I RRL stars in the Bailey diagram is in agreement with other UFD galaxies (mainly Oosterhoff II). Finally, we study the relative rate of RRc+RRd (RRcd) stars ($f_{cd}$) in UFD and classical dwarf galaxies. The full sample of MW dwarf galaxies gives a mean of $f_{cd} = 0.28$. While several UFD galaxies, such as Cen I, present higher RRcd ratios, if we combine the RRL populations of all UFD galaxies, the RRcd ratio is similar to the one obtained for the classical dwarfs ($f_{cd}$ $\sim$ 0.3). Therefore, there is no evidence for a different fraction of RRcd stars in UFD and classical dwarf galaxies.

P. S. Ferguson, J. D. Sakowska, N. Shipp, A Drlica-Wagner, T. S. Li, W. Cerny, K. Tavangar, A. B. Pace, J. L. Marshall, A. H. Riley, M. Adamów, J. L. Carlin, Y. Choi, D. Erkal, D. J. James, Sergey E. Koposov, N Kuropatkin, C. E. Martínez-Vázquez, S Mau, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, K. A. G. Olsen, G. S. Stringfellow, B Yanny (2021)DELVE-ing into the Jet: a thin stellar stream on a retrograde orbit at 30 kpc, In: Astrophysical Journal American Astronomical Society

We perform a detailed photometric and astrometric analysis of stars in the Jet stream using data from the first data release of the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey (DELVE) DR1 and Gaia EDR3. We discover that the stream extends over ∼ 29 • on the sky (increasing the known length by 18 •), which is comparable to the kinematically cold Phoenix, ATLAS, and GD-1 streams. Using blue horizontal branch stars, we resolve a distance gradient along the Jet stream of 0.2 kpc/deg, with distances ranging from D ∼ 27−34 kpc. We use natural splines to simultaneously fit the stream track, width, and intensity to quantitatively characterize density variations in the Jet stream, including a large gap, and identify substructure off the main track of the stream. Furthermore, we report the first measurement of the proper motion of the Jet stream and find that it is well-aligned with the stream track suggesting the stream has likely not been significantly perturbed perpendicular to the line of sight. Corresponding author: Peter Ferguson peter.ferguson@wisc.edu 2 DELVE Collaboration Finally, we fit the stream with a dynamical model and find that the stream is on a retrograde orbit, and is well fit by a gravitational potential including the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud. These results indicate the Jet stream is an excellent candidate for future studies with deeper photometry, astrometry, and spectroscopy to study the potential of the Milky Way and probe perturbations from baryonic and dark matter substructure.

A. Drlica-Wagner, J. L. Carlin, D. L. Nidever, P. S. Ferguson, N. Kuropatkin, M. Adamow, W. Cerny, Y. Choi, J. H. Esteves, C. E. Martinez-Vazquez, S. Mau, A. E. Miller, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, E. H. Neilsen, K. A. G. Olsen, A. B. Pace, A. H. Riley, J. D. Sakowska, D. J. Sand, E. J. Tollerud, L. Santana-Silva, D. L. Tucker, A. K. Vivas, E. Zaborowski, A. Zenteno, T. M. C. Abbott, S. Allam, K. Bechtol, C. P. M. Bell, E. F. Bell, P. Bilaji, C. R. Bom, J. A. Carballo-Bello, D. Crnojevic, M. R. L. Cioni, A. Diaz-Ocampo, T. J. L. de Boer, D. Erkal, R. A. Gruendl, D. Hernandez-Lang, A. K. Hughes, D. J. James, L. C. Johnson, T. S. Li, Y-Y Mao, D. Martinez-Delgado, P. Massana, M. McNanna, R. Morgan, E. O. Nadler, N. E. D. Noel, A. Palmese, A. H. G. Peter, E. S. Rykoff, J. Sanchez, N. Shipp, J. D. Simon, A. Smercina, M. Soares-Santos, G. S. Stringfellow, K. Tavangar, R. P. van Der Marel, A. R. Walker, R. H. Wechsler, J. F. Wu, B. Yanny, M. Fitzpatrick, L. Huang, A. Jacques, R. Nikutta, A. Scott, (2021)The DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey: Overview and First Data Release, In: The Astrophysical journal. Supplement series256(1) IOP Publishing Ltd

The DECam Local Volume Exploration survey (DELVE) is a 126-night survey program on the 4 m Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. DELVE seeks to understand the characteristics of faint satellite galaxies and other resolved stellar substructures over a range of environments in the Local Volume. DELVE will combine new DECam observations with archival DECam data to cover similar to 15,000 deg(2) of high Galactic latitude (vertical bar b vertical bar > 10 degrees) southern sky to a 5 sigma depth of g, r, i, z similar to 23.5 mag. In addition, DELVE will cover a region of similar to 2200 deg(2) around the Magellanic Clouds to a depth of g, r, i similar to 24.5 mag and an area of similar to 135 deg(2) around four Magellanic analogs to a depth of g, i similar to 25.5 mag. Here, we present an overview of the DELVE program and progress to date. We also summarize the first DELVE public data release (DELVE DR1), which provides point-source and automatic aperture photometry for similar to 520 million astronomical sources covering similar to 5000 deg(2) of the southern sky to a 5 sigma point-source depth of g = 24.3 mag, r = 23.9 mag, i = 23.3 mag, and z = 22.8 mag. DELVE DR1 is publicly available via the NOIRLab Astro Data Lab science platform.

Pol Massana, T. Ruiz-Lara, Noelia E. D. Noël, C Gallart, David L Nidever, Y. Choi, Joanna D Sakowska, Gurtina Besla, K. A. G Olsen, Mateo Monelli, A Dorta, G. S. Stringfellow, S. Cassisi, Edouard Bernard, Dennis Zaritsky, Maria-Rosa L. Cioni, Antonela Monachesi, Roeland van der Marel, T. J. L de Boer, Alistair Walker (2022)The synchronised dance of the Magellanic Clouds' star formation history, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters513(1)pp. L40-L45

We use the SMASH survey to obtain unprecedented deep photometry reaching down to the oldest main sequence turn-offs in the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and quantitatively derive its star formation history (SFH) using CMD fitting techniques. We identify five distinctive peaks of star formation in the last 3.5 Gyr, at $\sim $3, $\sim$2, $\sim$1.1, $\sim $0.45 Gyr ago, and one presently. We compare these to the SFH of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) finding unequivocal synchronicity, with both galaxies displaying similar periods of enhanced star formation over the past $\sim$3.5 Gyr. The parallelism between their SFHs indicates that tidal interactions between the MCs have recurrently played an important role in their evolution for at least the last $\sim$3.5 Gyr, tidally truncating the SMC and shaping the LMC's spiral arm. We show, for the first time, an SMC-LMC correlated SFH at recent times in which enhancements of star formation are localised in the northern spiral arm of the LMC, and globally across the SMC. These novel findings should be used to constrain not only the orbital history of the MCs but also how star formation should be treated in simulations.

David L Nidever, Knut Olsen, Yumi Choi, Tomas Ruiz-Lara, Amy E Miller, L. Clifton Johnson, Cameron P. M Bell, Robert D Blum, Maria-Rosa L Cioni, Carme Gallart, Steven R Majewski, Nicolas F Martin, Pol Massana, Antonela Monachesi, Noelia E. D Noel, Joanna D Sakowska, Roeland P van der Marel, Alistair R Walker, Dennis Zaritsky, Eric F Bell, Blair C Conn, Thomas J. L de Boer, Robert A Gruendl, Matteo Monelli, Ricardo R Munoz, Abhijit Saha, A. Katherina Vivas, Edouard Bernard, Gurtina Besla, Julio A Carballo-Bello, Antonio Dorta, David Martinez-Delgado, Alex Goater, Vadim Rusakov, Guy S Stringfellow (2020)The Second Data Release of the Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH), In: The Astronomical journal161(2)74 IOP

The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) are the largest satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and close enough to allow for a detailed exploration of their structure and formation history. The Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) is a community Dark Energy Camera (DECam) survey of the Magellanic Clouds using ~50 nights to sample over ~2400 deg2 centered on the Clouds at ~20% filling factor (but with contiguous coverage in the central regions) and to depths of ~24th mag in ugriz. The primary goals of SMASH are to map out the extended stellar peripheries of the Clouds and uncover their complicated interaction and accretion history as well as to derive spatially resolved star formation histories of the central regions and create a "movie" of their past star formation. Here we announce the second SMASH public data release (DR2), which contains all 197 fully calibrated DECam fields including the main body fields in the central regions. The DR2 data are available through the Astro Data Lab hosted by the NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory. We highlight three science cases that make use of the SMASH DR2 data and will be published in the future: (1) preliminary star formation histories of the LMC, (2) the search for Magellanic star clusters using citizen scientists, and, (3) photometric metallicities of Magellanic Cloud stars using the DECam u-band.

A Drlica-Wagner, P. S. Ferguson, M. Adamów, M Aguena, F Andrade-Oliveira, D Bacon, K Bechtol, Eric F. Bell, E Bertin, P Bilaji, S Bocquet, C. R Bom, D Brooks, DL Burke, Julio A. Carballo-Bello, J. L. Carlin, AC Rosell, MC Kind, J Carretero, FJ Castander, W. Cerny, Chao-Hsi Chang, Y. Choi, C Conselice, M Costanzi, D. Crnojević, LN da Costa, J. De Vicente, S Desai, J Esteves, S. Everett, I Ferrero, MF Fitzpatrick, B Flaugher, D Friedel, J Frieman, J. Garcia-Bellido, M Gatti, E Gaztanaga, DW Gerdes, D Gruen, RA Gruendl, J. Gschwend, W Hartley, D. Hernandez-Lang, S. R Hinton, D.L Hollowood, K Honscheid, ASHLEY KATE HUGHES, A Jacques, DEBORAH JAMES, M. D Johnson, K Kuehn, N Kuropatkin, O Lahav, TIANRU LI, C. Lidman, Hong Lin, M March, J. L. Marshall, D Martinez-Delgado, C. E. Martínez-Vázquez, POL MASSANA ZAPATA, S Mau, M. McNanna, P Melchior, F. Menanteau, A. E Miller, R Miquel, J Mohr, R Morgan, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, Ricardo R. Muñoz, E Neilsen, David L Nidever, R Nikutta, J. L. Nilo Castellon, NOELIA ESTELLA DONATA NOEL, R L C Ogando, K. A. G Olsen, A.B Pace, A. Palmese, F. Paz-Chinchon, M. E. S Pereira, A Pieres, A. A. Plazas Malagón, J Prat, A. H. Riley, M Rodriguez-Monroy, AK Romer, A Roodman, M Sako, Joanna D Sakowska, E Sanchez, F. J Sánchez, D. J. Sand, L. Santana-Silva, B Santiago, M Schubnell, S. Serrano, I Sevilla-Noarbe, Joshua D. Simon, MATTHEW LLOYD SMITH, M Soares-Santos, G Stringfellow, E Suchyta, DJ Suson, C. Y Tan, G Tarle, K. Tavangar, DR Thomas, Cheryl To, E. J. Tollerud, M. A Troxel, D Tucker, T. N Varga, AK Vivas, Alistair Walker, JODIE WELLER, Ryan Wilkinson, J. Wu, B Yanny, E Zaborowski, A. Zenteno (2022)The DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey Data Release 2, In: The Astrophysical journal Supplement series261(2) IOP Publishing

We present the second public data release (DR2) from the DECam Local Volume Exploration survey (DELVE). DELVE DR2 combines new DECam observations with archival DECam data from the Dark Energy Survey, the DECam Legacy Survey, and other DECam community programs. DELVE DR2 consists of ~160,000 exposures that cover >21,000 deg^2 of the high Galactic latitude (|b| > 10 deg) sky in four broadband optical/near-infrared filters (g, r, i, z). DELVE DR2 provides point-source and automatic aperture photometry for ~2.5 billion astronomical sources with a median 5{\sigma} point-source depth of g=24.3, r=23.9, i=23.5, and z=22.8 mag. A region of ~17,000 deg^2 has been imaged in all four filters, providing four-band photometric measurements for ~618 million astronomical sources. DELVE DR2 covers more than four times the area of the previous DELVE data release and contains roughly five times as many astronomical objects. DELVE DR2 is publicly available via the NOIRLab Astro Data Lab science platform.

W. Cerny, A.B Pace, A Drlica-Wagner, S. E. Koposov, A. K. Vivas, S Mau, A. H. Riley, C. R Bom, J. L. Carlin, Y. Choi, DENIS ERKAL, P. S. Ferguson, D. J. James, T. S. Li, D Martinez-Delgado, C. E. Martínez-Vázquez, Ricardo R. Muñoz, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, K. A. G. Olsen, A Pieres, Joanna D Sakowska, D. J. Sand, J. D. Simon, A Smercina, G. S. Stringfellow, E. J. Tollerud, M. Adamów, D. Hernandez-Lang, N Kuropatkin, L. Santana-Silva, D. L. Tucker, A. Zenteno, (2021)Eridanus IV: an Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy Candidate Discovered in the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey, In: The Astrophysical Journal Letters920(2) IOP

We present the discovery of a candidate ultra-faint Milky Way satellite, Eridanus IV (DELVE J0505$-$0931), detected in photometric data from the DECam Local Volume Exploration survey (DELVE). Eridanus IV is a faint ($M_V = -4.7 \pm 0.2$), extended ($r_{1/2} = 75^{+16}_{-13}$ pc), and elliptical ($\epsilon = 0.54 \pm 0.1$) system at a heliocentric distance of $76.7^{+4.0}_{-6.1}$ kpc, with a stellar population that is well-described by an old, metal-poor isochrone (age of $\tau \sim 13.0$ Gyr and metallicity of ${\rm [Fe/H] \lesssim -2.1}$ dex). These properties are consistent with the known population of ultra-faint Milky Way satellite galaxies. Eridanus IV is also prominently detected using proper motion measurements from Gaia Early Data Release 3, with a systemic proper motion of $(\mu_{\alpha} \cos \delta, \mu_{\delta}) = (+0.25 \pm 0.06, -0.10 \pm 0.05)$ mas yr$^{-1}$ measured from its horizontal branch and red giant branch member stars. We find that the spatial distribution of likely member stars hints at the possibility that the system is undergoing tidal disruption.

W. Cerny, Joshua D. Simon, TIANRU LI, A Drlica-Wagner, A.B Pace, C. E Martınez-Vazquez, A. H. Riley, B. Mutlu-Pakdil, S Mau, P. S. Ferguson, DENIS ERKAL, Ricardo R. Muñoz, C. R Bom, J. L. Carlin, D. Carollo, Y. Choi, A. P. Ji, D Martınez-Delgado, V Manwadkar, A. E Miller, NOELIA ESTELLA DONATA NOEL, Joanna D Sakowska, D. J. Sand, G. S. Stringfellow, E. J. Tollerud, AK Vivas, Julio A. Carballo-Bello, D. Hernandez-Lang, DEBORAH JAMES, J. L. Nilo Castellon, K. A. G Olsen, A. Zenteno (2022)Pegasus IV: Discovery and Spectroscopic Confirmation of an Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy in the Constellation Pegasus

We report the discovery of Pegasus IV, an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy found in archival data from the Dark Energy Camera processed by the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey. Pegasus IV is a compact, ultra-faint stellar system ($r_{1/2} = 41^{+8}_{-6}$ pc; $M_V = -4.25 \pm 0.2$ mag) located at a heliocentric distance of $90^{+4}_{-6}$ kpc. Based on spectra of seven non-variable member stars observed with Magellan/IMACS, we confidently resolve Pegasus IV's velocity dispersion, measuring $\sigma_{v} = 3.3^{+1.7}_{-1.1} \text{ km s}^{-1}$ (after excluding three velocity outliers); this implies a mass-to-light ratio of $M_{1/2}/L_{V,1/2} = 167^{+224}_{-99} M_{\odot}/L_{\odot}$ for the system. From the five stars with the highest signal-to-noise spectra, we also measure a systemic metallicity of $\rm [Fe/H] = -2.67^{+0.25}_{-0.29}$ dex, making Pegasus IV one of the most metal-poor ultra-faint dwarfs. We tentatively resolve a non-zero metallicity dispersion for the system. These measurements provide strong evidence that Pegasus IV is a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy, rather than a star cluster. We measure Pegasus IV's proper motion using data from Gaia Early Data Release 3, finding ($\mu_{\alpha*}, \mu_{\delta}) = (0.33\pm 0.07, -0.21 \pm 0.08) \text{ mas yr}^{-1}$. When combined with our measured systemic velocity, this proper motion suggests that Pegasus IV is on an elliptical, retrograde orbit, and is currently near its orbital apocenter. Lastly, we identify three potential RR Lyrae variable stars within Pegasus IV, including one candidate member located more than ten half-light radii away from the system's centroid. The discovery of yet another ultra-faint dwarf galaxy strongly suggests that the census of Milky Way satellites is still incomplete, even within 100 kpc.