Areas of specialism

Electroencephalography; Physiological signal processing [Cardiovascular (ECG, PPG and Ballistography); Respiratory]; Sleep Technology Evaluation (Wearables and Contactless technologies); Subspace Learning; Brain computer interfaces

My qualifications

Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras


Research interests

Indicators of esteem

  • Awarded the UK Dementia Research Institute (UK DRI) Pilot Award (Feb 2023) for my Project titled ‘Developing Tools for Round-the-Clock Monitoring of Sleep and Vital Signs in Community Dwelling Older Adults Using High Sampling Rate Inertial Measurement Units’. UK DRI Pilot Award is an initiative designed to encourage UK DRI early career researchers to take the next step towards forming an independent lab group, and consider new and innovative avenues of research aimed at treating or advancing understanding of dementia.

  • Awarded the ‘Prof S Radhakrishnan Award for best PhD Thesis in Biomedical Engineering, Oct 2020’ during the 57th Convocation of Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras.



    • Awarded the Institute Research Award 2019-20’ as a recognition of Quality and Quantity of Research work done during my MS-PhD degree at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras.


    Postgraduate research supervision


    Kiran Kumar Guruswamy Ravindran, Kiran K G Ravindran, Ciro Della Monica, Giuseppe Atzori, Damion Lambert, Victoria Louise Revell, Derk-Jan Dijk (2022)Evaluating the Empatica E4 Derived Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability Measures in Older Men and Women, In: Proceedings of the 2022 44th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC 2022)pp. 3370-3373 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

    Wearable heart rate monitors offer a cost-effective way of non-invasive, long-term monitoring of cardiac health. Validation of wearable technologies in an older populations is essential for evaluating their effectiveness during deployment in healthcare settings. To this end, we evaluated the validity of heart rate measures from a wearable device, Empatica E4, and compared them to the electrocardiography (ECG). We collected E4 data simultaneously with ECG in thirty-five older men and women during an overnight sleep recording in the laboratory. We propose a robust approach to resolve the missing inter-beat interval (IBI) data and improve the quality of E4 derived measures. We also evaluated the concordance of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures with ECG. The results demonstrate that the automatic E4 heart rate measures capture long-term HRV whilst the short-term metrics are affected by missing IBIs. Our approach provides an effective way to resolve the missing IBI issue of E4 and extracts reliable heart rate measures that are concordant with ECG. Clinical Relevance— This work discusses data quality challenges in heart rate data acquired by wearables and provides an efficient and reliable approach for extracting heart rate measures from the E4 wearable device and validates the metrics in older adults

    Kiran K G Ravindran, Ciro Della Monica, Giuseppe Atzori, Damion Lambert, Hana Hassanin, Victoria Revell, Derk-Jan Dijk (2023)Contactless and Longitudinal Monitoring of Nocturnal Sleep and Daytime Naps in Older Men and Women: A Digital Health Technology Evaluation Study, In: SLEEP Oxford University Press

    Study Objective: To compare the 24-hour sleep assessment capabilities of two contactless sleep technologies (CSTs) to actigraphy in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: We collected 7 to 14 days of data at home from 35 older adults (age: 65-83), some with medical conditions, using Withings Sleep Analyser (WSA, n=29), Emfit-QS (Emfit, n=17), a standard actigraphy device (Actiwatch Spectrum [AWS, n=34]) and a sleep diary. We compared nocturnal and daytime sleep measures estimated by the CSTs and actigraphy without sleep diary information (AWS-A) against sleep diary assisted actigraphy (AWS|SD). Results: Compared to sleep diary, both CSTs accurately determined the timing of nocturnal sleep (ICC: going to bed, getting out of bed, time in bed > 0.75) whereas the accuracy of AWSA was much lower. Compared to AWS|SD, the CSTs overestimated nocturnal total sleep time (WSA: +92.71±81.16 min; Emfit: +101.47±75.95 min) as did AWS-A (+46.95±67.26 min). The CSTs overestimated sleep efficiency (WSA: +9.19±14.26 %; Emfit: +9.41±11.05 %) whereas AWS-A estimate (-2.38±10.06 %) was accurate. About 65% (n=23) of participants reported daytime naps either in-bed or elsewhere. About 90% in-bed nap periods were accurately determined by WSA while Emfit was less accurate. All three devices estimated 24-h sleep duration with an error of ≈10% compared to the sleep diary. Conclusions: CSTs accurately capture the timing of in-bed nocturnal sleep periods without the need for sleep diary information. However, improvements are needed in assessing parameters such as total sleep time, sleep efficiency and naps before these CSTs can be fully utilized in field settings. Statement of Significance: Contactless sleep technologies that do not pose a burden on participants are promising tools for longitudinal monitoring of sleep in the community. In a comparison with sleep diary assisted actigraphy, we show that two under-mattress devices used without sleep diary information, provide accurate information on nocturnal sleep timing and 24-hr bed presence. The study population comprised community-dwelling older adults, several of whom had medical conditions such as sleep apnea, arthritis, and type-2 diabetes, which adds to the relevance of these data. With further improvements in their performance, these unobtrusive sleep technologies have significant potential for at scale and longitudinal monitoring of 24-h sleep-wake patterns in older adults without the burden of completing sleep diaries.

    Kiran Kumar Guruswamy Ravindran, Ciro Della Monica, Giuseppe Atzori, Damion Lambert, Hana Hassanin, Victoria Louise Revell, Derk-Jan Dijk (2023)Three Contactless Sleep Technologies Compared to Actigraphy and Polysomnography in a Heterogenous Group of Older Men and Women in a Model of Mild Sleep Disturbance: A Sleep Laboratory Study, In: JMIR Publications JMIR Publications

    Background: Contactless sleep technologies (CSTs) hold promise for longitudinal, unobtrusive sleep monitoring in health and disease at scale, particularly in older people where the increased incidence of sleep abnormalities with aging is considered a risk factor for several neurodegenerative disorders. However, few CST have been evaluated in older people. Objective: To evaluate the performance of three contactless sleep technologies (a bedside radar [Somnofy] and two under-mattress devices [Withings Sleep Analyser and Emfit-QS]) compared to polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy [Actiwatch Spectrum] recorded during a first night in a sleep laboratory, 10-hour time in bed protocol, which induced mild sleep disturbance. Methods: Thirty-five older men and women (70.8±4.9 years; 14 women) several of whom had comorbidities and/or sleep apnoea, participated in the study. Devices were evaluated by estimating a range of performance metrics for classification of sleep vs wake, and NREM and REM sleep stages (sleep summary and epoch by epoch concordance) and comparing to PSG metrics. Results: All three CSTs overestimated total sleep time (bias [mean]: > 90 min) and sleep efficiency (bias: > 13 %) with an associated underestimation of wake after sleep onset (bias: > 50 min). Sleep onset latency was accurately detected by the bedside radar (bias: 16 mins). CSTs did not perform as well as actigraphy in estimating the all-night sleep summary measures. The bedside radar performed better in discriminating sleep vs wake (MCC [mean and 95% CI]: 0.63 [0.57 0.69]) than the under-mattress devices (MCC: =0.41 [0.36 0.46]; Emfit-QS =0.35 [0.26 0.43]). Accuracy of identifying REM and Light sleep was poor across all CSTs while deep sleep was predicted with moderate accuracy (MCC: >0.45) by both Somnofy and Withings Sleep Analyser. The deep sleep duration estimates of Somnofy was found to be significantly correlated (r2=0.6, p

    Eyal Soreq, Magdalena A Kolanko, Ciro della Monica, Kiran K.G. Ravindran, Victoria Louise Revell, Paul de Villèle, Payam Barnaghi, Derk‐Jan Dijk, David J Sharp, Kiran Kumar Guruswamy Ravindran (2022)Monitoring abnormal nocturnal behaviour in the homes of patients living with dementia, In: Alzheimer's & dementia18(2)

    Background People living with dementia (PLWD) often exhibit marked sleep disturbances. These cause substantial care challenges and may be causally related to dementia progression. Collecting ecologically valid data on sleep disturbance in naturalistic settings has been difficult. As a result, sleep assessments in PLWD are generally limited to short studies in sleep laboratories or data collection from wearables, where compliance is problematic. Here, we demonstrate how passive internet of things (IoT) sensors can be used to monitor the effects of dementia on nocturnal behaviour and physiology. Method Using the Withings under‐mattress pressure sensor, we validated bed occupancy and physiological measures in 35 older adults tested both at home and in the laboratory. We then examined data collected between 2019 and 2021 from the general population (N=13,663) and from a cohort of PLWD taking part in the UK DRI study of home monitoring for PLWD (N=46). More than 4 million unique bed mat observations were analysed. Result Arise time across all subjects was negatively correlated with time to bed (Fig.1a, r(13,617)=‐0.5, p

    G R Kiran Kumar, M Ramasubba Reddy, Kiran Kumar Guruswamy Ravindran (2019)Multiview MAX-VAR canonical correlation approach for enhancing SSVEP based BCIs, In: 2019 IEEE EMBS International Conference on Biomedical & Health Informatics (BHI)pp. 1-4 IEEE

    This study proposes and validates a novel steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) detection approach, multiview MAX-VAR canonical correlation, that finds a common unique subspace that encompasses all the SSVEP responses pertaining to a specific subject. The method employs a generalized canonical correlation framework that efficiently computes a projection matrix that optimizes test data to achieve higher SSVEP identification performance. We used a SSVEP benchmark dataset using a 40 target BCI experiment to evaluate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the multiview MAX-VAR canonical correlation approach outperforms the compared methods with respect to both accuracy and information transfer rates (ITRs). From the statistical significance tests, it is observed that the proposed approach effectively achieves superior performance at short window lengths making it a propitious algorithm for real time brain computer interfaces (BCI).

    Kiran Kumar Guruswamy Ravindran, Ciro della Monica, Giuseppe Atzori, Shirin Enshaeifar, Sara Mahvash-Mohammadi, Derk-Jan Dijk, Victoria Revell (2021)Validation of technology to monitor sleep and bed occupancy in older men and women, In: Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association17(58)e056018

    Background Nocturnal disturbance is frequently observed in dementia and is a major contributor to institutionalisation. Unobtrusive technology that can quantify sleep/wake and determine bed occupancy during the major nocturnal sleep episode may be beneficial for long-term clinical monitoring and the carer. Such technologies have, however, not been validated in older people. Here we assessed the performance of the Withings Sleep Mattress (WSM) in a heterogenous older population to ensure external validity. Method Eighteen participants (65 – 80 years, 10M:8F) completed 7-12 days of sleep/wake monitoring at home prior to an overnight laboratory session. WSM performance was compared to gold-standard (laboratory polysomnography [PSG] with video) and silver standard (actiwatch [AWS] and sleep diary at home). WSM data were downloaded from a third party API and the minute-to-minute sleep/wake timeseries extracted and time-ordered to create a sleep profile. Discontinuities in the timeseries were labelled as ‘missing data’ events. Results Participants contributed 107 nights with WSM and PSG or AWS data. In the laboratory, the overall epoch to epoch agreement (accuracy) of sleep/wake detection of WSM compared to PSG was 0.71 (sensitivity 0.8; specificity 0.45) and to AWS was 0.74 (sensitivity 0.77; specificity 0.53). Visual inspection of video recordings demonstrated that 20 of 21 ‘missing data’ events were true ‘out of bed’ events. These events were always associated with an increase in activity (AWS). At home, all 97 WSM ‘missing data’ events that occurred within the major nocturnal sleep episode defined by sleep diary data, were associated with an increase in activity levels in the AWS data and 36 of these events were also associated with an increase in light levels, indicating that the participant had left the bed. In several participants, data recorded by the WSM during daytime coincided with reported naps in the sleep diary. Conclusion Although WSM cannot reliably distinguish between sleep and wake, the presence/absence of data in WSM seem to be an accurate representation of whether older people are in or out of bed (bed occupancy). Thus, in dementia, this contactless, low-burden technology may be able to provide information about nocturnal disturbances and daytime naps in bed.

    G.R. Kiran Kumar, M Ramasubba Reddy, Kiran Kumar Guruswamy Ravindran (2018)Exploiting the temporal structure of EEG data for SSVEP detection, In: 2018 6th International Conference on Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)2018-pp. 1-4 IEEE

    Traditional multichannel detection algorithms use reference signals that are a generalisation of the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) components. This leads to the suboptimal performance of the algorithms. For the first time, periodic component analysis (nCA) has been applied for the extraction of SSVEP components from background electroencephalogram (EEG). Data from six test subjects were used to evaluate the proposed method and compare it to standard canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The results demonstrate that the periodic component analysis acts as a reliable spatial filter for SSVEP extraction, and significantly outperforms traditional CCA even in low SNR conditions. The mean detection accuracy of nCA was higher than CCA across subjects, various window lengths and harmonics. The detection scores obtained from nCA provide reliable discrimination between control and idle states compared to CCA.

    KIRAN KUMAR GURUSWAMY RAVINDRAN, M Ramasubba Reddy (2019)Filter bank extensions for subject non-specific SSVEP based BCIs, In: 2019 9th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)pp. 627-630 IEEE

    Recently, filter bank analysis has been used in several detection methods to extract selective frequency features across multiple brain computer interface (BCI) modalities due to its effectiveness and simple structure. In this work, we propose filter bank technique as a standard preprocessing method for popular training free multi-channel steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) detection methods to overcome subject-specific performance differences and a general improvement in detection accuracy. Our study validates the effectiveness of filter bank extensions by comparing performance differences of multichannel methods with their filter bank counterparts using a forty target SSVEP benchmark dataset collected across thirty five subjects. The results demonstrate that the proposed two stage (a filter bank stage followed by SSVEP detection) implementation of popular multichannel algorithms provide significant improvement in performance at short datalengths of < 2.75 s (p < 0.001) and can be viewed as a potential standard detection approach across all SSVEP identification problems.

    Kiran Kumar Guruswamy Ravindran, Ciro della Monica, Giuseppe Atzori, Damion Lambert, Victoria Louise Revell, Derk‐Jan Dijk (2022)Validity of a contactless device for long term monitoring of sleep in a heterogenous group of older men and women, In: Alzheimer's & dementia18(S8)

    Background The incidence of sleep disturbances increases with normal aging and is highly prevalent among people living with dementia (PLWD). To facilitate management and improvement of sleep quality in PLWD, validated unintrusive contactless technologies for long term objective monitoring of sleep are needed. Here we evaluate the ability of a contactless sleep tracker to accurately determine Time in Bed (TIB), Wake vs Sleep and Sleep stages (wake, light, deep, and REM sleep). Method We deployed the Emfit (Emfit QS), a contactless sleep tracker placed under the mattress. The Emfit uses ballistography to estimate respiration and heart rate and sleep stages. We collected data from 16 participants (Age: Mean‐72.12; SD‐4.6 years [6F:10M]) at home for a 14‐day period followed by a single overnight laboratory polysomnography (PSG) sleep assessment. The Emfit outputs a) timeseries at 30 s intervals (four sleep stages) and b) overnight summary sleep parameters. Sleep staging and sleep parameter estimation by Emfit was compared to, a) in‐lab gold standard PSG, and b) at‐home wristworn accelerometer (Actiwatch spectrum (AWS)) and sleep diary (SD) data. The epoch‐to‐epoch sleep staging concordance of Emfit was estimated over the total recording interval (∼10hrs) of the PSG for the laboratory session and between 1800hrs and 1200hrs for each SD entry for the home recordings. The concordance analysis for the sleep parameters, bed entry and exit times were performed using the summary data automatically generated by Emfit. Result The concordance between the four‐class sleep staging of the Emfit and PSG was poor (Figure 1). The two class (sleep/wake) analysis (Table 1) showed high sleep classification accuracy (sensitivity) but poor wake classification accuracy (specificity) compared to PSG. The sleep parameter estimates of Emfit also showed poor agreement with PSG (Figure 2). The home analysis indicated excellent accuracy for Time in Bed (TIB) (i.e., the bed entry and exit times) as registered by the SD (Table 2) and total sleep time (TST) for both sleep diary and AWS (Figure 3). Conclusion : The contactless sleep tracker provides accurate information about Time in Bed (TIB), but there is a lack of consensus of the sleep state classification with the PSG.

    Kiran G. R. Kumar, Ramasubba M. Reddy, Kiran Kumar Guruswamy Ravindran (2018)Exactly Periodic Spatial Filter For SSVEP Based BCIs, In: A Sourin, O Sourina, C Rosenberger, M Erdt (eds.), 2018 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CYBERWORLDS (CW)pp. 237-242 IEEE

    This study introduces a novel, high accuracy, calibration less spatial filter for reliable steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) extraction from noisy electroencephalogram (EEG) data. The proposed method, exactly periodic subspace decomposition (EPSD), utilises the periodic properties of the SSVEP components to achieve a robust spatial filter for SSVEP extraction. It tries to extract the SSVEP components by projecting the EEG data onto a subspace where only the target signal components are retained. The performance of the method was tested on an SSVEP dataset obtained from ten subjects and compared with common SSVEP spatial filtering and detection techniques. The results obtained from the study shows that EPSD consistently provides a significant improvement in detection performance than other SSVEP spatial filters used in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications.

    G. R. Kiran Kumar, M. Ramasubba Reddy (2020)Designing a Sum of Squared Correlations Framework for Enhancing SSVEP Based BCIs (vol 27, pg 2044, 2019), In: IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering28(4)pp. 1044-1045 IEEE

    In the above paper [1], we proposed a novel framework that uses a constrained formulation of sum of squared correlation (SSCOR) approach as an alternative method for designing a spatial filter for steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). To evaluate the target detection performance of the SSCOR method, the task-related component analyses (TRCA) were used as a benchmark [2]. The study used the SSVEP benchmark dataset containing 40 target data collected from 35 subjects [3]. During the evaluation of the proposed method, the SSCOR provided very high detection performance and outperformed the TRCA method and the results were reported.

    Kiran G. R. Kumar, Ramasubba M. Reddy, Kiran Kumar Guruswamy Ravindran (2018)Discriminative Periodic Component Analysis for SSVEP based BCI, In: 2018 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SIGNAL PROCESSING AND COMMUNICATIONS (SPCOM 2018)pp. 427-431 IEEE

    Spatial filters for steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) detection rely on the purely periodic assumption of the signal components. In this study, we propose discriminative periodic component analysis (D pi CA) that takes advantage of the almost periodic nature of SSVEP without depending on ideal rigid templates. D pi CA tries to maximize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SSVEP components by utilizing the time structure of the stimulus frequencies embedded in the electroencephalogram (EEG) data. The performance of the proposed method was compared with standard canonical correlation analysis (CCA) using data collected from ten subjects. The results suggest that the D pi CA provides better detection accuracy compared to standard CCA across various window lengths and subjects. Furthermore, the statistical tests show that the D pi CA provides consistent and significant performance improvement than CCA even at short window lengths.

    G. R. Kiran Kumar, M. Ramasubba Reddy (2018)An Orthonormalized Partial Least Squares Based Spatial Filter for SSVEP Extraction, In: Intelligent Human Computer Interactionpp. 16-25 Springer International Publishing

    In this study, a novel orthonormalized partial least squares (OPLS) spatial filter is proposed for the extraction of the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) components buried in the electroencephalogram (EEG) data. The proposed method avoids over-fitting of the EEG data to the ideal SSVEP reference signals by reducing the over-emphasis of the target (pure sine-cosine) space. The paper presents the comparison of the detection accuracy of the proposed method with other existing spatial filters and discusses the shortcomings of these algorithms. The OPLS was tested across ten healthy subjects and its classification performance was examined. Further, statistical tests were performed to show the significant improvements in obtained detection accuracies. The result shows that the OPLS provides a significant improvement in detection accuracy across subjects compared to spatial filters under comparison. Hence, OPLS would act as a reliable and efficient spatial filter for separation of SSVEP components in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications.

    Paula de Oliveira, Claire Cella, NICOLAS S LOCKER, KIRAN K. G. RAVINDRAN, Agampodi Mendis, Keith Wafford, Gary Gilmour, DERK-JAN DIJK, RAPHAELLE-VALIA WINSKY-SOMMERER (2022)Improved sleep, memory, and cellular pathological features of tauopathy, including the NLRP3 inflammasome, after chronic administration of trazodone in rTg4510 mice, In: The journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

    Several cellular pathways contribute to neurodegenerative tauopathy-related disorders. Microglial activation, a major component of neuroinflammation, is an early pathological hallmark that correlates with cognitive decline, while the unfolded protein response (UPR) contributes to synaptic pathology. Sleep disturbances are prevalent in tauopathies and may also contribute to disease progression. Few studies have investigated whether manipulations of sleep influence cellular pathological and behavioural features of tauopathy. We investigated whether trazodone, a licensed antidepressant with hypnotic efficacy in dementia, can reduce disease-related cellular pathways and improve memory and sleep in male rTg4510 mice with a tauopathy-like phenotype. In a 9-week dosing regimen, trazodone decreased microglial NLRP3 inflammasome expression and phosphorylated p38mitogen-activated protein kinase levels which correlated with the NLRP3 inflammasome, the UPR effector ATF4, and total tau levels. Trazodone reduced theta oscillations during REM sleep and enhanced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration. Olfactory memory transiently improved, and memory performance correlated with REM sleep duration and theta oscillations. These findings on the effects of trazodone on the NLRP3 inflammasome, the unfolded protein response and behavioural hallmarks of dementia warrant further studies on the therapeutic value of sleep-modulating compounds for tauopathies.

    KIRAN KUMAR GURUSWAMY RAVINDRAN, M Ramasubba Reddy (2018)Periodic component analysis as a spatial filter for SSVEP-based brain-computer interface, In: Journal of neuroscience methods307pp. 164-174

    Traditional spatial filters used for steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) extraction such as minimum energy combination (MEC) require the estimation of the background electroencephalogram (EEG) noise components. Even though this leads to improved performance in low signal to noise ratio (SNR) conditions, it makes such algorithms slow compared to the standard detection methods like canonical correlation analysis (CCA) due to the additional computational cost. In this paper, Periodic component analysis (πCA) is presented as an alternative spatial filtering approach to extract the SSVEP component effectively without involving extensive modelling of the noise. The πCA can separate out components corresponding to a given frequency of interest from the background electroencephalogram (EEG) by capturing the temporal information and does not generalize SSVEP based on rigid templates. Data from ten test subjects were used to evaluate the proposed method and the results demonstrate that the periodic component analysis acts as a reliable spatial filter for SSVEP extraction. Statistical tests were performed to validate the results. The experimental results show that πCA provides significant improvement in accuracy compared to standard CCA and MEC in low SNR conditions. The results demonstrate that πCA provides better detection accuracy compared to CCA and on par with that of MEC at a lower computational cost. Hence πCA is a reliable and efficient alternative detection algorithm for SSVEP based brain-computer interface (BCI).

    KIRAN KUMAR GURUSWAMY RAVINDRAN, M Ramasubba Reddy (2019)Latent common source extraction via a generalized canonical correlation framework for frequency recognition in SSVEP based brain-computer interfaces, In: Journal of neural engineering16(4)pp. 046004-046004 IOP Publishing

    Objective. This study introduces and evaluates a novel target identification method, latent common source extraction (LCSE), that uses subject-specific training data for the enhancement of detection of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Approach. LCSE seeks to construct a common latent representation of the SSVEP signal subspace that is stable across multiple trials of electroencephalographic (EEG) data. The spatial filter thus obtained improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the SSVEP components by removing nuisance signals that are irrelevant to the generalized signal representation learnt from the given data. In this study a comparison of SSVEP identification performance between the proposed method, extended canonical correlation analysis (ExtCCA) and multiset canonical correlation analysis (MsetCCA) was conducted using SSVEP benchmark data of 40 targets recorded from 35 subjects to validate the effectiveness of the LCSE framework. Main results. The results indicate that the LCSE framework significantly outperforms the other two methods in terms of both classification accuracy and information transfer rates (ITRs). Significance. The significant improvement in the target identification performance demonstrates that the proposed LCSE method can be seen as a promising potential candidate for efficient SSVEP detection in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems.

    KIRAN KUMAR GURUSWAMY RAVINDRAN, M Ramasubba Reddy (2019)Designing a Sum of Squared Correlations Framework for Enhancing SSVEP-Based BCIs, In: IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering27(10)pp. 2044-2050 IEEE

    This study illustrates and evaluates a novel subject-specific target detection framework, sum of squared correlations (SSCOR), for improving the performance of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). The SSCOR spatial filter learns a common SSVEP representation space through the optimization of the individual SSVEP templates. The projection onto this SSVEP response subspace improves the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the SSVEP components embedded in the recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) data. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, the target detection performance of the SSCOR method is compared with the state of the art task-related component analysis (TRCA). The evaluation is conducted on a 40 target SSVEP benchmark data collected from 35 subjects. The results of the extensive comparisons of the performance metrics show that the proposed SSCOR method outperforms the TRCA method. The ensemble version of the SSCOR framework provides an offline simulated information transfer rate (ITR) of 387 ± 9 bits/min which is much higher than that of the ensemble TRCA approach (max. ITR 216 ± 27 bits/min). The significant improvement in the detection accuracy and simulated ITR demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed framework for target detection in SSVEP based BCI applications.

    KIRAN KUMAR GURUSWAMY RAVINDRAN, M Ramasubba Reddy (2020)Constructing an exactly periodic subspace for enhancing SSVEP based BCI, In: Advanced engineering informatics44 Elsevier Ltd

    •A novel approach that maps EEG data onto an exactly periodic subspace is proposed.•EPSD employs the periodic characteristics of the SSVEP response to enhance its SNR.•EPSD exhibits robust performance compared to the other commonly used spatial filters.•The study confirms that EPSD is promising detection algorithm for SSVEP based BCI. A novel exactly periodic spatial filtering (EPSD) approach, that provides a robust detection performance, is introduced and evaluated in this study. The proposed method exploits the temporal properties of the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) response to construct an orthogonal and exactly periodic mapping that enhances the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the SSVEP embedded in the electroencephalogram (EEG) data. The subspace of interest is constructed via the elimination of the signals spaces that does not constitute the exact period of the target frequency. The EPSD is evaluated on a 35 subject benchmark dataset collected using a 40 target SSVEP BCI system. The results reveal that the proposed EPSD spatial filter significantly enhances the performance of target detection. Further statistical tests also confirm that the EPSD is a potential alternative to the existing SSVEP spatial filters for realizing an efficient BCI system.

    Eyal Soreq, Magdalena Kolanko, Kiran Kumar Guruswamy Ravindran, Ciro Della Monica, Victoria Louise Revell, Helen Lai, Payam Barnaghi, Paresh Malhotra, Deerk-Jan Dijk, David J Sharp (2022)042 Longitudinal assessment of sleep/wake behaviour in dementia patients living at home, In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 93(9)e2 BMJ Publishing Group

    Introduction Disturbances of sleep/wake behaviour are amongst the most disabling symptoms of dementia, leading to increased carers’ burden and institutionalisation. The lack of unobtrusive, low- burden technologies validated to monitor sleep in patients living with dementia (PLWD) has prevented longitudinal studies of nocturnal disturbances and their correlates. Aims To examine the effect of medication changes and clinical status on the intraindividual variation in sleep/wake behaviour in PLWD. Methods Using under-mattress pressure-sensing mat in 46 PLWD, we monitored sleep/wake behavioural metrics for 13,711 nights between 2019-2021. Machine learning and >3.6million nightly summaries from 13,671 individuals from the general population were used to detect abnormalities in PLWD’s nightly sleep/wake metrics and convert them to risk scores. Additionally, GP records were reviewed for each patient to determine whether medication changes and clinical events affected sleep parameters. Results PLWD’s went to bed earlier and rose later than sex- and age-matched controls. They had more nocturnal awakenings with longer out-of-bed durations. Notably, at the individual patient level, increased metric-specific risk scores were temporally related to changes in antipsychotics and antidepressants, and acute illness, including UTI, cardiac events, and depressive episodes. Conclusions Passive monitoring of sleep/wake behaviours is a promising way to identify novel markers of disease progression and evaluate the effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions in patients with dementia.


    Nocturnal disturbance is frequently observed in dementia and is a major contributor to institutionalisation. Unobtrusive technology that can quantify sleep/wake and determine bed occupancy during the major nocturnal sleep episode may be beneficial for long-term clinical monitoring and the carer. Such technologies have, however, not been validated in older people. Here we assessed the performance of the Withings Sleep Mattress (WSM) in a heterogenous older population to ensure external validity.