Placeholder image for staff profiles

Dr Manon Lourenco


Research Fellow
+44 (0)1483 686086
28 ATI 02

Biography

Biography

Dr Manon Lourenco obtained her first degree and MSc in Physics from the Universidade Federal de MInas Gerais, Brazil, and her PhD from the University of Surrey. She has been working as a research fellow since the completion of her PhD.

Research interests

My main research interests are directed towards the fabrication and characterisation of optoelectronic devices. During my PhD program, and since then, I have been working on the fabrication and optical, electrical and/or structural characterisation of semiconductor devices (solar cells and light emitting devices) and materials (SIMOX, FeSi2, SiC and other Si compounds; GaAs/InGaAs, InP/InGaAs, CdS/CdTe), using techniques such as electroluminescence, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, deep level transient spectroscopy, photoconductive resolved frequency spectroscopy and double crystal x-ray diffraction. I have published over 50 refereed papers in these areas.

My publications

Publications

Lourenco MA, Homewood KP (2008) Dislocation-engineered silicon light emitters for photonic integration, SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 23 (6) ARTN 064005 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Chow CF, Gao Y, Wong SP, Ke N, Li Q, Cheung WY, Shao G, Lourenco MA, Homewood KP (2005) Structures and light emission properties of ion beam synthesized FeSi 2 in silicon, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 5650 pp. 17-22
Semiconducting FeSi2 has attracted considerable amount of research interest in the past decade for its potential applications as a silicon-based light emitting material. In this work, FeSi2 precipitates were formed in Si by iron implantation into silicon using a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. The structures and light emitting properties of these ion-beam-synthesized FeSi2 precipitates were studied in details using various characterization techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence measurements. It was found that the implantation temperature played an important role on the dislocation loop formation and hence the FeSi2 phase formation during the subsequent thermal annealing. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured as a function of temperature from 80 to 300 K. Combining the TEM and PL results, the origins of the PL could be distinguished to be either from the defect-related emission of Si or from the FeSi2 precipitates. The FeSi2 precipitates were found to be highly-strained or relaxed depending on the implantation and annealing conditions. The band gap energy of the relaxed samples was determined to be about 11 meV higher than that of the highly strained samples. Simple metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diode structures were fabricated to study the electroluminescence (EL) properties from this FeSi2/Si system. Preliminary results showed that clear EL signals were obtained even at room temperature for samples prepared at appropriate conditions. There are significant differences between the EL and PL spectra and the mechanisms of the EL emission has yet to be further investigated.
Knights AP, Morrison DJ, Wright NG, Johnson CM, O'Neill AG, Ortolland S, Homewood KP, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Coleman PG (1999) The effect of annealing on argon implanted edge terminations for 4H-SiC Schottky diodes, WIDE-BANDGAP SEMICONDUCTORS FOR HIGH-POWER, HIGH-FREQUENCY AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS-1999 572 pp. 129-134 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
Homewood KP, Lourenço MA, Gwilliam RM (2010) 1.1 to 1.6 ¼m silicon light emitting diodes and optical gain, Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Conference on Group IV Photonics GFP pp. 302-304
We report silicon LEDs showing light emission from 1.1 to 1.6 ¼m and demonstrate optical gain by incorporating optically active impurities. Nano-engineering enables room temperature operation. As one exemplar, we show that erbium, with local strain engineering provides useful optical emission and gain at 1.5 ¼m.
Lourenco MA, Opoku C, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2010) Photoluminescence study of thulium-doped silicon substrates for light emitting diodes, OPTICAL MATERIALS 32 (12) pp. 1597-1600 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Homewood KP, Reeson KJ, Gwilliam RM, Kewell AK, Lourenco MA, Shao G, Chen YL, Sharpe JS, McKinty CN, Butler T (2001) Ion beam synthesized silicides: growth, characterization and devices, THIN SOLID FILMS 381 (2) pp. 188-193 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Sharpe JS, Chen YL, Gwilliam RM, Kewell AK, McKinty CN, Lourenco MA, Shao G, Homewood KP, Kirkby KR (1999) Ion beam synthesized Ru2Si3, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 75 (9) pp. 1282-1283 AMER INST PHYSICS
Berhanuddin DD, Lourenço MA, Jeynes C, Milosavljevi? M, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2012) Structural analysis of silicon co-implanted with carbon and high energy proton for the formation of the lasing G-centre, Journal of Applied Physics 112 (10)
We investigate a new approach for efficient generation of the lasing G-centre (carbon substitutional-silicon self-interstitial complex) which crucially is fully compatible with standard silicon ultra-large-scale integration technology. Silicon wafers were implanted with carbon and irradiated with high energy protons to produce self-interstitials that are crucial in the formation of the G-centre. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the structure of the post-implanted silicon samples and to investigate the behaviour of the self-interstitials and damage introduced by the carbon and proton implantation. The effect of substrate pre-amorphisation on the G-centre luminescence intensity and formation properties was also investigated by implanting Ge prior to the carbon and proton irradiation. Photoluminescence measurements and RBS results show a significantly higher G-centre peak intensity and silicon yield, respectively, in samples without pre-amorphisation. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Gao Y, Chen RS, Zhou MY, Lourenco MA, Homewood KP, Shao G (2008) Structural, electronic and optical properties of Mn4Si7 - art. no. 69840F, THIN FILM PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS, SIXTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 6984 pp. F9840-F9840 SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING
Beanland R, Lourenco MA, Homewood KP (1997) Relaxation of strained epitaxial layers by dislocation rotation, reaction and generation during annealing, MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 1997 (157) pp. 145-148 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Berhanuddin DD, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2012) Co-Implantation of Carbon and Protons: An Integrated Silicon Device Technology Compatible Method to Generate the Lasing G-Center, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS 22 (13) pp. 2709-2712 WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Lourenco M, Gwilliam R, Shao G, Homewood K (2002) Efficient silicon light emitting diodes made by dislocation engineering, DEFECT AND IMPURITY ENGINEERED SEMICONDUCTORS AND DEVICES III 719 pp. 115-118 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
Lourenco MA, Ng WL, Homewood KP, Durose K (1999) A deep semiconductor defect with continuously variable activation energy and capture cross section, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 75 (2) pp. 277-279 AMER INST PHYSICS
Gao Y, Chen RS, Zhou MY, Lourenco MA, Homewood KP, Shao G (2008) Structural, electronic, and optical properties of Mn4Si 7, Proceedings of SPIE: Thin Film Materials 6984
Semiconducting high manganese silicides (HMS) have attracted great research interest in the past decades for potential applications as novel optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices integrated on Si chips. The fundamental electronic properties in HMS are still unclear, and the band-gap energy was reported to scatter from 0.42 eV to 0.98 eV in the past decades. In this work, single phase semiconducting Mn4Si7 precipitates and thin films have been synthesized by ion implantation. Optical absorption spectra obtained by transmission measurements demonstrated the existence of a direct band gap in all samples. The band gap values varied in the range of 0.77 eV to 0.93 eV, corresponding to varied strain states due to different microstructures. The electronic band structures of Mn4Si7 under different strain states have been theoretically investigated by means of a full-potential linear augmented plane wave method and compared with the experimental results. From ab initio calculations, the Mn4Si7 compound is found to be a pseudo-direct band-gap semiconductor with a fundamental gap increasing linearly with the compression along c- or a-axis. This trend is in good agreement with the experimental results.
Pacheco FJ, Araujo D, Molina SI, Garcia R, Sacedon A, Gonzalez-Sanz F, Calleja E, Kidd P, Lourenco MA (1998) Characterisation by TEM and X-ray diffraction of linearly graded composition InGaAs buffer layers on (001) GaAs, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 14 (12) pp. 1273-1278 INST MATERIALS
Sharpe JS, Chen YL, Gwilliam RM, Kewell AK, Ledain S, McKinty CN, Lourenco MA, Butler T, Homewood KP, Kirkby KJR, Shao G (2000) Structural characterisation of ion beam synthesised Ru2Si3, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 161 pp. 937-940 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Milosavljevic M, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2011) Role of heavy ion co-implantation and thermal spikes on the development of dislocation loops in nanoengineered silicon light emitting diodes, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 110 (3) ARTN 033508 AMER INST PHYSICS
Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP, Edwards SP, Valizadeh R, Colligon JS (2005) Transition from amorphous to crystalline beta phase in co-sputtered FeSi2 films as a function of temperature, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 98 (12) ARTN 123506 AMER INST PHYSICS
Gwilliam R, Lourenco MA, Milosavljevic M, Homewood KP, Shao G (2005) Dislocation engineering for Si-based light emitting diodes, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY 124 pp. 86-92 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
LOURENCO MA, HOMEWOOD KP, MCLELLAN RD (1993) THE ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENCE OF PHOTOCONDUCTIVE FREQUENCY-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY IN THE PRESENCE OF CARRIER TRAPPING - APPLICATION TO POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 73 (6) pp. 2958-2964 AMER INST PHYSICS
Milosavljevic M, Wong L, Lourenco M, Valizadeh R, Colligon J, Shao G, Homewood K (2010) Correlation of Structural and Optical Properties of Sputtered FeSi2 Thin Films, JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 49 (8) ARTN 081401 JAPAN SOC APPLIED PHYSICS
LOURENCO MA, HOMEWOOD KP, HEMMENT PLF (1993) EVALUATION OF SILICON-ON-INSULATOR SUBSTRATES USING PHOTOCONDUCTIVE FREQUENCY-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 74 (11) pp. 6754-6758 AMER INST PHYSICS
Homewood KP, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM (2010) Nano-engineered silicon light emitting diodes and optically active waveguides, OPTICAL MATERIALS 32 (12) pp. 1601-1605 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Homewood KP, Lourenco MA, Ng WL, Gwilliam RM, Shao G, Ledain S (2002) Novel light emitting diodes in silicon, Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO - Technical Digest
LOURENCO MA, HOMEWOOD KP, CONSIDINE L (1994) RELAXATION OF STRAINED INGAAS/GAAS LAYERS UNDER THERMAL-PROCESSING, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY 28 (1-3) pp. 507-509 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Milosavljevic M, Lourenco MA, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2006) Optimising dislocation-engineered silicon light-emitting diodes, APPLIED PHYSICS B-LASERS AND OPTICS 83 (2) pp. 289-294 SPRINGER
Lourenco MA, Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2006) Boron engineered dislocation loops for efficient room temperature silicon light emitting diodes, THIN SOLID FILMS 504 (1-2) pp. 36-40 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
ALVAREZ AL, CALLE F, WAGNER J, SACEDON A, MAIER M, DEAVILA SF, LOURENCO MA, CALLEJA E, MUNOZ E (1994) INFLUENCE OF IN ON SI LOCAL VIBRATIONAL-MODES IN INXGA1-XAS (0-LESS-THAN-OR-EQUAL-TO-X-LESS-THAN-OR-EQUAL-TO-0.12), JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 76 (12) pp. 7797-7804 AMER INST PHYSICS
Lourenco MA, Butler TM, Kewell AK, Gwilliam RM, Kirkby KJ, Homewood KP (2001) Electrical, electronic and optical characterisation of ion beam synthesised beta-FeSi2 light emitting devices, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 175 pp. 159-163 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Lourenco MA, Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2007) Dislocation engineered silicon light emitting devices, THIN SOLID FILMS 515 (22) pp. 8113-8117 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Wong L, Milosavljevic M, Lourenco MA, Shao G, Valizadeh R, Colligon JS, Homewood KP (2008) Annealing and deposition temperature dependence of the bandgap of amorphous FeSi(2) fabricated by co-sputter deposition, SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 23 (3) ARTN 035007 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Lourenço MA, Wong L, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2010) Luminescence of Tm3+in dislocation engineered silicon substrates, Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics pp. 159-161
Photoluminescence at 1.2 to1.4 ¼m is demonstrated in dislocation engineered silicon substrates doped with Tm3+ leading to the development of forward biased light emitting devices operating at a turn-on voltage of only 1 V.
Lourenco MA, Milosavljevic M, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP, Shao G (2005) On the role of dislocation loops in silicon light emitting diodes, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 87 (20) ARTN 201105 AMER INST PHYSICS
Lourenco MA, Siddiqui MSA, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2003) Dislocation-based silicon light emitting devices, TOWARDS THE FIRST SILICON LASER 93 pp. 11-20 SPRINGER
Lourenco MA, Knights AP, Homewood KP, Gwilliam RM, Simpson PJ, Mascher P (2001) A comparative study of vacancies produced by proton implantation of silicon using positron annihilation and deep level transient spectroscopy, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 175 pp. 300-304 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Lourenco MA, Milosavljevic M, Galata S, Siddiqui MSA, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2005) Silicon-based light emitting devices, VACUUM 78 (2-4) pp. 551-556 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Lourenco MA, Milosavljevic M, Gwilliam RM, Shao G, Homewood KP (2004) Experimental and theoretical study of the electroluminescence temperature dependence of iron disilicide light-emitting devices, THIN SOLID FILMS 461 (1) pp. 219-222 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Lourenço M, Gwilliam R, Homewood K (2011) Eye-safe 2 ¼m luminescence from thulium-doped silicon., Opt Lett 36 (2) pp. 169-171 Optical Society of America
We report on photoluminescence in the 1.7-2.1 ¼m range of silicon doped with thulium. This is achieved by the implantation of Tm into silicon that has been codoped with boron to reduce the thermal quenching. At least six strong lines can be distinguished at 80 K; at 300 K, the spectrum is dominated by the main emission at 2 ¼m. These emissions are attributed to the trivalent Tm(3+) internal transitions between the first excited state and the ground state.
Gao Y, Shao GS, Li Q, Xu YM, Wong SP, Zhou MY, Lourenco MA, Homewood KP (2007) Microstructural and optical properties of semiconducting MnSi1.7 synthesized by ion implantation, JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 1-REGULAR PAPERS BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS & REVIEW PAPERS 46 (9A) pp. 5777-5779 INST PURE APPLIED PHYSICS
Lourenço MA, Mustafa Z, Ludurczak W, Wong L, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2013) High temperature luminescence of Dy3+ in crystalline silicon in the optical communication and eye-safe spectral regions, Optics Letters 38 (18) pp. 3669-3672
We report on photoluminescence in the 1.3 and 1.7 ¼m spectral ranges in silicon doped with dysprosium. This is attributed to the Dy3+ internal transitions between the second Dy3+ excited state and the ground state, and between the third Dy3+ excited state and the ground state. Luminescence is achieved by Dy implantation into Si substrates codoped with boron, to form dislocation loops, and show a strong dependence on fabrication process. The spectra consist of several sharp lines with the strongest emission at 1736 nm, observed up to 200 K. No Dy3+ luminescence is observed in samples without B codoping, showing the paramount importance of dislocation loops to enable the Dy emission. © 2013 Optical Society of America.
Chow CF, Gao Y, Wong SP, Ke N, Li Q, Cheung WY, Shao G, Lourenco MA, Homewood KP (2005) Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of FeSi 2-Si structures formed by MEVVA implantation, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 862 pp. 507-512
We have prepared FeSi2 precipitates of nanometer size in Si by ion implantation using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source and studied their photoluminescence properties. Broad photoluminescence (PL) spectra at around 1550 nm were observed for all samples attributed to emission from the FeSi2 precipitates. It was found that all the PL spectra can be decomposed into two peaks, a main peak at near 1530 nm and a satellite peak at 1607 nm. Samples with a furnace annealing (FA) step at a lower temperature of 850°C are found to have a main peak position at a longer wavelength close to 1540 nm. For samples with a FA step at higher temperatures, the main peak position shifts to shorter wavelengths of near 1525 nm. In addition, we have also prepared MOS structures with implanted FeSi2 precipitates incorporated in the structures and measured their EL properties. The EL properties from these FeSi2-Si MOS structures after various thermal treatments were measured as a function of temperature from 80 to 300 K. Our preliminary results show that clear EL signals are obtained even at room temperature under appropriate processing conditions. © 2005 Materials Research Society.
Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2008) Silicon light emitting diodes emitting over the 1.2-1.4 mu m wavelength region in the extended optical communication band, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 92 (16) ARTN 161108 AMER INST PHYSICS
McKinty CN, Kewell AK, Sharpe JS, Lourenco MA, Butler TM, Valizadeh R, Colligon JS, Kirkby KJR, Homewood KP (2000) The optical properties of beta-FeSi2 fabricated by ion beam assisted sputtering, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 161 pp. 922-925 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Kewell AK, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Sharpe J, McKinty C, Butler T, Kirkby KJR, Homewood KP (2000) Light-emitting diodes fabricated in silicon/iron disilicide, SILICON-BASED OPTOELECTRONICS II 3953 pp. 59-67 SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING
Prins AD, Ishibashi Y, Sasahara S, Nakahara J, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Kobayashi T, Nagata A, Homewood KP (2004) Silicon-based light emitting diode material studied under high pressure, PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC RESEARCH 241 (14) pp. 3387-3390 WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2005) Engineering of boron-induced dislocation loops for efficient room-temperature silicon light-emitting diodes, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 97 (7) ARTN 073512 AMER INST PHYSICS
Ng WL, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Ledain S, Shao G, Homewood KP (2001) An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode (vol 410, pg 192, 2001), NATURE 414 (6862) pp. 470-470 MACMILLAN PUBLISHERS LTD
Hughes MA, Lourenço MA, Carey JD, Murdin B, Homewood KP (2014) Crystal field analysis of Dy and Tm implanted silicon for photonic and quantum technologies, Optics Express 22 (24) pp. 29292-29303
© 2014 Optical Society of America.We report the lattice site and symmetry of optically active Dy3+ and Tm3+ implanted Si. Local symmetry was determined by fitting crystal field parameters (CFPs), corresponding to various common symmetries, to the ground state splitting determined by photoluminescence measurements. These CFP values were then used to calculate the splitting of every J manifold. We find that both Dy and Tm ions are in a Si substitution site with local tetragonal symmetry. Knowledge of rare-earth ion symmetry is important in maximising the number of optically active centres and for quantum technology applications where local symmetry can be used to control decoherence.
Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2007) Extraordinary optical gain from silicon implanted with erbium, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 91 (14) ARTN 141122 AMER INST PHYSICS
Lourenco MD, Hughes MA, Lai KT, Sofi IM, Ludurczak W, Wong L, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2016) Silicon-Modified Rare-Earth Transitions - a New Route to Near- and Mid-IR Photonics, Advanced Functional Materials 26 pp. 1986-1994 Wiley
Silicon underpins microelectronics but lacks the photonic capability needed
for next-generation systems and currently relies on a highly undesirable
hybridization of separate discrete devices using direct band gap semiconductors.
Rare-earth (RE) implantation is a promising approach to bestow photonic
capability to silicon but is limited to internal RE transition wavelengths.
Reported here is the fi rst observation of direct optical transitions from the
silicon band edge to internal f -levels of implanted REs (Ce, Eu, and Yb); this
overturns previously held assumptions about the alignment of RE levels to
the silicon band gap. The photoluminescence lines are massively redshifted
to several technologically useful wavelengths and modeling of their splitting
indicates that they must originate from the REs. Eu-implanted silicon
devices display a greatly enhanced electroluminescence effi ciency of 8%. Also
observed is the fi rst crystal fi eld splitting in Ce luminescence. Mid-IR silicon
photodetectors with specifi c detectivities comparable to existing state-of-theart
mid-IR detectors are demonstrated.
LOURENCO MA, HOMEWOOD KP (1993) PHOTOCONDUCTIVE FREQUENCY-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTORS - AN ANALYSIS OF LIFETIME DISTRIBUTIONS, SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 8 (7) pp. 1277-1282 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Lourenco MA, Siddiqui MSA, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2004) Ion beam fabricated silicon light emitting diodes, PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLIED RESEARCH 201 (2) pp. 239-244 WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
The addition of efficient optical emission to the functionality of crystalline silicon, because of its already dominant position for use in electronic devices and for integrated circuit production, is highly desired. Applications include optical interconnects on chip and between chips - needed to solve future data transfer limitations associated with current copper technology, cheap fibre-to-the-home transceivers, and many others. A solution using ion implantation is the optimum route given the ubiquitous role of this process in silicon technology. In this paper the use of a new method to fabricate silicon based light emitting devices, dislocation engineering, that allows to circumvent the fundamental problem caused by the indirect gap in silicon, is described. This approach is entirely compatible with current ULSI technology, a key requirement given the very high tool-up costs associated with silicon integrated circuit production. (C) 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Milosavljevic M, Lourenco MA, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2008) Formation of dislocation loops in silicon by ion irradiation for silicon light emitting diodes, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 266 (10) pp. 2470-2474 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Gwilliam R, Lourenco MA, Galata S, Homewood KP, Shao G (2002) Efficient optical sources in silicon using dislocation engineering, PHOTONICS FOR SPACE ENVIRONMENTS VIII 4823 pp. 155-161 SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING
Bowden M, Gardiner DJ, Lourenco MA, Hedley J, Wood D, Burdess JS, Harris AJ (1998) Dopant mapping and strain analysis in B doped silicon structures using micro-Raman spectroscopy, MICROELECTROMECHANICAL STRUCTURES FOR MATERIALS RESEARCH 518 pp. 239-244 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
Nohavica D, Gladkov P, Lourenco MA, Yang Z, Homewood KP, Ehrentraut D (1996) Meander type LPE - New approach to growth InP and GaInAsP layers, 1996 EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIUM PHOSPHIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS pp. 560-563 I E E E
Lourenco MA, Gardiner DJ, Bowden M, Hedley J, Wood D (2000) Stress analysis of B doped silicon bridges and cantilever structures by Raman spectroscopy, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS 19 (9) pp. 767-769 KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL
Niby MA, Li DQ, Lourenco MA, Nejim A, Homewood KP, Hemment PLF (1997) The lifetime distribution of excess carriers in H+ ion implanted silicon by photoconductive frequency resolved spectroscopy, ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY - 96 pp. 668-671 I E E E
Homewood KP, Lourenço MA, Milosavljevicl M, Shao G, Gwilliam RM (2005) Dislocation engineered silicon for light emission, Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS 2005 pp. 609-610
Homewood KP, Lourenço MA (2015) Optoelectronics: The rise of the GeSn laser, Nature Photonics 9 (2) pp. 78-79
Lourenco M, Siddiqui M, Gwilliam R, Shao G, Homewood K (2003) Efficient silicon light emitting diodes made by dislocation engineering, PHYSICA E-LOW-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS & NANOSTRUCTURES 16 (3-4) pp. 376-381 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Milosavljevic M, Lourenco MA, Siddiqui MSA, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2004) TEM studies of dislocation-based silicon light emitting devices, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND ANALYSIS 2003 (179) pp. 99-102 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Lourenco MA, Butler TM, Kewell AK, Gwilliam RM, Kirkby KJ, Homewood KP (2001) Electroluminescence of beta-FeSi2 light emitting devices, JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 1-REGULAR PAPERS SHORT NOTES & REVIEW PAPERS 40 (6A) pp. 4041-4044 INST PURE APPLIED PHYSICS
Chow CF, Wong SP, Gao Y, Ke N, Li Q, Cheung WY, Lourenco MA, Homewood KP (2005) Electroluminescence properties of Si MOS structures with incorporation of FeSi2 precipitates formed by iron implantation, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY 124 pp. 440-443 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Gao Y, Lourenco MA, Valizadeh R, Colligon JS, Homewood KP (2004) Semiconducting amorphous FeSi2 layers synthesized by co-sputter deposition, THIN SOLID FILMS 461 (1) pp. 72-76 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Ng WL, Lourenço MA, Gwilliam RM, Ledain S, Shao G, Homewood KP (2001) Erratum: An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode (Nature (2001) 410 (192-194)), Nature 414 (6862)
Lourenco MA, Yew YK, Homewood KP, Durose K, Richter H, Bonnet D (1997) Deep level transient spectroscopy of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 82 (3) pp. 1423-1426 AMER INST PHYSICS
Lourenco MA, Gardiner DJ, Gouvernayre V, Bowden M, Hedley J, Wood D (2000) Alleviation of temperature effects in the Raman micro-spectroscopy of boron doped silicon microstructures, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS 19 (9) pp. 771-773 KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL
Wong SP, Chow CF, Roller J, Chong YT, Li Q, Lourenco MA, Homewood KP (2007) Structures and light emission properties of nanocrystalline FeSi2/Si formed by ion beam synthesis with a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source, THIN SOLID FILMS 515 (22) pp. 8122-8128 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Kidd P, Dunstan DJ, Colson HG, Lourenco MA, Sacedon A, GonzalezSanz F, Gonzalez L, Gonzalez Y, Garcia R, Gonzalez D, Pacheco FJ, Goodhew PJ (1996) Comparison of the crystalline quality of step-graded and continuously graded InGaAs buffer layers, JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH 169 (4) pp. 649-659 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Sun CM, Tsang HK, Wong SP, Cheung WY, Ke N, Lourenco MA, Homewood KP (2009) Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-silicon tunneling diode with ion-beam-synthesized beta-FeSi2 precipitates embedded in the active region, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 267 (7) pp. 1081-1084 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Shao G, Homewood KP (2003) Dislocation engineered beta-FeSi2 light emitting diodes, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 206 pp. 436-439 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Ishibashi Y, Kobayashi T, Prins AD, Nakahara J, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2007) Excitation and pressure effects on photoluminescence from dislocation engineered silicon material, PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS 244 (1) pp. 402-406 WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Lourenco MA, Ng WL, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2002) Dislocation engineered silicon light emitting diodes, SILICON-BASED AND HYBRID OPTOELECTRONICS IV 4654 pp. 138-144 SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING
Lourenco MA, Dunstan DJ (1996) Interpretation of double-crystal x-ray rocking curves in relaxed strained-layer structures, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 79 (6) pp. 3011-3015 AMER INST PHYSICS
Lourenço MA, Homewood KP (2011) Crystalline-silicon-based infra-red LEDs and routes to laser diodes, Thin Solid Films 519 (24) pp. 8441-8445 Elsevier
We review progress in silicon LEDs using dislocation engineering to achieve high temperature operation, a process that is fully CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) compatible. We concentrate on devices operating in the near infra-red where high value applications are. The need for silicon emitters, lasers and optical amplifiers is discussed followed by an outline of previous approaches and possible future routes explored. Results on gain in silicon are reported and routes to electrically pumped injection lasers and optical amplifiers considered. Extension of 1.1 and 1.5 ¼m devices to other wavelengths is discussed
Ng WL, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Ledain S, Shao G, Homewood KP (2001) An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode, NATURE 410 (6825) pp. 192-194 MACMILLAN PUBLISHERS LTD
Knights AP, Lourenco MA, Homewood KP, Morrison DJ, Wright NG, Ortolland S, Johnson CM, O'Neill AG, Coleman PG, Hilton KP, Uren MJ (2000) Low temperature annealing of 4H-SiC Schottky diode edge terminations formed by 30 keV Ar+ implantation, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 87 (8) pp. 3973-3977 AMER INST PHYSICS
Lourenco MA, Ludurczak W, Prins AD, Milosavljevic M, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP (2015) Light emission from rare-earths in dislocation engineered silicon substrates, JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 54 (7) ARTN 07JB01 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Galata S, Lourenco M, Gwilliam R, Homewod K (2005) Sulphur doped silicon light emitting diodes, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY 124 pp. 435-439
Peach Tomas, Homewood Kevin, Lourenco Manon, Hughes M, Saeedi Kaymar, Stavrias Nikolaos, Li Juerong, Chick Steven, Murdin Benedict, Clowes Steven (2018) The Effect of Lattice Damage and Annealing Conditions on the Hyperfine Structure of Ion Implanted Bismuth Donors in Silicon, Advanced Quantum Technologies 1 (2) 1800038 Wiley
This study reports on high energy bismuth ion implantation into silicon with a particular emphasis on the effect that annealing conditions have on the observed hyperfine structure of the Si:Bi donor state. A suppression of donor bound exciton, D0X, photoluminescence is observed in implanted samples which have been annealed at 700 °C relating to the presence of a dense layer of lattice defects that is formed during the implantation process. Hall measurments at 10 K show that this implant damage manifests itself at low temperatures as an abundance of p?type charge carriers, the density of which is observed to have a strong dependence on annealing temperature. Using resonant D0X photoconductivity, we are able to identify the presence of a hyperfine structure in samples annealed at a minimum temperature of 800 °C; however, higher temperatures are required to eliminate effects of implantation strain.