Much has been written about the ways in which technology has facilitated the rapid development of many aspects of the modern translation profession, including the re-use (?leveraging?) of legacy data such as previous translations. This article adopts a different approach to the technology/translation relationship, posing a fundamental question, namely whether the use of computer-assisted translation tools?specifically, translation memory (TM)*?is changing the grammar of text. The question is approached through an analysis of TM data in a number of languages with a focus on cohesion between text segments, starting from the assumption that the greater the number of cohesive ties between segments, the lower the chances of re-use in new translations. It is concluded that it is problematic to isolate possible TM effects from expected translation shifts, either for system-related or genre-related reasons. Suggestions are made for the design of a larger study in order to resolve such difficulties.
Rogers M (2005) Lexicology and the study of terminology, In: DA Cruse, F Hundsnurscher, M Job, P Lutzeier (eds.), Lexicology. An international handbook on the nature and structure of words and vocabularies, Volume 2 pp. 1847-1854 Walter de Gruyter
Rogers M (2005) Native versus Non-Native Speaker Competence in German-English Translation: A Case Study, In: Anderman GARM (eds.), In and Out of English: For Better, For Worse? pp. 256-274 Multilingual Matters
Rogers M (2003) 'Expanding the Translation Curriculum to reflect changing professional profiles: Teaching and Learning in a Humanities Context',
Rogers M (2001) Text and Terminologies as an "Ecosystem", pp. 167-178 Gunter Narr
Ahmad K, Rogers M (2007) Evidence-based LSP. Translation, Text and Terminology, Peter Lang
Rogers MA (2008) Translation and foreign language learning. A Synergistic Exploration of Research Problems, In: Krings HP, Mayer F (eds.), Sprachenvielfalt im Kontext von Fachkommunikation, pbersetzung und Fremdsprachenunterricht pp. 117-127 Frank & Timme
This article explores in a complementary way the nature of translation studies in relation to foreign-language learning on the one hand, and translation as a communicative activity/product on the other hand. The common issues which are identified and discussed range from those which are of direct relevance to pedagogical practice, such as the nature of errors, to those which raise questions of research methods, such as how to study processes. Cognitive perspectives are also shown to have import for pedagogy, in so far as teaching methods based on evidence of learning or translating processes can be argued to have a sounder basis than those relying on linguistic models or institutionalised beliefs. Parallels in the development of various approaches provide further support for the claim of a synergistic relationship through changing emphases on form and function, and on system and use.
Rogers M, Anderman G (2003) Translation Today: Trends and Perspectives, Multilingual Matters
Rogers M (2001) Terminologie in Großbritannien, pp. 183-187 Deutscher Terminologie-Tag e.V.
Anderman G, Rogers M (2005) English in Europe: For Better, For Worse?, In: Anderman GARM (eds.), In and Out of English: For Better, For Worse? pp. 1-p26 Multilingual Matters
Doloughan F, Rogers M (2006) Mediation and Regulation of Textual Space: the role of creative writing in translator training, University of Portsmouth
Rogers M (2001) Contribution on Antia, Bassey 2000: Terminology and Language Planning. An alternative framework of practice and discourse 264 pp, Bibliography of Translation Studies. St Jerome (xxiv)
Rogers M (2001) Contribution on R. Temmerman (2000), Towards New Ways of Terminology description. The Sociocognitive approach. 258 pp, Bibliography of Translation Studies. St. Jerome
Rogers M (2004) Multidimensionality in Concept Systems: A Bilingual Textual Perspective, Terminology 10 (2) pp. 215-240
Rogers M (2003) 'Students need grammar - an interactive workshop focusing on word order'.,
The aim of this contribution is to problematise the notion of consistency in relation to terminological choice in
the context of technical writing and translation. It is argued that the conventional wisdom of terminological
consistency can be nuanced through an understanding of ?motivatedness? which is rooted in textuality.
Anderman GM, Rogers M (2008) Incorporating corpora: The linguist and the translator, Multilingual Matters Ltd
This volume sets out to give a voice to a range of less frequently studied European languages from Portuguese to Hungarian in the context of corpus-based translation studies. Many new studies of translation patterns using parallel corpora are presented, focusing on particular linguistic features, as well as broader- ranging contributions on the still disputed notion of translation 'universals', initially facilitated by the availability of large, automatically processable text corpora. The introduction (by GA and MR) contextualises and motivates the collection by tracing the origins of modern corpus-based studies to earlier developments in linguistics and clearly establishing the seminal contribution of earlier work on corpus analysis, pre-dating the technological developments of the mid-1990s. The book aims to resurrect the importance of linguistic analysis in translation studies at a time when cultural and ideological approaches were in the ascendant.
Rogers M (2001) Workshop on: Terminology work in multilingual environments.,
Rogers M (2007) Lexical chains in technical translation: A case study in interdeterminacy, In: Anita B (eds.), Indeterminacy in LSP and Terminology Studies: Studies in Honour of Heribert Picht pp. 15-35 Benjamins
Rogers MA (2009) Terminology: A Textual Turn, In: Albl-Mikasa M, Braun S, Kalina S (eds.), Dimensionen zweitsprachlicher Kompetenz/ Dimensions of Second Language Research pp. 217-226 Tübingen: Narr
This article maps the philosophical and linguistic development of terminology studies as a relatively new discipline, on the one hand from objective realism to interpretive hermeneutics, and on the other from system (with a focus on regulatory intervention) to use (with a focus on understanding variation in text). It synthesises and analyses trends which can be traced in seminal works of various orientations over a key decade of development around the end of the 20th century, marking a significant theoretical ?turn? in terminology studies of significance for the study of specialist translation in particular and opening up a decision space for the translator in which intratextual, interlingual and systemic relations must be cognitively weighed. Through this analysis, the justification for the rejection of specialist translation as a term substitution exercise becomes clear.
Rogers M (2002) "Clines" and boundaries: forms of representation in Terminology, Terminology Science and Research 13 (1-2) pp. 52-61
Anderman G, Rogers M (2005) In and Out of English: For Better, For Worse?, pp. i-xii+303pp Multilingual Matters
The great majority of translations produced today concern issues that affect people's daily lives. These range from the banal to the safety-critical in myriad subject areas from furniture assembly to criminal proceedings. Yet specialised translation is often negatively defined as 'non-literary', a designation which is deconstructed and challenged in this book. Using the concept of 'borders' and establishing strong historical precedents for much contemporary practice, Rogers bridges the gap between 'specialised' and 'literary' translation by challenging a series of binary oppositions such as term versus word, text versus non-text and original versus translated text.
Rogers M (2002) Where do translators come from?, Language International 13 (6) pp. 18-22
Les actes des journées d?étude, 12 & 13 mai 2008 organisées en hommage au Dr. Salim BABA AMEUR, par le Département d'Interprétariat et de Traduction (Faculté des Lettres et des Langues, Université d'Alger) les 12 & 13 mai 2008 sur le thème : « Formation des interprètes et des traducteurs en Algérie. »
Rogers M (2001) 'The Future of Translator Training'.,
Rogers M (2003) Response paper to Terminologie in der Praxis der Ukraine T. Kyyak. Colloquium Comparison of the theoretical foundations of terminology in eastern Europe and the western countries,
Rogers M, Ahmad K (2001) Corpus Linguistics and Terminology Extraction, In: Budin SEW&G (eds.), Handbook of Terminology Management. Vol. 2. pp. 725-760 John Benjamins
Rogers M (2006) Structuring information in English: a specialist translation perspective on sentence beginnings, The Translator 12 (1) pp. 29-64
Rogers M (2003) Translation and Interpreting Programmes in the UK. Contribution to Colloquium: Konzeptionelle Ausgestaltung der Übersetzer- und Dolmetscher-Ausbildung in Europa vor dem Hintergrund der Bologna-Erklärung.,
Rogers M (2004) Terminology and translation: Some theoretical and practical issues,
Rogers M (2004) Ordering information in English special-language texts: a translation perspective,
Rogers M (2005) Terminology, term banks and termbases for translation, In: Malmkjaer GEKBSEK (eds.), Elsevier Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition
Rogers Margaret (2011) LSP Translation and Creativity, SYNAPS - Fagspråk, Kommunikasjon, Kulturkunnskap, A Journal of Professional Communication 26 pp. 42-47
(Department of Professional and Intercultural Communication, NHH, Norway)
Specialised or LSP translation is often compared unfavourably with literary translation in terms of the creative input required from the translator to produce a ?good? translation. The supposed formulaic nature of LSP texts is contrasted with the creative nature of literary texts. The authors of LSP texts are often anonymous, possibly working in a team, and not necessarily native speakers of the language used. By contrast, literary translators ? notably of the canon ? derive their higher status from that of the authors they translate, and nowadays are usually acknowledged by name. This paper explores the relationship between creativity and translation, considering in particular the intertextual relations enjoyed by all kinds of text, including translations.
Rogers M (2001) Response paper to Reprasentationsformen in der Terminologie. Colloquium on Terminologiewissenchaft am Scheideweg?,
The relationship between theory and practice is a particularly pertinent one for newly-emerging academic subject fields such as Translation Studies and Terminology Studies, as translation and terminology/terminography/specialised lexicography are activities originally rooted in practice over millennia. In this chapter a number of issues related to this relationship are addressed in the context of advanced specialised translation programmes (postgraduate or year 5). Starting from a consideration of how ?theory? as a concept can be variously interpreted by students and practitioners alike, the goals of courses in terminology management for translation purposes are reviewed in order to identify the potential contribution of terminological theory. In this, it is argued that certain aspects of theory can help to inform decisions of practice and that the crucial question may be one of pedagogical presentation rather than ?does theory matter??
Asimakoulas D, Rogers MA (2011) Translation and Opposition, Multilingual Matters Limited
The book features a collection of case studies in such diverse fields as interpreting, audiovisual translation and the translation of political discourse and (contemporary) literary texts.
With the growth of Translation Studies as a discipline, the key notion of ?equivalence? has become increasingly problematised. In this paper I would like to renew our acquaintance with Catford?s (1965) early notion of ?textual equivalent?, which is expressed in terms of probabilities of occurrence. Using the notion that an equivalence probability of 1 can be understood as a fully determinate ST term-TT term relationship, actual correspondences will be investigated in the translations of a safety-critical medical text from German into French and English. The correspondences will be analysed in the linguistic framework of lexical cohesion in terms of lexicogrammatical chains. It will be argued that even in genres and subject fields which might be assumed to be highly-determinate with respect to lexical selection, terminological correspondences in texts can be variable.
With the rapid growth of the Internet and the recent developments in translation technology, the way translators carry out their translation-oriented research has changed dramatically. Resources used by translators to conduct such research have diversified and largely moved from paper to online. However, whilst the number and the variety of online resources available to translators is growing exponentially, little is known about the interactions between translators and these resources. The present research empirically examines the use of online resources by professional translators during their translation-oriented research activities and it does so from an information behaviour perspective. As a first study of its kind, it focusses on freelance professional translators working at their normal place of work. Specifically, this work addresses the questions of the nature and quantity of resources used by translators as well as the time they spend on research activities. Furthermore, it examines the individual differences between the participants during the research activities. These differences are studied by considering the types of resources used and the ways they are accessed, and by investigating the many volume- and time-related aspects of each translator?s research activities. The main contribution of this study lies in the identification of patterns and their systematisation through a multidimensional analysis, culminating in the formulation of two taxonomies - the Resource Type User Taxonomy (RTUT) and Taxonomy of Translator Research Styles (TTRS). It is argued that whilst RTUT may largely depend on technology developments, TTRS reflects the more innate traits of translators? information behaviour. By employing a two-stage, multi-method approach (Global Survey, N=540 and Main Study N=16), and by conducting it remotely, through the Internet, the present study represents a quasi-naturalistic research design which aims to observe translation processes as they happen in translators? natural working environments. This methodology in itself constitutes a contribution to translation process studies.
Rogers M, Anderman G (2003) Introduction, In: Translation Today: Trends and Perspectives pp. 1-10
Translation and Opposition is an edited volume that brings together cultural and sociological perspectives by examining translation through the prism of linguistic/cultural hybridity and inter/intra-social agency. In a collection of diverse case studies, ranging from the translation of political texts to interpreting in concentration camps, the book explores issues of power struggle, ideology, censorship and identity construction. The contributors to the volume show how translators, interpreters and subtitlers as mediators put their specific professional and ethical competences to the test by treading the dividing lines between constellations of ?in-groups? and cultural or political ?others?.
Popular science articles are nowadays a key component of the scientific writing landscape: science is popularised through a recontextualization of a primary scientific discourse to fit the knowledge and expectations of a broader audience, but then disseminated further through translation. This recontextualization is often achieved using metaphors to help the non-expert reader to access complex and abstract scientific concepts based on shared author-reader experiences, which are, however, not necessarily shared with the new target-culture audience, potentially endangering cross-linguistic communication of the scientific content.
This thesis aims to investigate metaphors in American popular science articles dealing with astronomy and astrophysics published in Scientific American and their Arabic translations published in Majallat-Al-Oloom. The thesis focuses more particularly on metaphors fulfilling a pedagogical role which are embedded in culture specific domains. Although English is argued to be the global lingual franca of the sciences nowadays, the use of culture specific metaphors might raise difficulties in disseminating the scientific content in English and in its translations.
The field of astronomy and astrophysics has been chosen because of the complex and often abstract nature of its concepts that requires an appropriate discourse strategy to bring abstract concepts closer to the general reader?s understanding. It is also a domain that is visible in the public understanding of the sciences through its large diffusion. In this scientific communication metaphor fulfils not only a terminological function but is also used as a pedagogical tool to achieve popularisation. Despite its role in disseminating scientific content, metaphor in the discourse of astronomy and astrophysics has remained so far unexplored from both metaphor studies and translation perspectives.
To achieve these aims, a multidimensional framework combining a conceptual approach with linguistic and functional elements was devised to capture the complexity of metaphor from a translation perspective, especially between languages of differing diffusion where English is a global lingua franca. A bilingual corpus was compiled (circa 150,000 words) and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The updated version of the metaphor identification procedure (MIPVU) was further adapted to allow the identification of the linguistic metaphors and their functions. The methodology also accounted for how the conceptual metaphors are implied from the linguistic data, a step that is often unaccounted for in the literature.
The study shows that linguistic metaphors used in the source texts fulfil mainly a pedagogical function and are often embedded in culture-specific domains, presenting challenges for translation.
A wide range of strategies was identified in the translation of these metaphors, where the same conceptual metaphor is often reproduced in the target text by combining many strategies (couplets). This results in new metaphors in the target system that are argued to achieve a dual purpose: they facilitate access to scientific concepts communicated in the source text by unpacking the metaphorical images for a new audience; and they contribute to the enrichment of the target-language system.
This interview was conducted with Emerita Professor Margaret Rogers with the aim of providing a brief but informative summary of the relationship between translation and creative writing. Emerita Professor Rogers is in the Centre for Translation Studies, School of English and Languages, University of Surrey, UK. She is also the founder of Terminology Network at the Institute of Translation and Interpreting in the UK. Professor Rogers introduced creative writing into the translation curriculum some 10 years ago at her own university.
Résumé : La « variation » est un concept sociolinguistique qui tente de saisir la richesse du langage dans sa relation avec la société dans la mesure où l?utilisation du langage dans des contextes socioculturels particuliers est toujours destinée à atteindre un but communicatif spécifique. Dans cette perspective, la variation de l?utilisation des termes ne doit nécessairement pas être considérée comme un manque de cohérence imprudente, mais plutôt comme un acte communicatif avec un objectif, un phénomène qui a reçu une attention accrue dans les études terminologiques au cours de ces dernières années, notamment dans le domaine de la terminologie informatique. Le but de cet article est de réviser et faire le point sur ces développements en mettant l?accent sur le langage écrit afin d?explorer les modèles possibles de variation comme base pour l?établissement d?un inventaire des types variationnels. Les sujets qui seront considérés comme un point de départ ? potentiellement couvrant, mais s?étendant au-delà des dimensions standard de la variation (diaphasique, diastratique, diatopique, diachronique) ? incluent : variation utilisateur/public, variation régionale, variation orthographique, variation stylistique, variation morphologique, dépréciation/néologie, variation à des fins rhétoriques, « perspectivisation »/multidimensionnalité et variation textuelle-linguistique.
Abstract: "Variation" is a sociolinguistic concept that attempts to grasp the richness of language in its relationship with society since the use of language in particular socio-cultural contexts is always intended to achieve a specific communicative purpose. In this perspective, the variation in the use of terms should not necessarily be seen as an imprudent lack of coherence, but rather as a communicative act with an objective, a phenomenon that has received increased attention in terminology studies during the course of time. in recent years, particularly in the field of computer terminology. The purpose of this article is to review and review these developments with a focus on written language to explore possible models of variation as a basis for establishing an inventory of variational types. Topics that will be considered as a starting point - potentially covering, but extending beyond the standard dimensions of variation (diaphasic, diastratic, diatopic, diachronic) - include: user / public variation, regional variation, orthographic variation, stylistic variation, morphological variation, depreciation / neology, variation for rhetorical purposes, "perspectivisation" / multidimensionality and textual-linguistic variation.
As JoSTrans enters its fifteenth year of publication, this article sets out to chart how ?specialised translation? has been conceptualised since the journal?s launch based on a survey of articles published over that time. The results show a shift away from what has traditionally been considered as the core of specialised translation, namely, the interlingual translation of texts in non-fictional subject fields, with professional and training issues, as well as audiovisual translation now achieving higher numbers of articles. The inclusion of some literary topics, whilst not frequent, also suggests a broadly conceived publishing policy. The article concludes with an acknowledgment that a broader view of specialised translation can be productive in fostering new perspectives as part of the fast-changing interdiscipline of Translation Studies and in supporting flexible curriculum design.
The relative status of ?literary? and ?non-literary? translation is clearly implied in their customary designations: one is the default and one is what the default is not. Similar terminological patterns in other fields of interest can give rise to ideological and political debate ? as in the racial epithets ?white? and ?non-white?. But what lies beneath the words? Discussions about the scope and nature of translation within translation studies have already moved on from a binary division to encompass a growing number of ?subfields?, so that ?the traditional inclination of translation studies towards literary translation is now only one among many and varied preoccupations? (Brems et al. 2012: 3). Included in Brem?s et al.?s understanding of translation studies are various interpreting activities, although the spoken/written distinction becomes harder to sustain in the light of multimedia developments and some professional practices. Borders have become porous here too (see Shlesinger & Ordan 2012). Furthermore, while the propositional content of what are broadly known as non-literary texts has been said to differ from that of literary texts (see Harvey 1998: 277), as also their respective functions ? ?transactional or informational? aiming to ?influence or inform? as opposed to ?affective/aesthetic [. . .] aiming to provoke emotions and/or entertain? (Jones 2009: 152) ? the linguistic and stylistic devices which are used to fulfil those functions are less easily categorised. In both cases, the translator is moving between cultures and languages, making decisions about optimal solutions for the setting, and deploying his/her interpretive and creative abilities.