Dr Marine Diana

Postgraduate Research Student
MSc, MRes
+44 (0)1483 686648
01 AA 01

Academic and research departments


My research project

My qualifications

Masters by Research (MRes)
Comparison of advanced oxidation processes for metaldehyde removal and downstream disinfection by-product formation.
Project sponsored by Severn Trent Water
Cranfield University
MSc Engineering degree in Chemistry
Specialisation in environmental and analytical chemistry
National School of Chemistry in Rennes, France (ENSCR)

Affiliations and memberships

Royal Society of Chemistry
Associate member


Research interests



Diana, M., Felipe-Sotelo, M., Bond, T. (2019) Disinfection byproducts potentially responsible for the association between chlorinated drinking water and bladder cancer : A review

Epidemiological studies have consistently associated the consumption of chlorinated drinking water with an enhanced risk of bladder cancer. While this suggests that some disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are bladder carcinogens, causal agents are unknown. This study aims to highlight likely candidates. To achieve this, structures of known and hypothesised DBPs were compared with 76 known bladder carcinogens. The latter are dominated by nitrogenous and aromatic compounds; only 10 are halogenated. Under 10% of the chlorine applied during drinking water treatment is converted into identified halogenated byproducts; most of the chlorine is likely to be consumed during the generation of unidentified non-halogenated oxidation products. Six nitrosamines are among the nine most potent bladder carcinogens, and two of them are known to be DBPs: N-nitrosodiphenylamine and nitrosodibutylamine. However, these and other nitrosamines are formed in insufficiently low concentrations in chlorinated drinking water to account for the observed bladder cancer risk. Furthermore, although not proven bladder carcinogens, certain amines, haloamides, halocyclopentenoic acids, furans and haloquinones are potential candidates. At present, most identified bladder carcinogens are nitrogenous, whereas >90% of natural organic matter is not. Therefore, non-nitrogenous DBPs are likely to contribute to the bladder cancer risk. Given the high proportion of DBPs that remains uncharacterised, it is important that future research prioritises compounds believed to be potent toxicants.