Multiferroic nanocrystalline BiFeO3films have been successfully made by room temperature sputtering and thermal annealing in oxygen at 500C. Nanocrystalline Bi was seen before annealing as well asb-Bi2O3 and the iron oxide phases, magnetite, maghemite, and FeO. Superparamagnetism was observed that can be attributed to magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles. The thermally annealed film contained BiFeO3 nanoparticles and magnetite, maghemite, and hematite as well as unidentified BiFexOyphases. Superparamagnetism was also seen after annealing and the magnetic properties are predominately due to magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles rather than from multiferroic BiFeO3. The saturation magnetic moment was 60% lower after annealing, which was due to some of the Fe in the iron oxide nanoparticles being incorporated into the BiFeO3nanoparticles. An exchange bias was observed before and after annealing that cannot be attributed to a structure that includes BiFeO3. It is likely to arise from magnetite and maghemite cores with spin-disordered shells.
BiFeO3 and BiCrO3 films were made by room temperature sputtering followed by thermal annealing in a partial oxygen atmosphere. The annealed films were found to be nanocrystalline, with an average particle size of 11 nm for BiFeO3 and 8 nm for BiCrO3. The saturation moment per formula unit is 0.39 µB for BiFeO3 which is significantly greater than that found in bulk BiFeO3 (0.02 µB). A similar enhancement was also found in previous studies of BiFeO3 nanoparticles where the nanoparticle size was small. However, no large enhancement of the saturation moment per formula unit was identified for the annealed BiCrO3 films. The annealed BiFeO3 films displayed superparamagnetic behaviour and the particle size estimated from the blocking temperature is comparable to that estimated from the X-ray diffraction data. Our results show that sputtering and oxygen annealing is a method that can be used to make nanocrystalline BiFeO3 and BiCrO3 films.
Starbursts are found through the whole Universe and represent an important phase in the evolution of galaxies. Distant starbursts may be easily observed and study in the ultraviolet light because of their massive stars. I will present magnitude and color simulations of young stellar populations in order to characterize their age, metallicity, initial mass function, and star formation rate and history. These simulations take into account the filters available with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope.