Sadra Amani

Postgraduate research student
BEng Civil Engineering, MSc Advanced Geotechnical Engineering


Sadra is currently a Ph.D. student at the University of Surrey in the Civil & Environmental Engineering Department. His Ph.D. research outlines methods to analyze and design offshore wind turbines in seismic zones. He is also active as a research and teaching assistant at the University of Surrey (Part-time) in geotechnical engineering-related subjects. These roles have broadened his academic teaching, research, and communication skills.

In Singapore, Sadra had a couple of joyful working years with a Korean design and construction firm, DL E&C (Previously known as Daelim industrial). His experience involved constructing and installing 221 10- storey tall Caissons to form 8.6 km of seawall between 2017 to 2019 with a total project value of approximately $2 billion.

He holds a first-class Civil Engineering Bachelor’s Degree from Swansea University (2016) and a MSc specializing in Advanced Geotechnical Engineering from the University of Surrey (2020). Sadra’s MSc project was awarded the Keller prize for being the best dissertation in the program to design and analyze novel foundations for offshore wind turbines.

Sadra is also familiar with several industrial and research-level software in the structural and geotechnical engineering fields. This combined experience helps him review the ongoing geotechnical problems in the offshore engineering field and provide suitable engineering solutions.

My qualifications

BEng in Civil Engineering (Hons)-First Class
Swansea University
MSc in Advanced Geotechnical Engineering
University of Surrey


Research interests

My publications


Subhamoy Bhattacharya, Domenico Lombardi, Sadra Amani, Muhammad Aleem, Ganga Prakhya, Sondipon Adhikari, Abdullahi Aliyu, Nicholas Alexander, Ying Wang, Liang Cui, Saleh Jalbi, Vikram Pakrashi, Wei Li, Jorge Mendoza, Nathan Vimalan (2021). Physical modelling of offshore wind turbine foundations for TRL (technology readiness level) studies
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Offshore wind turbines are a complex, dynamically sensitive structure due to their irregular mass and stiffness distribution, and complexity of the loading conditions they need to withstand. There are other challenges in particular locations such as typhoons, hurricanes, earthquakes, sea-bed currents, and tsunami. Because offshore wind turbines have stringent Serviceability Limit State (SLS) requirements and need to be installed in variable and often complex ground conditions, their foundation design is challenging. Foundation design must be robust due to the enormous cost of retrofitting in a challenging environment should any problem occur during the design lifetime. Traditionally, engineers use conventional types of foundation systems, such as shallow gravity-based foundations (GBF), suction caissons, or slender piles or monopiles, based on prior experience with designing such foundations for the oil and gas industry. For offshore wind turbines, however, new types of foundations are being considered for which neither prior experience nor guidelines exist. One of the major challenges is to develop a method to de-risk the life cycle of offshore wind turbines in diverse metocean and geological conditions. The paper, therefore, has the following aims: (a) provide an overview of the complexities and the common SLS performance requirements for offshore wind turbine; (b) discuss the use of physical modelling for verification and validation of innovative design concepts, taking into account all possible angles to de-risk the project; and (c) provide examples of applications in scaled model tests.
Subhamoy Bhattacharya, Hasan Emre Demirci, George Nikitas, Ganga Kasi V Prakhya, Domenico Lombardi, Nicholas A Alexander, M Aleem, Sadra Amani, George Mylonakis (2021). Chapter 11 - Physical modeling of interaction problems in geotechnical engineering
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Physical modeling is an established tool in geotechnical engineering for studying complex interaction problems involving soils. This chapter provides an overarching narrative of different aspects of such physical modeling include the challenging issue of designing meaningful (useful) tests and interpretation of the results for predicting prototype consequences. There are mainly two types of scaled physical modeling: (a) geotechnical centrifuge modeling under enhanced pseudo-gravity and (b) scaled modeling under 1-g, i.e., (Earth's gravity). Both approaches are briefly described together with the advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this chapter also discusses the two types of methods for designing and scaling model tests: (a) use of standard scaling laws available in textbooks which is “”-type modeling and (b) mechanics-based scaling. Few physical modeling examples (such as buckling instability of piles in liquefied soils, behavior of buried pipelines crossing faults and landslides, response of foundations for offshore wind turbines) are considered to show the mechanics-based scaling method. It has been shown that none of the techniques is perfect, and one needs the right tool for the right job. Black-box type modeling is suitable for simple interaction problems. However, for an unknown-unknown problem (typical of a multiple interaction problem), mechanics-based scaling method is appropriate. Do's and Don’ts in physical modeling are discussed.
Subhamoy Bhattacharya, Suryakanta Biswal, Muhammed Aleem, Sadra Amani, Athul Prabhakaran, Ganga Prakhya, Domenico Lombardi, Harsh K. Mistry (2021). Seismic Design of Offshore Wind Turbines: Good, Bad and Unknowns
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Large scale offshore wind farms are relatively new infrastructures and are being deployed in regions prone to earthquakes. Offshore wind farms comprise of both offshore wind turbines (OWTs) and balance of plants (BOP) facilities, such as inter-array and export cables, grid connection etc. An OWT structure can be either grounded systems (rigidly anchored to the seabed) or floating systems (with tension legs or catenary cables). OWTs are dynamically-sensitive structures made of a long slender tower with a top-heavy mass, known as Nacelle, to which a heavy rotating mass (hub and blades) is attached. These structures, apart from the variable environmental wind and wave loads, may also be subjected to earthquake related hazards in seismic zones. The earthquake hazards that can affect offshore wind farm are fault displacement, seismic shaking, subsurface liquefaction, submarine landslides, tsunami effects and a combination thereof. Procedures for seismic designing OWTs are not explicitly mentioned in current codes of practice. The aim of the paper is to discuss the seismic related challenges in the analysis and design of offshore wind farms and wind turbine structures. Different types of grounded and floating systems are considered to evaluate the seismic related effects. However, emphasis is provided on Tension Leg Platform (TLP) type floating wind turbine. Future research needs are also identified.
Muhammad Aleem, Subhamoy Bhattacharya, Liang Cui, Sadra Amani, Abdel Rahman Salem, Saleh Jalbi (2022). Load utilisation (LU) ratio of monopiles supporting offshore wind turbines: Formulation and examples from European Wind Farms
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 are currently being constructed worldwide, and most of the  Generator (WTG) structures are supported on single large-diameter steel piles, commonly known as monopile. One of the challenging design aspects is predicting the long-term deformation of the foundation and, in particular, the accumulation of rotation which is a complex Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) problem. Accumulation of rotation requires the estimation of Load Utilisation (LU) ratio (i.e., ratio of the load-carrying capacity of the foundation to the applied loads from wind and wave). Estimation of LU for monopile is not trivial due to the simultaneous action of  and moments and needs the introduction of interaction diagram concepts. This paper proposes methodologies to obtain LU for monopiles using three types of methods: (a) Simplified method, which is based on closed-form solution (where the load effects are uncoupled) and can be carried out using spreadsheets or pocket calculators; (b) Standard method based on non-linear Winkler spring (also known as p-y method) where the load effects are also uncoupled; (c) Advanced method, which uses  (where the load effects are coupled). Examples of monopiles are taken from European Wind Farms covering different ground profiles: Gunfleet Sands (clay profile), Walney-I (sandy profile), London Array-I (layered profile) and Barrow-II (layered profile) sites are analysed using all three methods. It is hoped that the methodology will be helpful in the design optimisation stage.
Subhamoy Bhattacharya, Sadra Amani, Athul Prabhakaran, HK Mistry, Domenico Lombardi (2021). SEISMIC DESIGN OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES
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Offshore wind farms are a collection of offshore wind turbines (OWTs) and are currently being installed in seismically active regions. An OWT consists of a long slender tower with a top-heavy fixed mass (Nacelle) together with a heavy rotating mass (blades) which makes the structure dynamically sensitive. They are constantly exposed to variable environmental wind and wave loads, and in seismic zones, other loads will also be imposed momentarily. The paper aims to highlight the issues associated with seismic design including liquefaction. The main conclusions are: (a) Liquefaction poses a challenge to monopile supported foundations as there are chances of significant tilt; (b) Jacket is a better option as the load transfer is through push-pull action; (c) Floating systems are better in seismic zones due to the fact that minimum inertia loads are transferred through the cables. However, floating can be potentially vulnerable to large fault ruptures.
Subhamoy Bhattacharya, Muhammad Aleem, Suryakanta Biswal, Sadra Amani, Athul Prabhakaran, Ganga Prakhya, Josh Macabuag, Harsh Mistry, Domenico Lombardi, Sachin Jindal (2021). Challenges in the design and construction of offshore wind turbine farms in seismic areas
Sadra Amani, Athul Prabhakaran, Subhamoy Bhattacharya (2022). Design of monopiles for offshore and nearshore wind turbines in seismically liquefiable soils: Methodology and validation
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An increasing number of  are being constructed in seismic regions over susceptible soils. This paper presents a methodology for the analysis and design of monopiles in seismically  by extending the established "10-step methodology" with an additional 7 steps. These additional steps include assimilation of , site response analysis, stability check of the structure (ULS check through the concept of load-utilization ratio), input motion selection, prediction of permanent tilt/rotation, and ground settlement post liquefaction. A flow chart, which shows the interdependence of the different disciplines, is presented and can be extended to routine design. This proposed method is validated using the observed performance of an offshore and nearshore turbine from the Kamisu wind farm during the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. Predicted results based on the proposed methodology compare well with the field observation and demarcate the (i) good overall performance of the offshore turbines and (ii) limit state  of the nearshore turbine. It is envisaged that the proposed method will be useful towards the design of monopiles-supported  in .
Subhamoy Bhattacharya, Sadra Amani, Athul Prabhakaran, Joshua Macabuag (2022). Hazard considerations in the vulnerability assessment of offshore wind farms in seismic zones
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Offshore wind power is increasingly becoming a mainstream energy source, and efforts are underway toward their construction in seismic zones. An offshore wind farm consists of generation assets (turbines) and transmission assets (substations and cables). Wind turbines are dynamically sensitive systems due to the proximity of their resonant frequency to that of loads considered in their analyses. Such farms are considered lifeline systems and need to remain operational even after large earthquakes. This study aims to discuss hazard considerations involved in the resilience assessment of offshore wind farms in seismic regions. The complexity of design increases with larger turbines installed in deeper waters, resulting in different types of foundations. In addition, Tsunami inundation is shown to be an important consideration for nearshore turbines.