Dr Shi (Tracy) Xu
Dr. Shi (Tracy) Xu is a Lecturer at University of Surrey School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, and Programme Leader of MSc Strategic Hotel Management. She holds a Ph.D. degree from the Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Xu has authored over thirty refereed journal articles and conference proceedings publications. Dr. Xu received the Best Paper Award at the 20th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, in Tampa, FL, January 2015, and the Best Paper Award at the Southern Management Association Annual Conference, in Charlotte, NC, October 2016. As an active human resource management and organizational behavior researcher in the hospitality industry, Dr. Xu's research focuses on three themes: employee emotions, abusive supervision, and turnover.
Dr. Xu has more than 15 projects in various stages of progress. Her research projects have been funded by The National Social Science Fund of China (2018-2021), Early Career Researcher Fund (2018), Digital Group Small Research Fund (2018), Student-staff research partnership fund (2018), FASS Pump-priming travel fund (2017-2018), and Graduate Student Research Endowment from Penn State (2016). A few projects in the works examine
- Consumer responses to attractiveness of waiters/waitresses
- Health responses to emotion work in the nursing profession
- Mindfulness of hospitality employees
- Student's response to online feedback using eye-tracking techniques
- Abusive supervision using experience sampling methodology
- Meta-analysis on various topics
Dr. Xu is always looking for passionate, curious, and dedicated researchers to work with her.
Dr. Xu is excited about partnering with organizations to use rigorous scientific methodology to achieve their employee well-being goals.
University roles and responsibilities
- Programme Leader - MSc in Strategic Hotel Management
Organizational behavior, human resource management
Employee turnover, abusive supervision, emotions, emotional labor, emotional variability, diversity and discrimination
Experience sampling methodology, multilevel modeling, latent growth curve modeling, meta-analysis
Understanding Service Delivery - Level 4
Business Environment - Level 4
Managing Organizations and Human Resources - Level 5
Strategic Analysis of Hospitality Companies - Level 6
Strategic Human Resource Management - Level 7
Research Methodology - Level 7
Courses I teach on
Postgraduate research supervision
I am always looking for passionate, curious, and dedicated researchers.
My current Ph.D. students include:
Yitong Yu: Abusive supervision in the hospitality industry
Sanda Kam: Leadership and cultural intelligence
Hospitality Management, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 30 (11) pp. 3268-3286 Emerald
This paper aims to introduce Latent Growth Curve Modeling (LGCM) as a statistical technique to analyze repeated measures of longitudinal data to researchers in hospitality management.
First, the basics and extensions of LGCM are explained. Second, this paper reviews three existing empirical hospitality research studies that could have benefitted from LGCM but did not use this methodology. Third, this paper provides an overview of two specific illustrative examples of how the current authors have already utilized LGCM for hospitality research.
Based on explaining the basics of LGCM, delineating two examples using LGCM method, and presenting new research avenues that would utilize LGCM to advance theoretical knowledge, this paper shows how LGCM represents a leap forward in the promotion of more rigorous research in hospitality management.
This paper is the first in hospitality to call for research based on LGCM and provide hands-on demonstrations and an agenda for this methodology.
This paper provides and meta-analytically investigates a theoretical framework of work-nonwork conflict and its antecedents and outcomes in hospitality management.
This paper adopts the psychometric meta-analytical methods and meta-structural equation modelling (meta-SEM) methods to synthesize the relationships between work-to-nonwork conflict (WNC) and nonwork-to-work conflict (NWC) and its antecedents and outcomes.
WNC and NWC are found to be correlated with antecedents including social support, positive affectivity and negative affectivity, and work characteristics, and correlated with outcomes including job-related well-being, life-related well-being, burnout, performance and turnover intentions.
This paper is the very first meta-analysis in International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. It is also the first meta-analysis on the relationship between overall work-nonwork conflict and its antecedents and outcomes in hospitality and tourism.
such as employee training, employment security, and a results-oriented appraisal system,
promote favorable employee behaviors. This research predicts that such practices render a
mechanism that reduces hotel employees? propensity to quit through lowering their emotional
exhaustion. However, does this mechanism work more effectively in hotels with a strong brand?
To address this question, we propose a multilevel research model to assess the effectiveness of
HRPs under different conditions of brand equity. Drawing on both social exchange theory and
social identification theory, the current study works to advance the literature by investigating the
cross-level brand equity boundary condition on the HRPs?intention-to-quit moderated mediation
process from two independent sets of data. It advances the literature by bridging the research gap
between human resource management and brand management.
Purpose ? The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of service providers? attractiveness in service jobs and examine the underlying psychological mechanisms that may explain consumers? different attitudes and potential behavior.
Design/methodology/approach ? An experimental design was utilized in this paper. Study 1 used a scenario depicting a front-desk agent performing check-in procedures and Study 2 used a scenario depicting a restaurant server. Data were analyzed using Hayes? (2013) PROCESS macro.
Findings ? Study 1 demonstrated the mediating effect of perceived interpersonal skills in the relations between front desk agent attractiveness and participant positive word-of-mouth and service satisfaction. Study 2 reaffirmed this finding and showed that the attractiveness of servers positively impacted participants? perceptions of the servers? interpersonal skill and participants? tipping behavior. Furthermore, the relation between attractiveness and interpersonal skills was moderated by servers? genders and participants? levels of self-esteem, such that the effect was stronger in response to female servers for participants with relatively low self-esteem. In addition, the effect of the three-way interaction among server gender, server?s level of attractiveness, and participant?s level of self-esteem on tipping was mediated by participant?s perceived interpersonal skills.
Originality/value - This article investigated the under-researched constructs of participants? self-esteem and service providers? gender and their moderating roles within the service context. These results suggest that responses to service providers can be impacted by the attractiveness and gender of the provider and customers? self-esteems, despite equivalent objective performance of the provider.
Wong, I., Xu, S., Chan, G., & He, M. (2019). A Cross-Level Investigation of the Role of Human Resources Practices: Does Brand Equity Matter? Tourism Management. (Accepted).
Xu, S., & Cao, Z. (2019). Antecedents and outcomes of work-nonwork conflict in hospitality: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. (Accepted).
Xu, S. & Wang, J. (2019). Still waters stay put: Uncovering the effects of emotional variability using experience sampling methodology. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. (Accepted).
Smith, N. A., Sabat, I. E., Martinez, L. R., Weaver, K., & Xu, S. (2015). A convenient solution: Using MTurk to sample from hard-to-reach populations. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 8(2), 220-228. IMPACT FACTOR: 16.375
Xu, S. & Martinez, L. R. (Accepted). Applications of Latent Growth Curve Modeling: A Research Agenda for Hospitality Management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., Van Hoof, H., Estrella, M., Maldonado, G., & Gavilanes, J. (Accepted). Emotional exhaustion among hotel employees: The interactive effects of affect dispositions and positive work reflection. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly.
Martinez, L. R., Xu, S., & Hebl, M. (Accepted). Utilizing education and perspective taking to remediate the stigma of taking antidepressants. Community Mental Health Journal.
Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., & Van Hoof, H. (Accepted). The Use of Latent Growth Curve Modeling in Measuring Student Perceptions about Mandatory Work Experiences. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education.
Xu, S., Van Hoof, H., & Nyheim, P. (Accepted). The Effect of Online Scheduling on Employees’ Quality of Life. Journal of Foodservice Business Research.
Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., & Lv, Q. (2017). Communication matters: The interaction of emotional labor on supervisors’ turnover. Tourism Analysis, 22, 125-137.
Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., & Lv, Q. (2017). Explaining the link between emotional labor and turnover intention: The role of in-depth communication. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration. Published online before print, doi:10.1080/15256480.2016.1276003
Xu, S., Van Hoof, H., Serrano, A., Fernandez, L., & Ullauri, N. (2017). The role of coworker support in the relationship between moral efficacy and voice behavior. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 16(3), 252-269.
Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., Van Hoof, H., Eljuri, M. I., & Arciniegas, L. (2016). Fluctuating emotions: Relating emotional variability and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 46, 617-626.
Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., Van Hoof, H., Tews, M. J., Torres, L., & Farfan, K. (2015). The impact of abusive supervision and coworker support on hospitality and tourism student employees’ turnover intentions in Ecuador. Current Issues in Tourism. Published online before print, doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1076771.
Tews, M. J., Michel, J., Xu, S., & Drost, A. (2015). Workplace fun matters … But what else? Employee Relations, 37(2), 248-267.
Nyheim, P., Xu, S., Zhang, L., & Mattila, A. S. (2015). Predictors of avoidance towards personalization of restaurant smartphone advertising: A study from the Millennials’ perspective. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 6(2), 145-159.
Van Hoof, H., Xu, S., Serrano, A., & Torres, L. (2015). Abusive supervision – A form of workplace harassment: An exploratory study in the Ecuadorian hospitality industry. European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation, 6(1), 103-121.
Xu, S., Choi, Y., Lv, Q. (2014). Subjective well-being, work motivation and organizational commitment of Chinese hotel employees: A moderated mediation study. Journal of Tourism Research & Hospitality. 3(2), 1-9.
Lv, Q., Xu, S., & Ji, H. (2012). Emotional labor strategies, emotional exhaustion and turnover intention: An empirical study of Chinese hotel employees. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 11(2), 87-105. (*one of the most cited articles in this journal*)
Zhang, B., & Xu, S. (2010). A study on authenticity in ethnic tourism and its protection mode. Geography and Geo-Information Science, 26, 105–108. (Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index)
Zhang, B., & Xu, S. (2009). Discussion on regional tourism cooperation strategies in the Yangtze River Delta. Geography and Geo-Information Science, 25, 101–104. Reprinted by Tourism Management (Renmin University Reprint Journal, Chinese), 2010(9), 32-36. (Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index)
Zhang, B., & Xu, S. (2008). An analysis of tourism in ethnic minority regions: Stakeholder theory perspective. Journal of the Central University for Nationalities (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition), 35, 43–47. (Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index)