Chick Steven, Stavrias N., Saeedi K., Redlich B., Greenland P. T., Matmon G., Naftaly M., Pidgeon C. R., Aeppli G., Murdin Benedict (2017) Coherent superpositions of three states for phosphorous donors in silicon prepared using THz radiation, Nature Communications 8 16038
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Superposition of orbital eigenstates is crucial to quantum technology utilising atoms, such as atomic clocks and quantum computers, and control over the interaction between atoms and their neighbours is an essential ingredient for both gating and readout. The simplest coherent wavefunction control uses a 2-eigenstate admixture, but more control over the spatial distribution of the wavefunction can be obained by increasing the number of states in the wavepacket. Here we demonstrate THz laser pulse control of Si:P orbitals using multiple orbital state admixtures, observing beat patterns produced by Zeeman splitting. The beats are an observable signature of the ability to control the path of the electron, which implies we can now control the strength and duration of the interaction of the atom with different neighbours. This could simplify surface code networks which require spatially controlled interaction between atoms, and we propose an architecture that might take advantage of this.
Excited states of a single donor in bulk silicon have previously been studied extensively based
on effective mass theory. However, proper theoretical descriptions of the excited states of a donor
cluster are still scarce. Here we study the excitations of lines of defects within a single-valley
spherical band approximation, thus mapping the problem to a scaled hydrogen atom array. A series
of detailed full configuration-interaction, time-dependent Hartree-Fock and time-dependent hybrid
density-functional theory calculations have been performed to understand linear clusters of up to 10
donors. Our studies illustrate the generic features of their excited states, addressing the competition
between formation of inter-donor ionic states and intra-donor atomic excited states. At short interdonor
distances, excited states of donor molecules are dominant, at intermediate distances ionic
states play an important role, and at long distances the intra-donor excitations are predominant
as expected. The calculations presented here emphasise the importance of correlations between
donor electrons, and are thus complementary to other recent approaches that include effective mass
anisotropy and multi-valley effects. The exchange splittings between relevant excited states have
also been estimated for a donor pair and for three-donor arrays; the splittings are much larger than
those in the ground state in the range of donor separations between 10 and 20 nm. This establishes
a solid theoretical basis for the use of excited-state exchange interactions for controllable quantum
gate operations in silicon.
Peach Tomas, Homewood Kevin, Lourenco Manon, Hughes M, Saeedi Kaymar, Stavrias Nikolaos, Li Juerong, Chick Steven, Murdin Benedict, Clowes Steven (2018) The Effect of Lattice Damage and Annealing Conditions on the Hyperfine Structure of Ion Implanted Bismuth Donors in Silicon, Advanced Quantum Technologies 1 (2) 1800038
This study reports on high energy bismuth ion implantation into silicon with a particular emphasis on the effect that annealing conditions have on the observed hyperfine structure of the Si:Bi donor state. A suppression of donor bound exciton, D0X, photoluminescence is observed in implanted samples which have been annealed at 700 °C relating to the presence of a dense layer of lattice defects that is formed during the implantation process. Hall measurments at 10 K show that this implant damage manifests itself at low temperatures as an abundance of p?type charge carriers, the density of which is observed to have a strong dependence on annealing temperature. Using resonant D0X photoconductivity, we are able to identify the presence of a hyperfine structure in samples annealed at a minimum temperature of 800 °C; however, higher temperatures are required to eliminate effects of implantation strain.
Frequency domain spectroscopy allows an experimenter to establish optical properties of solids in a wide frequency band including the technically challenging 3-10 THz region, and in other bands enables metrological comparison between competing techniques. We advance a method for extracting the optical properties of high-index solids using only transmission-mode frequency domain spectroscopy of plane-parallel Fabry-Perot optical flats. We show that different data processing techniques yield different kinds of systematic error, and that some commonly used techniques have inherent systematic errors which are underappreciated. We use model datasets to cross-compare algorithms in isolation from experimental errors, and propose a new algorithm which has qualitatively different systematic errors to its competitors. We show that our proposal is more robust to experimental non-idealities such as noise or apodization, and extract the complex refractive index spectrum of crystalline silicon as a practical example. Finally, we advance the idea that algorithms are complementary rather than competitive, and should be used as part of a toolbox for better metrology.
This study reports the effect of an increasing ion dose on both the electrical activation yield and the characteristic properties of implanted bismuth donors in silicon. A strong dependence of implant fluence is observed on both the yield of bismuth donors and the measured impurity diffusion. This is such that higher ion concentrations result in both a decrease in activation and an enhancement in donor migration through interactions with mobile silicon lattice vacancies and interstitials. Furthermore, the effect of implant fluence on the properties of the Si:Bi donor bound exciton, D0X, is also explored using photoluminescence (PL) measurements. In the highest density sample, centers corresponding to the PL of bismuth D0Xs within both the high density region and the lower concentration diffused tail of the implanted donor profile are identifiable.
The Poisson distribution of event-to-ith-nearest-event radial distances is well known for homogeneous processes that do not depend on location or time. Here we investigate the case of a non-homogeneous point process where the event probability (and hence the neighbour configuration) depends on location within the event space. The particular non-homogeneous scenario of interest to us is ion implantation into a semiconductor for the purposes of studying interactions between the implanted impurities. We calculate the probability of a simple cluster based on nearest neighbour distances, and specialise to a particular two-species cluster of interest for qubit gates. We show that if the
two species are implanted at different depths there is a maximum in the cluster probability and an optimum density