Knowledge Acquisition Toolkit (KAT) is an open-source software that includes methods to process numerical sensory data. KAT is able to extract and represent human understandable and/or machine interpretable information from raw data. KAT includes a collection of algorithms for each step of the Internet of Things (IoT) data processing workflow ranging from data and signal pre-processing algorithms such as Frequency Filters, dimensionality reduction techniques such as Wavelet, FFT, SAX, and Feature Extraction and Abstraction and Inference methods such as Clustering. Figure 1 shows the steps of the process chain for processing cyber-physical data on the Web. KAT can be used to design and evaluate algorithms for sensor data that aim to extract and find new insights from the data.
Kolozali ^, Elsaleh T, Barnaghi P (2014) A validation tool for the W3C SSN ontology based sensory semantic knowledge, CEUR Workshop Proceedings 1401 pp. 83-88
This paper describes an ontology validation tool that is designed for the W3C Semantic Sensor Networks Ontology (W3C SSN). The tool allows ontologies and linked-data descriptions to be validated against the concepts and properties used in the W3C SSN model. It generates validation reports and collects statistics regarding the most commonly used terms and concepts within the ontologies. An online version of the tool is available at: (http://iot.ee.Surrey.ac.uk/SSNValidation). This tool can be used as a checking and validation service for new ontology developments in the IoT domain. It can also be used to give feedback to W3C SSN and other similar ontology developers regarding the most commonly used concepts and properties from the reference ontology and this information can be used to create core ontologies that have higher level interoperability across different systems and various application domains.
Ramparany F, Marquez FG, Soriano J, Elsaleh T (2015) Handling smart environment devices, data and services at the semantic level with the FI-WARE core platform, Proceedings - 2014 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, IEEE Big Data 2014 pp. 14-20
© 2014 IEEE.The development of IoT (Internet of Things) applications poses a number of scientific and technological challenges which stem from the characteristics of the IoT domain itself. These include the huge and increasing number of connected entities (devices, physical objects, people.,) populating the physical environment, the variety of their types which leads to heterogeneity of the data produced or consumed by those connected entities. In this paper we argue that semantic modeling takes up many of these challenges and explain how the core platform developed by the FI-WARE project supports IoT application developers. After a short introduction of the characteristics and requirements of IoT applications we identify the contribution of semantic technologies to address some of them. We describe the FI-WARE platform enablers which support these technologies and illustrate through a real application how these enablers help developers satisfy these requirements.
Elsaleh T, Gluhak A, Moessner K (2011) Service continuity for subscribers of the mobile real world Internet, IEEE International Conference on Communications
The Real World Internet or the Web of Things has brought an approach to integrate wireless sensor devices in a manner that is natural to the Web, where sensors are exposed as addressable web resources like any other web resource. Although there is still a clear deficiency with regards to managing the mobility of the sensor devices in this approach, and how it affects the service and the users interacting with it. The work presented here addresses this issue and aims to provide an approach towards maintaining service continuity of migrating sensor devices in a framework that builds upon the concept of the 'Web of Things'. © 2011 IEEE.
The vision of the Internet of Things (IoT) relies on the provisioning of real-world services, which are provided
by smart objects that are directly related to the physical world. A structured, machine-processible approach to provision such
real-world services is needed to make heterogeneous physical objects accessible on a large scale and to integrate them with the
digital world. The incorporation of observation and measurement data obtained from the physical objects with the Web data, using
information processing and knowledge engineering methods, enables the construction of ?intelligent and interconnected things?.
The current research mostly focuses on the communication and networking aspects between the devices that are used for sensing
amd measurement of the real world objects. There is, however, relatively less effort concentrated on creating dynamic infrastructures
to support integration of the data into the Web and provide unified access to such data on service and application levels. This
paper presents a semantic modelling and linked data approach to create an information framework for IoT. The paper describes
a platform to publish instances of the IoT related resources and entities and to link them to existing resources on the Web. The
developed platform supports publication of extensible and interoperable descriptions in the form of linked data.
Lanza J, Sanchez L, Gomez D, Elsaleh T, Steinke R, Cirillo F (2016) A Proof-of-Concept for Semantically Interoperable Federation of IoT Experimentation Facilities, SENSORS 16 (7) ARTN 1006 MDPI AG
Bermudez-Edo M, Elsaleh Tarek, Barnaghi Payam, Taylor K (2017) IoT-Lite: A Lightweight Semantic Model for the Internet of Things, Ubiquitous Intelligence & Computing, Advanced and Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing and Communications, Cloud and Big Data Computing, Internet of People, and Smart World Congress (UIC/ATC/ScalCom/CBDCom/IoP/SmartWorld), 2016 Intl IEEE Conferences pp. 90-97
Over the past few years the semantics community
has developed ontologies to describe concepts and relationships
between different entities in various application domains,
including Internet of Things (IoT) applications. A key problem
is that most of the IoT related semantic descriptions are not
as widely adopted as expected. One of the main concerns
of users and developers is that semantic techniques increase
the complexity and processing time and therefore they are
unsuitable for dynamic and responsive environments such as
the IoT. To address this concern, we propose IoT-Lite, an
instantiation of the semantic sensor network (SSN) ontology
to describe key IoT concepts allowing interoperability and
discovery of sensory data in heterogeneous IoT platforms by
a lightweight semantics. We propose 10 rules for good and
scalable semantic model design and follow them to create
IoT-Lite. We also demonstrate the scalability of IoT-Lite by
providing some experimental analysis, and assess IoT-Lite
against another solution in terms of round time trip (RTT)
performance for query-response times.
: The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is unanimously identified as one of the main pillars of future smart scenarios. However, despite the growing number of IoT deployments, the majority of IoT applications tend to be self-contained, thereby forming vertical silos. Indeed, the ability to combine and synthesize data streams and services from diverse IoT platforms and testbeds, holds the promise to increase the potential of smart applications in terms of size, scope and targeted business context. This paper describes the system architecture for the FIESTA-IoT platform, whose main aim is to federate a large number of testbeds across the planet, in order to offer experimenters the unique experience of dealing with a large number of semantically interoperable data sources. This system architecture was developed by following the Architectural Reference Model (ARM) methodology promoted by the IoT-A project (FP7 ?light house? project on Architecture for the Internet of Things). Through this process, the FIESTAIoT architecture is composed of a set of Views that deals with a ?logical? functional decomposition (Functional View, FV) and data structuring and annotation, data flows and inter-functional component interactions (Information View, IV).
After a thorough analysis of existing Internet of Things (IoT) related ontologies, in this paper we propose a solution that aims to achieve semantic interoperability among heterogeneous testbeds. Our model is framed within the EU H2020's FIESTA-IoT project, that aims to seamlessly support the federation of testbeds through the usage of semantic-based technologies. Our proposed model (ontology) takes inspiration from the well-known Noy et al. methodology for reusing and interconnecting existing ontologies. To build the ontology, we leverage a number of core concepts from various mainstream ontologies and taxonomies, such as Semantic Sensor Network (SSN), M3-lite (a lite version of M3 and also an outcome of this study), WGS84, IoT-lite, Time, and DUL. In addition, we also introduce a set of tools that aims to help external testbeds adapt their respective datasets to the developed ontology.
Over the past few years the semantics community has developed several ontologies to describe concepts and relationships for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. A key problem is that most of the IoT related semantic descriptions are not as widely adopted as expected. One of the main concerns of users and developers is that semantic techniques increase the complexity and processing time and therefore they are unsuitable for dynamic and responsive environments such as the IoT. To address this concern, we propose IoT-Lite, an instantiation of the semantic sensor network (SSN) ontology to describe key IoT concepts allowing interoperability and discovery of sensory data in heterogeneous IoT platforms by a lightweight semantics. We propose 10 rules for good and scalable semantic model design and follow them to create IoT-Lite. We also demonstrate the scalability of IoT-Lite by providing some experimental analysis, and assess IoT-Lite against another solution in terms of round trip time (RTT) performance for query-response times. We have linked IoTLite with Stream Annotation Ontology (SAO), to allow queries over stream data annotations and we have also added dynamic semantics in the form of MathML annotations to IoT-Lite. Dynamic semantics allows the annotation of spatio-temporal values, reducing storage requirements and therefore the response time for queries. Dynamic semantics stores mathematical formulas to recover estimated values when actual values are missing.
Enshaeifar S, Barnaghi P, Skillman S, Markides A, Elsaleh T, Acton T, Nilforooshan R, Rostill H (2018) Internet of Things for Dementia Care, IEEE Internet Computing 22 (1) pp. 8-17
IEEE COMPUTER SOC
In this paper we discuss a technical design and an
ongoing trial that is being conducted in the UK, called Technology
Integrated Health Management (TIHM). TIHM uses Internet of
Things (IoT) enabled solutions provided by various companies
in a collaborative project. The IoT devices and solutions are
integrated in a common platform that supports interoperable
and open standards. A set of machine learning and data analytics
algorithms generate notifications regarding the well-being of the
patients. The information is monitored around the clock by a
group of healthcare practitioners who take appropriate decisions
according to the collected data and generated notifications. In
this paper we discuss the design principles and the lessons that
we have learned by co-designing this system with patients, their
carers, clinicians, and also our industry partners. We discuss
the technical design of TIHM and explain why user-centred and
human-experience should be an integral part of the technological
An important field in exploratory sensory data
analysis is the segmentation of time-series data to identify
activities of interest. In this work, we analyse the performance
of univariate and multi-sensor Bayesian change detection
algorithms in segmenting accelerometer data. In particular, we
provide theoretical analysis and also performance evaluation on
synthetic data and real-world data. The results illustrate the
advantages of using multi-sensory variance change detection in
the segmentation of dynamic data (e.g. accelerometer data).
Enshaeifar Shirin, Zoha Ahmed, Skillman Severin, Markides Andreas, Acton Tom, Elsaleh Tarek, Kenny M., Rostill H., Nilforooshan Ramin, Barnaghi Payam (2019) Machine learning methods for detecting urinary tract
infection and analysing daily living activities in people with dementia, PLOS One 14 (1) e0209909 pp. 1-22
Dementia is a neurological and cognitive condition that affects millions of people around the world. At any given time in the United Kingdom, 1 in 4 hospital beds are occupied by a person with dementia, while about 22% of these hospital admissions are due to preventable causes. In this paper we discuss using Internet of Things (IoT) technologies and in-home sensory devices in combination with machine learning techniques to monitor health and well-being of people with dementia. This will allow us to provide more effective and preventative care and reduce preventable hospital admissions. One of the unique aspects of this work is combining environmental data with physiological data collected via low cost in-home sensory devices to extract actionable information regarding the health and well-being of people with dementia in their own home environment. We have worked with clinicians to design our machine learning algorithms where we focused on developing solutions for real-world settings. In our solutions, we avoid generating too many alerts/alarms to prevent increasing the monitoring and support workload. We have designed an algorithm to detect Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) which is one of the top five reasons of hospital admissions for people with dementia (around 9% of hospital admissions for people with dementia in the UK). To develop the UTI detection algorithm, we have used a Non-negative Matrix Factorisation (NMF) technique to extract latent factors from raw observation and use them for clustering and identifying the possible UTI cases. In addition, we have designed an algorithm for detecting changes in activity patterns to identify early symptoms of cognitive decline or health decline in order to provide personalised and preventative care services. For this purpose, we have used an Isolation Forest (iForest) technique to create a holistic view of the daily activity patterns. This paper describes the algorithms and discusses the evaluation of the work using a large set of real-world data collected from a trial with people with dementia and their caregivers.
Lanza Jorge, Sanchez Luis, Santana Juan Ramon, Agarwal Rachit, Kefalakis Nikolaos, Grace Paul, Elsaleh Tarek, Zhao Mengxuan, Tragos Elias, Nguyen Hung, Cirillo Flavio, Steinke Ronald, Soldatos John (2018) Experimentation as a Service Over Semantically Interoperable Internet of Things Testbeds, IEEE Access 6 pp. 51607-51625
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Infrastructures enabling experimental assessment of Internet of Things (IoT) solutions are scarce. Moreover, such infrastructures are typically bound to a specific application domain, thus, not facilitating the testing of solutions with a horizontal approach. This paper presents a platform that supports Experimentation as s Service (EaaS) over a federation of IoT testbeds. This platform brings two major advances. First, it leverages semantic web technologies to enable interoperability so that testbed agnostic access to the underlying facilities is allowed. Second, a set of tools ease both the experimentation workflow and the federation of other IoT deployments, independently of their domain of interest. Apart from the platform specification, this paper presents how this design has been actually instantiated into a cloud-based EaaS platform that has been used for supporting a wide variety of novel experiments targeting different research and innovation challenges. In this respect, this paper summarizes some of the experiences from these experiments and the key performance metrics that this instance of the platform has exhibited during the experimentation.
Sánchez Luis, Lanza Jorge, Santana Juan, Agarwal Rachit, Raverdy Pierre, Elsaleh Tarek, Fathy Yasmin, Jeong SeungMyeong, Dadoukis Aris, Korakis Thanasis, Keranidis Stratos, O?Brien Philip, Horgan Jerry, Sacchetti Antonio, Mastandrea Giuseppe, Fragkiadakis Alexandros, Charalampidis Pavlos, Seydoux Nicolas, Ecrepont Christelle, Zhao Mengxuan (2018) Federation of Internet of Things Testbeds for the Realization of a Semantically-Enabled Multi-Domain Data Marketplace, Sensors 18 (10)
The Internet of Things (IoT) concept has attracted a lot of attention from the research and innovation community for a number of years already. One of the key drivers for this hype towards the IoT is its applicability to a plethora of different application domains. However, infrastructures enabling experimental assessment of IoT solutions are scarce. Being able to test and assess the behavior and the performance of any piece of technology (i.e., protocol, algorithm, application, service, etc.) under real-world circumstances is of utmost importance to increase the acceptance and reduce the time to market of these innovative developments. This paper describes the federation of eleven IoT deployments from heterogeneous application domains (e.g., smart cities, maritime, smart building, crowd-sensing, smart grid, etc.) with over 10,000 IoT devices overall which produce hundreds of thousands of observations per day. The paper summarizes the resources that are made available through a cloud-based platform. The main contributions from this paper are twofold. In the one hand, the insightful summary of the federated data resources are relevant to the experimenters that might be seeking for an experimental infrastructure to assess their innovations. On the other hand, the identification of the challenges met during the testbed integration process, as well as the mitigation strategies that have been implemented to face them, are of interest for testbed providers that can be considering to join the federation.
In recent years, the development and deployment
of Internet of Things (IoT) devices has led to the generation of
large volumes of real world data. Analytical models can be used to
extract meaningful insights from this data. However, most of IoT
data is not fully utilised, which is mainly due to interoperability
issues and the difficulties to analyse data collected by heterogeneous
resources. To overcome this heterogeneity, semantic
technologies are used to create common models to share various
data originated from heterogeneous sources. However, semantics
add further overhead to data delivery, and the processing time
to annotate the data with the model can increase the latency and
complexity in publishing and querying the annotated data. In
this paper, we present a lightweight semantic model to annotate
IoT streams. The metadata descriptions that are provided in the
models are used for search and discovery of the data using various
attributes such as value and type. The proposed model extends
commonly used ontologies such as W3C/OGC SSN ontology
and its recent lightweight core, SOSA, and includes concepts
to describe streaming IoT data. We also show use cases, tools
and applications where the proposed model has been used.