At the destination level, destination branding may coexist with climate change communication. These two communication streams often overlap because they are both designed for large audiences. This poses a risk to the effectiveness of climate change communication and its ability to prompt a desired climate action. The viewpoint paper advocates the use of archetypal branding approach to ground and center climate change communication at a destination level while concurrently maintaining the uniqueness of destination branding. Three archetypes of destinations are distinguished: villains, victims, and heroes. Destinations should refrain from actions that would make them appear to be climate change villains. A balanced approach is further warranted when portraying destinations as victims. Lastly, destinations should aim at assuming the heroic archetypes by excelling in climate change mitigation. The basic mechanisms of the archetypal approach to destination branding are discussed alongside a framework that suggests areas for further practical investigation of climate change communication at a destination level.
The tradition of making fermented foods and beverages in Iraq dates back to 7500 BC. These fermented foods and beverages are represented by meat-, milk-, vegetable-, and fruit-based products reflecting diversity of agricultural production in ancient Iraq (Mesopotamia). Although the recipes for some fermented foods and beverages were lost throughout history, those remaining foods and beverages occupy a noticeable position in modern Iraqi cuisine. In this review, knowledge and techniques for preparation of 5 traditional fermented foods, i.e. Basturma , Smoked Liban, Aushari cheese, Turshi , and Sour Khobz, and 3 fermented beverages, i.e. Shanina , Sharbet Zbeeb , and Erk Sous in Iraq, are documented. Traditional fermented foods and beverages have multiple health benefits because of high content of probiotics and bioactive compounds. Traditional fermented foods and beverages are made using the back-slopping technique which ensures safety of production and maintains organoleptic properties. The review highlights the potential of fermented foods and beverages for their large-scale commercialization.
Due to the increasing popularity of out-of-home food consumption, hospitality enterprises contribute significantly to food waste generation. Despite this contribution, little is known about the exact magnitude of hospitality food waste, its drivers and approaches to mitigation. This limited knowledge hinders the progress of the sector toward its sustainability goals. This chapter explores the phenomenon of hospitality food waste in the United Kingdom. Through in-depth interviews with managers of casual dining restaurants in London, it establishes the magnitude of food waste as significant. This notwithstanding, UK hospitality enterprises fail to adopt preventative approaches to food waste mitigation, relying on reactive disposal practices instead. Unpredictable customer demand, irresponsible consumer behavior, and the lack of governmental support in the redistribution of surplus food are identified by the industry professionals as prime barriers. Drawing upon the findings of this study and literature review, recommendations are put forward on how these barriers could be addressed.
Food waste in the sector of grocery retail represents a major societal challenge. The magnitude of this challenge, its drivers, and approaches to minimize its occurrence in the different geographical markets of food consumption remain poorly understood. This hampers the identification of best practices in food waste mitigation and hinders its broader sectoral and market uptake. This chapter sheds light on the food waste challenge in the United Kingdom sector of grocery retail. Semistructured interviews with managers of major grocery retailers demonstrate the importance and timeliness of minimizing food wastage. However, the mitigation practices adopted on the ground are reactive and focus on food waste disposal, rather than prevention. The application of market-based tools is limited despite the significant mitigation potential they hold. Drawing upon the results of this study and the wider literature, recommendations are provided on how to enhance the effectiveness of food waste mitigation in the United Kingdom sector of grocery retail.
Female entrepreneurship drives tourism development in resource-scarce destinations but little is known about why local women engage in business and what determines their success in a time of a life event crisis. This knowledge is important as it can support policies on regional regeneration and poverty alleviation. This study draws upon the Bourdieu's model of practice with its notions of capital, agents, field, and habitus to examine the experiences of women running tourism enterprises in a destination with the legacy of an anthropogenic environmental disaster, the Aral Sea region. Semi-structured interviews with women entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan (n = 18) and Kazakhstan (n = 15) showcase prevalence of the necessity-based and extrinsic motivations in a time of crisis. Interviews also demonstrate the importance of social capital women entrepreneurs built with such agents of entrepreneurial practice as family, friends, policymakers, employees, and competitors. The original contribution of the study is in revealing how local cultural traditions reinforce various types of capital, strengthen the field of knowledge, and shape habitus of women entrepreneurs in critical times. Another original contribution is in highlighting how the experience of past life event crises has aided in psychological coping of women tourism entrepreneurs during COVID-19.
•An indicator system for SA of HFC in China is developed.•The system encompasses dimensions of nutrition, the environment, economy and socio-culture.•Overall sustainability of HFC in rural China is higher than that in urban areas.•Sustainability increases as household income and size grow.•Current structure of diet in China should be improved. To provide a preliminary reference point and a scientific basis for future comprehensive sustainability assessments of household food consumption (HFC) in China and beyond, this study develops an indicator system for sustainability assessment of HFC in urban and rural China. The system encompasses four dimensions (nutrition, the environment, economy and socio-culture) and a comprehensive assessment index (CAI, on a scale from 0 to 100 points) of analysis. The system is derived from an extensive literature review supplemented with an expert opinion survey and considers the current structure of diet in China. Environmental dimension involves indicators of environmental footprints and food waste. Nutritional dimension involves nutritional status and food security. Economic dimension involves food affordability, self-sufficiency and economic cost of food waste. Socio-cultural dimension involves consumption of traditional and ready-made food, food availability and accessibility. The assessment results show that nearly 50% of households fall into a relatively high sustainability zone (50–75 points) and a relatively low sustainability zone (25–50 points), respectively; and there are no households achieving a high sustainability score (75–100 points). Sustainability of HFC in rural China is higher than that in urban areas; sustainability increases as households grow in size and receive higher annual income. The study highlights measures required to improve the current structure of diet in China. [Display omitted]
Purpose Virtual spaces, commonly referred to as the Metaverse, are predicted to disrupt consumption patterns in tourism, hospitality and events (THE) by shifting some user experiences to a virtual world. Scholarly investigations are necessitated to aid in an understanding of virtual spaces and the implications of their consumption for THE industries. This viewpoint outlines a provisional research agenda on virtual spaces. Design/methodology/approach To inform its arguments, this viewpoint draws upon academic and grey literature surrounding the emerging topic of the Metaverse in THE industries. Findings The research agenda should consider four perspectives representing different actors of THE value chain, i.e. developers/suppliers, THE business professionals, customers and policymakers. The research agenda should also incorporate the wider spillover effects of consumption of virtual spaces which may stretch well beyond THE industries. Originality/value This viewpoint outlines some research directions which may aid different actors of THE value chain alongside academics in better understanding the emerging phenomenon of virtual spaces and comprehend the opportunities and challenges associated with their uptake by THE industries.
Food waste in the global foodservice sector is a major societal challenge but its estimates lack accuracy, especially in developing and transition economies. The lack of accurate estimates in these emerging markets of out-of-home food consumption hinders effective food waste prevention. This paper employs a multi-stage research design to benchmark food waste in the commercial foodservice sector of Uzbekistan, a major transition economy and the most populous country in Central Asia. Primary data are obtained by analysing waste collection records, via in-situ observations and through managerial interviews. The study finds that food waste is correlated with size of casual dining restaurants in Uzbekistan as follows: small restaurants waste 3–7 tonnes of food per year, medium-sized restaurants – 10–23 tonnes and large restaurants – 20–30 tonnes. Most food waste occurs in the kitchen due to overproduction of meals driven by demand seasonality. Plate waste is significant, especially during social events. Such advanced approaches to food waste management as portion control, surplus food donation and food waste resell to farmers are identified. These approaches can be particularly effective in non-capital, provincial regions. The study results can aid in the design of policy-making interventions for food waste prevention in the commercial foodservice sector of Uzbekistan and the wider region of Central Asia.
Consumer intention to avoid food waste is determined by various socio-demographic and psychographic/psychological factors. While many of these factors have been well studied, some remain under-researched. This is the case for religious values and family upbringing that may represent strong antecedents of personal norms towards food waste avoidance. This study tests the role of these factors on a sample (n = 566) of consumers in Poland, a society with strong religious traditions and family ties. The results indicate that religious values play an important role in family upbringing which, by influencing personal social and environmental motives, mediates the effect on personal norms to avoid food waste. This suggests that religious leaders should be engaged in the design of food waste prevention campaigns specifically targeting parents. This is to trigger a cross-generational spillover effect whereby family morals on food waste avoidance are transferred from parents to children and reinforced by religious values.
Conflict management in PAs (Protected Areas) is becoming increasingly important in the context of the rapid development of nature-based tourism. Literature proposes the Index of Conflict tendency between Tourism development and ecological Protection (ICTP) to analyze the tendency of conflict from a spatial perspective, but this index does not consider the factor of seasonality which is important in tourism. The current study considers seasonality and proposes the CVD (Coverage- Variation- Duration) framework to conduct a spatio-temporal analysis of the ICTP. The applied research based on the case of China's V–PAs (a specific category of PAs) reflects that the CVD framework can describe the spatial distribution of the ICTP from a seasonal perspective. The study finds that, among V–PAs in China, 42.16% of the areas with high ICTP of V–PAs have obvious seasonal variations, which shows that PAs conflict management must incorporate the factor of seasonality. The study also shows that 8.98% of V–PAs have large-scale coverage of areas with high ICTP, revealing priorities for conflict management. 3.96% of V–PAs have large-scale coverage of areas with high ICTP showing seasonal changes. Management in these areas should pay attention to seasonal changes to become more effective. The CVD framework proposed in this paper is operable and extendable and can provide analytical tools for PAs conflict management, and promote ecological protection and more sustainable tourism development in PAs. •Index of Conflict tendency between Tourism development and ecological Protection (ICTR) is revisited.•The Coverage- Variation- Duration (CVD) framework is proposed.•Conflict tendency in protected areas (PAs) presents visible seasonal change.•42.16% V–PAs in China have obvious seasonality of ICTP.•8.98% V–PAs in China have large-scale coverage of areas with high ICTP.
Community pharmacies play a critical societal role and are well placed to enable the progress of national health systems towards sustainability. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research which has been set up to understand sustainability practices adopted by community pharmacies and evaluate the drivers behind their adoption. This study undertook an exploratory analysis of 95 community pharmacies in Spain, measured their engagement with sustainability practices and assessed these practices in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results demonstrated the room for improvement in the adoption of green procurement practices in pharmacies and in their engagement with the community. Moreover, the study showcased that, during the COVID-19 crisis, the pharmacies with the largest extent of adoption of sustainability practices implemented preventative measures against the pandemic in a more diverse number during the first weeks of the lockdown, compared to their less sustainable counterparts. This indicates that, to build resilience to future (health) crises, the implementation of sustainable practices in community pharmacies should be encouraged by both policy makers and pharmaceutical firms.
The practice of meditative mindfulness as a process of bringing a certain quality of attention to moment-by-moment experiences is considered important in achieving subjective wellbeing. In the era of increasing digitization, a new trend in the use of technological devices and smartphone applications has arisen which aims to cultivate mindfulness in everyday lives. This trend holds important repercussions for the development of e-Tourism, especially in the context of managing and (co-)creating tourist experiences, as attention to and awareness of a present moment experience represent the pillars of mindfulness. Although there are several studies that discuss meditative mindfulness in the context of tourism, there are no clear directions on how to employ technology-assisted mindfulness in achieving specific business goals, such as to (co-)create tourist experiences. This chapter provides a comprehensive and critical review of technology-assisted mindfulness in the context of tourist experiences. To this end, it first elaborates upon the definition of meditative mindfulness. It, then, takes stock of research on technology-assisted mindfulness, discusses the scope for the co-creation of technology-assisted mindful tourist experiences, and analyses the antecedents of their integration into organizational practices of tourism and hospitality enterprises. Finally, the chapter outlines directions for future research.
Rapid economic development and urbanization have changed the pattern of global food consumption. This change can be particularly well observed when studying differences in food consumption among urban and rural residents. This study explored the temporal dynamics in household food consumption (HFC) in rural households of the Shandong Province in China. The study revealed that the inter-annual changes in HFC, starting with 2009, brought about a substantial increase in meat and vegetables intake. Improvements in living conditions represented the key driver of this change. The intra-annual changes were reflected in increased consumption of fruits and vegetables in summer being attributed to improved food supply and warmer weather. The variety of consumed food increased, especially during holidays, being driven by increased visitation of friends and relatives and the influence of Chinese culture. Children’s food preferences when visiting home resulted in increased consumption of meat, vegetables, and aquatic products. The findings provide a scientific basis to enhance the food consumption structure and refine the dietary nutrition levels in rural areas of China. The findings also provide a reference point which can be used to examine temporal changes in food consumption in other countries of the world. Percentage change in food consumption in different dimensions: (a) Inter-annual changes; (b) Intra-annual changes; (c) Special occasion related changes; (d) Changes due to VFR. [Display omitted] •Temporal changes in HFC and their drivers in rural China are revealed.•Inter-annual increase in consumption of meat and vegetables is driven by improved living conditions.•Intra-annual increase in consumption of fruits and vegetables is due to improved food supply.•More variety of food consumed on holidays is driven by Chinese culture.•The HFC structure and dietary nutrition levels in rural China should be enhanced.
Brazil is a global leader in soybean production. Although it is acknowledged that part of Brazilian soybean crop is lost and wasted in transition from farm to gate, the exact magnitude of this food loss and waste (FLW) remains unknown. This hampers the design of preventative interventions, thus diminishing profitability of farmers and resellers. This study quantified FLW occurring from farm to gate, identified the causes and assessed the monetary value of the lost crop. Data were collected by continuous monitoring of the crop planted in 2020 and harvested in 2021 by a larger soybean producer in the State of Paraná. These data were triangulated with stakeholder interviews and secondary data. The monitoring results showed that for every US$ 20 of revenue from soybean production, about US$ 1 (5.68%) was lost or wasted. Incorrect use of combine harvesters, moisture and foreign material represented the main FLW causes. The results highlighted the need to implement policies aimed at raising awareness of FLW among farmers and their employees. [Display omitted] •A case study of FLW from Brazilian soybean production.•Out of every US$ 20 of soybean producer's income, US$ 1 is lost or wasted between farm and gate.•FLW increases as distance from farm to gate becomes greater.•Better trained combine harvester operators will reduce FLW significantly.•Measures are required to change farmers' attitude to FLW as being an issue of little concern.
Substantial quantities of food are lost and wasted in primary production. Although research on food loss and waste on farms is emerging, it primarily concerns developed countries. Despite being global agricultural powerhouses, many developing and transition economies are excluded from analysis. This study explores the challenge of food loss and waste in primary production of Russia, a major food producer with a transition economy. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) with farmers examined the magnitude of food loss and waste on farms, its main causes and approaches to management. The study establishes association between farm specialism and magnitude of food loss and waste. Inadequate storage, unpredictable weather and fluctuations in demand contribute to food loss and waste. The challenge is managed by methods of composting, animal feeding and land-spreading. From the farmers’ viewpoint stakeholder collaboration can aid in reducing food loss and waste on farms. It is however restricted by under-developed industry networks, disinterest of major actors, especially retailers, and lack of trust. To facilitate collaborative work, policy-makers and industry associations should engage various actors of the food supply chain by building capacity, showcasing the benefits of collaboration and providing dedicated financial support. The novelty of this study is in showcasing the importance of policy-makers as facilitators of stakeholder collaboration. This is partially attributed to the Soviet past of transition economies whereby public authorities exerted control over intra- and inter-sectoral interactions. The western standards of stakeholder collaboration for sustainable development are therefore not directly applicable to transition economies and should be modified in line with knowledge of the local context.
Purpose This study aims to critically evaluate the factual triple bottom line (TBL) sustainability performance of commercial foodservices as featured in peer-reviewed academic publications. Design/methodology/approach The commercial foodservices' sustainability performance-related articles were collected for a systematic review. An inductive thematic analysis was applied to the eligible articles. Findings The contribution of the commercial foodservice sector to the TBL sustainability is highlighted through eight themes: food waste management; food safety and hygiene; food allergy management; provision of healthy meals; local food use; employment of the disadvantaged; well-being of (non)managerial personnel; and noise level management. Originality/value The critical evaluation of the actual TBL sustainability measures adopted by commercial foodservice providers highlights the feasibility of the measures, thus calling for their broader industry uptake. Research gaps and issues for future investigations are accentuated for scholars to support the industry in its progress towards the goals of the TBL sustainability.
The challenge of food waste in the global foodservice sector is significant, and novel approaches are required for its minimization. These approaches can be grounded on the principles of industrial symbiosis which promote inter-sectoral collaboration for better resource efficiency. Foodservices can partner with farmers for food waste collection and its subsequent use as fertilizer or animal feedstock. Anecdotal evidence of industrial symbiosis adopted by foodservices and farmers exists, but no empirical research has been undertaken to understand the determinants of broader industry adoption of industrial symbiosis and how these determinants could be reinforced. This study explores the potential of industrial symbiosis to minimize food waste in commercial foodservices in Russia. By interviewing foodservice providers and farmers, the study demonstrates willingness of selected stakeholders to uptake industrial symbiosis as a means of food waste recovery, but also as an opportunity to reinforce social and network capital of foodservice operators and farmers. To encourage broader industry uptake, policy-makers should build inter-sectoral capacity by connecting foodservices and farmers. Not only will this minimize food waste but can also build more resilient and responsive food supply chains.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to empirically evaluate the potential of the blockchain technology in tourism. The blockchain technology (BCT) holds potential to contribute significantly to tourism policy and practice. Academic interest in the BCT is rapidly growing with studies looking at the opportunities and challenges of its application. The shortcoming of research on the BCT in tourism has however been in its conceptual nature. The lack of empirical investigations hinders an understanding of how the BCT can be more broadly adopted in tourism, especially from the viewpoint of minimizing its risks. Design/methodology/approach The initial screening of the opportunities, challenges and risks is undertaken via a systematic literature review. The Delphi study is subsequently applied to empirically confirm what opportunities, challenges and risks can be attributed to the BCT use in tourism. Twelve industry and academic experts have contributed to the Delphi study. Findings The risks identified have been categorized as societal, technical, financial and legal. Propositions have been made on how these risks can, at least partially, be overcome. Originality/value To the best of the authors' knowledge, it is the first known attempt to study the BCT from the perspective of academic and industry experts. This research is also one of the first to evaluate the risks of the BCT use in tourism. Most risks are identified as not critical and can be addressed as the BCT develops.
Purpose Although the challenge of food waste (FW) in the foodservice sector is significant, restaurant managers do not always engage in its reduction. The psychological reasons for this disengagement remain insufficiently understood. This study aims to explore the antecedents of behavioural intention of restaurateurs (not) to reduce FW. The influence of three factors is tested, namely, market orientation; environmental apathy alongside selected neutralization techniques, namely, appeal to higher loyalties; denial of injury and denial of responsibility. Design/methodology/approach The study uses the method of a large-scale managerial survey (n = 292) administered in the commercial foodservice sector of Spain. The data are analysed via structural equation modelling with partial least squares. Findings The study finds that market orientation affects managerial intention to reduce FW but not their attitude, while environmental apathy influences managerial attitudes but not their behavioural intention. The study confirms the negative effect of such neutralizers as the appeal to higher loyalties and the denial of injury on suppressing managerial intention to reduce FW. Contrary to initial anticipations, another established neutralizer, the denial of responsibility, exerts no significant effect. Practical implications The study elaborates on the interventions necessitated to neutralize the effect of the neutralizers on managerial (un)willingness to reduce FW in the commercial foodservice sector. Originality/value This is the first known attempt to understand the drivers of managerial engagement in FW reduction in the commercial foodservice sector through the prism of environmental apathy, market orientation and neutralization theory.
Despite being a major global economy, the challenge of food waste in Russia remains unexplored. In particular, nothing is known about the dynamics of food waste generated within its foodservice sector. The lack of empirical knowledge hampers the design of policy and management interventions for food waste reduction in Russian foodservices. This study adopts a qualitative and descriptive case study approach to provide the first benchmark of food wastage in commercial foodservices of Russia. The study shows that an average restaurant produces circa 14 t of food waste per year and the annual sectoral wastage amounts to at least 1.23 Mt, or 7% of the country’s total. Most food waste occurs due to the over-production of meals and customer plate leftovers. Albeit the patterns of food waste management in Russian foodservices resemble those adopted by foodservice operators in other markets of food consumption, the study identifies a few approaches that can be classed as ‘best practices’ in Russia and beyond. These ‘best practices’ include incentives given to customers for clean plates and partnerships for food waste reduction formed with local farmers. A framework for more effective management of food waste in Russian foodservices is proposed underpinned by the principles of multi-stakeholder collaboration. This framework advocates the need to build ‘collaborative bubbles’ of foodservice providers, farmers and charities supported by targeted policies. Such bubbles will not only reduce food waste, but can also enhance the social and network capital of all stakeholders involved. •First benchmark of food waste in different categories of Russian commercial foodservices.•An average restaurant in Russia wastes up to 14 t of food per year.•Fine dining and quick service waste the most and least food per business, respectively.•Over-production of food and plate leftovers are the key drivers.•Innovations in food waste management include on-site composting, clean plate incentives and collaboration with local farmers.
FIFA World Cup™ (FWC) is the world’s largest sporting event in a single sport. Due to its popularity, starting with its 2026 edition, FWCs will accommodate 48 participating teams instead of the current 32. This will provide an estimated profit of one billion US dollars. However, the expansion of FWC will also accelerate its carbon footprint due to increased use of transportation and tourist accommodation. This carbon footprint has not been considered by FIFA when deciding on the number of FWC participants. To showcase the carbon implications of the FIFA decision, this study assesses the carbon footprint of tourist accommodation during possible future staging of the 2030 FWC in South America. To this end, two scenarios are assessed: in Scenario 1 the current structure of 32 teams is maintained and in Scenario 2 an expansion to 48 teams is considered. A comparative analysis of these two scenarios shows that, only due to increased demand for tourist accommodation, the FIFA’s decision to increase the number of FWC participants will accelerate its carbon footprint by 24%. To reduce this carbon footprint, FIFA should consider choosing host countries on the basis of their national energy use matrices. FIFA should further prioritise those countries with the largest number of climate-friendly tourist accommodations exemplified, for example, by the award of reputable environmental certifications. •An attempt to assess the carbon implications of an international football tournament.•A case study of tourist accommodation at the 2030 FIFA World Cup™.•The new tournament model increases hotel demand by 75%.•It further increases the carbon footprint of tourist accommodation by 24%.•The energy use matrices of host countries are important determinants of the carbon footprint.
The COVID-19 pandemic has made a detrimental impact on various tourism subsectors. The financial consequences of this impact should be carefully evaluated to set benchmarks for industry recovery. This study assessed the financial impact of the pandemic on the tourism subsector of visitor attractions in China; 4222 A-grade visitor attractions accounting for over one-third of the national market were surveyed. Data triangulation was subsequently applied to undertake a comprehensive assessment of potential revenue loss. Triangulation was based upon the (1) lost revenue estimates made by tourist attractions' administrations, (2) reverse estimation of past macroeconomic data, and (3) expert opinion estimates. The assessment results demonstrated that A-grade visitor attractions in China may have lost up to 140 billion RMB (circa US$21 billion) due to COVID-19, with up to 65% of all losses incurred in the first quarter of 2020. The scale of revenue loss varied significantly depending on visitor attraction's grade, type, and location. Potential strategies for industry recovery are discussed.
The Mindful Tourist presents the first comprehensive theoretical perspective on mindfulness in contemporary tourist experiences. This innovative new study is based on the detailed exploration of mindful consumer behaviour and draws on insights from new cases of mindful tourism experiences, examining the potential for broader uptake across the industry.Examining the foundations of meditative mindfulness practices, mindfulness and tourism, the mindful tourism experience, and transformational power of mindful tourism experiences, The Mindful Tourist: The Power of Presence in Tourism explores key themes and issues, including the drivers of mindfulness in the tourism domain, the commodification of mindfulness, mindfulness and sustainability, and mindful tourist experiences being assisted through technology.
Tourism can drive positive, transformative changes in modern societies, but also becomes a source of significant environmental externalities. This is often the case for developing economies where the problem is exacerbated by immature national sustainability agendas. Targeted research, accounting for the local context, is necessary to enable transition of developing countries towards more sustainable patterns of tourism development. This study targets the hotel sector in Iran, one of the most energy inefficient hotel sectors around the world, to explore its pathway towards environmental sustainability. The dominance of domestic ownership and control and the prevalence of international economic sanctions are the distinctive features of the Iranian hotel sector. The study pinpoints reconfigurations in technology, knowledge, legislation and behavioural norms as the determinants of the sector’s environmental sustainability quest. Domestic hospitality companies should champion transformative pro-environmental changes in the Iranian hotel sector until international economic sanctions are lifted. •First attempt to explore how/if hotels in Iran conserve energy.•Domestic ownership and control exert a negative effect on energy conservation.•Reconfigurations in technology, knowledge, legislation and behavioural norms towards energy conservation are pinpointed.•International stakeholders exert an insignificant influence on energy conservation due to punitive sanctions.•Closer engagement of all domestic stakeholders is required to conserve energy.
Little is known about the psychological antecedents of personal norms towards food waste reduction albeit such knowledge is key for the design of mitigation interventions at the consumer level. Personal norms to reduce food waste can be formed at an early age and transferred in a family from generation to generation. Filial piety, or the cultural trait of respect for the elderly, can reinforce personal norms and facilitate their intergenerational transfer. This study extends the norm activation model (NAM) to explore the effect of filial piety on consumer intention to reduce food waste. To this end, the study captures the effect of three family generations i.e., grandmothers, mothers, and daughters, on different NAM constructs. The results of a survey in Turkey (n = 311), a country with traditions of respect for (grand)parents, demonstrate a strong effect of filial piety and intergenerational influence on all NAM constructs except for ascription of responsibility. The intergenerational variations in this influence showcase the growing role of secularisation, urbanisation, and media in shaping personal norms of the modern consumer. The implications for theory, practice, and methodology of research on food waste behaviour are discussed.
Kitchen operations waste considerable amounts of food in food service organizations, thus pinpointing chefs as critical stakeholders in food waste management (Goh et al., 2022). Therefore, the practices of chefs contributing to food waste prevention and reduction (preduction) must be carefully examined to identify areas for mitigative interventions (Filimonau et al., 2023). Practice theory can aid in understanding chefs' practices on how food waste is generated in professional kitchens and how it can be prevented and reduced, i.e., preduced (Hennchen, 2019). However, research on chefs' sustainable practices is scarce (Batat, 2020), thus outlining a knowledge gap. Although cooking has long been recognized as a critical social practice in households (Mguni et al., 2020), research on food preparation and cooking in professional kitchens from the perspective of practice theory has commenced only recently (Munir, 2022). In tourism and hospitality, practice theory has been adopted to examine tourist shopping (Jin et al., 2020), fraud (Xu et al., 2022), museum (Wu et al., 2021), and cruising experiences (Lamers and Pashkevich, 2018). Research has focused on the social practices of consumers (Dolan et al., 2019), thus largely ignoring the perspective of other stakeholders, such as chefs. Further, limited research has considered the implications of social practices prevalent among chefs for sustainability challenges, such as food waste preduction. Few studies directly relate social practice theory to food waste in professional kitchens. Social practice theory has enabled Hennchen (2019) to assign food waste practices of chefs to their food waste knowledge and awareness. Building upon this study, Filimonau et al. (2023) have proposed the concept of resourceful cooking, which can facilitate food waste preduction among chefs. Finally, Chawla et al. (2020) have examined the role of materiality in food waste practices in professional kitchens. The recommendations for improving the environmental sustainability of kitchen operations often come from case-specific studies (Leverenz et al., 2021). These studies focus on kitchen processes and their particular kitchens, considering factors like menu offerings (Byker et al., 2014), customer demand (Amicarelli et al., 2022), available resources (Corrado et al., 2019), and kitchen layout (Chawla et al., 2020) in food waste generation and management. However, these recommendations are often limited to the specific conditions of each particular study thereby suggesting limited generalization and applicability to other kitchens. The lack of generalizable empirical studies suggests the need to develop a holistic model of practice theory in professional kitchens. This model should help industry practitioners and academics better understand chefs' practices' critical role in food waste generation and management. This can enable the design of interventions to nurture sustainability in professional kitchens. This paper aims to partially plug this gap by showcasing the value of practice theory for food waste preduction. It also highlights the role of training current and prospective chefs to encourage more resourceful, i.e., “wasteless” practices.
The kitchen is a gendered realm dominated by masculine culture, but some female chefs challenge this norm by introducing soft skills. This paper conceptualizes the multilayered cultural realm of food waste management in professional kitchens and pinpoints the critical role of individual gender traits of chefs in food prevention and reduction (‘preduction’). The paper outlines directions for future research on the gender-related position of chefs.
The environmental externalities of tourist accommodation are substantial, but their scientific appraisals have been far from holistic. Existing environmental impact assessment studies focus on hotel operations and exclude indirect material inputs and outputs due to data (un)availability. Important environmental ‘hotspots’ can be ignored in the result as these are often concealed in the diversity and complexity of a hotel's products and services. This study employs the method of environmental life cycle impact assessment to appraise the environmental externalities occurring through the life cycle of four popular comfort categories of hotels (hostel, budget, upmarket and luxury) in two countries of South America (Brazil and Peru). The appraisal is facilitated by the ecoinvent database (version 3.6, Allocation cut-off by classification) and the SimaPro software (version 9.1.1). The intra-sectoral and cross-country analysis reveals correlation of the environmental and carbon footprint with hotel comfort categories. The study finds that (1) treatment of solid waste generated in hotel operations; (2) construction of the hotel building; and (3) operational energy use; generate the largest footprints across all major impact categories. The contribution of (4) consumer goods, such as furniture, electric and electronic equipment, bathroom/sanitary fixtures and carpets, is also significant. The study advocates that these operational and non-operational material inputs and outputs should be accounted for in future environmental and carbon impact assessments of hotels. The study provides the first benchmarks of major embodied, indirect environmental and carbon impacts of hotels that can be used, with appropriate adjustments, in future research. •Treatment of solid waste accounts for 12–61% of the life cycle carbon impacts.•Building accounts for 8–69% of the life cycle carbon impacts.•Energy consumption accounts for 3–56% of the life cycle carbon impacts.•Consumer goods account for 10–25% of the life cycle carbon impacts.•Building, solid waste and consumer goods should all be included in future environmental assessments of hotels.
Technological solutions to achieve energy efficiency and carbon reduction in tourism are unlikely to be sufficient alone. This is partly because of the rebound effect (RE) where consumer behavior can absorb some of or all the energy efficiency gains. Time savings from time-efficient technologies can intensify energy consumption, leading to the time use rebound effect (TRE). Research suggests that the TRE in tourism can be high, especially in relation to tourist travel, but its understanding is limited. This study aims to provide empirical evidence of the TRE by categorizing tourist groups that are most prone to its occurrence. An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach is employed. Key factors that influence the potential TRE occurrence include socio-demographic characteristics, holiday preferences, time/money availability, time perception/attitudes, and time use patterns on holiday. The "Busy explorer" cluster of tourists is most likely to show TREs. Implications and suggestions for future research are outlined.
The paper examines ecotourism in the Aral Sea region of Uzbekistan, an area with a fragile environment that has faced ecological crises and requires careful sustainable development. It looks at the supply side of ecotourism by examining Uzbekistani tour operators' awareness of benefits derivable from promoting ecotourism in the region, and the local tourism industry's motives to engage in this development. As a research methodology, the results of an exploratory survey of travel agents and tour operators highlight the policy-making and management interventions required for the more effective promotion and development of ecotourism in the Aral Sea region. The paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities associated with promoting ecotourism activities in the Aral Sea region in pursuit of sustainable regional development, improved livelihood for the local population, employment opportunity and income source creation, and enriched service exports. Key findings from the study show that stakeholders are aware of ecotourism's value and are motivated to implement ecotourism in the region, but they have limited experience, competence, and international networks to promote and market ecotourism products and services. Local stakeholders have raised the issue that infrastructure development and access to microfinance are their greatest needs from local authorities in Uzbekistan.
This paper analyses the roles played by time in destination-based travel behaviour. It contrasts clock time's linear view of time with fragmented time, instantaneous time, fluid time and flow, time out and the multiple temporalities of tourism experiences. It explores temporal issues in a destination travel context, using qualitative techniques. Data were captured using diary photography, diary-interview method with tourists at a rural destination; their spatial and temporal patterns were captured using a purpose built smartphone app. The analysis revealed three temporal themes influencing travel behaviour: time fluidity; daily and place-related rhythms; and control of time. Three key messages emerge for future sustainable tourist destination-based travel systems. Given the strong desire for temporal fluidity, transport systems should evolve beyond clock-time regimes. Second, temporal forces favour personal modes of transport (car, walk, cycle), especially in rural areas where public transport cannot offer flexibility. Third, the car is personalised and perceived to optimise travel fluidity and speed, but is currently unsustainable. Imaginative initiatives, using new mobile media technology can offer new positive and proactive car travel, utilising spare public and private vehicle capacity. Research is needed to implement mechanisms for individualised space-time scheduling and collective vehicle use strategies.
Language is a key cultural and cognitive attribute which can shape the way people think and behave. Research in economics has tested the influence of language on human consumption and found that languages that explicitly mark future events, i.e. so-called future-time-reference or strong FTR languages, may engage their speakers in less future-oriented attitudes and actions. This phenomenon is known as linguistic relativity. By applying its principles to tourism, this study investigated the impact of language on pro-environmental attitudes of tourists. Comparative analysis of Korean (strong FTR language) and Mandarin (weak FTR language) speaking tourists revealed substantial differences in attitudes. Although tourists possessed good knowledge on the environmental impacts of tourism, this knowledge did not translate into high pro-environmental attitudes for Korean speakers while it did for Mandarin. This suggests that language can shape the attitudes of tourists towards environmental impacts. Implications for management, policy-making and future research are discussed. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Plate leftovers account for a substantial portion of food waste generated in foodservices. Although consumers acknowledge this wastage, they blame others or circumstances beyond their control for why plate leftovers occur, thus showcasing deviant behaviour. This study advocates that neutralisation theory can aid in understanding the antecedents of this deviance. The study employs modified theory of planned behaviour to test the role of selected neutralisation techniques in the context of the hospitality and foodservice of Turkey, an established market of out-of-home food consumption. The findings show that denial of responsibility and appeal to higher loyalties, as the key neutralisers, predict wasteful consumer behaviour. Knowledge of food waste and personal attitudes can reduce the impact of these neutralisation techniques, but cannot eliminate it entirely. To tackle plate leftovers, industry practitioners, policy-makers and academics should identify effective counter measures against customer deviance driven by neutralisation. Financial (dis)incentives, (re) design of business operations and more flexibility given to consumers when placing food orders may represent such counter measures. •Neutralisation theory can aid in explaining why restaurant guests leave meals uneaten.•Denial of responsibility and appeal to higher loyalties predict plate waste.•Food waste knowledge and moral norms do not predict intention to reduce leftovers.•Both can however reduce the negative effect of appeal to higher loyalties.•Financial (dis)incentives and operational (re-)design can aid in counteracting the neutralisers.
•Carbon footprint of a sample of home-stays in Thailand is assessed.•Carbon performance of home-stays against hotels is compared.•On average, home-stays generate 1.3 tonnes of CO2-eq. per home-stay per year.•This is equivalent to 0.32 kg of CO2-eq. per ‘per guest night’. Home-stays represent a popular category of tourist accommodation in South-East Asia but their carbon footprint has not been systematically assessed. This hampers an understanding of the energy consumption patterns of home-stays, impedes identification of the main carbon hotspots in home-stay operations and prevents a comparative analysis of the carbon performance of home-stays against other tourist accommodation categories. Using the method of screening Life Cycle Energy Analysis (LCEA), this study assessed the carbon footprint of a sample of home-stays in Thailand and undertook its comparative analysis against other categories of tourist accommodation, globally and in Thailand. The overall annual carbon footprint of home-stays was assessed as low (1.3 tonnes of CO2-eq. per home-stay on average) which was due to small size and limited guest amenities. The ‘per guest night’ carbon footprint of home-stays was comparable to that of budget hotels in Thailand (0.32 kg of CO2-eq. per home-stay on average) which was attributed to low occupancy driven by high demand seasonality.
The growing awareness of tourism's environmental impacts has facilitated energy efficiency improvements in all tourism sub-sectors, especially in tourist transport. Further technological improvements are envisaged to save travel time as well as to reduce travel costs. However, the time savings achieved can potentially trigger behavioural responses of tourists that are unexpected and can intensify consumption. Ultimately, this intensified consumption can negate the positive effect of energy efficiency improvements in tourism, the phenomenon known as the time use rebound effect. Existing literature fails to account for this effect as a driver of unsustainable consumer behaviour in tourism. This paper proposes a framework to conceptualise the potential time use rebound effect in tourism and discusses the importance of considering it for better understanding and management of pro-environmental tourist behaviour. The paper elaborates upon the implications of the time use rebound effect for sustainable tourism development. Highlights Discusses the effect of energy efficiency improvements in tourism on consumption Demonstrates this effect is not always positive Conceptualises the rebound effect in tourism with respect to time Discusses how the time use rebound effect can reduce the positive effect of energy efficiency improvements in tourism
National culture can affect consumer behaviour, but there is limited empirical evidence to establish the exact magnitude of this effect in particular consumption contexts and in specific consumption markets. This paper contributes to knowledge by exploring and comparing the extent to which national culture may contribute to pro-environmental behaviour of tourists in the UK and China. By drawing upon the five dimensions or values of national culture proposed by Hofstede, Schwartz and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (Individualism, Power distance, Long-term Orientation, Harmony and Indulgence) and by applying the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling, the study establishes the causal relationships between the cultural backgrounds of tourists, their environmental knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes and pro-environmental behavioural intentions. The implications for policy-making, management and future research are discussed. •Explores the effect of national culture on pro-environmental attitudes of tourists.•Compares the consumption markets of the UK and China.•Reveals the negative effect of individualism on pro-environmental attitudes.•Finds the positive effect of high power distance on pro-environmental attitudes.•These relationships can predict pro-environmental behavioural intentions of tourists.
Smartphone technology can help identify current and anticipate future patterns of behaviour and, with its social networking capabilities, allow users to imagine and organise collaborative travel opportunities, such as lift share. This has led to the development of collaborative apps designed to enable activities like lift sharing. Such apps require new norms of behaviour to establish a user base and research has yet to address the socio-cultural barriers to both the use of this technology to organise travel and the sharing of personal space that collaborative travel entails. This paper reports the findings of a study which designed, built and tested a collaborative travel app in the tourism domain. Data derived from exploratory interviews, post-trial interviews and a questionnaire reveal that user age and extent of mobile engagement play a less significant role than expected, while other aspects of the social exchange, notably social tie strength, trust and obligations play a more marked role. A conceptual framework and discussion of strategies to address these barriers provides insight into appropriate contexts and routes for implementation of collaborative travel apps. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In the context of emerging markets, restaurant food choice needs to be better architected in order to minimise the negative societal and environmental implications. For effective consumer choice architecture, the determinants of restaurant food choice need to be first established. This study explores the determinants of restaurant food choice in Poland, a transitional economy in East-Central Europe with a rapidly growing pattern of out-of-home food consumption. It finds that the low level of public environmental awareness in Poland translates into low consumer recognition of the environmental implications of restaurant food choice. Although customer preference for locally produced and organic food is recorded, this preference is not associated with public environmental awareness, but attributed to possible media effect. In contrast, the level of public awareness of the health repercussions of restaurant food choice is higher in Poland, especially among younger consumers, which is reflected in the desire to see the nutritional and calorific values of food to be displayed on restaurant menus. Implications for policy-making and hospitality management are discussed.
Voluntary changes in consumer behaviour hold significant potential to mitigate the growing environmental repercussions of tourism. Such behavioural changes can occur due to positive behavioural intentions that are in turn underpinned by pro-environmental consumer attitudes. To reinforce voluntary behavioural changes in tourism, it is paramount to understand the major drivers of pro-environmental consumer attitudes. Although national culture can influence pro-environmental attitudes of tourists, its role has been under-researched, especially in the context of emerging tourist markets. This study utilised the environment-orientated dimensions, or value orientations, of major cultural frameworks (Hofstede; Schwartz; Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner) to explore the effect of national culture on pro-environmental attitudes and behavioural intentions in a large-scale quantitative survey of Polish tourists. Correlation between the cultural background of tourists and their pro-environmental attitudes was established, thus highlighting the need for national culture to become an integral element of future scientific, policy-making, and managerial discourse on the key drivers of more sustainable consumer behaviour in tourism.
Aviation generates substantial carbon footprint which is projected to increase due to the continuous growth in international tourism, especially in emerging markets. This carbon footprint should be mitigated to bring the tourism industry towards its sustainability goals. Within a portfolio of prospective carbon mitigation measures, biofuels represent a technological innovation which holds substantial potential to reduce the carbon significance of aviation. The success of technological innovations often depends on public opinion. The role of public opinion is particularly relevant in the aviation context, where safety considerations of technological innovations may determine consumer choice. Focusing on Poland, an emerging tourist market in Europe, this study explored public opinion on biofuel use in aviation. It found that public understanding of the perspectives of aviation biofuel technology, including its safety, is limited and needs to be reinforced. Public distrust in the national institutions of power and the industry sector representatives in Poland calls for educational and public awareness-raising campaigns to be delivered by the 'third sector' organisations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Market research suggests that organic food consumption in Europe is growing. The concept of dining out organically may therefore represent a promising business opportunity and yet little is known about how it is perceived by restaurant managers. This study reports on the outcome of a qualitative research conducted with managers of UK casual dining restaurants. It finds that restaurateurs are sceptical about the business feasibility of dining out organically which is viewed as a niche market with limited consumer appeal. This contradicts market research which questions the robustness of its findings. A new research stream looking at actual consumer behaviour, rather than attitudes, when dining out is necessary. Recommendations are devised to facilitate organic dining out in the UK.
This paper reviews existing approaches to assessing tourism sustainability, especially its contribution to climate change. It assesses ecological footprint analysis, environmental impact assessment and input-output analysis but finds them inaccurate and unreliable. It goes on to argue that life cycle assessment (LCA) is a more promising tool for tourism climate change impact assessment, highlighting important areas where LCA application can contribute towards better understanding of tourism's role in global climatic changes. To demonstrate the applicability of the LCA methodology, a case study of a short weekend holiday trip is presented. Related greenhouse gas emissions are measured comparing LCA and alternative carbon footprint calculation methods. The comparison demonstrates markedly different results. The reasons for the discrepancy along with the potential of LCA to estimate the oindirecto carbon contribution of the holiday trip's components are discussed. A key feature of the LCA calculation is that for short-haul trips the proportional impact of accommodation-related emissions is shown to be larger than in earlier calculations, while transport impacts are reduced.
Tourism holds a significant share in the global carbon footprint. Transportation to the destination is recognized as the primary contributor, although its contribution can be less dominant in the context of short-haul travel. Previous studies do not provide a critical comparative analysis of how changes in travel behaviour, notably modal shift, affect the total carbon impacts from short-haul holidays; nor do they explore the relative contribution of the specific elements of the holiday product or account for global variations when measuring those contributions. This paper presents a carbon impact assessment case study of short-haul tourism to Southern France by British tourists. It applies an advanced, Life Cycle Assessment-based, method of evaluation, the hybrid DEFRA-LCA (Ecoinvent) approach, which is capable of appraising both the direct and the embodied ‘indirect’ greenhouse gas emissions. The principal finding supports the traditional view that transportation generates the largest carbon footprint and that the most significant carbon savings can be achieved by switching from air and car-based travel to train and coach. However, the study also indicates that if tourists stay at the destination longer, and travel to the destination by train or coach, the destination-based elements of the holiday can make a large carbon contribution and even outweigh the share of the transit element. The Life Cycle Assessment also shows that the ‘indirect’ greenhouse gas emissions from tourism in Southern France are significant, thus emphasizing the importance of their incorporation into future carbon impact appraisals. •We apply a life cycle analysis to estimate the GHG emissions from short-haul travel.•We find that transportation to the destination makes the main contribution.•Length of stay and transportation mode affect carbon footprint generation.•We find that the ‘indirect’ GHG emissions equate up to 30% of the total.
Hotel administrations in emerging tourism markets do not invest in environmental conservation because of low confidence in that such investment will drive customer patronage. Empirical evidence is required to showcase what predicts patronage intentions towards 'green' hotels in emerging tourism markets. This evidence can encourage local hotel administrations to conserve the environment. This study augments theory of planned behaviour to explore predictors of customer patronage towards 'green' hotels in Poland, an emerging tourism market in East-Central Europe. Primary data are collected by the method of consumer survey (n = 376) and analysed by the method of structural equation modeling with partial least squares. The study identifies environmental knowledge and pro-environmental attitudes as strong predictors of patronage intentions. Knowledge of 'green' hotels has limited influence on patronage but strongly affects pro-environmental attitudes. Environ-mental concern significantly affects environmental knowledge but exerts limited effect on knowledge of 'green' hotels. Travel frequency does not influence patronage intentions, but tourist age and affluence do. Policy-making and management implications are discussed.
Existing research on risk management in adventure tourism has primarily focused on the participant's motivation, perception and experience of taking part in the risky activities. Within this research strand, injuries and fatalities caused by participation in adventure tourism have been consistently examined and policy-making mechanisms discussed to prevent their future occurrence. This study adopts a different perspective as it explores how risk is perceived and managed by instructors. Better understanding of this topic should enhance future risk management strategies in adventure tourism, thus improving safety and well-being of both participants and instructors. The outcome of a qualitative study conducted with adventure tourism operators in Dorset, UK, shows that the increased popularity of the industry has caused companies to take advantage of profit margins. There is evidence that instructors cut corners when managing risks which raises the probability of accidents as a result. The study outlines a number of areas for policy-making intervention required to enhance the quality of risk management practices in adventure tourism. These include the need for policy reinforcement of the safety standards; specialist training opportunities made available to instructors and regular qualification re-assessment exercises.
Mobile connectivity enables the adoption of new ways to connect with social networks which are changing how we might, and could, seek support. In the tourism domain we increasingly blend online and offline presence to engage with social networks in the spatial location, at a distance and across time. This paper explores the forms of community that exist in physical tourism contexts, contexts not previously analysed through a community lens, and explores how mobile technology is creating connections within and beyond existing social networks. It examines how sustainable tourism can be enhanced by mobile connectivity through new space-time practices and using ephemeral interpersonal relationships to harness niche groups to create bottom-up social systems interested in sharing experiences, ideas and resources. Special attention is given to the concept of gelling socialities which proposes a less ridged network structure, and to the need to understand the increasingly liquid social dynamics of mobile social interactions. The paper adds to the theories surrounding community, social ties and tourism's value to society. It draws on data from in-depth interviews undertaken while designing and testing a collaborative travel app. It contributes to growing research into the new technologies increasingly available for sustainable tourism marketing and implementation.
The sector of food service provision generates substantial environmental and societal impacts. Environmental impacts are particularly pronounced in terms of carbon footprint build-up While societal impacts are reflected in often unhealthy food choice. These impacts should be minimised to facilitate progress of the sector towards sustainability. A significant share of the negative impacts from food service provision is attributed to irresponsible consumer choice which needs to be architected and made more society- and climate-benign. Customer 'nudging' is an effective tool of consumer choice architecture and yet little research has examined its application within the context of private food service provision. This study set to better understand the determinants of consumer choice when dining out and how consumer choice could be reinforced to make it more beneficial from the sustainability viewpoint. To this end, the study reported on the outcome of a consumer survey Conducted among visitors to a UK casual dining restaurant where menu design was employed as a customer 'nudging' tool. The survey demonstrated that, next to price, food provenance and nutritional value determined consumer choice when dining out. This information should therefore be displayed on restaurant menus to enable educated, and more environment- and society-benign, food choice. While presenting the food carbon values on a menu was well perceived, some skepticism attached to their prospective use as a determinant of consumer choice was recorded. Recommendations were made on the design of the industry and policy-making interventions required to enhance the public appeal of this menu item. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hotels generate substantial environmental footprint. To minimise this footprint, hoteliers are increasingly engaging in environmental management programmes (EMPs). When designing such a programme, it is important that hotel managers do not only evaluate its effect on corporate strategy, finance, and reputation, but also analyse its impact on staff. This is because employees are in the forefront of hotel environmental management interventions and can determine their success or failure. This is also due to the impact that EMPs can make on staff attitudes, both at work and in private life. This study explores how hotel employees perceive an opportunity to engage in an EMP in a luxury hotel. It finds that a well-designed and implemented programme can strengthen the levels of job satisfaction and organisational commitment among hotel staff, subject to explaining the reasons for and outlining the benefits of environmental management interventions, incentivised participation, regular evaluation, and adequate training. The study also shows that EMPs implemented in a hotel may drive more environmentally responsible behaviour of employees outside work.
Due to a steady growth of tourism, hotels in Nigeria generate disproportionate amounts of solid waste. Little is however known about what approaches, if any, Nigerian hoteliers adopt for its mitigation. This study has set to establish the approaches to managing solid waste and evaluate their effectiveness in a sample of hotels in Lagos. To this end, it has applied the method of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 17 hoteliers to reveal the role of organisational (managerial and staff attitudes, corporate policies), institutional (governmental policies) and consumption market related (consumer attitudes) factors in shaping the scope of solid waste mitigation. The interview results have demonstrated that Lagos hotels do very little to mitigate solid waste generation. This was attributed to the insufficient support received from the government, but also to the disinterest of hotel guests, managers and employees in environmental conservation. To improve the quality of solid waste management in Nigerian hotels, it is necessary to raise environmental commitment of managers and improve environmental awareness of guests and staff. Governmental involvement is required in the form of educating hotel guests and providing environmental training and 'green' incentives to hoteliers. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Covid-19 pandemic has changed attitudes of English households towards food consumption at home and when eating out. Little academic research has however examined the scope and the scale of these changes, especially in the context of foodservice provision. This mixed methods study explores the effect of Covid-19 on food consumption in English households at home and away. It reveals increased frequency and variety of cooking during lockdown as a driver of household food wastage. The study demonstrates public hesitance towards eating out post-Covid-19. Foodservice providers are expected to re-design their business settings and adopt protective and preventative measures, such as frequent cleaning and routine health checks, to encourage visitation. After the pandemic, increased preference towards consuming (more) sustainable food at home, but not when eating out, is established. These insights can aid grocery and foodservice providers in offering more tailored products and services in a post-pandemic future. •Increased cooking at home during Covid-19 has increased household food waste.•Healthy eating and local food have increased their appeal.•Consumer intention to eat out is subject to restaurants adopting a range of measures.•These measures relate to health and hygiene, but also business operations re-design.•Sustainability attributes of the food served in restaurants are considered unimportant.
Hotels consume significant amounts of energy, especially in guest rooms. Financial incentives can be given to hotel guests for conserving energy during their stay while financial penalties can be applied for excessive energy use. This can be achieved by deploying the smart energy meters (SEMs) in guest rooms that enable accurate energy monitoring and billing. This study explored the viability of a new business model for energy management in hotels underpinned by SEMs. Semi-structured interviews with managers of UK budget hotels revealed the determinants of industrial adoption of this new model. Despite positive appeal, the chances for the model's immediate commercialisation were found slim due to its novelty and the market disruption potential held. To enhance the business viability of the proposed model, close integration of energy conservation targets into the corporate agenda of budget hotels is necessary coupled with dedicated policy support.
The COVID-19 pandemic will reduce the attractiveness of hospitality occupations. This particularly concerns senior management positions whose holders may substitute hospitality jobs with more secure and rewarding employment in other economic sectors. Organisational resilience of hospitality businesses, including their response to COVID-19, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices may, however, affect perceived job security of senior managers and, thus, influence their commitment to remain in their host organisations. This paper quantitatively tests the inter-linkages between the above variables on a sample of senior managers in hotels in Spain. It finds that the levels of organisational resilience and the extent of CSR practices reinforce perceived job security of managers which, in turn, determines their organisational commitment. Organisational response to COVID-19 affects perceived job security and enhances managers' organisational commitment. To retain senior management teams in light of future disastrous events, hotels should, therefore, strengthen their organisational resilience and invest in CSR.
The challenge of food waste in top-end, luxury foodservice provision is understudied, especially from the chefs’ perspective. This is a major knowledge gap as (in)effective management of food waste depends on chefs’ (dis)engagement. This exploratory study employs practice theory to examine how chefs (dis)engage in food waste prevention in kitchens of UK fine dining restaurants. 17 in-depth, semi-structured interviews reveal that chefs have good awareness of food waste and understand its negative socio-economic and environmental implications. Chefs have access to professional equipment enabling them to waste less food. However, the competencies of chefs in resourceful cooking are often limited while corporate policies and procedures discourage resourcefulness in the kitchen. The study’s findings suggest that resourceful cooking should become an integral element of hospitality teaching curriculum and chefs’ training. Corporate policies and procedures of fine dining restaurants should be streamlined to encourage more active engagement of chefs in food waste prevention. •Food waste prevention among chefs is explored through the lens of practice theory.•Chefs understand the meaning of food waste alongside its implications.•Chefs lack competencies of resourceful cooking and storage.•Corporate rules discourage chefs from preventing food waste.•Dedicated training of chefs in resourcefulness and resourceful cooking is required.
This study explores the (de)motivations of small, independently-owned, hotels to conserve the environment in the Aral Sea region of Uzbekistan. This destination provides an interesting case study as it represents one of the world's most deprived regions with a scarce resource base. This resource scarcity should prompt hotels to conserve the environment. However, this resource scarcity may prevent environmental conservation as the limited resources can be spent on other operational tasks. By interviewing senior hotel managers, this study showcases their limited motivation for environmental conservation. The study highlights the role of various stakeholders in encouraging hotels to save the environment. Recommendations are made on policy and management interventions required to incentivize environmental conservation by hoteliers.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce e-mindfulness as a tourism trend. Mindfulness meditation is becoming increasingly mainstream, which is reflected in a rapidly growing number of related technology applications. Such technology-assisted mindfulness is typically referred to as e-mindfulness. The e-mindfulness trend creates opportunities for the tourism industry but also implies changed consumer perspectives on tourist experiences. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is based on a general review of academic literature, news reports and online resources regarding the offerings of related technologies. Findings - Implications of e-mindfulness for consumers, tourism service providers and designers of future tourism experiences are outlined. Originality/value - This is the first paper to conceptualize e-mindfulness as a tourism trend.
Tourist food consumption is an important driver of food waste generation within the hotel/restaurant/ cafe (HORECA) sector of popular destinations. Little is however known about the exact magnitude of food wastage by tourists alongside the determinants of their wasteful behaviour. This study has striven to contribute to knowledge with an exploratory survey in Lhasa, a popular destination in China, which set to establish the size of food wastage by tourists and explain the role of various socio-demographic and food consumption-related factors in its occurrence by statistical analysis and multiple linear regression analysis, respectively. The study found that tourists generated circa 15% of the total food waste in the HORECA sector, while the taste preferences and portion size were two major causes. The level of tourist education and personal satisfaction with meals exerted a significant negative impact on food waste generation. To reduce food wastage, policy-makers and HORECA professionals should educate tourists about the detrimental effect of wasted food and increase their satisfaction with meals. The research findings provided insights into achieving sustainability objectives in national and international tourism sectors. (c) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mobile technology is playing an increasing role in the tourist experience and a growing body of tourism research has focused on this area. There is often an implicit assumption that tourists embrace mobile connectivity and relatively little research has explored the tourist experience of disconnection, whether purposeful or imposed by technological limitations. This study explores the desire for digital (dis) connection during camping tourism. Data compiled using interviews and a survey revealed that the tourist is not 'always connected' and up to 50% have some desire to disconnect. There is ambiguity about mobile technology use in tourism with dilemmas regarding the value of connectivity versus the desire to 'get away from it all'. The analysis found digital engagement had a small effect on desire for disconnection however, patterns were not marked. The findings have implications for mobile technology solutions in tourism. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Purpose - This study aims to conduct a critical analysis of online carbon calculators, assesing their accuracy and ability to provide holistic carbon impact appraisals of different elements of holiday travel. It seeks to identify the major data sources for estimates and establish the interrelatedness between them. The determinant factors for the variance in the magnitude of the carbon footprint appraisals between calculators are critically reviewed. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews the key online carbon calculators to better understand how estimates of carbon footprint are made, what background information is available to tool users and which factors affect the accuracy and comprehensiveness of appraisals. Findings - The study concludes that the applicability of existing carbon calculators to carbon impact assessment in tourism is limited. Moreover, poor accesibility of the background data, inconsistencies in the multiplying factors used and inhomogeneity in the appraisal methods employed question the accuracy, credibility and transparency of carbon calculators. Suggestions are made on how to improve the overall quality and reliability of carbon calculators in order to enhance their consistency, transparency and applicability in the tourism domain. Originality/value - The paper contributes to a better understanding of assessment approaches available in the tourism domain to produce reliable estimates of the carbon impacts from holiday travel.
Incoming labour migration represents an important research field, especially in the context of East-Central Europe, a key source region of labour migrants to the tourism and hospitality sectors of many Western economies, including the UK. Surprisingly, return labour migration from the UK to this region has not been systematically examined and yet there is increasing evidence of its significance, especially in light of Brexit. The labour migrant motivations to return and their re-integration experiences back home remain poorly understood. This study adopts a qualitative method of data collection and analysis to explore return migration of the Polish workforce from the UK hospitality sector. Homesickness and educational pursuits are identified as the key drivers. The UK employment experience enhances career prospects of former migrants and yet it largely benefits non-hospitality related sectors of the domestic economy. While the re-integration experiences of former migrants are generally positive and the majority are content with the decision to return, some consider an opportunity to re-migrate.
Football is the most popular sport, globally and in the United Kingdom. However it generates a range of negative environmental impacts, such as climate change, due to an extensive amount of travel involved. The growing contribution of football clubs to the global carbon footprint has been recognised, but never consistently assessed. This study assesses the carbon footprint of the English Premier League (EPL) clubs, using the patterns of their domestic travel in the 2016/2017 season as a proxy for analysis. The study shows that, within the 2016/17 season, the EPL clubs produced circa 1134 tonnes of CO2-eq. as a result of their travel, where transportation accounts for 61% of the carbon footprint. To reduce this carbon footprint, a careful review of the current corporate travel and procurement practices in the EPL clubs is necessary. This is in order to optimise the travel itineraries, prioritise more climate-benign modes of transport and contract budget accommodation providers with the ‘green’ credentials. •An attempt to assess the carbon footprint of a national football tournament.•A case study of domestic travel of the English Premier League clubs.•Transportation accounts for 61% of the carbon footprint.•Reducing the number of air travel is a prime mitigation opportunity.•Hosting matches at ‘neutral’ stadia can halve the carbon footprint.
Food service provision imposes significant environmental and societal impacts. The contemporary customer is getting increasingly conscious about these impacts, which is often reflected in restaurant food choice. The catering industry should foresee this trend in consumer choice and architect it so that it becomes more responsible. This study employs a qualitative method for primary data collection and analysis to explore how various environmental (provenance and carbon footprint) and health (nutritional and calorific) characteristics of food displayed on restaurant menus affect customer choice in the UK. It finds that while presenting the carbon footprint information is generally viewed positively by consumers, managerial and policy reinforcement is necessary for it to become a determinant of consumer choice. Displaying food provenance, nutritional and calorific values is considered paramount and these food attributes should become conventional menu items. (C) 2017 The Authors.
•ICTs can negatively affect hotel guest experience.•Calm ICT design is introduced into hospitality discourse.•Application of calm ICT design in hotels is reviewed.•Implications for hotel management are discussed. There has recently been a call for revisiting the effect of ICT on guest experience in hotels. This is because the ICT solutions can act not only as enhancers of hotel guest experience, but also as its inhibitors. In response to this call, the notion of calm ICT design has been introduced. Calm ICT design describes the ICT solutions that are used only when and if required, thus not calling user’s attention at all times. Although this concept is highly relevant to the hospitality industry, it has never been systematically considered within. This paper conceptualizes calm ICT design for application in the hospitality context. To this end, it analyzes the ICT solutions that are currently employed by hospitality businesses from the calm ICT design perspective; discusses how the opportunities offered by calm ICT design can be better capitalized upon by hospitality managers; and outlines directions for future research.
Tourism transportation contributes substantially to the global carbon footprint. This contribution is predicted to enlarge, especially in ‘emerging’ tourism markets, and hence urgent carbon mitigation is necessary. Effective mitigation is determined by reliable carbon footprint assessments whose number is however limited, particularly for developing countries with growing tourism. This study applied the life cycle assessment (LCA) based method to appraise the carbon significance of various transport modes between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the key itinerary for travel with leisure and tourism purposes by local residents and overseas visitors in Brazil. Given the envisaged rise in biofuel use in the Brazilian transportation sector, this study is unique in that it evaluated the carbon reduction potential offered by biofuel. The study demonstrated that overland public transport represents the most carbon-efficient mode of local transportation. It further highlighted the crucial role of biofuel in minimising the carbon intensity of transportation between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Policy-making and managerial recommendations were put forward to facilitate more climate-benign local transportation practices. •We apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) based method to estimate the carbon footprint of local visitor transport in Brazil.•We account for the mitigation potential offered by biofuel.•We find overland transport to be most climate-benign.•We demonstrate substantial carbon savings achieved via application of biofuel.•Managerial and policy-making recommendations for more carbon efficient local transport practices in Brazil are devised.
This is a follow-up to the study 'A mindful shift: an opportunity for mindfulness-driven tourism in a post-pandemic world', which was published in Tourism Geographies. The original paper advocated that, during a major crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the focus could be put on (more) mindful tourists as a driver of mindful change for the global tourism industry. In this follow-up study, we discuss the mindfulness-based approaches as feasible, low-cost solutions to reduce negative psychological effects in many tourism settings as well as a strategy to ensure the tourism industry's pro-longed sustainability during and after the pandemic. We start with the underlying mechanism of mindfulness practices as a technique to cope with the pandemic and, from a managerial standpoint, discuss the different roles of mindfulness within the envisioned courses of tourism development in a post-COVID-19 future.
Groundwater is one of the most important environmental resources and its use continuously rises globally for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supply purposes. Because of its importance, more knowledge about the volume of usable groundwater is necessary to satisfy the global demand. Due to the challenges in quantifying the volume of available global groundwater, studies which aim to assess its magnitude are limited in number. They are further restricted in scope and depth of analysis as, in most cases, they do not explain how the estimates of global groundwater resources have been obtained, what methods have been used to generate the figures and what levels of uncertainty exist. This article reviews the estimates of global groundwater resources. It finds that the level of uncertainty attached to existing numbers often exceeds 100 % and strives to establish the reasons for discrepancy. The outcome of this study outlines the need for a new agenda in water research with a more pronounced focus on groundwater. This new research agenda should aim at enhancing the quality and quantity of data provision on local and regional groundwater stocks and flows. This knowledge enhancement can serve as a basis to improve policy-making on groundwater resources globally. Research-informed policies will facilitate more effective groundwater management practices to ensure a more rapid progress of the global water sector towards the goal of sustainability.
Hospitality food waste represents a significant societal challenge. It is however under-researched with most studies approaching the issue from the perspective of sustainable agriculture and environmental, rather than hospitality, management. Given the specificity of hospitality operations, this is a major shortcoming which hampers understanding of the detenninants of effective mitigatio paper provides a critical, analytical account of the literature on hospitality food waste made from the viewpoint of hospitality managers. It reviews the challenges in classifying, quantifying and characterising hospitality food waste, discusses the opportunities and obstacles to its mitigation and, drawing on good business practice examples, derives a framework for managing food waste across the different areas of hospitality operations. The framework is underpinned by such determinants of effective mitigation as: core in-house competencies; training needs; initial investment costs; and potential monetary savings. The feasibility of its broader adoption by managers across the sector is discussed.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected how households buy, prepare and consume food, with resultant impacts on food waste generated. These impacts have not yet been properly understood, especially in the context of developing countries. Better understanding of the impacts of COVID-19 on food management behavior of households can aid in the design of policy interventions to reduce the amounts of wasted food during disastrous events. This becomes particularly important in light of the likely pro-longed effect held by the pandemic on household lifestyles in the future. This study has segmented households in Turkey, a rapidly emerging economy, on the basis of the effects imposed by COVID-19 on their food management behavior. A two-step clustering analysis has been conducted on the factor scores of planned shopping and cooking skills. Three segments were identified: careless planners and cooks, resourceful planners and cooks and careless planners and resourceful cooks. The segments were further described using health orientation, price consciousness, environmental concern, food waste disposal routines and self-perception of the amount of food waste variables. The first and the smallest segment, careless planners and cooks, is characterized by low levels of planned shopping and cooking skills, with resultant significant wastage. The largest segment of resourceful planners and cooks demonstrates excellent planned shopping and cooking skills, with resultant small wastage. The segment of careless planners and resourceful cooks showcases excellent cooking skills, but poor skills of planned shopping. The study provides first known evidence to understand how Turkish households differ on the grounds of their food management behavior in the time of the pandemic, thus laying a foundation for future segmentation studies in Turkey and beyond. •511 households in Turkey are segmented in line with their food management behavior during COVID-19.•Three segments are identified on the basis of planned shopping and cooking skills levels.•Turkish households have wasted less food during COVID-19.•Improved cooking skills contributed significantly to food waste reduction.
Tourism is an activity that anyone can take part in, regardless of their age, gender, nationality or level of income. This makes tourism one of the most rapidly developing industries in the world. Despite the number of benefits which tourism produces, it also has significant negative impacts on the environment. To minimise the scope of these negative impacts, joint efforts combining tourism and environmental management are called for. This book examines the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method and lifecycle thinking as a tool to generate more accurate and holistic appraisals of the environmental impacts of tourism. Looking at the issue of sustainability of tourism operations, the book evaluates how it can be improved. It highlights the potential of LCA to affect tourist behaviour and contribute to tourism policy-making and managerial practice. This book provides a valuable resource for undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers interested in sustainable tourism, sustainable development and environmental impact assessment.
The recently emerged concept of the blockchain technology (BCT) can disrupt the traditional realm of tourism and hospitality operations. While some research has looked into the implications of BCT for tourism management and marketing, no studies have explicitly considered the scope of its application in the context of hospitality operations management. This is arguably a major omission as available evidence points at the foremost potential of BCT to affect the nature of hospitality business. This study partially plugs this knowledge gap and, by reviewing examples of existing applications of BCT in various economic sectors and across different consumption markets, evaluates its potential for future integration into hospitality operations management. The framework of prospective use of BCT in the hospitality industry alongside the related organisational, institutional and technological challenges that need to be overcome for its wider industrial adoption are outlined.
Traditional foodstuffs play an important role in household food security. No research has, however, attempted to examine traditional foodstuffs in light of disasters and crises. Such research can provide a useful outlook on how traditional foodstuffs can aid households in a situation of disrupted food supply. This outlook becomes relevant in view of future disastrous events that can undermine household food security, especially in poor disadvantaged communities. This study examined the role of traditional foodstuffs during a major crisis. The study adopted an ethnographic perspective and the method of semi-structured household interviews to explore how traditional foodstuffs were used by communities in the city of Mosul, Iraq, under the ISIS administration and during the liberation war (2016-2017). The study showcased the critical role of traditional foodstuffs in survival of local households. It highlighted the importance of cross-generational knowledge of traditional foodstuffs in community preparedness for disasters and crises. The study proposed to integrate traditional foodstuffs into governmental strategies on household food security in Iraq, and beyond. It suggested including traditional foodstuffs in the humanitarian food supply chains in the regions prone to disasters and crises. Future research should examine the prerequisites for such inclusion, especially from the viewpoint of societal and political acceptance of traditional foodstuffs and methods of their production.
Catering is a cornerstone of events. Motivating catering staff, who can be either permanent or "hourly paid" employees, represents an important managerial challenge, especially in the UK, where controversial zero hours contracts (ZHCs) prevail within the events industry. This article reports a representative case study of a London-based event catering company that relies upon ZHCs. In pursuit of corporate social responsibility (CSR) goals, directed at enhancing the well-being of employees and improving corporate image, the company considers replacing ZHCs with alternative contracts, but wishes to examine the potential impact of this intervention first. To aid in decision making, 18 in-depth, semistructured interviews are conducted with company's managers and employees to examine the drivers of staff motivation and the perceived effect of ZHCs. The study finds that interpersonal relationships, remuneration rates, and perceived fairness of managerial treatment drive staff motivation in event catering. The major positive (flexibility and no mutual obligation) and negative (job insecurity and instable income) implications of ZHCs are well understood by employees. The internal (personal finances, family status, and individual lifestyles) and environmental (current job market situation and managerial abilities) circumstances determine the level of preparedness and the degree of willingness of event catering staff to accept ZHCs. Implications for policy making, professional practice, and future research are discussed.
Numerous sodo-demographic and psychographic factors affect food waste behavior of consumers at home and away. Although the effect of religiosity has been recognized, it remains only marginally investigated, especially in the context of food consumption outside the home. Previous quantitative studies have only established positive correlation between religiosity and food waste reduction intentions in households. This paper provides a qualitative perspective on the role of religiosity in food waste behavior at home and away by undertaking in-depth semi-structured interviews with Islam followers (n = 22) and religious leaders (n = 4). Unlike previous studies, the paper demonstrates limited association between religiosity and wasteless behavior. Consumers do not always associate wasted food with a sinful act. Social and cultural norms outweigh the positive effect of religious values and prompt wasteful behavior, especially when eating out. The paper argues that religious leaders should play a more proactive role in encouraging wasteless behavior at home and away.
This study discusses the potential for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to be utilized for the environmental assessment of tourism accommodation facilities, and their contribution to global carbon footprint. To demonstrate the viability of employing LCA in the hotel sector, its simplified derivative, Life Cycle Energy Analysis (LCEA), is applied to two tourism accommodation facilities in Poole, Dorset (UK) to quantify their CO2 emissions. The results indicate that the reviewed hotels are less energy and carbon-intense than the tourism accommodation establishments reported in the literature. This may indirectly imply the continuous progress of hotel's energy efficiency over time. The implications of the current energy use practices in the reviewed hotels are discussed and suggestions are made on how to further improve the energy performance and therefore cut the carbon footprint. Recommendations for hotel management and policy-making are developed to reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the hotel industry. A method for energy and carbon footprint analysis of outsourced laundries and breakfast services is also proposed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Although research on food waste and its management in foodservices is gradually evolving in developed countries, it remains limited in transitional economies. This holds true for many EU-28 member states located in East-Central Europe, where no studies have assessed to date the magnitude of food waste occurring in food-services, identified its key drivers and established the scope for minimisation. By interviewing 18 managers of foodservice businesses in a historical, mid-sized, city of Veszprem, this paper explores the phenomenon of food waste in the foodservice sector of Hungary, an EU-28 economy in transition. It provides a first benchmark of food waste generation in Hungarian foodservices. It also identifies institutional, contextual, locational, organisational and cultural factors that impede food waste prevention and mitigation. Drawing on international experience and best practices in food waste management, recommendations are made on how these factors should be addressed.
Purpose This paper aims to highlight the need to better understand the determinants of adopting (more) collaborative, integrated approaches in strategic destination management plans and operational business procedures which is to improve destination and business resilience towards the growing frequency, increasing number and accelerating impacts of natural disasters around the world. Design/methodology/approach The paper reviews literature on the topic of tourism planning, development and management in light of natural disasters. Findings The paper pinpoints a number of factors that hamper the adoption of a (better) integrated and (more) collaborative framework of disaster and destination management among tourism stakeholders. It further proposes how these factors can at least partially be addressed and highlights the role of scholarly research in this endeavour. Originality/value The paper highlights the determinants of adopting more integrated and collaborative approaches to managing natural disasters by individual tourism businesses and entire tourist destinations and proposes how these can be harnessed.
Determining the resource intensity and environmental impacts of tourist food consumption is important for the design of sustainable development strategies for tourist destinations. Yet, studies aiming to accurately quantify the environmental repercussions of tourist food consumption for specific destinations are rare and take limited account of temporal changes in food consumption patterns among tourists. This study contributes to knowledge by calculating the impact of temporal changes in tourist food consumption on arable land requirements (ALR) in a popular tourist destination of Lhasa, Tibet. It finds that tourist food consumption per meal has increased by 8% within the period of 2013-15 which translates into over 50% increase in ALR. The study further pinpoints that 84% of the ALR increase is attributed to the animal-based food consumption of tourist. Lastly, the study shows that, in 2015, nearly 62% of the arable land area of the Lhasa region was required to meet the growing tourist demand for food.
The growing magnitude of restaurant food waste undermines the environmental sustainability of the global sector of food service provision. The challenge of restaurant food waste is of particular concern for transitional and developing economies where food consumption out of home is becoming increasingly popular. In these markets, a large share of restaurant food waste comes from customer plates, which highlights changes to consumer behaviour as an important mitigation opportunity. Little is however known about how these behavioural changes can be activated and subsequently reinforced. This study explores the prerequisites of consumer involvement in mitigating restaurant food waste in Poland, a transitional economy in East-Central Europe. It tests the role of such prerequisites of pro-environmental consumer behaviour as public environmental knowledge, environmental concern, anticipated regret and pro-environmental behaviour at home in shaping positive customer attitudes towards the need to mitigate restaurant food waste with a subsequent trigger of behavioural intentions to engage in mitigation. The study offers policy and management recommendations on how these behavioural intentions can be reinforced. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The EU-28’s food service sector generates excessive amounts of food waste. This notwithstanding, no comparative, cross-national research has ever been undertaken to understand how food waste is managed in restaurants across the EU-28. This study contributes to knowledge by presenting a first attempt to conduct a comparative analysis of restaurant food waste management practices in the UK and the Netherlands. It finds that although restaurateurs in both countries use demand forecasting as a prime approach to prevent food waste, forecasting does not always work. When this happens, food waste management programmes such as repurposing excess foodstuffs, redistribution of surplus food and consumer choice architecture are mostly considered commercially unviable. To improve the effectiveness of food waste management in the food service sectors of the UK and the Netherlands it is necessary to ensure that food waste mitigation becomes a corporate target for restaurateurs and the progress towards its achievement is regularly monitored by top management. This corporate commitment should be facilitated by national policy-makers, but also by EU regulators, by raising consumer awareness of food waste, incentivising surplus food redistribution and enabling food waste recycling. •Examines approaches to managing food waste in full service restaurants. Compares the food consumption markets of the UK and the Netherlands.•Demand forecasting, staff meal preparation and passive disposal dominate in both markets.•Good practices in managing food waste are available but not widely used.•These are the re-purpose of surplus ingredients, on-site food waste recycling, portion control and food-to-go boxes.•Determinants of (broader) cross-national application of these good practices are discussed.
The grocery retail sector produces substantial amounts of food waste. Despite the growing public recognition of its negative socio-economic and environmental implications, the issue of food waste in supermarkets has been under-researched. In addition to a small number of studies, the focus has been on the quantification and characterisation of food waste streams in grocery retail. Little attention has been drawn to managerial attitudes and approaches to food waste mitigation. Managerial research is critical to aid in understanding how the issue of food waste is tackled on the ground. This paper plugs this knowledge gap by investigating how managers of major UK grocery retailers address the problem of food waste in their day-to-day operations. It adopts content analysis of corporate materials and a qualitative method of primary data collection and analysis to explore managerial attitudes and approaches to food waste mitigation in supermarkets of the South East Dorset conurbation (UK). The study demonstrates that, although the problem of food waste is recognised by UK grocery retailers, it is not seen as being of critical importance. In mitigation terms, while food waste recycling and price reductions are mainstream, food donations are ad-hoc and largely occur at managerial discretion. Poor consumer awareness, imperfect regulation, inflexible corporate polices and limited control over suppliers hamper more active involvement in food waste mitigation. Based on findings, policy-making and managerial recommendations on how to optimise food waste management practices in the UK grocery retail sector are revealed. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
•COVID-19 will increase food and plastic waste in hospitality operations.•Alternative food networks (AFNs) can aid in food waste prevention and mitigation.•Short food supply chains (SFSCs) can aid in food waste management.•Business coopetition is necessary to implement AFNs and SFSCs.•Organisational innovation and institutional support can aid in plastic waste mitigation. COVID-19 has imposed significant detrimental effects on the global hospitality sector. These effects have primarily been considered from the socio-economic perspective, ignoring the implications of the pandemic for the environmental performance of hospitality services. By drawing upon emerging evidence from various academic and non-academic sources, this conceptual paper critically evaluates the implications of the preventative and protective measures adopted against COVID-19 for the generation of the hospitality sector's food and plastic waste. The implications are divided into direct and indirect and considered through the prism of temporality of their anticipated occurrence (immediate, short-term and medium-term perspective). The paper proposes potential strategies to aid in the management of these wastes in the hospitality sector in a post-pandemic world. To address the issue of food waste, the hospitality sector should be integrated into alternative food networks (AFNs) and short food supply chains (SFSCs). Business coopetition between hospitality enterprises and other actors of the food supply chain is necessary for the success of such integration. To address the issue of plastic waste, the hospitality sector should invest in ‘green’ innovation. This investment needs to be encouraged and supported by targeted policy interventions. The paper argues that these strategies are critical not only in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, but will also remain valid for the sustained development of the hospitality sector in light of future disastrous events, especially climate change. The paper discusses the institutional and organisational prerequisites for the effective implementation of these strategies and highlights the related research opportunities.
The COVID-19 pandemic has provided a unique opportunity to compare the carbon intensity of higher education delivered on- and off-campus. This is attributed to governmental lockdown orders that have forced Universities to close their campuses, ban business travel and move all teaching and learning activities online. This study represents the first known attempt to compare the carbon footprint of a mid-sized UK University produced during the COVID-19 lockdown (April-June 2020) against that generated within the respective time period in previous years. Although the overall carbon footprint of the University decreased by almost 30% during the lockdown, the carbon intensity of online teaching and learning was found to be substantial and almost equal to that of staff and student commute in the pre-lockdown period. The study contributed to an emerging academic discourse on the carbon (dis)benefits of different models of higher education provision in the UK and beyond. The study suggested that policy and management decisions on transferring education online should carefully consider the carbon implications of this transfer.
The disaster management principles should be integrated into the destination management plans to enhance resilience of tourist destinations to natural disasters. The success of such integration depends on the extent of tourism stakeholder collaboration, but this topic remains understudied, especially in the Caribbean. This paper evaluates tourism resilience in Grenada. It finds that local tourism stakeholders are well aware of the potential damage natural disasters can inflict on the destination but fail to develop effective measures to build destination-wide and organizational resilience. The paper proposes an action framework to aid tourism stakeholders in Grenada to more effectively plan for disasters.
The hospitality industry generates substantial amounts of food waste. Although the issue has been politically recognised, it remains under-researched. Studies are limited in number and restricted in sectoral and geographical coverage. They have attempted to quantify and characterise food waste in hospitality ventures while the managerial approaches to its reduction have not been scrutinised. The coffee shop sub-sector of the hospitality industry has been entirely excluded from analysis. This study examined food waste in UK coffee shops through the managerial lens. While food waste represents a significant challenge, the managerial approaches to its minimisation are conservative and focus on disposal, rather than prevention. Lack of governmental support, imperfect legislation, irresponsible consumer behaviour and restricted internal resources inhibit application of more advanced managerial approaches. To enhance the effectiveness of food waste management within the sub sector, targeted policy interventions designed to strengthen corporate commitments and facilitate pro-environmental changes in consumer behaviour are necessary.
This paper contributes to the on-going debate on how hospitality should be defined and what constitutes hospitality as a social and commercial phenomenon. The paper takes a conceptual approach, reviewing the literature relevant to hospitality and funeral care provision, and proposing a reclassification of hospitality. The paper reveals that funeral care holds a number of core attributes that have long been associated with (more) conventional hospitality services. The paper articulates these similarities and introduces the notion of 'last hospitality', which is conceptualised as the hospitality services provided by funeral directors to the deceased and their families and friends. The paper argues that 'last hospitality' alongside the related services of funeral directors should be subsumed into traditional notions of hospitality. The paper discusses the implications of this inclusion for hospitality research, theory and practice.
Many see the COVID-19 pandemic as a turning point for tourism, a chance to reflect on the pressing environmental and socio-economic concerns of the industry, and an opportunity to pinpoint a more desirable direction. However, for tourism to revive as a less impactful and more meaningful industry, more mindful consumers are needed to take factual benefits from the gravity of the current situation. Mindfulness as a practice of bringing a certain quality of attention to moment-by-moment experiences has become an important asset for individuals to cope with the problems of modern life. It is even seen as a significant driver of lifestyle change in Western societies, resulting in an increasing number of more conscious consumers and mindfulness-driven products and services. The COVID-19 pandemic is a wake-up call and opportunity for the tourism industry to embrace the mindfulness movement, trusting in its capacity to reflect on the current problems and to pave a new way forward towards more compassionate and meaningful tourism for both hosts and guests.
Tourism generates substantial carbon footprint with its air transport sector holding the largest share. Biofuel technology has been repeatedly trialled in aviation to minimise this carbon footprint. While biofuels can become mainstream aviation fuels in the near future, little is known about public knowledge on and perception of its use within the air transport sector. This signifies considerable knowledge gap as the level of public awareness of a new technology determines the speed of its societal acceptance and may affect its market success. This study explores the attitudes of UK tourists to the use of biofuels in aviation. It finds that while the public are generally aware of biofuel technology, public knowledge of its specific application in aviation alongside the carbon benefits this brings is limited. Future policy-making and managerial measures should aim at enhancing public understanding of biofuel technology Use in aviation in the UK. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In light of continuous growth of family tourism hotels should consider providing childcare to family guests. Very few hotels have however embraced this market opportunity and the determinants of childcare provision in hotels remain poorly understood. This paper contributes to knowledge by exploring the business feasibility of providing childcare in hotels. Semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, i.e. family guests (n = 20) and managers (n = 9), in UK hotels establish the numerous benefits of childcare provision. They also reveal such barriers of implementation as increased operational costs, lack of adequate staffing, children's safety considerations and seasonally of family tourism demand. To enhance feasibility of childcare provision, hotels should collaborate with each other, but also with local nurseries, to resolve the issues of fluctuated demand and staffing. Hotels should further consider extending childcare provision to their own employees and local residents. Policy interventions can facilitate this by offering dedicated financial and training support.
Sporting mega-events generate substantial carbon footprint where return transportation of event participants and visitors between the source and host countries makes the largest contribution. To enhance environmental sustainability of sporting mega-events, it is paramount to select a host country with the lowest carbon footprint from international transportation without compromising the magnitude of major visitor flows. The Facility Location Problem (FLP) model represents an established tool employed in the business environment to determine the best location for the installation of facilities to provide for existing or envisaged consumer demand. The model has proven its feasibility in a number of economic sectors, but rarely been applied in tourism, and never with sustainability management and planning purposes. This study contributes to knowledge by demonstrating the applicability of the FLP model when planning for sporting mega-events. The model enables selection of a host country with better climate credentials by quantifying the magnitude of international transportation of the event participants alongside the associated carbon footprint. Application of the FLP model to the FIFA World Cups shows that, to facilitate the progress of these mega-events towards sustainability, a decision on a host country should be made after the team qualification round, rather than before, as it currently stands. The model can then identify prospective hosts with the lowest carbon footprint from international transportation. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Little is known about sustainable tourism transformations in post-Soviet countries. This particularly concerns the former Soviet Union Republics where no research has attempted to assess how/if the principles of sustainability have been embedded into destination management plans and policies (DMPPs). This study has critically evaluated the scope for integration of sustainable tourism in DMPPs in Kazakhstan, a former post-Soviet country in Central Asia. By interviewing key tourism stakeholders, the study has shown limited embracement of the principles of sustainability. The lack of-(1) an understanding of the sustainability concept by the national government, destination managers and industry practitioners; (2) subject-specific expertise in managing sustainable tourism projects; (3) community engagement in sustainable tourism planning and development; and (4) stakeholder collaboration-has been identified as the prime reason. A multi-level, multi-stakeholder action framework is proposed to aid the tourism industry of Kazakhstan in its advancement towards the sustainable (tourism) development goal.
Numerous studies have examined disasters and crises affecting the tourism industry but very few have explicitly explored public opinion regarding a health-related crisis alongside a policy response to its occurrence. The COVID-19 pandemic with its rapid evolution and lasting detrimental implications has provided a unique opportunity to fill this knowledge gap. This study conducts a systematic content analysis of an online petition platform to explore public opinion on COVID-19 in the tourism context and the actions undertaken by the national government of China. The results demonstrate that trip cancellations and postponements represent the prime area of tourist concern, closely related to the issue of refunds. Mounting dissatisfaction with the service provided is triggered by ineffective communication about how to cancel and process refunds, and generates numerous complaints. However, the study finds that the policy action does not always regard tourist concerns, demands, and interests, because it primarily revolves around the problem of financial losses and focuses on the rapid economic rebound of the national tourism industry. The study recommends the need for policy instruments to understand and subsequently integrate public concerns in the design of interventions for crisis recovery.
The restaurant sector imposes substantial impacts on the environment and society. A large share of the sector's negative impacts is attributed to irresponsible consumer choice. To enhance sustainability of food service provision, consumer choice ought to be architected to make it more responsible. Restaurant menu can be (re-)designed to inform customers about the environmental and societal implications of their choice and thus 'nudge' selection of more benign food options. This study explores managerial opinions on the role of menu design in shaping more responsible consumer choice. It finds that while restaurateurs acknowledge rising customer awareness about the ramifications of their food choice on personal health and the environment, they are sceptical about the use of menu design as a means to positively affect consumer choice. The lack of internal resources to implement and maintain the required menu changes, inconstant customer demand, organisational and operational complexities represent the key barriers. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The growing importance of Airbnb calls for better understanding of the determinants of its purchase intentions. This becomes particularly relevant in the context of emerging markets, where Airbnb is rapidly evolving. This paper contributed to knowledge by exploring the (de)motivation factors in choosing Airbnb in Vietnam, a growing economy in South-East Asia. An online quantitative survey of current and prospective Airbnb users revealed perceived value and functional aspects of rented properties as the prime motivators, while safety considerations were identified as a key demotivator. Contrasting findings of previous research conducted in the ‘western’ contexts, user experience and social benefits did not exert significant effect on purchase intentions of Vietnamese consumers. In addition to reinforcing theoretical understanding of the core (de)motivating factors in purchase intentions of Airbnb services, this study demonstrated the need for Airbnb industry practitioners to comprehend the variations in consumer preferences that exist across the different consumption markets. •Studies purchase intentions of Airbnb in Vietnam.•Identifies perceived value and functional attributes of Airbnb properties as a key motivator.•Reveals limited appeal of user experience and social benefits.•Establishes safety concerns as a major demotivator.•Highlights differences in purchase intentions of ‘western’ and Vietnamese customers.
•In this study we examine the magnitudes of ‘indirect’ GHG emissions in tourism.•A new, improved method is developed to estimate the ‘indirect’ carbon requirements from a package holiday tour.•We find the ‘indirect’ GHG emissions from a package holiday tour to equate up to 30% of the total.•The primary ‘indirect’ carbon footprint stems from transport to the destination. Tourism is a noticeable contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Existing estimates of tourism’s carbon footprint are however incomplete as they fail to holistically assess the additional, ‘indirect’ carbon requirements. These arise from the non-use phases of a tourism product or service life cycle and can be further magnified by supply chain industries. Under-development of methods for carbon impact assessment in tourism is the primary reason for the omission of ‘indirect’ GHG emissions. This study develops a new approach for comprehensive appraisal of GHG emissions which incorporates and advances the methodological advantages of existing assessment techniques. It tests the applicability of this approach in tourism by conducting a holistic analysis of a standard holiday package to Portugal, based on the British tourism market. The new approach demonstrates the significance of the ‘indirect’ GHG emissions in the total carbon footprint from the holiday package, thus emphasising the necessity for more comprehensive future assessments.
The challenge of food waste in the foodservice sector of China is under-examined. This paper advances knowledge by exploring the food waste management practices adopted in a sample of Shanghai full-service restaurants. Through 22 in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior managers it establishes the significance of the food waste challenge and identifies Chinese food consumption habits as a major cause. Despite the pronounced role of consumers in food waste generation, restaurateurs largely fail to engage them in mitigation. To mitigate food waste occurring on customer plates, changes to the Chinese dining culture should be facilitated via nation-wide campaigns aiming to raise public awareness of food waste when eating out. The government of China should lead on the design of such campaigns, ideally involving celebrities for better consumer appeal and academics for the assessment of their effectiveness. The national government should also provide free-to-attend specialist training to restaurant managers and staff on how to mitigate food waste occurring in kitchens. •Explores food waste management in a sample of full-service restaurants in Shanghai.•Establishes the significant magnitude of food waste generation.•Pinpoints the Chinese dining culture as a major cause.•Highlights the mostly passive nature of existing mitigation approaches.•Elaborates on the interventions required for more effective mitigation.
Tourism industry practitioners should understand the controversial nature of the information and communication technology (ICT) proliferation to ensure that ICT solutions do not consume too much of consumer attention, thus jeopardising enjoyment of tourism services. The concept of calm technology or calm design serves this purpose. Calm design suggests that technology should quietly recede in the background and come into play with users when and if required, thus delivering and/or enhancing a desired consumer experience. Although this concept is of relevance to e-tourism, it has never been considered within. This is where this paper contributes to knowledge as, for the first time, it introduces calm design into the e-tourism realm and critically evaluates the determinants of its broader adoption within the tourism industry. It places calm design in the e-tourism context, discusses its implications for customer service management, supply chain management and destination management, and discloses opportunities for future research.
Luxury hotels generate substantial carbon footprint and scholarly research is urgently required to better understand how it could be effectively mitigated. This study adopts a method of life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) to assess the energy and carbon performance of six luxury, five star, hotels located in Iran. The results of the energy and carbon assessment of luxury hotels in Iran are compared against the energy and carbon values reported in past hotel research. This current study finds that luxury hotels in Iran are up to 3–4 times more energy- and 7 times more carbon-intense than similar hotels examined in past research. Low cost of fossil fuels, international trade sanctions and the lack of governmental and corporate energy conservation targets discourage Iranian hoteliers from carbon footprint mitigation. To counteract poor energy and carbon efficiency of luxury hotels in Iran, it is important to relax economic sanctions, develop alternative energy sources, refine corporate energy conservation targets, regularly benchmark hotel energy performance and enable exchange of good practices amongst Iranian hoteliers.
National culture determines consumer attitudes and behaviour. While this holds true for tourism consumption, little research has sought to better understand the effect of culture on tourist destination choice. The geographical scope of analysis has also been restricted. This study employs the Hofstede's cultural dimensions framework to conduct an exploratory, qualitative evaluation of the influence of tourist cultural background on destination choice. It focuses on the UK and Venezuela, the two countries with significant cultural differences and forecast growth in outbound tourism. The study shows the distinct role of culture in tourist preferences for destination choice and structure of travel groups. The effect of culture is also recorded in how tourists research destinations prior to visit and perceive travel risks, thus ultimately influencing their motivation to travel. Recommendations are developed on how to integrate knowledge on cultural background of tourists into tourism management and policy-making practices.
Air travel is forecast to grow globally at around 5% per annum over 30 years, in direct conflict with targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by between 60% and 80% by 2050. Many authors identify individual behavioral change, with consumers choosing fewer flights, as a contributor to reducing growth. An increasing number of studies examine knowledge about climate change and how this influences decisions to take holidays by air, although these have focused on tourists from developed countries where aviation growth is slowing, whereas future high growth will come from emerging economies. This article explores attitudes to flying from one emerging economy, Poland. A survey of Polish nationals conducted in Cracow in 2010 revealed concern over climate change although knowledge of its causes was poor. Analysis, using a social representations perspective, showed significant societal structures embed air travel as the norm and identified both internal and external barriers to behavioral change.
This paper explores the use of mobile technology to enable lift-share in the leisure travel domain of camping tourism. Here mobile devices can connect a user community on the move undertaking non-routine trips and reveal temporal and spatial connections suggesting lift-share opportunities. Data were derived from a questionnaire survey (n = 339) administered at campsites in a rural tourism destination in Dorset, UK. Analysis focuses on the role of trust, sense of community and existing lift-share practices in willingness to engage in lift-share and other forms of share use of private vehicles using a mobile app. The findings indicate that previous experience of lift-share and sense of community both have a small effect, however, trust had no effect on the desire to lift-share. Analysis indicates trust is generated through community participation rather than being a precursor to taking part. Lift-share app developers and providers need to design strategies which build trust in the system using peer-to-peer ratings, where appropriate, and establishing user etiquette through user champions and visualising successful exchanges.
•A novel approach to estimating food waste in foodservice operations.•A case study of Chinese cuisine restaurants in Bournemouth, United Kingdom.•A Chinese cuisine restaurant wastes up to 0.138 kg of food per guest.•In total, this translates to almost 15 tonnes of wasted food per business per year.•Wastage is driven by UK market- and Chinese cuisine-specific factors. The foodservice sector generates excessive amounts of food waste. This wastage remains however understudied, especially in the context of specific foodservice sub-sectors catering for a large number of consumers. This holds true for ethnic food restaurants holding a noticeable share of the global out-of-home food consumption market. This paper contributed to knowledge with an exploratory study of food waste and its management in Chinese cuisine restaurants operating in the UK. By applying a novel approach to estimating food waste in foodservice operations, it demonstrated the magnitude, established the drivers and revealed managerial approaches to food waste mitigation. The study showcased the role of contextual, UK market-specific, and cultural, ethnic cuisine-related, factors in food waste generation and its management. Drawing upon perspectives of foodservice operators, the study outlined the key barriers to more effective mitigation of food waste and proposed how these could be at least partially overcome in the future.
Educational institutions play an important societal role by shaping sustainability outlook of young consumers. No research has however been undertaken on such major sustainability challenge as food waste in foodservice provided by institutions of early childhood education, such as nurseries and kindergartens. This hampers an understanding of the opportunities for food waste prevention in this important institutional context of foodservice provision. This study employs sequential mixed methods to collect data on food waste and its management in foodservice provided by 40 public and private kindergartens in Russia. The study finds that, compared to public kindergartens, private kindergartens waste substantially less food and manage food waste more effectively. Such factors as: (1) smaller size; (2) closer contacts with parents and children; (3) more freedom in food procurement; (4) better operational flexibility; and (5) stricter control procedures over food preparation in the kitchen minimize food waste occurrence in private kindergartens. The study offers first benchmarks of food waste generated in foodservice provision in kindergartens which can be used for a comparative analysis in future research on food waste and its management in educational institutions. The study identifies ‘best practices’ in managing food waste in kindergartens and discusses the theoretical foundations which can justify broader application of these practices in institutions of early childhood education in Russia and beyond. •Most food waste in kindergartens occurs on children's plates.•Public kindergartens waste more food than private kindergartens.•Private kindergartens waste less food than public kindergartens due to operational flexibility and stricter control.•Parents and kindergartens should work together to raise children's awareness of food waste.
Restaurant food waste represents a significant societal challenge in transitional economies where frequency of dining out is rising. The problem of restaurant food waste in this context is however under-researched which hampers understanding of its causes and effects. This paper contributes to knowledge with a case study of food waste management in restaurants of Plovdiv in Bulgaria, a transitional economy in South-Eastern Europe. Through the lens of qualitative research, it establishes the causes of restaurant food waste and explores managerial approaches to mitigation. The study highlights the crucial role of targeted governmental support in more effective management of restaurant food waste. The government should train restaurateurs on how to quantify and characterise major food waste streams. It should further provide reliable services of municipal waste collection to facilitate on-site food separation and recycling. Lastly, public awareness campaigns should be developed to better engage customers in restaurant food waste minimisation. •Explores the challenge of restaurant food waste in South-Eastern Europe.•Reports on a case study of a sample of restaurants in Plovdiv, Bulgaria.•Identifies major drivers of restaurant food waste and reveals managerial approaches to its mitigation.•Discloses the determinants of more effective management of restaurant food waste.•Elaborates upon required changes to policies and consumer mindsets.
Organisational learning is critical for building disaster-resilient tourism businesses. Limited research has examined the mechanisms of organisational learning in tourism enterprises operating in disaster-prone destinations. The COVID-19 pandemic provides an opportunity to investigate how past disasters have reinforced organisational resilience of tourism businesses. This paper evaluates the effect of past disasters on organisational learning of tourism businesses in Bali. It finds that limited human and social capital restricts their organisational learning, exposing vulnerability of the Balinese tourism industry to future disastrous events. Stakeholder capacity building exercises are required to enhance disaster resilience of tourism businesses and their host destination.
Past research on food waste in foodservices has focused on restaurants in general and failed to examine how/if the ownership model of a restaurant business correlates with the approaches to food waste management adopted in-house. This study employs the qualitative research methods to explore how the challenge of food waste is managed in (inter)national chain-affiliated and (local) independent restaurants. The study finds that chainaffiliated businesses routinely measure food waste and have developed consistent measures to prevent and mitigate its occurrence. In contrast, independent restaurants, particularly those specializing in ethnic cuisine, take no measurements of food waste and manage it on an ad-hoc basis. (Inter)national strategies on food waste prevention and mitigation in restaurants should therefore focus on independent foodservice operators as this is where the largest reduction potential rests. This study offers preliminary insights on the role of various stakeholders within the broader food system whose engagement is critical for effective food waste prevention and mitigation in restaurants.
Tourist motivation, as a core of travel behavior, significantly influences consumer intentions and has attracted academic attention for decades. A plethora of studies analyse sets of internal and external motivators, while methodologies that exclusively focus on a single factor, such as age, that can sometimes have a determining influence in multi-attraction destinations, are less prevalent. This study introduces a fuzzy logic approach to develop a new model for analysing the internal motivations of different-aged consumers in multi-attraction urban destinations. Fuzzy models, as a mathematical means of representing vagueness and imprecise information, have the capability of recognizing, representing, manipulating, interpreting, and utilizing data and information, which typically for urban tourist motivations, are vague and lack certainty. This research tests the model in a real-life setting, using the example of Novi Sad, a mid-sized European city, which is typical of many similar cities who are attempting to develop sustainable tourism by attracting older tourists. The new model shows how tourist motivations for multi-attraction destinations are affected by age, through a specially developed m-file for MATLAB, so that it can be applied and tested in other tourism contexts. Theoretical and practical implications for sustainable destination management and marketing are described.