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Gawer, A. (2021). Online platforms: Societal implications of the new dominant business model of the Digital Economy. White paper, Digital Berlin initiative on “Governing Work in the Digital Age”, Hertie School.
Online Platforms: Economic and Societal Effects
Report for the European Parliament
Online platforms such as Google, Amazon, and Facebook play an increasingly central role in the economy and society, and have triggered a public debate on online platforms' economic dominance and patterns of pervasive data collection. This study presents an analytical synthesis of the literature, to assess the effects of online platforms on the economy and society. The report provides evidence of positive impact, and documents a set of important issues not fully addressed by existing European Union regulation and enforcement. The consensus is that there is a need to strengthen the current law enforcement and regulation of the platform economy. This report welcomes the proposed Digital Markets and Digital Services Acts, and offers a series of policy options for competition and innovation, working conditions and labour markets, consumer and societal risks, and environmental sustainability.
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Online Platforms and the Digital Single Market
Published by the authority of the House of Lords.
Online platforms, which comprise a wide range of software-based technologies, from search engines and social networks to price comparison websites and collaborative economy platforms, are drivers of growth, innovation and competition. They enable businesses and consumers to make the most of the opportunities created by the digital economy. Supported by the emergence of mobile devices and pervasive wireless connectivity, online platforms have transformed how we live, interact and transact. In doing so they have disrupted existing sectors of the economy and challenged regulatory frameworks.
The Rise of the Platform Enterprise
A global survey.
Enterprises that leverage the power of platform business models have grown dramatically in size and scale over the past decade. No longer the sole domain of social media, travel, books or music, platform business models have made inroads into transportation, banking and even healthcare and energy. Platforms are now active in North America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. Some platforms are household names such as Amazon, Apple, Google and Alibaba. Others have emerged more recently or hail from parts of the world that get less attention such as Rakuten (Japan), Delivery Hero (Germany), Naspers (South Africa), Flipkart (India) or Javago (Nigeria). Platform ecosystems are gaining ground through the digitalization of products, services and businesses processes and in the process are reshaping the global landscape.
Online Platforms: Contrasting Perceptions of European Stakeholders
A qualitative analysis of the European Commission’s public consultation on the regulatory environment for platforms.
This report analyses the answers to 8 open questions in the European Commission’s public consultation on platforms. Themes included the definition of platforms, platforms’ treatment of suppliers and customers, constraints platforms face when expanding their business in the EU, and their handling of consumer data.