The corrosion of wire and arc additively manufactured submarine steel

The manufacture and repair of submarine steel structures by additive manufacture is becoming increasingly close to a commercial reality.

Application deadline

Funding source

University of Surrey

Funding information

Fees and stipend all met – a stipend of £20,000 is offered per annum.


One area requiring further research is the corrosion behaviour of the additively manufactured steel, as there has been little work exploring this aspect of in-service performance. The challenge is especially acute for wire/arc processes which are less mature but are key to the fabrication and repair of medium-scale and large-scale structures. In addition, it is also likely that the porosity and microstructural variability are potentially more severe for these processes compared to the more mature laser/powder processes.

This three-year research programme is supported by [dstl] and the EPSRC and has an enhanced stipend of £20,000 per annum. It will explore a low-carbon medium-alloy submarine steel deposited by wire/arc deposition. The additively manufactured material will be benchmarked against a standard wrought material of the same nominal composition. The experimental programme will make use of bespoke flux-cored ‘welding’ consumables. Such flux-cored wire consumables offer the potential for depositing steel of any reasonable composition. In this research programme they are especially appropriate as they represent an upper bound in terms of the compositional variation of additively manufactured material. The programme will characterise the microstructure and its variability, determine the corrosion behaviour and the possibility of compositional-grading offering enhanced corrosion resistance.

Eligibility criteria

Applicants are expected to hold a first or upper-second class degree in a relevant discipline (or equivalent overseas qualification), or a lower second plus a good Masters degree (distinction normally required).

English language requirement - IELTS Academic: 6.5 or above (or equivalent) with 6.0 in each individual category.

How to apply

For enquiries please contact please contact Noelle Hartley ( 

Formal applications must be made through our programme page . 

References will be taken up at interview stage

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Application deadline

Contact details

Noelle Hartley
05 AB 03
Telephone: +44 (0)1483 683467

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