Biography

Areas of specialism

Wireless Communication; 5G and Next Generation Cellular Systems; Satellite Communication

My qualifications

2016
PhD Electronics Engineering
5G Innovation Centre, Institute for Communication Systems, University of Surrey, UK
2013
MSc (Distinction) Mobile and Satellite Communications
University of Surrey, UK
2011
BSc (Hons) Electrical and Electronics Engineering
University of Khartoum, Sudan
2019
Graduate Certificate Learning and Teaching
University of Surrey, UK

Affiliations and memberships

IEEE
Member of IEEE (MIEEE)
Higher Education Academy
Fellow of Higher Education Academy (FHEA)

Research projects

Member and Researcher of 5GIC Integrated Solution, 5GIC New Physical Layer work area, 5GIC MAC, RRM and RAN Management work area

Supervision

Postgraduate research supervision

My teaching

Courses I teach on

Postgraduate taught

Postgraduate taught

My publications

Publications

Mohamed A, Onireti O, Imran M, Imran A, Tafazolli R (2015) Correlation-based Adaptive Pilot Pattern in Control/Data Separation Architecture,2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) pp. 2233-2238
Most of the wireless systems such as the long term evolution (LTE) adopt a pilot symbol-aided channel estimation approach for data detection purposes. In this technique, some of the transmission resources are allocated to common pilot signals which constitute a significant overhead in current standards. This can be traced to the worst-case design approach adopted in these systems where the pilot spacing is chosen based on extreme condition assumptions. This suggests extending the set of the parameters that can be adaptively adjusted to include the pilot density. In this paper, we propose an adaptive pilot pattern scheme that depends on estimating the channel correlation. A new system architecture with a logical separation between control and data planes is considered and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is chosen as the access technique. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can provide a significant saving of the LTE pilot overhead with a marginal performance penalty.
Ijaz A, Zhang L, Grau M, Mohamed A, Vural S, Quddus AU, Imran MA, Foh CH, Tafazolli R (2016) Enabling Massive IoT in 5G and Beyond Systems: PHY Radio Frame Design Considerations,IEEE ACCESS 4 pp. 3322-3339 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Mohamed A, Onireti O, Qi Y, Imran A, Imran M, Tafazolli R (2014) Physical Layer Frame in Signalling-Data Separation Architecture: Overhead and Performance Evaluation,Proceedings of European Wireless 2014; 20th European Wireless Conference pp. 820-825
Conventional cellular systems are dimensioned according to a worst case scenario, and they are designed to ensure ubiquitous coverage with an always-present wireless channel irrespective of the spatial and temporal demand of service. A more energy conscious approach will require an adaptive system with a minimum amount of overhead that is available at all locations and all times but becomes functional only when needed. This approach suggests a new clean slate system architecture with a logical separation between the ability to establish availability of the network and the ability to provide functionality or service. Focusing on the physical layer frame of such an architecture, this paper discusses and formulates the overhead reduction that can be achieved in next generation cellular systems as compared with the Long Term Evolution (LTE). Considering channel estimation as a performance metric whilst conforming to time and frequency constraints of pilots spacing, we show that the overhead gain does not come at the expense of performance degradation.
Mohamed A, Onireti O, Hoseinitabatabaei S, Imran M, Imran A, Tafazolli R (2015) Mobility Prediction for Handover Management in Cellular Networks with Control/Data Separation,2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) pp. 3939-3944
In research community, a new radio access network architecture with a logical separation between control plane (CP) and data plane (DP) has been proposed for future cellular systems. It aims to overcome limitations of the conventional architecture by providing high data rate services under the umbrella of a coverage layer in a dual connection mode. This configuration could provide significant savings in signalling overhead. In particular, mobility robustness with minimal handover (HO) signalling is considered as one of the most promising benefits of this architecture. However, the DP mobility remains an issue that needs to be investigated. We consider predictive DP HO management as a solution that could minimise the out-of band signalling related to the HO procedure. Thus we propose a mobility prediction scheme based on Markov Chains. The developed model predicts the user?s trajectory in terms of a HO sequence in order to minimise the interruption time and the associated signalling when the HO is triggered. Depending on the prediction accuracy, numerical results show that the predictive HO management strategy could significantly reduce the signalling cost as compared with the conventional non-predictive mechanism.
Mohamed A, Lopez-Benitez M, Evans B (2014) Ka-band satellite terrestrial coexistence: A statistical modelling approach, Proceedings of 20th Ka and Broadband Communications, Navigations and Earth Observation Conference. Salerno, Italy Ka and Broadband Communications, Navigation and Earth Observation Conference
Cognitive radio (CR) is a potentially promising solution to the spectrum crunch problem that faces both future terrestrial and satellite systems. This paper discusses the applicability of CR in satellite/terrestrial spectrum sharing scenarios by modelling interference relations between these systems. It analyses the relative impact of several design parameters that can be tuned in order to reach a particular interference target. A realistic path loss model is considered and gain patterns of directional antennas are taken into account which are found to be efficient in minimising the interference. A generic model that is not restricted to particular systems is developed, and typical parameters are used to analyse the co-existence feasibility in a realistic sharing scenario. The results show that both satellite and terrestrial systems could potentially operate in the same band without degrading each other?s performance if appropriate considerations are taken into account and an appropriate design of the interfering system is carried out.
Imran M, Mohamed A, Tafazolli R (2014) Splitting the data and control functionality: Scalable deployment solution for 5G cellular networks, Proceedings of International Wireless Industry Consortium (IWPC) Workshop 2014 IWPC - The International Wireless Industry Consortium
Mohamed A, Onireti O, Imran MA, Imran A, Tafazolli R (2015) Control-Data Separation Architecture for Cellular Radio Access Networks: A Survey and Outlook,IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS AND TUTORIALS 18 (1) pp. 446-465 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Mohamed A, Onireti O, Imran M, Imran A, Tafazolli R (2016) Predictive and Core-network Efficient RRC Signalling for Active State Handover in RANs with Control/Data Separation,IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 16 (3) pp. 1423-1436 IEEE
Frequent handovers (HOs) in dense small cell deployment scenarios could lead to a dramatic increase in signalling overhead. This suggests a paradigm shift towards a signalling conscious cellular architecture with intelligent mobility management. In this direction, a futuristic radio access network with a logical separation between control and data planes has been proposed in research community. It aims to overcome limitations of the conventional architecture by providing high data rate services under the umbrella of a coverage layer in a dual connection mode. This approach enables signalling efficient HO procedures, since the control plane remains unchanged when the users move within the footprint of the same umbrella. Considering this configuration, we propose a core-network efficient radio resource control (RRC) signalling scheme for active state HO and develop an analytical framework to evaluate its signalling load as a function of network density, user mobility and session characteristics. In addition, we propose an intelligent HO prediction scheme with advance resource preparation in order to minimise the HO signalling latency. Numerical and simulation results show promising gains in terms of reduction in HO latency and signalling load as compared with conventional approaches.
Onireti Oluwakayode, Mohamed Abdelrahim, Pervaiz Haris bin, Imran Muhammad (2017) Analytical Approach to Base Station Sleep Mode Power Consumption and Sleep Depth,Proceedings of 2017 IEEE 28th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC) IEEE
In this paper, we present an analytical framework
to model the sleep mode power consumption of a base
station (BS) as a function of its sleep depth. The sleep depth
is made up of the BS deactivation latency, actual sleep period
and activation latency. Numerical results demonstrate
a close match between our proposed approach and the
actual sleep mode power consumption for selected BS types.
As an application of our proposed approach, we analyze the
optimal sleep depth of a BS, taking into consideration the
increased power consumption during BS activation, which
exceeds its no-load power consumption. We also consider
the power consumed during BS deactivation, which also
exceeds the power consumed when the actual sleep level is
attained. From the results, we can observe that the average
total power consumption of a BS monotonically decreases
with the sleep depth as long as the ratio between the actual
sleep period and the transition latency (deactivation plus
reactivation latency) exceeds a certain threshold.
Mohamed A, Imran M, Tafazolli R (2015) Energy Efficient 5G Network with Logical Separation of Control and Data Functionality,Proceedings of Ofcom Workshop on 5G and Future Technology
As soon as 2020, network densification and spectrum extension will be the dominant theme to support enormous capacity and massive connectivity [1]. However, this approach may not guarantee wide area coverage due to the poor propagation capabilities of high frequency bands. In addition, energy efficiency and signalling overhead will become critical considerations in ultra-dense deployment scenarios. This calls for a futuristic two layer RAN architecture with dual connectivity, where the high frequency bands are used for data services, complemented by a coverage layer at conventional cellular bands [2]. This separation of control and data planes will enable a transition from always-on to always-available systems and could result in order of magnitude savings in energy and signalling overhead.
Mohamed A, Onireti O, Imran MA (2017) Control data separation and its implications on backhaul networks,In: Imran MA, Zaidi S, Shakir M (eds.), Access, Fronthaul and Backhaul Networks for 5G & Beyond Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
Future cellular systems need to cope with a huge amount of data and diverse service
requirements in a flexible, sustainable, green and efficient way with minimal signalling
overhead. This calls for network densification, a short length wireless link,
efficient and proactive control signalling and the ability to switch off the power consuming
devices when they are not in use. In this direction, the conventional alwayson
service and worst-case design approach has been identified as the main source of
inefficiency, and a paradigm shift towards adaptive and on-demand systems is seen
as a promising solution. However, the conventional radio access network (RAN) architecture
limits the achievable gains due to the tight coupling between network and
data access points, which in turn imposes strict coverage and signalling requirements
irrespective of the spatio-temporal service demand, channel conditions or mobility
profiles.
Mohamed A, Onireti O, Imran M, Pervaiz H, Xiao P, Tafazolli R (2017) Predictive Base Station Activation in Futuristic Energy-Efficient Control/Data Separated RAN,IEEE Globecom 2017 Proceedings IEEE
Nowadays, system architecture of the fifth generation
(5G) cellular system is becoming of increasing interest.
To reach the ambitious 5G targets, a dense base station (BS)
deployment paradigm is being considered. In this case, the
conventional always-on service approach may not be suitable due
to the linear energy/density relationship when the BSs are always
kept on. This suggests a dynamic on/off BS operation to reduce
the energy consumption. However, this approach may create
coverage holes and the BS activation delay in terms of hardware
transition latency and software reloading could result in service
disruption. To tackle these issues, we propose a predictive BS
activation scheme under the control/data separation architecture
(CDSA). The proposed scheme exploits user context information,
network parameters, BS sleep depth and measurement databases
to send timely predictive activation requests in advance before
the connection is switched to the sleeping BS. An analytical model
is developed and closed-form expressions are provided for the
predictive activation criteria. Analytical and simulation results
show that the proposed scheme achieves a high BS activation
accuracy with low errors w.r.t. the optimum activation time.
Mohamed Abdelrahim, Imran Muhammad, Xiao Pei, Tafazolli Rahim (2018) Memory-full Context-aware Predictive Mobility Management in Dual Connectivity 5G Networks,IEEE Access 6 pp. 9655-9666 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Network densification with small cell deployment
is being considered as one of the dominant themes in the
fifth generation (5G) cellular system. Despite the capacity gains,
such deployment scenarios raise several challenges from mobility
management perspective. The small cell size, which implies a
small cell residence time, will increase the handover (HO) rate
dramatically. Consequently, the HO latency will become a critical
consideration in the 5G era. The latter requires an intelligent, fast
and light-weight HO procedure with minimal signalling overhead.
In this direction, we propose a memory-full context-aware HO
scheme with mobility prediction to achieve the aforementioned
objectives. We consider a dual connectivity radio access network
architecture with logical separation between control and data
planes because it offers relaxed constraints in implementing the
predictive approaches. The proposed scheme predicts future HO
events along with the expected HO time by combining radio
frequency performance to physical proximity along with the user
context in terms of speed, direction and HO history. To minimise
the processing and the storage requirements whilst improving
the prediction performance, a user-specific prediction triggering
threshold is proposed. The prediction outcome is utilised to
perform advance HO signalling whilst suspending the periodic
transmission of measurement reports. Analytical and simulation
results show that the proposed scheme provides promising gains
over the conventional approach.
Taufique A, Mohamed Abdelrahim, Farooq H, Imran A, Tafazolli Rahim (2018) Analytical Modelling for Mobility Signalling in Ultra-Dense HetNets,IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology IEEE
Multi-band and multi-tier network densification is
being considered as the most promising solution to overcome the
capacity crunch problem of cellular networks. In this direction,
small cells (SCs) are being deployed within the macro cell (MC)
coverage, to off-load some of the users associated with the MCs.
This deployment scenario raises several problems. Among others,
signalling overhead and mobility management will become
critical considerations. Frequent handovers (HOs) in ultra dense
SC deployments could lead to a dramatic increase in signalling
overhead. This suggests a paradigm shift towards a signalling
conscious cellular architecture with smart mobility management.
In this regards, the control/data separation architecture (CDSA)
with dual connectivity is being considered for the future radio
access. Considering the CDSA as the radio access network
(RAN) architecture, we quantify the reduction in HO signalling
w.r.t. the conventional approach. We develop analytical models
which compare the signalling generated during various HO
scenarios in the CDSA and conventionally deployed networks.
New parameters are introduced which can with optimum value
significantly reduce the HO signalling load. The derived model
includes HO success and HO failure scenarios along with specific
derivations for continuous and non-continuous mobility users.
Numerical results show promising CDSA gains in terms of saving
in HO signalling overhead.
Onireti Oluwakayode, Mohamed Abdelrahim, Pervaiz Haris, Imran Muhammad (2018) A Tractable Approach to Base Station Sleep Mode Power Consumption and Deactivation Latency,Proceedings of IEEE 29th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
We consider an idealistic scenario where the
vacation (no-load) period of a typical base station (BS)
is known in advance such that its vacation time can be
matched with a sleep depth. The latter is the sum of
the deactivation latency, actual sleep period and reactivation
latency. Noting that the power consumed during
the actual sleep period is a function of the deactivation
latency, we derive an accurate closed-form expression
for the optimal deactivation latency for deterministic BS
vacation time. Further, using this expression, we derive the
optimal average power consumption for the case where
the vacation time follows a known distribution. Numerical
results show that significant power consumption savings
can be achieved in the sleep mode by selecting the
optimal deactivation latency for each vacation period.
Furthermore, our results also show that deactivating the
BS hardware is sub-optimal for BS vacation less than a
particular threshold value.
Xiao Lixia, Xiao Pei, Xiao Yue, Hemadeh Ibrahim, Mohamed Abdelrahim, Hanzo Lajos (2018) Bayesian Compressive Sensing Assisted Space Time Block Coded Quadrature Spatial Modulation,IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 67 (10) pp. 10044-10048 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
A novel Multiple-Input and Multiple-
Output (MIMO) transmission scheme termed as Space-
Time Block Coded Quadrature Spatial Modulation
(STBC-QSM) is proposed. It amalgamates the concept
of Quadrature Spatial Modulation (QSM) and Space-
Time Block Coding (STBC) to exploit the diversity
benefits of STBC relying on sparse Radio Frequency
(RF) chains. In the proposed STBC-QSM scheme, the
conventional constellation points of the STBC structure
are replaced by the QSM symbols, hence the
information bits are conveyed both by the antenna
indices as well as by conventional STBC blocks. Furthermore,
an efficient Bayesian Compressive Sensing
(BCS) algorithm is developed for our proposed STBCQSM
system. Both our analytical and simulation results
demonstrated that the proposed scheme is capable
of providing considerable performance gains over the
existing schemes. Moreover, the proposed BCS detector
is capable of approaching the Maximum Likelihood
(ML) detector?s performance despite only imposing a
complexity near similar to that of the Minimum Mean
Square Error (MMSE) detector in the high Signal to
Noise Ratio (SNR) regions.
Mohamed Abdelrahim, Evans Barry, Shamsuddeen Mikail (2018) 5g new radio and fixed satellite services co-existance in mm-wave band,Proceedings of the 24th Ka and Broadband Communication Conference (KaConf 2018) Ka and Broadband Communications, Navigation and Earth Observation Conference
This paper investigates the 28 GHz band sharing between fixed satellite services (FSS) and fifth generation
(5G) new radio (NR) cellular system. In particular, it focuses on modelling a sharing scenario
between the uplink of the FSS system and the uplink of the 5G NR enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB)
cellular system. Such a scenario could generate interference from the FSS terminals towards the 5G
base station, known as next generation Node-B (g-NodeB). We provide detailed interference modelling,
sharing constraint derivations and performance analysis under realistic path loss models and antenna
radiation patterns based on the latest system characteristics of the third generation partnership project
(3GPP) 5G NR Release 15. Several scenarios for seamless coexistence of the two systems are considered
by evaluating the efficiency and the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the NR
g-NodeB, and using the block error rate (BLER) as a sharing constraint. A single FSS terminal is considered
and the impact of several parameters, such as the distance to the g-NodeB and FSS elevation
angle, on the g-NodeB spectrum efficiency are evaluated. In addition, the impact of the g-NodeB antenna
array size on reducing the FSS/g-NodeB protection distance is evaluated and a dynamic beam
steering is proposed to minimise the protection distance.
Pervaiz Haris, Onierti Oluwakayode, Mohamed Abdelrahim, Imran Muhammad, Qiang Ni, Tafazolli Rahim (2018) Energy-Efficient and Load-Proportional eNodeB for 5G User-Centric Networks,IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine 13 (4) pp. pp 51-59 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Nowadays, dense network deployment is being
considered as one of the effective strategies to meet capacity
and connectivity demands of the fifth generation (5G) cellular
system. Among several challenges, energy consumption will be a
critical consideration in the 5G era. In this direction, base station
on/off operation, i.e., sleep mode, is an effective technique to
mitigate the excessive energy consumption in ultra-dense cellular
networks. However, current implementation of this technique is
unsuitable for dynamic networks with fluctuating traffic profiles
due to coverage constraints, quality-of-service requirements and
hardware switching latency. In this direction, we propose an
energy/load proportional approach for 5G base stations with
control/data plane separation. The proposed approach depends on
a multi-step sleep mode profiling, and predicts the base station
vacation time in advance. Such a prediction enables selecting
the best sleep mode strategy whilst minimizing the effect of
base station activation/reactivation latency, resulting in significant
energy saving gains.
Dorneanu Bogdan, Ruan Hang, Mohamed Abdelrahim, Heshmat Mohamed, Gao Yang, Xiao Pei, Arellano-Garcia Harvey (2019) Towards fault detection and self-healing of chemical processes over wireless sensor networks,Industry 4.0 ? Shaping the Future of the Digital World Taylor & Francis
This contribution introduces a framework for the fault detection and healing of chemical processes over wireless sensor networks. The approach considers the development of a hybrid system which consists of a fault detection method based on machine learning, a wireless communication model and an ontology-based multi-agent system with a cooperative control for the process monitoring.
Mikail S. A., Abdelrahim M., Evans B. G., Ibrahim Y. (2018) Frequency Sharing between Satellite and Terrestrial Networks,Journal on Wireless Communication Networks 7 (2) pp. 9-20 i-manager Publications
Addition of devices of different form factors to the network has resulted to high demand for broadband access. To
improve the network capacity, Frequency spectrum regulators have recommended fifth generation (5G) network for
deployment on one of the high frequency bands due to their huge contiguous bandwidth. Since such bands have
already been allocated to satellite networks by the regulatory bodies, 5G must coexistence with the satellite systems. As
a result, feasibility study for coexistence of 5G with the incumbent satellite systems is needed. This paper studied
coexistence feasibility of a 5G terrestrial Base Station (BS) with Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) terminal at 28 GHz considering
only interference from the satellite terminal into the 5G terrestrial BS. The study used signal to interference plus noise ratio
(SINR) available at sectors of a 3-sector cell 5G terrestrial BS as a protection parameter. The available SINR on each
sector was used in estimating the impact of the FSS terminal transmit power on the deployment parameters of the 5G
system. Moreover, the study was conducted using a more realistic path loss model and 5G antenna pattern recently
rd released by 3 generation partnership project (3 GPP). The results show that the transmission power and elevation angle
of the FSS terminal affect deployment parameters of the 5G terrestrial BS. Finally, the results suggested that coexistence
of the two systems is feasible in residential areas with only one FSS terminal if the deployment parameters of the 5G BS are
carefully selected.
Xiao Lixia, Xiao Pei, Xiao Yue, Haas Harald, Mohamed Abdelrahim, Hanzo Lajos (2019) Compressive Sensing Assisted Generalized Quadrature Spatial Modulation for Massive MIMO systems,IEEE Transactions on Communications pp. 1-1 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
A novel Multiple-Input and Multiple- Output (MIMO) transmission scheme termed as Generalized Quadrature Spatial Modulation (G-QSM) is proposed. It amalgamates the concept of Quadrature Spatial Modulation (QSM) and spatial multiplexing for the sake of achieving a high throughput, despite relying on low number of Radio Frequency (RF) chains. In the proposed G-QSM scheme, the conventional constellation points of the spatial multiplexing structure are replaced by the QSM symbols, hence the information bits are conveyed both by the antenna indices as well as by the classic Amplitude/Phase Modulated (APM) constellation points. The upper bounds of the Average Bit Error Probability (ABEP) of the proposed G-QSM system in high throughput massive MIMO configurations are derived. Furthermore, an Efficient Multipath Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (EMOMP) based Compressive Sensing (CS) detector is developed for our proposed G-QSM system. Both our analytical and simulation results demonstrated that the proposed scheme is capable of providing considerable performance gains over the existing schemes in massive MIMO configurations.
Mohamed Abdelrahim, Evans Barry (2019) Spectrum Sharing Framework for 5G Cellular System and Satellite Service,Proceedings of the 25th Ka-band communication, navigation and earth observation conference, Sorrento (Italy), September-October 2019 Ka and Broadband Communications, Navigation and Earth Observation Conference
The ambitious fifth generation (5G) cellular system requirements and performance targets motivated
standardisation bodies to consider wide bandwidth allocations for 5G in the mm-wave band. Nevertheless,
parts of the considered band are already allocated to satellite services in several regions. We tackle
this challenge by proposing a co-existence framework for 5G and fixed satellite services (FSS). We focus
on the uplink of both systems and consider realistic 5G deployment scenarios with multiple users
and multiple radio access network (RAN) cells. We propose a generic and controllable co-existence
constraint applicable to different 5G numerologies and configurations. In addition, we derive a protection
distance to guarantee the co-existence constraint and utilise several 5G system features to define soft
constraints. The 5G/FSS coexistence is investigated based on performance of the 5G user plane. Simulation
results show that the 5G deployment scenario is a key factor in setting the protection distance.
In addition, the FSS elevation has a significant effect on the identified distance. The results suggest
that both systems can operate in the same band without very large protection distance at a controllable
expense of a small, e.g., 1% - 5%, performance loss.
Dorneau Bogdan, Heshmat Mohamed, Mohamed Abdelrahim, Ruan Hang, Gao Yang, Xiao Pei, Arellano-Garcia Harvey (2020) Stepping towards the industrial Sixth Sense,ESCAPE30
This contribution introduces the development of an intelligent monitoring and control framework for chemical processes, integrating the advantages of Industry 4.0 technologies, cooperative control and fault detection via wireless sensor networks. Using information on the process? structure and behaviour, equipment information, and expert knowledge, the system is able to detect faults. The integration with the monitoring system facilitates the detection and optimises the controller?s actions. The results indicate that the proposed approach achieves high fault detection accuracy based on plant measurements, while the cooperative controllers improve the control of the process.
Mohamed Abdelrahim, Quddus Atta, Xiao Pei, Hunt Bernard, Tafazolli Rahim (2020) 5G and LTE-TDD Synchronized Coexistence with
Blind Retransmission and Mini-Slot Uplink
,
91st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference VTC2020-Spring
The fifth-generation (5G) new radio (NR) cellular
system promises a significant increase in capacity with reduced latency. However, the 5G NR system will be deployed along with legacy cellular systems such as the long-term evolution (LTE). Scarcity of spectrum resources in low frequency bands motivates adjacent-/co-carrier deployments. This approach comes with a
wide range of practical benefits and it improves spectrum utilization by re-using the LTE bands. However, such deployments restrict the 5G NR flexibility in terms of frame allocations to avoid the most critical mutual adjacent-channel interference. This
in turns prevents achieving the promised 5G NR latency figures. In this we paper, we tackle this issue by proposing to use the minislot uplink feature of 5G NR to perform uplink acknowledgement and feedback to reduce the frame latency with selective blind
retransmission to overcome the effect of interference. Extensive
system-level simulations under realistic scenarios show that the
proposed solution can reduce the peak frame latency for feedback
and acknowledgment up to 33% and for retransmission by up to
25% at a marginal cost of an up to 3% reduction in throughput.
Mohamed Abdelrahim, Ruan Hang, Abdelwahab Mohamed, Dorneanu Bogdan, Xiao Pei, Arellano-Garcia Harvey, Gao Yang, Tafazolli Rahim An Inter-disciplinary Modelling Approach in
Industrial 5G/6G and Machine Learning Era
,
IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) IEEE
Recently, the fifth-generation (5G) cellular system
has been standardised. As opposed to legacy cellular systems geared towards broadband services, the 5G system identifies key use cases for ultra-reliable and low latency communications
(URLLC) and massive machine-type communications (mMTC).
These intrinsic 5G capabilities enable promising sensor-based vertical applications and services such as industrial process automation. The latter includes autonomous fault detection and prediction, optimised operations and proactive control.
Such applications enable equipping industrial plants with a sixth sense (6S) for optimised operations and fault avoidance. In this direction, we introduce an inter-disciplinary approach integrating wireless sensor networks with machine learningenabled
industrial plants to build a step towards developing
this 6S technology. We develop a modular-based system that can be adapted to the vertical-specific elements. Without loss of generalisation, exemplary use cases are developed and presented including a fault detection/prediction scheme, and a sensor
density-based boundary between orthogonal and non-orthogonal transmissions. The proposed schemes and modelling approach are implemented in a real chemical plant for testing purposes, and a high fault detection and prediction accuracy is achieved
coupled with optimised sensor density analysis.