Adrian Banks

Dr Adrian Banks

Senior Lecturer
+44 (0)1483 689435
32 AD 02


Research interests

I am interested in understanding how people think, such as how people reason and make decisions, and in using this knowledge to improve their thinking. Currently I am investigating the cognitive mechanisms underpinning dual process theories of cognition. I uncover these mechanisms using behavioural and electrophysiological methods and explore them further with computational models. For example, some recent findings have shown these cognitive mechanisms operate in parallel based on a process in which the most relevant, rather than the most logical, conclusions are more likely to be retained during reasoning.

This research has practical importance, as understanding thinking suggests methods to improve it. Some recent projects include: work to improve military decision making under stress through eliciting expert fast and frugal heuristics and training novices to apply them. Within the CLYMBOL project we investigated how consumers' reasoning about health claims is determined by their network of causal beliefs about food and health. Within the PD_manager project we are investigating how decisions are made in the management in Parkinson's disease.

Departmental duties

Director of Modular Master's Programme

MSc Exams Officer

My publications


Cropp N, Hellawell E, Elghali L, Banks A (2010) Contaminated land risk assessment: Variability in site assessment and decision making in the UK, Land Contamination and Reclamation 18 (2) pp. 181-194
Judgement forms an integral part of a risk-based approach to the assessment of land affected by contamination. Legislation and guidance suggest that the assessor should use a rational step-wise process to identify pollutant linkages in order to assess risk from land contamination. The present study aims to investigate the decision-making processes that are used by experienced contaminated land assessors. This study required 29 participants with a minimum of five years' relevant experience to rate the level of risk from land contamination on 27 hypothetical housing development sites. Each site was designed with specific information (variables) used as indicators of the potential for unacceptable risk. Linear regression analysis was used to identify the significance of each of the variables in determining the level of risk assessed by participants. The first of the key findings was that considerable disagreement was observed between participants, and this was correlated to cases with contradictory information. This may have also been related to the participant's perception of the available risk scale. The linear regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were chemical-test data and the presence of human-exposure pathways. These findings would suggest that experienced assessors focus on a few key aspects of the information available to assess risk from land contamination. However, analysis of the qualitative data collected in the study supported a more holistic decision-making process, in line with use of pollutant linkages described in guidance. The results suggest that when presented with limited data for development sites, assessors may rely on a few variables to rate the risk, but that a coherent picture of the interaction of all of the variables is required for a more confident assessment. The findings of the study presented here can be used to inform training and future guidance in this sector. © 2010 EPP Publications Ltd.
Banks AP, McKeran W, Millward LJ (2003) Should task information be shared or distributed in a team?,
Banks AP (2005) Markov, Andrei Andreevich, In: Everitt B, Howell D (eds.), Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science Wiley
Sorenson LJ, Stanton NA, Banks AP (2011) Back to SA school: contrasting three approaches to situation awareness in the cockpit, Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science 12 (6) pp. 451-471 Taylor & Francis
Situational awareness (SA) has received considerable attention in recent years and significant theoretical advances have been made. The advances to date can be categorised in three main schools of thought: psychological, engineering and systems ergonomics schools. We discuss the theoretical contributions of the three schools to the understanding of SA and apply these to the analysis of the McDonnell Douglas MD-80 series, as described by Hutchins (Hutchins, E., 1995a. How a cockpit remembers its speeds. Cognitive Science, 19, 265-288), descent and approach. We discuss how the different views advocated by the three schools give rise to different approaches to support SA. We argue that while the psychological and engineering approaches each give valuable insight into the phenomenon neither gives a complete explanation of SA. It is only the systems ergonomics perspective, in considering the individual, artefacts in the environment and interaction between these which offer a full explanation of the phenomenon.
Banks AP, Millward LJ (2000) Running shared mental models as a distributed cognitive process, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 91 pp. 513-531 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Banks AP, McKeran WJ (2006) The influence of sharing displays on team situation awareness and performance, Taylor and Francis
Cropp N, Banks AP, Elghali L (2011) Expert Decision Making in a Complex Engineering Environment: A Comparison of the Lens Model, Explanatory Coherence, and Matching Heuristics, Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making 5 (3) pp. 255-276 SAGE Publications
This study investigated the complex decisions made by engineers when conducting contaminated-land risk assessments. Experienced assessors studied summaries of site reports, which were composed of different combinations of relevant cues, and decided on the risk level of each site. Models from three theories of decision making were compared. Applying judgment analysis to develop a lens model provided the best account of the data, lending support to social judgment theory. A model based on a fast-and-frugal heuristic, the matching heuristic, did not fit the data as well; nor did a coherence model based on the theory of explanatory coherence. Comparison with decisions generated with the use of industry guidance showed only a moderate fit, suggesting that the standard procedure does not accurately represent how highly proficient domain practitioners make assessments in this context. Qualitative analyses of comments made by participants suggested that they used a combined approach that applied key cues as predicted by social judgment theory, integrated into a meaningful, coherent account, as predicted by the theory of explanatory coherence. Overall, these findings suggest a novel process in which a range of information is combined to form a coherent explanation of the data but in which key cues are more influential than others.
McAndrew C, Banks A, Gore J (2012) Bridging macrocognitive/microcognitive methods: ACT-R under review, In: Naturalistic Decision Making and Macrocognition pp. 277-300
McAndrew C, Gore J, Banks AP (2009) ?Convince Me?: modelling naturalistic decision making, Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making 3 (2) pp. 156-175 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society & SAGE Publications
This paper is positioned in response to a call for an exchange of dialogue between researchers in the fields of macrocognition and computational modeling. Our work encourages examination of the complementarities that exist between these fields proposing that some of the challenges associated with micromodeling perspectives may be addressed by drawing upon "midgranularity" cognitive architectures. The study documented here demonstrates the value of modeling macrocognitive phenomena using the midgranularity architecture Convince Me. Our results suggested a moderate degree of fit between fund managers' decision making and the theory of explanatory coherence. Insights into the macrocognitive processes of sense making, uncertainty management, and mental simulation are examined. We anticipate that this will demonstrate the utility of computational modeling for revealing the shortcomings of macrocognitive models and that this will not only motivate increased theoretical specification but will also assist in the legitimization of cognitive modeling methods within macrocognitive inquiry.
Banks AP, McKeran WJ (2005) Team situation awareness, shared displays and performance, International Journal of Cognitive Technology 10 pp. 23-28
McDowall A, Banks A, Millward LJ (2011) Occupational Psychology in Practice - the Individual, In: Davey G (eds.), Applied Psychology 22 pp. 447-464 Wiley-Blackwell
Whilst ?work? is commonly understood as an activity to generate income (Oxford Dictionary, 2009), all of us work in some way or another, whether this is paid or unpaid, inside the home or outside the home. There is also no doubt that being in work is good for us. A now classic study by Marie Jahoda and colleagues (reference to add) showed the effects of unemployment on a small community, the findings leading her to conclude that work is central to our identity sense of worth and thus vital in modern day industrial societies. Jahoda went on to develop the deprivation theory of unemployment (1981) identifying five different categories important for well being, such as structure, time and social contact. She argued that the unemployed are deprived of these, which she claimed accounts for reported impaired physical and mental health in unemployed people. There is no doubt that work is central to our lives, as one of the first question that we are typically asked when meeting new people is ?so what do you do??

Individuals and organisations are now part of a world of work where the only constant is change and this chapter will outline on a practical level how we can understand the world of work from the individual?s perspective.

Sorensen LJ, Stanton NA, Banks AP (2011) ERRATUM Back to SA school: contrasting three approaches to situation awareness in the cockpit., Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science 12 (6) pp. 510-513
Barlow A, Banks AP (2014) Using emotional intelligence in coaching high-performance athletes: a randomised controlled trial, Coaching 7 (2) pp. 132-139
© 2014 Taylor & Francis.Emotional intelligence is an important and popular concept within coaching. This randomised controlled trial investigated the short-term impact of coaching using emotional intelligence on three factors related to performance in athletes: anxiety, self-efficacy and team identification. Twenty high-performance netball players were divided into coaching and control groups. The coaching group completed the Bar-On EQ-i to produce emotional intelligence profiles that formed the basis of the solution-focused coaching session. Coaching improved self-efficacy and anxiety but not team identification. There was no change in the control group. Self-efficacy and anxiety are directly linked to scales on the EQ-i whereas team identification is not directly linked. The findings indicate that solution-focused coaching using emotional intelligence is effective, but only when a direct link is identified between a particular component of emotional intelligence and a particular outcome.
Banks A, McDowall A, Millward Purvis LJ (2011) FIVE chapters on Occupational Psychology, In: Davey G (eds.), Introduction to Applied Psychology
The study aimed to investigate what type of decision styles are exhibited by employees who experience burnout. Using a Work Risk Inventory (WRI), developed for this study, which included generic workplace scenarios, it was also explored whether employees experiencing burnout take more risky decisions. Risk was conceptualised as the adoption of threatening decisions towards one?s reputation at work, job performance and job security. The mediating effect of the likelihood and seriousness of the consequences of the worst-case scenario occurring (i.e. what could be the worst that could happen in each given scenario), on the relationship between dimensions of burnout and risk was also tested. A total of 262 employees completed an online survey, including measures on burnout, decision making styles and the WRI. As predicted, dimensions of burnout: Exhaustion; Cynicism and Professional Inefficacy, correlated significantly with avoidant decision making and negatively with rational decision making. Seriousness of the consequences of the worst-case scenario occurring mediated the relationship between professional inefficacy and risk taking. In the context of identifying mechanisms by which burnout leads to risky decision making, findings suggest that employees? sense of professional inefficacy determines employees? risky decision making. The contribution to theory and implications for practice are discussed.
Banks AP, Dhami MK (2014) Normative and descriptive models of military decisions to deploy precision strike capabilities, Military Psychology 26 (1) pp. 33-43
Precision strike capabilities represent a significant and highly controversial part of present day military operations. And yet, there is a surprising dearth of empirical research on military decision making in this domain. In this article, we therefore review different psychological perspectives on how these decisions can be made. Specifically, we compare the application of normative models of judgment and choice against the empirical research on human decision making, which suggests that people are more likely to employ heuristic strategies. We suggest that several features of decision tasks in the precision strike domain evoke the use of intuitive (heuristic) decision making whereas other features such as the sometimes unfamiliar (or novel) nature of the decision task requires analytic strategies to generate good solutions. Therefore, decisions about precision strike capabilities are best made with a mixture of intuitive and analytic thought, a mode of thinking known as quasirationality. © 2014 American Psychological Association.
McAndrew C, Banks AP, Gore J (2009) Bridging microcognitive and macrocognitive methods: ACT-R, In: Schraagen JM, Militello L, Ormerod T, Lipshitz R (eds.), Naturalistic decision making and macrocognition
Banks AP, Millward LJ (2007) Differentiating knowledge in teams: The effect of shared declarative and procedural knowledge on team performance, GROUP DYNAMICS-THEORY RESEARCH AND PRACTICE 11 (2) pp. 95-106 EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION
McAndrew C, Banks A, Gore J (2008) Bridging macro cognitive/micro cognitive methods: ACT-R under review, In: Schraagen JM, Militello L, Omerod T, Lipshitz R (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making and Macro Cognition pp. 277-301 Ashgate
Gore J, Banks A, Millward L, Kyriakidou O (2006) Naturalistic decision making and organizations: Reviewing pragmatic science, ORGANIZATION STUDIES 27 (7) pp. 925-942 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Cropley M, Banks AP, Boyle J (2015) The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms, PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH 29 (12) pp. 1934-1939 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Russell E, Purvis LM, Banks A (2007) Describing the strategies used for dealing with email interruptions according to different situational parameters, Computers in Human Behavior 23 (4) pp. 1820-1837
Interruptions research is heavily reliant on a paradigm involving 'enforced interruption'. Email use however constitutes a special form of 'controlled interruption'. As there is no precedent available in the existing literature to describe what strategies people use to deal with 'controlled interruption', an exploratory first study was undertaken using an open-ended interview design. Twenty-eight email users working within UK organisations were asked about how they dealt with email interruptions, when faced with different situational or task parameters. Qualitative content analysis of interview transcripts revealed a wide range of strategies used for dealing with email in general, and for specific situations in particular, with idiosyncratic differences in application. These findings are consistent with the predictions of Action Regulation Theory [Hacker, W. (1985). Activity: A fruitful concept in industrial psychology. In M. Frese, J. Sabini (Eds.), Goal directed behaviour: The concept of action in psycholoy. London, Lawrence Erlbaunt Associates (Chapter 18); The German Journal of Psychology 18(2) (1994) 91-120] - that people select strategies (action programs) for achieving a task according to the specific parameters of the task or goal. However, the findings go further in highlighting the salience of individual differences in underwriting one's choice of strategy (or action program). Further research is required to understand which strategies are linked to effective performance, and how individual differences influence strategic decision making in multi-goal work environments. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Groeger JA, Banks AP, Simpson PJ (2008) Serial memory for sound-specified locations: Effects of spatial uncertainty and motor suppression, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (2) pp. 248-262 PSYCHOLOGY PRESS
According to Parmentier and Jones (2000), serial recall of locations which are specified by a sequence of sounds is prone to temporal error and is unaffected by motor suppression during retention. Studies are reported here which show that with increased spatial uncertainty at recall (Study1) and presentation (Study 2), spatial rather than temporal errors predominate. This is also the case when serial recall of sound specified locations is subject to interference from a motor suppression task (Study 3). Contrary to Parmentier and Jones?s (2000) original report, these results suggest that the memory representation for location is not necessarily amodal but is influenced by the task. This is consistent with recent findings which provide evidence for a distinct spatial working memory.
Banks AP, Millward LJ (2001) Shared or distributed mental models? The effect of task difficulty on distributing cognition,
McGrath ML, Millward LJ, Banks AP (2015) Workplace emotion through a psychological contract lens, Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management 10 (3) pp. 206-226 Emeraldinsight
Purpose ? The purpose of this paper is to identify how psychological contract perceptions are used as a lens through which employees make sense of their workplace emotions. Applying Rousseau?s (1995, 2011) conceptualisation of psychological contracts it examines how the emotions linked to both promise perceptions (broken/exceeded) and regulation are made sense of in relation to perceptions of contract type. Design/methodology/approach ? This paper takes a unique perspective into the role perceptions of psychological contract type play in the process of emotional sensemaking using qualitative thematic analysis of 30 in-depth interviews. A range of occupations are represented and all participants worked in a full-time capacity.
Findings ? The paper identifies how the predominant relationship frame (transactional/relational) is used by employees when making sense of the emotions recalled during specific psychological contract events, as well as the emotions they feel are necessary to regulate while at work. Research limitations/implications ? The mean age of the study sample was 26 years, comparatively young in terms of the span of the employment age bracket. Taking a lifespan approach would potentially broaden the understanding of how employees use their predominant relationship frame in the process of emotional sensemaking at different stages of their life and careers.
Originality/value ? This paper identifies an important work-related cue used in the active regulation of specific emotions whilst at work, contributing to both the psychological contract and emotion literature.
Banks AP, Millward LJ (2009) Distributed Mental Models: Mental Models in Distributed Cognitive Systems, The Journal of Mind and Behavior 30 (4) pp. 249-266 The Institute of Mind and Behavior Inc.
The function of groups as information processors is increasingly being recognised in a
number of theories of group cognition. A theme of many of these is an emphasis on
sharing cognition. This paper extends current conceptualisations of groups by critiquing
the focus on shared cognition and emphasising the distribution of cognition in groups.
In particular, it develops an account of the distribution of one cognitive construct,
mental models. Mental models have been chosen as a focus because they are used in a
number of theories of high level cognition from different areas of research such as
cognitive science and human factors and so the implication of this development is wide
reaching. This paper reviews the unconnected literatures on distributed cognition and
mental models and integrates them in order to extend the theory of mental models to
distributed cognitive systems such as groups. The distributed cognition literature is
reviewed and the importance of considering the group as single cognitive system is
adopted. A range of mental model theories are reviewed leading to the conclusion that
they all have, in some form, the central feature of a mapping onto the cognitive system.
Combining these two ideas, it is proposed that the model can be a mapping onto the
whole group, if the information is distributed appropriately and the connections between
parts of the model maintained through communication. This cognitive construct is
referred to as a distributed mental model. Implications and applications of this theory are
discussed and an example outlined of the use of the construct in team situation
Banks AP, Macklin C, Millward LJ (2002) Distribution of causal reasoning in groups,
Uther M, Banks AP (2016) The influence of affordances on user preferences for multimedia language learning applications, BEHAVIOUR & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 35 (4) pp. 277-289 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
McDowall A, Millward LJ, Banks A (2011) Occupational Psychology in Practice - The Organisation, In: Davey G (eds.), Applied Psychology 23 pp. 465-484 Wiley-Blackwell
Whilst ?work? is commonly understood as an activity to generate income (Oxford Dictionary, 2009), all of us work in some way or another, whether this is paid or unpaid, inside the home or outside the home. There is also no doubt that being in work is good for us. A now classic study by Marie Jahoda and colleagues (reference to add) showed the effects of unemployment on a small community, the findings leading her to conclude that work is central to our identity sense of worth and thus vital in modern day industrial societies. Jahoda went on to develop the deprivation theory of unemployment (1981) identifying five different categories important for well being, such as structure, time and social contact. She argued that the unemployed are deprived of these, which she claimed accounts for reported impaired physical and mental health in unemployed people. There is no doubt that work is central to our lives, as one of the first question that we are typically asked when meeting new people is ?so what do you do??

Individuals and organisations are now part of a world of work where the only constant is change and this chapter will outline on a practical level how we can understand the world of work from the organization's perspective.

McDowall A, Millward LJ, Banks A (2011) Professional Issues in Occupational Psychology, In: Applied Psychology 26 pp. 515-526 Wiley-Blackwell
In this chapter, we will address how people train and develop to become occupational psychologists, by describing the route of the UK Chartership process. Next, we move onto ethical principles in practice by comparing the codes of ethics for different national professional associations. Then, we consider the concepts of culture, diversity and inclusion, as well as discrimination before moving onto the science practitioner debate.
Banks AP (2004) Group reasoning about complex causal systems,
Banks AP (2013) The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning, Cognitive Science 37 (3) pp. 544-577
A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining its likelihood of retrieval and therefore its effect on the reasoning process. This theory explores two main influences of belief on the activation levels of these conclusions. First, believable conclusions have higher activation levels and so are more likely to be recalled during the evaluation of reasoning problems than unbelievable conclusions, and therefore, they have a greater influence on the reasoning process. Secondly, prior beliefs about the conclusion have a base level of activation and may be retrieved when logically irrelevant, influencing the evaluation of the problem. The theory of activation and memory is derived from the Atomic Components of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture and so this account is formalized in an ACT-R cognitive model. Two experiments were conducted to test predictions of this model. Experiment 1 tested strength of belief and Experiment 2 tested the impact of a concurrent working memory load. Both of these manipulations increased the main effect of belief overall and in particular raised belief-based responding in indeterminately invalid problems. These effects support the idea that the activation level of conclusions formed during reasoning influences belief bias. This theory adds to current explanations of belief bias by providing a detailed specification of the role of working memory and how it is influenced by prior knowledge. © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Human reasoning involves both heuristic and analytic processes. This study of belief bias in relational reasoning investigated whether the two processes occur serially or in parallel. Participants evaluated the validity of problems in which the conclusions were either logically valid or invalid and either believable or unbelievable. Problems in which the conclusions presented a conflict between the logically valid response and the believable response elicited a more positive P3 than problems in which there was no conflict. This shows that P3 is influenced by the interaction of belief and logic rather than either of these factors on its own. These findings indicate that belief and logic influence reasoning at the same time, supporting models in which belief-based and logical evaluations occur in parallel but not theories in which belief-based heuristic evaluations precede logical analysis. © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Peebles D, Banks AP (2010) Modelling dynamic decision making with the ACT-R cognitive architecture, Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 2 (2) pp. 52-68 Versita for the Artificial General Intelligence Society (AGIS)
This paper describes a model of dynamic decision making in the Dynamic Stocks and Flows (DSF) task, developed using the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This task is a simple simulation of a water tank in which the water level must be kept constant whilst the inflow and outflow changes at varying rates. The basic functions of the model are based around three steps. Firstly, the model predicts the
water level in the next cycle by adding the current water level to the predicted net inflow of water.
Secondly, based on this projection, the net outflow of the water is adjusted to bring the water level
back to the target. Thirdly, the predicted net inflow of water is adjusted to improve its accuracy in
the future. If the prediction has overestimated net inflow then it is reduced, if it has underestimated
net inflow it is increased. The model was entered into a model comparison competition?the
Dynamic Stocks and Flows Challenge?to model human performance on four conditions of the
DSF task and then subject the model to testing on five unseen transfer conditions. The model
reproduced the main features of the development data reasonably well but did not reproduce human
performance well under the transfer conditions. This suggests that the principles underlying human
performance across the different conditions differ considerably despite their apparent similarity.
Further lessons for the future development of our model and model comparison challenges are
There is substantial evidence that driving skills improve during driver training, but the long-term safety benefit of such formal training remains unproven. Restricting the exposure of newly licensed drivers to more hazardous driving circumstances, as in graduated driver licensing (GDL) regimes, demonstrably reduces crash risk, but drivers remain at risk after the restrictions are eased. GDL and most other licensing regimes advocate increased basic training and practice, but thereafter require neither advanced training nor systematic increase in exposure to risk. This assumes that basic skills acquired during formal training will transfer positively to new and more demanding traffic circumstances. This paper reviews the theoretical basis for these assumptions and offers a way of systematically identifying the extent of transfer desired. It is concluded that there is little theoretical or empirical foundation for the supposition that what is learned during or after training will have a safety benefit in later driving.
Russell E, Woods S, Banks A (2017) Examining conscientiousness as a key resource in resisting email interruptions: Implications for volatile resources and goal achievement, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 90 (3) pp. 407-435 Wiley
Within the context of the conservation of resources (COR) model, when a resource is deployed, it is depleted ? albeit temporarily. However, when a ?key?, stable resource, such as Conscientiousness, is activated (e.g. by using a self-control strategy, such as resisting an email interruption), we predicted that (1) another, more volatile resource (affective well-being) would be impacted, and that (2) this strategy would be deployed as a trade-off, allowing one to satisfy task goals, at the expense of well-being goals. We conducted an experience-sampling field study with 52 email-users dealing with their normal email as it interrupted them over the course of a half-day period. This amounted to a total of 376 email reported across the sample. Results were analysed using random coefficient hierarchical linear modelling (HLM), and included cross-level interactions for Conscientiousness with strategy and well-being. Our first prediction was supported ? deploying the stable, key resource of Conscientiousness depletes the volatile, fluctuating resource of affective well-being. However, our second prediction was not fully realized. Although resisting or avoiding an email interruption was perceived to hinder well-being goal achievement by Conscientious people, it had neither a positive nor negative impact on task goal achievement. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Husted M, Banks AP, Seiss E (2016) Eating behaviour associated with differences in conflict adaptation for food pictures, Appetite 105 pp. 630-637 Elsevier
Objective: The goal conflict model of eating (Stroebe, Mensink, Aarts, Schut, & Kruglanski, ( 2008) proposes differences in eating behaviour result from peoples? experience of holding conflicting goals of eating enjoyment and weight maintenance. However, little is understood about the relationship between eating behaviour and the cognitive processes involved in conflict. This study aims to investigate associations between eating behaviour traits and cognitive conflict processes, specifically the application of cognitive control when processing distracting food pictures. Method: A flanker task using food and non-food pictures was used to examine individual differences in conflict adaptation. Participants responded to target pictures whilst ignoring distracting flanking pictures. Individual differences in eating behaviour traits, attention towards target pictures, and ability to apply cognitive control through adaptation to conflicting picture trials were analysed. Results: Increased levels of external and emotional eating were related to slower responses to food pictures indicating food target avoidance. All participants showed greater distraction by food compared to non-food pictures. Of particular significance, increased levels of emotional eating were associated with greater conflict adaptation for conflicting food pictures only. Conclusion: Emotional eaters demonstrate greater application of cognitive control for conflicting food pictures as part of a food avoidance strategy. This could represent an attempt to inhibit their eating enjoyment goal in order for their weight maintenance goal to dominate.
Banks Adrian P., Egan Bernadette, Hodgkins Charo E., Peacock Matthew, Raats Monique M. (2018) The role of causal models and beliefs in interpreting health claims, British Journal of Health Psychology 23 (4) pp. 933-948 Wiley

Objective: Health claims on food packaging are regulated to inform and protect consumers, however many consumers do not accurately interpret the meaning of the claims. Whilst research has shown different types of misinterpretation, it is not clear how those interpretations are formed. The aim of this study is to elicit the causal beliefs and causal models about food and health held by consumers, i.e. their understanding of the causal relationships between nutrients, health outcomes and the causal pathways connecting them, and investigate how well this knowledge explains the variation in inferences they draw about health benefits from health claims.

Method: 400 participants from Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia, and the UK were presented with 7 authorised health claims and drew inferences about the health benefits of consuming nutrients specified in the claim. Then their personal causal models of health were elicited along with their belief in the truth and familiarity with the claims.

Results: The strength of inferences about health benefits that participants drew from the claims were predicted independently by the strength of the relevant causal pathways within the causal model, and belief in the truth of the claim, but not familiarity with the claim. Participants drew inferences about overall health benefits of the nutrients by extrapolating from their causal models of health.

Conclusion: Consumers? interpretation of claims is associated with their belief in the claim and their causal models of health. This prior knowledge is used to interpret the claim and draw inferences about overall health benefits that go beyond the information in the claim. Therefore efforts to improve consumers? understanding and interpretation of health claims must address both their wider causal models of health and their knowledge of specific claims.

Kennedy William G., van Vugt Marieke K., Banks Adrian P. (2018) Editors? Introduction: Cognitive Modeling at ICCM: Advancing the State of the Art, Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (1) pp. 140-143 Wiley
Cognitive modeling is the effort to understand the mind by implementing theories of the mind in computer code, producing measures comparable to human behavior and mental activity. The community of cognitive modelers has traditionally met twice every 3 years at the International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (ICCM). In this special issue of topiCS, we present the best papers from the ICCM meeting. (The full proceedings are available on the ICCM website.) These best papers represent advances in the state of the art in cognitive modeling. Since ICCM was for the first time also held jointly with the Society for Mathematical Psychology, we use this preface to also reflect on the similarities and differences between mathematical psychology and cognitive modeling.
Gore J, Banks Adrian, McDowall A (2018) Developing Cognitive Task Analysis and the importance of Socio-cognitive competence/insight for Professional Practice, Cognition, Technology and Work. Special Issue:Naturalistic Decision Making: Navigating Uncertainty in Complex Sociotechnical Work 20 (4) pp. 555-563 Springer Verlag
Accelerating the cognitive expertise of professionals is a critical challenge for many organizations. This paper reports a collaborative, longitudinal, academic practitioner project which aimed to elicit, document and accelerate the cognitive expertise of engineering professionals working with the manufacture and management of petroleum additives. 25 engineering experts were trained by three academic psychologists to use applied cognitive task analysis (ACTA) interview techniques in order to document the cognition of their expert peers. Results had high face validity for practitioners who elicited hot/sensory based cognition, a number of perceptual skills and mental models, highlighting undocumented context specific expertise. We conclude from a peer review of findings, combined with experienced CTA analysts that ACTA techniques can be advanced in context by the explicit recognition and development of socio-cognitive competence /insight.
Objective: To explore how cognitive and metacognitive function influences workplace success in dyslexic adults.

Background: Prior research suggests that dyslexic adults experience difficulties with executive functioning and developing metacognitive skill, in addition to continuing problems with literacy. This thesis proposes that these difficulties may affect their performance at work. This research therefore aims to investigate these aspects of cognitive and metacognitive function to discover how they relate to workplace success. These findings will provide evidence to inform interventions for dyslexic adults in the workplace.

Method: Three studies were conducted. The first study (n=180 dyslexics) established the workplace success criteria: job satisfaction, self-efficacy, academic qualifications and financial success; and explored the relationship with cognitive function in terms of planning and executive attention (the Cognitive failures questionnaire, Broadbent et al.,1982)). The second study (n=116 dyslexics) assessed the participants? metacognitive skills, confidence and problem solving and investigated the relationships with workplace success criteria. The third study (n=60 dyslexics) assessed executive functioning skills of updating, inhibition and shifting (Miyake et al., 2000) and explored the relationships with workplace success criteria. The data from all three studies were compared with a non-dyslexic control group (n= 30). Variations between the dyslexic and control groups on metacognitive and executive skill were anticipated, and the relationships between these differences and workplace success were investigated.

Results: Study 1 found that cognitive failures were related to aspects of workplace success in dyslexics, and that dyslexics experienced more cognitive failures than the control group. But there were no differences between dyslexic and controls in planning or overall workplace

success. Study 2 found that metacognitive skill was related to aspects of workplace success in both dyslexics and controls. Dyslexics had less metacognitive self-understanding than controls, but other aspects of metacognition were similar. Study 3 found no clear relationship between executive function and workplace success, but dyslexics performed less well than controls in aspects of working memory.

Conclusion: Dyslexic participants attained comparable levels of workplace success despite deficits in working memory processes and self-understanding, and weaker literacy skills. However similar workplace success could not be attributed to compensatory use of metacognitive skills by dyslexics because dyslexics did not have greater metacognitive skill. Possible explanations and recommendations for further research are discussed.

Uther Maria, Banks Adrian P. (2018) User Perceptions of Sound Quality: Implications for the Design and Use of Audio-Based Mobile Applications, International Journal of Human?Computer Interaction pp. 1-8 Taylor & Francis
This study sought to investigate the effect that contextual cues (in particular, device type and content type) have on the perception of sound quality. A sample of 49 participants were tested on different mobile devices sizes (small ? iPhone, medium ? iPad Mini, and large ? iPad) which had identical sound output characteristics within in different usage contexts (generic content vs. musical training app contexts). Results showed that the users? perception of generic sound types was affected by device type, with iPhones appearing to have better sound quality compared to larger devices. On the other hand, within application contexts, the application type seemed to affect user perceptions more, with the rhythm training application rating poorer on sound quality, picture quality, and likelihood of future use as compared to the pitch training application (although this may be due to the perceived increased difficulty). Together, these findings demonstrate the influence of device and content cues (when actual physical qualities are controlled) on user sound perception. Interestingly, differences in perceived sound quality was not accompanied by an overriding preference for that device as compared to other devices. Instead, considerations such as ease of use seemed to drive considerations for uptake of applications.
Husted Margaret, Seiss Ellen, Banks Adrian P. (2019) The relationship between dietary restraint and deficits in reasoning about causes of obesity, Psychology & Health pp. 1-19 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

Objective: Increased levels of dietary restraint are associated with deficits on many cognitive tasks. Less is known about how individual differences in restraint influences complex cognition such as reasoning which is the focus of this research.

Design: Two experimental studies are reported. In study 1, participants (n = 158) completed a causal conditional reasoning task with statements about weight-related and general causal relationships. Study 2 replicated and extended study 1. Participants (n = 108) completed a causal conditional reasoning task focusing on behavioural causes of weight change or general statements.

Main outcome measure: Causal conditional reasoning task performance.

Results: In study 1, levels of dietary restraint were negatively associated with reasoning abilities for weight-related statements only. Study 2 replicated the negative association between dietary restraint and reasoning finding the effect in both weight-related, and general, causal judgements.

Conclusion: The novel findings show that individual differences in dietary restraint have a wider relationship with cognition than previously demonstrated. Results tentatively support theoretical explanations of a reduction in cognitive capacity, rather than differences in belief, explaining reasoning deficits. These findings open an interesting avenue for research and might have implications for effective decision making about personal health behaviours, such as food choice.