Dr Ahmed Elzanaty

Lecturer in Communication systems
PhD in Electronics, Telecommunications, and Information Technology
+44 (0)1483 683468
05 CII 01



Research interests


Postgraduate research supervision



Ahmed Elzanaty; Anna Guerra; Francesco Guidi; Mohamed-Slim Alouini (2021) "Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces for Localization: Position and Orientation Error Bounds," in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 69, pp. 5386-5402, 2021, doi: 10.1109/TSP.2021.3101644.
Next-generation cellular networks could witness the creation of smart radio environments (SREs), where walls and objects will be coated with reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) to strengthen the communication and localization performance. In fact, RISs have been recently introduced not only to overcome communication blockages due to obstacles but also for high-precision localization of mobile users in GPS denied environments, e.g., indoors. Towards such a vision, this paper presents the localization performance limits for communication scenarios where a single next generation NodeB base station (gNB), equipped with multiple antennas, infers the position and the orientation of a user equipment (UE) in a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-assisted smart radio environment (SRE). We consider a signal model that is valid also for near-field propagation conditions, as the usually adopted far-field assumption does not always hold, especially for large RISs. For the considered scenario, we derive the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for assessing the ultimate localization and orientation performance of synchronous and asynchronous signalling schemes. In addition, we propose a closed-form RIS phase profile that well suits joint communication and localization, and we perform extensive numerical results to assess the performance of our scheme for various localization scenarios and for various RIS phase design. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can achieve remarkable performance even in asynchronous signalling, and that the proposed phase design, based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), approaches the numerical optimal phase design that minimizes the CRLB.
Ahmed Elzanaty; Mohamed-Slim Alouini (2020) "Adaptive Coded Modulation for IM/DD Free-Space Optical Backhauling: A Probabilistic Shaping Approach," in IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 6388-6402, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1109/TCOMM.2020.3006575.
In this paper, we propose a practical adaptive coding modulation scheme to approach the capacity of free-space optical (FSO) channels with intensity modulation/direct detection based on probabilistic shaping. The encoder efficiently adapts the transmission rate to the signal-to-noise ratio, accounting for the fading induced by the atmospheric turbulence. The transponder can support an arbitrarily large number of transmission modes using a low complexity channel encoder with a small set of supported rates. Hence, it can provide a solution for FSO backhauling in terrestrial and satellite communication systems to achieve higher spectral efficiency. We propose two algorithms to determine the capacity and capacity-achieving distribution of the scheme with unipolar M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM) signaling. Then, the signal constellation is probabilistically shaped according to the optimal distribution, and the shaped signal is channel encoded by an efficient binary forward error correction scheme. Extensive numerical results and simulations are provided to evaluate the performance. The proposed scheme yields a rate close to the tightest lower bound on the capacity of FSO channels. For instance, the coded modulator operates within 0.2 dB from the M-PAM capacity, and it outperforms uniform signaling with more than 1.7 dB, at a transmission rate of 3 bits per channel use.
Ahmed Elzanaty, Andrea Giorgetti, Marco Chiani (2019) "Lossy Compression of Noisy Sparse Sources Based on Syndrome Encoding," in IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 7073-7087, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.1109/TCOMM.2019.2926080.
Data originating from devices and sensors in Internet of Things scenarios can often be modeled as sparse signals. In this paper, we provide new source compression schemes for noisy sparse and non-strictly sparse sources, based on channel coding theory. Specifically, nonlinear excision filtering by means of model order selection or thresholding is first used to detect the support of the non-zero elements of sparse vectors in noise. Then, the sparse sources are quantized and compressed using syndrome-based encoders. The theoretical performance of the schemes is provided, accounting for the uncertainty in the support estimation. In particular, we derive the operational distortion-rate and operational distortion-energy of the encoders for noisy Bernoulli-uniform and Bernoulli-Gaussian sparse sources. It is found that the performance of the proposed encoders approaches the information-theoretic bounds for sources with low sparsity order. As a case study, the proposed encoders are used to compress signals gathered from a real wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring.
Ahmed Elzanaty; Andrea Giorgetti; Marco Chiani (2018) "Limits on Sparse Data Acquisition: RIC Analysis of Finite Gaussian Matrices," in IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 1578-1588, March 2019, doi: 10.1109/TIT.2018.2859327.
One of the key issues in the acquisition of sparse data by means of compressed sensing is the design of the measurement matrix. Gaussian matrices have been proven to be information-theoretically optimal in terms of minimizing the required number of measurements for sparse recovery. In this paper, we provide a new approach for the analysis of the restricted isometry constant (RIC) of finite dimensional Gaussian measurement matrices. The proposed method relies on the exact distributions of the extreme eigenvalues for Wishart matrices. First, we derive the probability that the restricted isometry property is satisfied for a given sufficient recovery condition on the RIC, and propose a probabilistic framework to study both the symmetric and asymmetric RICs. Then, we analyze the recovery of compressible signals in noise through the statistical characterization of stability and robustness. The presented framework determines limits on various sparse recovery algorithms for finite size problems. In particular, it provides a tight lower bound on the maximum sparsity order of the acquired data allowing signal recovery with a given target probability. Also, we derive simple approximations for the RICs based on the Tracy-Widom distribution.
Marco Chiani, Ahmed Elzanaty (2019) "On the LoRa Modulation for IoT: Waveform Properties and Spectral Analysis," in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 8463-8470, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2019.2919151.
An important modulation technique for Internet of Things (IoT) is the one proposed by the low power long range (LoRa) alliance. In this paper, we analyze the M-ary LoRa modulation in the time and frequency domains. First, we provide the signal description in the time domain, and show that LoRa is a memoryless continuous phase modulation. The cross-correlation between the transmitted waveforms is determined, proving that LoRa can be considered approximately an orthogonal modulation only for large M. Then, we investigate the spectral characteristics of the signal modulated by random data, obtaining a closed-form expression of the spectrum in terms of Fresnel functions. Quite surprisingly, we found that LoRa has both continuous and discrete spectra, with the discrete spectrum containing exactly a fraction 1/M of the total signal power.
Nasir Saeed; Ahmed Elzanaty; Heba Almorad; Hayssam Dahrouj; Tareq Y. Al-Naffouri; Mohamed-Slim Alouini (2020) "CubeSat Communications: Recent Advances and Future Challenges," in IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1839-1862, thirdquarter 2020, doi: 10.1109/COMST.2020.2990499.
Given the increasing number of space-related applications, research in the emerging space industry is becoming more and more attractive. One compelling area of current space research is the design of miniaturized satellites, known as CubeSats, which are enticing because of their numerous applications and low design-and-deployment cost. The new paradigm of connected space through CubeSats makes possible a wide range of applications, such as Earth remote sensing, space exploration, and rural connectivity. CubeSats further provide a complementary connectivity solution to the pervasive Internet of Things (IoT) networks, leading to a globally connected cyber-physical system. This paper presents a holistic overview of various aspects of CubeSat missions and provides a thorough review of the topic from both academic and industrial perspectives. We further present recent advances in the area of CubeSat communications, with an emphasis on constellation-and-coverage issues, channel modeling, modulation and coding, and networking. Finally, we identify several future research directions for CubeSat communications, including Internet of space things, low-power long-range networks, and machine learning for CubeSat resource allocation.
L. Chiaraviglio, A. Elzanaty and M. -S. Alouini, (2021) "Health Risks Associated With 5G Exposure: A View From the Communications Engineering Perspective," in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, vol. 2, pp. 2131-2179, 2021, doi: 10.1109/OJCOMS.2021.3106052.
The deployment of the fifth-generation (5G) wireless communication services requires the installation of 5G next-generation Node-B Base Stations (gNBs) over the territory and the wide adoption of 5G User Equipment (UE). In this context, the population is concerned about the potential health risks associated with the Radio Frequency (RF) emissions from 5G equipment, with several communities actively working toward stopping the 5G deployment. To face these concerns, in this work, we analyze the health risks associated with 5G exposure by adopting a new and comprehensive viewpoint, based on the communications engineering perspective. By exploiting our background, we investigate the alleged health effects of 5G exposure and critically review the latest works that are often referenced to support the health concerns from 5G. We then precisely examine the up-to-date metrics, regulations, and assessment of compliance procedures for 5G exposure, by evaluating the latest guidelines from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC), as well as the national regulations in more than 220 countries. We also thoroughly analyze the main health risks that are frequently associated with specific 5G features (e.g., multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), beamforming, cell densification, adoption of millimeter waves, and connection of millions of devices). Finally, we examine the risk mitigation techniques based on communications engineering that can be implemented to reduce the exposure from 5G gNB and UE. Overall, we argue that the widely perceived health risks that are attributed to 5G are not supported by scientific evidence from communications engineering.
H. Ibraiwish, A. Elzanaty, Y. H. Al-Badarneh and M. -S. Alouini (2021) "EMF-Aware Cellular Networks in RIS-Assisted Environments," in IEEE Communications Letters, doi: 10.1109/LCOMM.2021.3120688.
The deployment of the 5th-generation cellular networks (5G) and beyond has triggered health concerns due to the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) exposure. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture to minimize the population exposure to EMF by considering a smart radio environment with a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS). Then, we optimize the RIS phases to minimize the exposure in terms of the exposure index (EI) while maintaining a minimum target quality of service. The proposed scheme achieves up to 20% reduction in EI compared to schemes without RISs.
Ahmed Elzanaty, et al. (2021) "An Efficient Statistical-based Gradient Compression Technique for Distributed Training Systems." Proceedings of Machine Learning and Systems (MLSys).
The recent many-fold increase in the size of deep neural networks makes efficient distributed training challenging. Many proposals exploit the compressibility of the gradients and propose lossy compression techniques to speed up the communication stage of distributed training. Nevertheless, compression comes at the cost of reduced model quality and extra computation overhead. In this work, we design an efficient compressor with minimal overhead. Noting the sparsity of the gradients, we propose to model the gradients as random variables distributed according to some sparsity-inducing distributions (SIDs). We empirically validate our assumption by studying the statistical characteristics of the evolution of gradient vectors over the training process. We then propose Sparsity-Inducing Distribution-based Compression (SIDCo), a threshold-based sparsification scheme that enjoys similar threshold estimation quality to deep gradient compression (DGC) while being faster by imposing lower compression overhead. Our extensive evaluation of popular machine learning benchmarks involving both recurrent neural network (RNN) and convolution neural network (CNN) models shows that SIDCo speeds up training by up to ~41.7X, 7.6X, and 1.9X compared to the no-compression baseline, Topk, and DGC compressors, respectively.
Ahmed Elzanaty, et. al. (2021) "5G and EMF Exposure: Misinformation, Open Questions, and Potential Solutions," Frontiers in Communications and Networks.
The massive deployment of advanced wireless networks is essential to support broadband connectivity, low latency communication, and Internet of Things applications. Nevertheless, in the time of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) there is a massive amount of misinformation and uncertainty about the impact of fifth-generation cellular network (5G) networks on human health. In this paper, we investigate the main categories of misinformation regarding 5G, i.e., fake theories, the misconception of 5G features, and open questions that require further research. Then, we propose two novel approaches for the design of electromagnetic field (EMF)-aware cellular networks that can reduce human exposure to radio frequency radiation.
Amanat Kafizov; Ahmed Elzanaty; Mohamed-Slim Alouini (2022) Probabilistic Shaping Based Spatial Modulation for Spectral-Efficient VLC
Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising technology for 6th-generation (6G) networks because of its attractive feature such as a wide unlicensed spectrum. In this paper, a novel adaptive coded spatial modulation scheme with probabilistic shaping (PS) is proposed to approach the capacity of the spatial modulation (SM) in VLC channels with intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD). In the proposed scheme, spatial and constellation symbols are probabilistically shaped depending on the user’s location inside the room and the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). Moreover, we optimize the channel coding rate to maximize further the achievable rate of the proposed scheme for a given OSNR. Finally, we propose an algorithm to compute the capacity-achieving distribution of the proposed scheme with unipolar M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) signaling. The proposed scheme outperforms uniform and an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) based scheme in terms of spectral efficiency (SE) and/or frame error rate (FER). For example, for 8-PAM signaling with N = 8 transmit antennas, the proposed scheme operates within 0.2 dB from the unipolar M-PAM SM VLC channel signaling capacity and outperforms the uniform and OFDM based schemes in terms of FER by at least 1.1 dB and 1.3 dB at a normalized data rate of 1.33 bits per channel use per sub-carrier (b/cu/sc), respectively.
Omar Rinchi, Ahmed Elzanaty, Mohamed-Slim Alouini (2022) Compressive Near-Field Localization For Multipath RIS-aided Environments
Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are considered among the key techniques to be adopted for sixth-generation cellular networks (6G) to enhance not only communications but also localization performance. In this regard, we propose a novel single-anchor localization algorithm for a state-of-the-art architecture where the position of the user equipment (UE) is to be estimated at the base station (BS) with the aid of a RIS. We consider a practical model that accounts for both near-field propagation and multipath environments. The proposed scheme relies on a compressed sensing (CS) technique tailored to address the issues associated with near-field localization and model mismatches. Also, the RIS phases are optimized to enhance the positioning performance, achieving more than one order of magnitude gain in the localization accuracy compared to RISs with non-optimized phases.
Sidrah Javed, Ahmed Elzanaty, Osama Amin, Mohamed-Slim Alouini and Basem Shihada (2022) EMF-Aware Probabilistic Shaping Design for Hardware-Distorted Communication Systems
The fifth-generation cellular network requires dense installation of radio base stations (BS) to support the ever-increasing demands of high throughput and coverage. The ongoing deployment has triggered some health concerns among the community. To address this uncertainty, we propose an EMF-aware probabilistic shaping design for hardware-distorted communication systems. The proposed scheme aims to minimize human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiations while achieving the target throughput using probabilistic shaping. The joint optimization of the transmit power and nonuniform symbol probabilities is a non–convex optimization problem. Therefore, we employ alternate optimization and successive convex approximation to solve the subsequent problems. Our findings reveal a significant reduction in the users’ exposure to EMF while achieving the requisite quality of service with the help of probabilistic shaping in a hardware-distorted communication system.