# Professor Alessandro Torrielli

## Academic and research departments

Mathematics at the Interface Group, School of Mathematics and Physics.## About

### Biography

2024: My book Integrability using the Sine-Gordon and Thirring duality has been published by the Institute of Physics

2018: Recipient of the EPSRC-SFI grant “*Solving spins and strings*” (link here) jointly with Dr. Marius de Leeuw (Trinity College Dublin). The total value to Surrey is £487,604 (with a commensurate amount from SFI to Trinity College). It includes money for a postdoc [Juan Miguel Nieto Garcia, now at the University of Hamburg], travel, and 20% time for the PI. The project starts in September 2019.

2015: I was voted *Best Lecturer* at the Durham Integrability School. The award was presented to me at IGST15 in London.

2012: Awarded EPSRC First grant "Exotic quantum groups, Lie superalgebras & integrable systems"

2011 - present: Member of staff, Department of Mathematics, University of Surrey; promoted to professor in mathematics in 2022

2010-2011: Post-doc at the Mathematics Department of the University of York, UK; EPSRC grant of Dr.Niall MacKay and Prof. Evgeny Sklyanin

2008-2010: Post-doc at the Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

2006-2008: Bruno Rossi" INFN-MIT postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

2004-2006: Post-doc at the Humboldt University of Berlin

2003: 2-month DAAD fellowship to collaborate with Dr. Harald Dorn - Humboldt University of Berlin

2003-2004: Postdoc at the University of Padova and fellow of the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN)

2002-2003: Four months of scientific collaboration with the University of Padova

2003: PhD dissertation (Physics) at the University of Padova, Italy [17 Feb] (Supervisor Prof. Antonio Bassetto, Collaborator Prof. Giuseppe Nardelli)

1999: Laurea 110/110 e lode (top marks cum laude) in Physics at the University of Genova, Italy [13 Oct] (Supervisor Prof. Carlo Maria Becchi, Co-supervisor Prof. Nicola Maggiore)

1994: Esame di Maturita' Classica with top marks (60/60) at the Lyceum of Classical Studies "G. Parodi", Acqui Terme, Italy

### Areas of specialism

### University roles and responsibilities

- Support Staff for the Milan Bicocca - Surrey dual doctorate

## News

### In the media

## Research

### Research interests

I am interested in the theory of classical and quantum integrable systems and quantum groups, especially the ones that emerge in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

### Research projects

In-depth analysis of the behaviour of the massless modes in the conformal limit of the AdS_3/CFT_2 scattering problems and the relation with the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz. Study of the conformal form factors and the correlation functions at the critical point and analysis of the massless non-relativistic deformations.

### Research collaborations

Some of my recent collaborators:

- Bogdan Stefanski (City), Marco Baggio (Leuven), Daniele Bielli (Chulalongkorn), Diego Bombardelli (Bologna), Riccardo Borsato (Santiago), Andrea Cavaglia' (Torino), Marius de Leeuw (Trinity College Dublin), Ben Hoare (HU Berlin / ETH), Nikolay Gromov (King's College), Suvajit Majumder (City) Juan Miguel Nieto Garcia (Hamburg), Olof Ohlsson-Sax (Nordita), Chiara Paletta (Lubiana), Antonio Pittelli (Uppsala), Anton Pribytok (Padova and Hu Berlin), Andrea Prinsloo, Ana Retore (Durham) Roberto Ruiz (Madrid), Vidas Regelskis (Hertfordshire), Alessandro Sfondrini (ETH), Martin Wolf and Leander Wyss, on spin-chains based on superalgebras and the AdS_3 / CFT_2 and AdS_2 / CFT_1 correspondences
- Fabrizio Nieri (Hamburg) and Sara Pasquetti (Milan Bicocca) on integrable aspects of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories
- Georgios Itsios (Sao Paulo), Konstantinos Sfetsos (Athens) and Konstantinos Siampos (CERN), on integrable interpolations in sigma models.
- Joakim Stroemwall and Andrea Fontanella (Trinity College Dublin) on the AdS_3 / CFT_2 and AdS_2 / CFT_1 correspondences
- Evgeny Sklyanin (York), Karol Kozlowski (Lyon) and Benoit Vicedo (York) on the quantisation of the KP equation.

## Supervision

### Postgraduate research supervision

I am supervising Fabio Marino (jointly with Prof Sara Pasquetti, Milan Bicocca), Vaibhav Gautam (jointly with Dr Masanori Hanada, Queen Mary University of London) and Vasileios Moustakis.

## Teaching

- Quantum Mechanics MAT3039 (year 3)
- Engineering Mathematics 3 EEE2035 (year 2)

## Publications

### Highlights

This book provides a detailed description of the duality between two integrable systems: the 1+1-dimensional Sine-Gordon model and the 1+1-dimensional Thirring model. While of great importance per se, this duality is only part of the target of the book. In order to reach an understanding of the subtleties involved in the duality, one has to take a journey through the properties of quantum integrable systems, building from the ground up the theory of exact S-matrices and familiarising oneself with the mathematical concept of a quantum group. The book therefore becomes an opportunity for a focussed study of integrability in its wider breadth of interest, always maintaining a clear ultimate purpose in mind: understanding the duality between bosons and fermions in 1+1 dimensions. This should make going through the book from the point of view of the reader/early-career researcher a live enterprise, as opposed to a more passive learning exercise. Starting with a description of the classical and the quantum Sine-Gordon model, in particular the quantum spectrum, S-matrices and underlying quantum-group symmetry, and the renormalisation properties, the book then proceeds to discuss the Thirring model. The book then develops the theory and at the same time provides a significant number of examples, and concludes by presenting the duality with the Thirring model as originally stated by S. Coleman and refined in subsequent literature, and it focusses on a variety of tests of the duality. Developed from a lecture series, this graduate level textbook includes the basic elements without relying on pre-requisites beyond standard graduate-level quantum field theory knowledge. The open-ended literature reviews included throughout the book constitute ideas for end-of-year projects, while the more standard exercises are accompanied by solutions.

We study the boundary integrability problem of the massless sector of AdS₃ × S³ × T⁴ string theory. We obtain the massless reflection matrices for all the possible boundary coideal subalgebras-singlet and vector representations, right and left boundary-and check basic properties of our solutions, primarily the boundary Yang-Baxter equation in all possible combinations of scattering particles. We exploit the difference-form of the massless scattering theory to find a very simple and exhaustive list of reflection matrices. *

We study the two-particle form-factors for the relativistic limit of the integrable S-matrix of the mixed-flux AdS3 × S 3 × T 4 string theory. The S-matrix theory was formally constructed in two distinct ways by two different teams. We focus on the massive theory built up by Frolov, Polvara and Sfondrini, and derive expressions for the minimal solutions to the axioms, in both integral and manifestly meromorphic form, and then proceed to apply the off-shell Bethe ansatz method of Babujian et al. We obtain the integral formulas for the two-particle complete form-factors and check the axioms at this particle number.

We construct infinite-dimensional R-matrices that generalise the relativistic scattering of massless modes with the same chirality on AdS₂ near the Berestein-Maldacena-Nastase vacuum. We show that the infrared limit of the R-matrices reproduces finite-dimensional scattering of massless modes on AdS₂, from which the R-matrices borrow modified braiding unitary. We also prove that the R-matrices enjoy an infinite-dimensional symmetry superalgebra that embeds that of AdS₂. Finally, we verify that the R-matrices are also invariant under crossing symmetry.

The classical analysis of Kazakov and Kostov of the Makeenko-Migdal loop equation in two-dimensional gauge theory leads to usual partial differential equations with respect to the areas of windows formed by the loop. We extend this treatment to the case of U(N) Yang-Mills defined on the noncommutative plane. We deal with all the subtleties which arise in their two-dimensional geometric procedure, using where needed results from the perturbative computations of the noncommutative Wilson loop available in the literature. The open Wilson line contribution present in the non-commutative version of the loop equation drops out in the resulting usual differential equations. These equations for all N have the same form as in the commutative case for N to infinity. However, the additional supplementary input from factorization properties allowing to solve the equations in the commutative case is no longer valid.

We present an investigation on the invariance properties of noncommutative Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions under area preserving diffeomorphisms. Stimulated by recent remarks by Ambjorn, Dubin and Makeenko who found a breaking of such an invariance, we confirm both on a fairly general ground and by means of perturbative analytical and numerical calculations that indeed invariance under area preserving diffeomorphisms is lost. However a remnant survives, namely invariance under linear unimodular tranformations.

Perturbative spectra and related factorization properties of one-loop open string amplitudes in the presence of a constant external background B are analysed in detail. While the pattern of the closed string spectrum, obtained after a careful study of the properly symmetrized amplitudes, turns out to be unaffected by the presence of B, a series of double open-string poles, which would be absent when B is turned off, can couple owing to a partial symmetry loss. These features are studied first in a bosonic setting and then generalized in the more satisfactory superstring context. When the background is of an ``electric'' type, a classical perturbative instability is produced beyond a critical value of the electric field. In the Seiberg-Witten limit this instability is the origin of the unphysical tachyonic cut occurring in the non-planar amplitudes of the corresponding noncommutative field theories.

A quantisation of the KP equation on a cylinder is proposed that is equivalent to an infinite system of non-relativistic one-dimensional bosons carrying masses m = 1, 2, . . . The Hamiltonian is Galilei-invariant and includes the split Ψ† m1Ψ† m2Ψm1+m2 and merge Ψ† m1+m2Ψm1Ψm2 terms for all combinations of particles with masses m1, m2 and m1 + m2, with a special choice of coupling constants. The Bethe eigenfunctions for the model are constructed. The consistency of the coordinate Bethe Ansatz, and therefore, the quantum integrability of the model is verified up to the mass M = 8 sector.

In this paper we initiate the study of form factors for the massless scattering of integrable AdS(2) superstrings, where the difference-form of the S-matrix can be exploited to implement the relativistic form factor bootstrap. The non-standard nature of the S-matrix implies that traditional methods do not apply. We use the fact that the massless AdS(2)S-matrix is a limit of a better-behaved S-matrix found by Fendley. We show that the previously conjectured massless AdS(2) dressing factor coincides with the limit of the De Martino-Moriconi improved dressing factor for the Fendley S-matrix. We then solve the form factor constraints in the two-particle case. Along the way we find a method to construct integral representations of relativistic dressing factors satisfying specific assumptions, and use it to obtain analytic proofs of crossing and unitarity relations.

We discover that a certain deformation of the 1 + 1 dimensional Poincar e superalgebra is exactly realised in the massless sector of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable scattering problem. Deformed Poincar e superalgebras were previously noticed to appear in the AdS5/CFT4 correspondence - which displays only massive excitations -, but they were there only a partial symmetry. We obtain a representation of the boost operator and its coproduct, and show that the comultiplication exactly satisfies the homomorphism property. We present a classical limit, and finally speculate on an analogy with the physics of phonons.

This is the introductory chapter of a review collection on integrability in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In the collection we present an overview of the achievements and the status of this subject as of the year 2010.

We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3 x S3 x T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly-coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their sub-leading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results, and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

_{3}, In: Journal of High Energy Physics105 Springer Verlag

We use relativistic invariance to investigate two aspects of integrable AdS3 string theory. Firstly, we write down the all-loop TBA equations for the massless sector of the theory with R-R flux, using the recently discovered hidden relativistic symmetry. Secondly, for the low-energy relativistic limit of the theory with NS-NS flux we write down the S matrix, dressing factors and TBA. We find that the integrable system coincides with a restriction to AdS3 of the relativistic q-deformed AdS5 theory. We also comment on the relativistic limit of the small-k NS-NS theory.

We find a new quantum affine symmetry of the S-matrix of the one-dimensional Hubbard chain. We show that this symmetry originates from the quantum affine superalgebra U_q(gl(2|2)), and in the rational limit exactly reproduces the secret symmetry of the AdS/CFT worldsheet S-matrix.

We consider the exact R-matrix of AdS3/CFT2, which is the building block for describing the scattering of worldsheet excitations of the light-cone gauge-fixed backgrounds AdS3 × S3 × T4 and AdS3 × S3 × S3 × S1 with pure Ramond-Ramond fluxes. We show that R is invariant under a “deformed boost” symmetry, for which we write an explicit exact coproduct, i.e. its action on 2-particle states. When we include the boost, the symmetries of the R-matrix close into a q-Poincaré superalgebra. Our findings suggest that the recently discovered boost invariance in AdS5/CFT4 may be a common feature of AdS/CFT systems that are treatable with the exact techniques of integrability. With the aim of going towards a universal formulation of the underlying Hopf algebra, we also propose a universal form of the AdS3/CFT2 classical r-matrix.

We study the Yangian of the sl(2|1) Lie superalgebra in a multi-parametric four-dimensional representation. We use Drinfeld's second realization to derive the R-matrix, the antiparticle representation, the crossing and unitarity condition. We consistently apply the Yangian antipode and its inverse to the individual particles involved in the scattering. We explicitly find a scalar factor solving the crossing and unitarity conditions, and study the analytic structure of the resulting dressed R-matrix. The formulas we obtain bear some similarities with those familiar from the study of integrable structures in the AdS/CFT correspondence, although they present obvious crucial differences.

We construct Drinfeld’s second realization of the Yangian based on psu(2|2) ⋉ R3 symmetry. The second realization is traditionally more suitable for deriving the quantum double and the universal R-matrix with respect to the first realization, originally obtained by Beisert, and it is generically more useful in order to study finite dimensional representations. We show that the two realizations are isomorphic, where the isomorphism is almost the standard one given by Drinfeld for simple Lie algebras, but needs some crucial corrections to account for the central charges. We also evaluate the generators of the second realization on the fundamental representation, finding the interesting result that the rapidity variable for some generators gets boosted by the energy eigenvalue.

We collect some arguments for treating a D-brane with overcritical electric field as a well-posed initial condition for a D-brane decay. Within the field theoretical toy model of Minahan and Zwiebach we give an estimate for the condensates of the related infinite tower of tachyonic excitations.

*AdS*

_{3}, In: Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical53(14)145401 IOP Publishing

We compute scalar products and norms of Bethe vectors in the massless sector of AdS3 integrable superstring theories, by exploiting the general difference form of the S-matrix of massless excitations in the pure Ramond-Ramond case, and the difference form valid only in the BMN limit in the mixedflux case. We obtain determinant-like formulas for the scalar products, generalising a procedure developed in previous literature for standard R-matrices to the present non-conventional situation. We verify our expressions against explicit calculations using Bethe vectors for chains of small length, and perform some computer tests of the exact formulas as far as numerical accuracy sustains us. This should be the first step towards the derivation of integrable form-factors and correlation functions for the AdS3 S-matrix theory.

We first analyse the integrable scattering theory describing the massless excitations of AdS2 x S2 x T6 superstrings in the relativistic limit. The matrix part of the S-matrix is obtained in the BMN limit from the conjectured exact expression, and compared to known S-matrices with N = 1 supersymmetry in 1 + 1 dimensions. A dressing factor, yet unknown for the complete theory, is here constructed based on relativistic crossing symmetry. We derive a Bethe-ansatz condition by employing a transfer-matrix technique based on the so-called free-fermion condition. This is known to overcome the problem of lack of a reference state. We then generalise the method to the massless non-relativistic case, and compare the resulting Bethe-ansatz condition with a simple massless limit of the one conjectured by Sorokin, Tseytlin, Wulff and Zarembo.

We formulate the Hopf algebra underlying the su(2|2) worldsheet S-matrix of the AdS5 × S5 string in the AdS/CFT correspondence. For this we extend the previous construction in the su(1|2) subsector due to Janik to the full algebra by specifying the action of the coproduct and the antipode on the remaining generators. The nontriviality of the coproduct is determined by length-changing effects and results in an unusual central braiding. As an application we explicitly determine the antiparticle representation by means of the established antipode.

We consider the exact S-matrix governing the planar spectral problem for strings on AdS5× S 5 and N = 4 super Yang-Mills, and we show that it is invariant under a novel “boost” symmetry, which acts as a differentiation with respect to the particle momentum. This generator leads us also to reinterpret the usual centrally extended psu(2|2) symmetry, and to conclude that the S-matrix is invariant under a q-Poincar´e supersymmetry algebra, where the deformation parameter is related to the ’t Hooft coupling. We determine the twoparticle action (coproduct) that turns out to be non-local, and study the property of the new symmetry under crossing transformations. We look at both the strong-coupling (large tension in the string theory) and weak-coupling (spin-chain description of the gauge theory) limits; in the former regime we calculate the cobracket utilising the universal classical rmatrix of Beisert and Spill. In the eventuality that the boost has higher partners, we also construct a quantum affine version of 2D Poincar´e symmetry, by contraction of the quantum affine algebra Uq(slc2) in Drinfeld’s second realisation.

In this note we straightforwardly derive and make use of the quantum R matrix for the su(2|2) super Yang-Mills spin chain in the manifest su(1|2)-invariant formulation, which solves the standard quantum Yang-Baxter equation, in order to obtain the correspondent (undressed) classical r matrix from the first order expansion in the “deformation” parameter 2π/√λ and check that this last solves the standard classical Yang-Baxter equation. We analyze its bialgebra structure, its dependence on the spectral parameters, and its pole structure. We notice that it still preserves an su(1|2) subalgebra, thereby admitting an expression in terms of a combination of projectors, which spans only a subspace of su(1|2)⊗su(1|2). We study the residue at its simple pole at the origin and comment on the applicability of the classical Belavin-Drinfeld type of analysis.

We apply the algebraic Bethe ansatz technique to compute the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix constructed from the general bound state S-matrix of the lightcone AdS5 × S5 superstring. This allows us to verify certain conjectures on the quantum characteristic function, and to extend them to the general case.

We introduce a series of articles reviewing various aspects of integrable models relevant to the AdS/CFT correspondence. Topics covered in these reviews are: classical integrability, Yangian symmetry, factorized scattering, the Bethe ansatz, the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, and integrable structures in (conformal) quantum field theory. In the present article we highlight how these concepts have found application in AdS/CFT, and provide a brief overview of the material contained in this series.

We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the lectures consists of 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrodinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin-Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel'fand-Levitan- Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model).

We derive the q-deformation of the chiral Gross-Taylor holomorphic string large N expansion of two dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. Delta functions on symmetric group algebras are replaced by the corresponding objects (canonical trace functions) for Hecke algebras. The role of the Schur-Weyl duality between unitary groups and symmetric groups is now played by q-deformed Schur-Weyl duality of quantum groups. The appearance of Euler characters of configuration spaces of Riemann surfaces in the expansion persists. We discuss the geometrical meaning of these formulae.

Worldline instantons provide a particularly elegant way to derive Schwinger’s well-known formula for the pair creation rate due to a constant electric field in quantum electrodynamics. In this note, we show how to extend this method to the corresponding problem of open string pair creation.

The centrally extended su(2|2) superalgebra is an asymptotic symmetry of the light-cone string sigma model on AdS5 × S5. We consider an evaluation representation of the conventional Yangian built over a particular 16-dimensional long representation of the centrally extended su(2|2). Interestingly, we find that S-matrices compatible with this evaluation representation do not exist. On the other hand, by requiring centrally extended su(2|2) invariance and explicitly solving the Yang-Baxter equation, we find a scattering matrix for long-short representations of the Lie superalgebra. We notice that this S-matrix is invariant under a different representation of non-evaluation type, induced from the tensor product of short representations. Our findings concern the conventional Yangian only, and are not applied to possible algebraic extensions of the latter.

We express the classical r-matrix of AdS/CFT in terms of tensor products involving an infinite family of generators, which takes a form suggestive of the universal expression obtained from a Yangian double. This should provide an insight into the structure of the infinite dimensional symmetry algebra underlying the integrability of the model, and give a clue to the construction of its universal R-matrix. We derive the commutation relations under which the algebra of these new generators close.

We find a new quantum Yangian symmetry of the AdS/CFT S-matrix, which complements the original (2|2) symmetry to (2|2) and does not have a Lie algebra analog. Our finding is motivated by the Yangian double structure discovered at the classical level.

We discuss the breakdown of perturbative unitarity of noncommutative quantum field theories in electric-type background in the light of string theory. We consider the analytic structure of string loop two-point functions using a suitable off-shell continuation and then study the zero slope limit of Seiberg and Witten. In this way we pick up how the unphysical tachyonic branch cut appears in the noncommutative field theory. We briefly discuss discontinuities and cutting rules for the full string theory amplitude and relate them to the noncommutative field theoretical results, and also discuss the insight one gains into the magnetic case too.

We perform a systematic analysis of wrapping interactions for a general class of theories with color degrees of freedom, including N=4 SYM. Wrapping interactions arise in the genus expansion of the 2-point function of composite operators as finite size effects that start to appear at a certain order in the coupling constant at which the range of the interaction is equal to the length of the operators. We analyze in detail the relevant genus expansions, and introduce a strategy to single out the wrapping contributions, based on adding spectator fields. We use a toy model to demonstrate our procedure, performing all computations explicitly. Although completely general, our treatment should be particularly useful for applications to the recent problem of wrapping contributions in some checks of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

In this paper we find a host of boost operators for a very general choice of coproducts in AdS3- inspired scattering theories, focusing on the massless sector, with and without an added trigonometric deformation. We find that the boost coproducts are exact symmetries of the R-matrices we construct, besides fulfilling the relations of modified Poincar´e-type superalgebras. In the process, we discover an ambiguity in determining the boost coproduct which allows us to derive differential constraints on our R-matrices. In one particular case of the trigonometric deformation, we find a non-coassociative structure which satisfies the axioms of a quasi-Hopf algebra.

We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the $R____mathcal{T}____mathcal{T}$-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert–de Leeuw construction.

We investigate low-energy string excitations in AdS3 × S 3 × T 4 . When the worldsheet is decompactified, the theory has gapless modes whose spectrum at low energies is determined by massless relativistic integrable S matrices of the type introduced by Al. B. Zamolodchikov. The S matrices are non-trivial only for excitations with identical worldsheet chirality, indicating that the low-energy theory is a CFT2. We construct a Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (TBA) for these excitations and show how the massless modes’ wrapping effects may be incorporated into the AdS3 spectral problem. Using the TBA and its associated Y-system, we determine the central charge of the low-energy CFT2 to be c = 6 from calculating the vacuum energy for antiperiodic fermions - with the vacuum energy being zero for periodic fermions in agreement with a supersymmetric theory - and find the energies of some excited states.

By requiring invariance directly under the Yangian symmetry, we rederive Beisert’s quantum R-matrix, in a form that carries explicit dependence on the representation labels, the braiding factors, and the spectral parameters ui. In this way, we demonstrate that there exist a rewriting of its entries, such that the dependence on the spectral parameters is purely of difference form. Namely, the latter enter only in the combination u1−u2, as indicated by the shift automorphism of the Yangian. When recasted in this fashion, the entries exhibit a cleaner structure, which allows to spot new interesting relations among them. This permits to package them into a practical tensorial expression, where the non-diagonal entries are taken care by explicit combinations of symmetry algebra generators.

We determine the S-matrix that describes scattering of arbitrary bound states in the light-cone string theory in AdS5 × S5. The corresponding construction relies on the Yangian symmetry and the superspace formalism for the bound state representations. The basic analytic structure supporting the S-matrix entries turns out to be the hypergeometric function 4F3. We show that for particular bound state numbers it reproduces all the scattering matrices previously obtained in the literature. Our findings should be relevant for the TBA and L¨uscher approaches to the finite-size spectral problem. They also shed some light on the construction of the universal R-matrix for the centrally-extended psu(2|2) superalgebra.

Commutative Yang-Mills theories in 1+1 dimensions exhibit an interesting interplay between geometrical properties and U(N) gauge structures: in the exact expression of a Wilson loop with $n$ windings a non trivial scaling intertwines $n$ and $N$. In the non-commutative case the interplay becomes tighter owing to the merging of space-time and ``internal'' symmetries in a larger gauge group $U(____infty)$. We perform an explicit perturbative calculation of such a loop up to ${____cal O}(g^6)$; rather surprisingly, we find that in the contribution from the crossed graphs (the genuine non-commutative terms) the scaling we mentioned occurs for large $n$ and $N$ in the limit of maximal non-commutativity $____theta=____infty$. We present arguments in favour of the persistence of such a scaling at any perturbative order and succeed in summing the related perturbative series.

The exact Seiberg–Witten (SW) map of a noncommutative (NC) gauge theory gives the commutative equivalent as an ordinary gauge theory coupled to a field dependent effective metric. We study instanton solutions of this commutative equivalent whose self-duality equation turns out to be the exact SW map of NC instantons. We derive general differential equations governing U(1) instantons and we explicitly get an exact solution corresponding to the single NC instanton. Remarkably the effective metric induced by the single U(1) instanton is related to the Eguchi–Hanson metric—the simplest gravitational instanton. Surprisingly the instanton number is not quantized but depends on an integration constant. Our result confirms the expected non-perturbative breakdown of the SW map. However, the breakdown of the map arises in a consistent way: the instanton number plays the role of a parameter giving rise to a one-parameter family of Eguchi–Hanson metrics.

We explicitly calculate the AdS2×S2×T6 transfer-matrix eigenvalues in the massless sector using the exact integrable S-matrix, for up to 5 particles. This enables us to conjecture the general pattern. We use the conjectured form of the eigenvalues to write down a set of massless Bethe ansatz equations. The same procedure applies to the relativistic as well as to the non-relativistic situation. In the relativistic case, the right and left modes decouple. We speculate that the relativistic massless Bethe ansatz we obtain in that case might capture the integrable structure of an underlying 2D critical theory. We finally take advantage of some remarkable simplifications to make progress in the massive case as well.

We identify certain blocks in the S-matrix describing the scattering of bound states of the AdS5 × S5 superstring that allow for a representation in terms of universal R-matrices of Yangian doubles. For these cases, we use the formulas for Drinfeld’s second realization of the Yangian in arbitrary bound-state representations to obtain the explicit expressions for the corresponding R-matrices. We then show that these expressions perfectly match with the previously obtained S-matrix blocks.

We perform a perturbative ${____cal O}(g^4)$ Wilson loop calculation for the U(N) Yang-Mills theory defined on non-commutative one space - one time dimensions. We choose the light-cone gauge and compare the results obtained when using the Wu-Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ($WML$) and the Cauchy principal value ($PV$) prescription for the vector propagator. In the $WML$ case the $____theta$-dependent term is well-defined and regular in the limit $____theta ____to 0$, where the commutative theory is recovered; it provides a non-trivial example of a consistent calculation when non-commutativity involves the time variable. In the $PV$ case, unexpectedly, the result differs from the $WML$ one only by the addition of two singular terms with a trivial $____theta$-dependence. We find this feature intriguing, when remembering that, in ordinary theories on compact manifolds, the difference between the two cases can be traced back to the contribution of topological excitations.

We consider the action of the q-deformed Poincaré superalgebra on the massless non-relativistic R-matrix in ordinary (undeformed) integrable AdS₂×S²×T⁶ type IIB superstring theory. The boost generator acts non-trivially on the R-matrix, confirming the existence of a non-relativistic rapidity γ with respect to which the R-matrix must be of difference form. We conjecture that from a massless AdS/CFT integrable relativistic R-matrix one can obtain the parental massless non-relativistic R-matrix simply by replacing the relativistic rapidity with γ. We check our conjecture in ordinary (undeformed) AdSn×Sn×T10−2n, n=2,3. In the case n=3, we check that the matrix part and the dressing factor - up to numerical accuracy for real momenta - obey our prescription. In the n=2 case, we check the matrix part and propose the non-relativistic dressing factor. We then start a programme of classifying R-matrices in terms of connections on fibre bundles. The conditions obtained for the connection are tested on a set of known integrable R-matrices.

We make a proposal for incorporating massless modes into the spin-chain of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system. We do this by considering the alpha to 0 limit of the alternating d(2,1;alpha)^2 spin-chain constructed in arXiv:1106.2558. In the process we encounter integrable spin-chains with non-irreducible representations at some of their sites. We investigate their properties and construct their R-matrices in terms of Yangians.

We discuss special quantum group (secret) symmetries of the integrable system associated to the AdS/CFT correspondence. These symmetries have by now been observed in a variety of forms, including the spectral problem, the boundary scattering problem, n-point amplitudes, the pure-spinor formulation and quantum affine deformations.

We study integrable open boundary conditions for d(2,1;____alpha)^2 and psu(1,1|2)^2 spin-chains. Magnon excitations of these open spin-chains are mapped to massive excitations of type IIB open superstrings ending on D-branes in the AdS_3 x S^3 x S^3 x S^1 and AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4 supergravity geometries with pure R-R flux. We derive reflection matrix solutions of the boundary Yang-Baxter equation which intertwine representations of a variety of boundary coideal subalgebras of the bulk Hopf superalgebra. Many of these integrable boundaries are matched to D1 and D5-brane maximal giant gravitons.

We review the study of Hopf algebras, classical and quantum R-matrices, infinite-dimensional Yangian symmetries and their representations in the context of integrability for the N = 4 vs AdS5 X S5 correspondence.

We derive the protected closed-string spectra of AdS3/CFT2 dual pairs with 16 supercharges at arbitrary values of the string tension and of the three-form fluxes. These follow immediately from the all-loop Bethe equations for the spectra of the integrable worldsheet theories. Further, representing the underlying integrable systems as spin chains, we find that their dynamics involves length-changing interactions and that protected states correspond to gapless excitations above the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase vacuum. In the case of AdS3 × S 3 × T 4 the degeneracies of such operators precisely match those of the dual CFT2 and the supergravity spectrum. On the other hand, we find that for AdS3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 there are fewer protected states than previous supergravity calculations had suggested. In particular, protected states have the same su(2) charge with respect to the two three-spheres.

This review is meant to be an account of the properties of the infinite-dimensional quantum group (specifically, Yangian) symmetry lying behind the integrability of the AdS/CFT spectral problem. In passing, the chance is taken to give a concise anthology of basic facts concerning Yangians and integrable systems, and to store a series of remarks, observations and proofs the author has collected in a 5 year span of research on the subject. We hope this exercise will be useful for future attempts to study Yangians in field and string theories, with or without supersymmetry.

We bootstrap the all-loop dynamic S-matrix for the homogeneous psu(1,1|2)^2 spin-chain believed to correspond to the discretization of the massive modes of string theory on AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4. The S-matrix is the tensor product of two copies of the su(1|1)^2 invariant S-matrix constructed recently for the d(2,1;alpha)^2 chain, and depends on two antisymmetric dressing phases. We write down the crossing equations that these phases have to satisfy. Furthermore, we present the corresponding Bethe Ansatz, which differs from the one previously conjectured, and discuss how our construction matches several recent perturbative calculations.

We consider Yang-Mills theory with the U(1) gauge group on a non-commutative plane. Perturbatively it was observed that the invariance of this theory under area-preserving diffeomorphisms (APDs) breaks down to a rigid subgroup SL(2,R). Here we present explicit results for the APD symmetry breaking at finite gauge coupling and finite non-commutativity. They are based on lattice simulations and measurements of Wilson loops with the same area but with a variety of different shapes. Our results are consistent with the expected loss of invariance under APDs. Moreover, they strongly suggest that non-perturbatively the SL(2,R) symmetry does not persist either.

We study the recently discovered q-deformed Poincare supersymmetry of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable massless scattering, and demonstrate how the S-matrix is invariant under boosts. The boost generator has a non-local coproduct, which acts on the scattering matrix as a differential operator, annihilating it. We propose to reinterpret the boost action in terms of covariant derivatives on bundles, and derive an expression for the S-matrix as the path-ordered exponential of a flat connection. We provide a list of possible alternative interpretations of this emergent geometric picture, including a one-dimensional auxiliary Schrodinger problem. We support our claims by performing a simplified algebraic Bethe ansatz, which bears some resemblance to antiferromagnets.

Integrability is believed to underlie the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence with sixteen supercharges. We elucidate the role of massless modes within this integrable framework. Firstly, we find the dressing factors that enter the massless and mixed-mass worldsheet S matrix. Secondly, we derive a set of all-loop Bethe Equations for the closed strings, determine their symmetries and weak-coupling limit. Thirdly, we investigate the underlying Yangian symmetry in the massless sector and show that it fits into the general framework of Yangian integrability. In addition, we compare our S matrix in the near-relativistic limit with recent perturbative worldsheet calculations of Sundin and Wulff.

We construct infinite-dimensional R-matrices that generalise the relativistic scattering of massless modes with the same chirality on AdS₂ near the Berestein-Maldacena-Nastase vacuum. We show that the infrared limit of the R-matrices reproduces finite-dimensional scattering of massless modes on AdS₂, from which the R-matrices borrow modified braiding unitary. We also prove that the R-matrices enjoy an infinite-dimensional symmetry superalgebra that embeds that of AdS₂. Finally, we verify that the R-matrices are also invariant under crossing symmetry.

We show that the massless integrable sector of the AdS3 × S 3 × T 4 superstring theory, which admits a non-trivial relativistic limit, provides a setting where it is possible to determine exact minimal solutions to the form factor axioms, in integral form, based on analyticity considerations, along the same lines of ordinary relativistic integrable models. We construct in full detail the formulas for the two-and three-particle case, and show the similarities as well as the differences with respect to the off-shell Bethe ansatz procedure of Babujian et al. We show that our expressions pass a series of non-trivial consistency checks which are substantially more involved than in the traditional case. We speculate on the problems concerned in a possible generalisation to an arbitrary number of particles, and on a possible connection with the hexagon programme.

We conjecture the Quantum Spectral Curve equations for string theory on AdS 3 × S 3 × T 4 with RR charge and its CFT 2 dual. We show that in the large-length regime, under additional mild assumptions, the QSC reproduces the Asymptotic Bethe Ansatz equations for the massive sector of the theory, including the exact dressing phases found in the literature. The structure of the QSC shares many similarities with the previously known AdS 5 and AdS 4 cases, but contains a critical new feature – the branch cuts are no longer quadratic. Nevertheless, we show that much of the QSC analysis can be suitably generalised producing a self-consistent system of equations. While further tests are necessary, particularly outside the massive sector, the simplicity and self-consistency of our construction suggests the completeness of the QSC.

In this paper we initiate the study of form factors for the massless scattering of integrable AdS₂ superstrings, where the difference-form of the S-matrix can be exploited to implement the relativistic form factor bootstrap. The non-standard nature of the S-matrix implies that traditional methods do not apply. We use the fact that the massless AdS₂ S-matrix is a limit of a better-behaved S-matrix found by Fendley. We show that the previously conjectured massless AdS₂ dressing factor coincides with the limit of the De Martino-Moriconi improved dressing factor for the Fendley S-matrix. We then solve the form factor constraints in the two-particle case. Along the way we find a method to construct integral representations of relativistic dressing factors satisfying specific assumptions, and use it to obtain analytic proofs of crossing and unitarity relations.

In this paper, we studied the boost operator in the setting of su(1|1)2. We find a family of different algebras where such an operator can consistently appear, which we classify according to how the two copies of the su(1|1)2 interact with each other. Finally, we construct coproduct maps for each of these algebras and discuss the algebraic relationships among them.

In this paper we first demonstrate explicitly that the new models of integrable nearest-neighbour Hamiltonians recently introduced in PRL 125 (2020) 031604 [36] satisfy the so-called free fermion condition. This both implies that all these models are amenable to reformulations as free fermion theories, and establishes the universality of this condition. We explicitly recast the transfer matrix in free fermion form for arbitrary number of sites in the 6-vertex sector, and on two sites in the 8-vertex sector, using a Bogoliubov transformation. We then put this observation to use in lower-dimensional instances of AdS/CFT integrable R-matrices, specifically pure Ramond-Ramond massless and massive AdS3, mixed-flux relativistic AdS3 and massless AdS2. We also attack the class of models akin to AdS5 with our free fermion machinery. In all cases we use the free fermion realisation to greatly simplify and reinterpret a wealth of known results, and to provide a very suggestive reformulation of the spectral problem in all these situations.

In this paper we study factorising twists of the massless and integrable R-matrices, and explore the programme of analysis of form factors which Maillet et al developed for ordinary spin-chains. We derive the factorising twists from the universal R-matrix of the Yangian double, and discuss the RTT relations for the two- and three-site monodromy matrix. We show how the twist can be used to compute a simple scalar product. We then implement our construction in the language of free fermions. Finally, we show how to obtain the massless quantum R-matrix from the Yangian universal R-matrix, and compute a peculiar factorising twist for this case as well.

We write down the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for string theory on AdS 3 × S 3 × T 4 and AdS 3 × S 3 × K3 in its orbifold limits. We use it to determine the wave-functions of protected closed strings in these backgrounds and prove that their energies are protected to all orders in α. We further apply the ABA to find the wave functions of protected states of AdS 3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 and its Z 2 orbifold. Our findings match with protected spectrum calculations from supergravity, Sym N orbifolds and apply to the complete moduli space of these theories, excluding orbifold blow-up modes for which further analysis is necessary.

We obtain Drinfeld second realization of the quantum affine superalgebras associated with the affine Lie superalgebra $D^{(1)}(2,1;x)$. Our results are analogous to those obtained by Beck for the quantum affine algebras. Beck's analysis uses heavily the (extended) affine Weyl groups of the affine Lie algebras. In our approach the structures are based on a Weyl groupoid.

We present some evidence that noncommutative Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions is not invariant under area preserving diffeomorphisms, at variance with the commutative case. Still, invariance under linear unimodular maps survives, as is proven by means of a fairly general argument.

A quantisation of the KP equation on a cylinder is proposed that is equivalent to an infinite system of non-relativistic one-dimensional bosons carrying masses m = 1, 2, . . . The Hamiltonian is Galilei-invariant and includes the split Ψ† m1Ψ† m2Ψm1+m2 and merge Ψ† m1+m2Ψm1Ψm2 terms for all combinations of particles with masses m1, m2 and m1 + m2, with a special choice of coupling constants. The Bethe eigenfunctions for the model are constructed. The consistency of the coordinate Bethe Ansatz, and therefore, the quantum integrability of the model is verified up to the mass M = 8 sector.

We describe the unconventional infinite-dimensional Hopf superalgebra related to the integrable S-matrix of the AdS/CFT correspondence, and discuss its typical and atypical representations.

We improve the study of the lack of perturbative unitarity of noncommutative space-time quantum field theories derived from open string theory in electric backgrounds, enforcing the universality of the mechanism by which a tachyonic branch cut appears when the Seiberg-Witten limit freezes the string in an unstable vacuum. The main example is realized in the context of the on-shell four-tachyon amplitude of the bosonic string, and the dependence of the phenomenon on the brane-worldvolume dimension is analysed. We discuss the possibility of a proof in superstring theory, and finally mention the NCOS limit in this framework.

We review the original result we have obtained in the analysis of the breaking of perturbative unitarity in space-time noncommutative field theories in the light of their relations to D-branes in electric backgrounds.

We present numerical results for U(1) gauge theory in 2d and 4d spaces involving a non-commutative plane. Simulations are feasible thanks to a mapping of the non-commutative plane onto a twisted matrix model. In d=2 it was a long-standing issue if Wilson loops are (partially) invariant under area-preserving diffeomorphisms. We show that non-perturbatively this invariance breaks, including the subgroup SL(2,R). In both cases, d=2 and d=4, we extrapolate our results to the continuum and infinite volume by means of a Double Scaling Limit. In d=4 this limit leads to a phase with broken translation symmetry, which is not affected by the perturbatively known IR instability. Therefore the photon may survive in a non-commutative world.

Editor: O. Kovras. pp. 83-1 13 © 2005 Nova Science Publishers, ... the Example of noncommutative field theories Alessandro Torrielli* Dipartimento di Fisica ...