Chanaka Jayawardhena

Professor Chanaka Jayawardhena

Professor of Marketing and Head of Department
+44 (0)1483 683981
14 MS 03
Please Email in advance to confirm: normally Wednesdays 1400-1600hrs

Academic and research departments

Department of Marketing.


University roles and responsibilities

  • Head of Department - Department of Marketing & Retail Management
  • Member of Senior Management Team
  • Chair in Marketing
  • REF Output Review Panel
  • Personal/Academic Tutor

    My qualifications

    BSc (Hons)
    Univesity of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    De Montfort University, UK

    Previous roles

    Professor of Marketing
    University of Hull
    Senior Lecturer
    University of Loughborough


    Research interests


    Postgraduate research supervision

    Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised



    Hongfei Liu, Chanaka Jayawardhena, Paurav Shukla, Victoria-Sophie Osburg, Vignesh Yoganathan (2024)Electronic word of mouth 2.0 (eWOM 2.0) – The evolution of eWOM research in the new age, In: Journal of Business Research176114587 Elsevier

    Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has evolved dramatically in the past 20 years, and is substantially shaping modern consumer behaviors and altering marketing management dynamics across both consumer and industry markets. We call this evolution “eWOM 2.0”, as captured in this Special Issue. Ten research articles advance our understanding in how eWOM drives the continued development of digital communication across B2B and B2C sectors. This Special Issue further contributes to understanding the constantly evolving landscape of eWOM research and practice, and points to the future directions for eWOM investigation and usage. In this editorial, we first outline the reasoning behind this special issue, followed by the summary of the articles, and the reflections on eWOM 2.0. We conclude by outlining future research opportunities that will propel the field further forward.

    Fraser McLeay, Hossein Olya, Hongfei Liu, CHANAKA RUWIN KUMARASIRI JAYAWARDHENA, Charles Dennis (2022)A multi-analytical approach to studying customers motivations to use innovative totally autonomous vehicles, In: Technological forecasting and social change [e-journal]174121252

    Increasing technological innovation means level 5 fully autonomous vehicle pods (AVPs) that do not require a human driver are approaching reality. However, the adoption of AVPs continues to lag behind predictions. In this paper, we draw on Mowen's (2000) 3M model taking a multi-analytical approach utilising PLS-SEM and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, to investigate how personality trait sets motivate consumers to adopt AVPs. Based on a survey of 551 US respondents, we identify four necessary traits and five combinations of traits that predict adoption. We contribute to consumer psychology theory by advancing the understanding of the motivational mechanisms of consumers’ adoption of autonomous vehicles that are triggered and operationalised by personality traits and conceptualising innovativeness as a complex multidimensional construct. From a managerial perspective, our findings highlight the significance of incorporating elements that are congruent with target customers’ personality traits, when designing, manufacturing and commercializing innovative products.

    Mohamed Mosaad, Sabine Benoit, Chanaka Jayawardhena (2023)The dark side of the sharing economy: A systematic literature review of externalities and their regulation, In: Journal of business research168114186 Elsevier Inc

    As the sharing economy has grown, externalities, i.e., “dark sides,” have also surfaced. The intricacies surrounding these externalities and their regulatory measures have garnered significant scholarly interest; however, there remains a lack of comprehensive guidance on the appropriate regulatory approaches. Based on a systematic literature review of 99 papers, we provide an overview of two regulatory approaches (government and self-regulation) to address the sharing economy’s economic, social, and environmental externalities affecting multiple stakeholders. We show that government regulation entails mechanisms based on avoiding, limiting, and guiding, while self-regulation entails mechanisms related to market entry, operation, and monitoring. We develop an externalities-based regulatory framework to suggest how these two approaches and recommended regulatory mechanisms could address each externality. Furthermore, we use our regulatory framework as a base to suggest a future research agenda and to discuss managerial implications.

    Mohamed H. Elsharnouby, Chanaka Jayawardhena, Gunjan Saxena, Chanaka Ruwin Kumarasiri Jayawardhena (2023)Avatar taxonomy: a new technological tool to enhance the consumer-brand relationships, In: Management & Sustainability: An Arab Review Emerald Publishing Limited

    Purpose Avatars, which are used as a technology and marketing tactic, can embody consumer-facing employees and mimic their real-life roles on companies' websites, thereby playing a key role in enhancing the relationships between consumers and brands in the online environment. Academics and practitioners have increasingly acknowledged the significance of the consumer-brand relationship in both traditional and online contexts. However, the impersonal nature of the online environment is considered to be a hindrance to the development of these relationships. Despite the importance of this technology, little attention has been paid to the investigation of the avatar concept from a marketing perspective. This paper explores the nature of the avatar concept, including its main characteristics, dimensions, and conditions as well as the attitudinal and behavioural consequences of avatar users. Design/methodology/approach Adopting the qualitative design, a taxonomy was developed from interviews. In total, 42 interviews were conducted with current university students. 30 participants participated in the exploratory interviews. A total of 12 interviews were conducted during the in-depth stage based on findings in the preceding research. Findings Based on the qualitative data analysis, a taxonomy was developed. The idea of the taxonomy is summarized in that different dimensions of the avatar are considered the main base (first phase) of the taxonomy. There are consequential three parts: the attitudinal consequences related to the website; the attitudinal consequences related to the brand; the behaviours towards the brand. These behaviours represent the final phase of the taxonomy. Originality/value By developing a taxonomy of using avatars on brands' websites, the authors advance the understanding consumer-brands relationships. Using avatars' verbal interactions helps in shaping consumers' cognitive, affective, attitudinal and behavioural responses and add vital empirical evidence to the increasing body of research and practices involving avatar usage in the interactive marketing area.

    Mohamed H. Elsharnouby, Tamer H. Elsharnouby, Chanaka Jayawardhena, Alaa M. Elbedweihy (2023)Consumers as volunteers? The influence of value congruence on consumers’ voluntary performance, In: Journal of Marketing Analytics Palgrave Macmillan

    The study explores how consumer–brand value congruence affects the quality of consumer relationships and drives the propensity to leave and consumers’ voluntary performance. It also examines how the quality of consumer–brand relationships mediates the relationships between value congruence and both propensity to leave and consumer voluntary performance. The study also examines the moderating role of relationship length and consumer age. Data from an online survey of 371 consumers drawn from contrasting service contexts (restaurants and hospitals) were collected. In both service settings, the results reveal that value congruence is positively related to consumer–brand relationship quality and voluntary performance, and the consumer–brand relationship quality is negatively related to the propensity to leave. Furthermore, while consumer–brand relationship quality influences voluntary performance in the restaurant context, its influence does not exist in the hospital context. Contrary to expectations, the length of a relationship with a brand does not enhance the quality of the relationship; rather, value congruence takes precedence. We emphasize the need for special efforts in fostering congruent perceptions among older consumers to get them engaged in voluntary performance. Since a few marketing scholars have examined the role of value congruence as an antecedent of consumer–brand relationship quality, we advance extant literature in examining the impact of value congruence on consumer–brand relationship quality and its outcomes.

    Elsharnouby H. Mohamed , CHANAKA RUWIN KUMARASIRI JAYAWARDHENA, Hongfei Liu, Alaa M. Elbedweihy (2022)Strengthening consumer-brand relationships through avatars, In: Journal of research in interactive marketing Emerald

    Purpose: Avatars have become increasingly prevalent on brand websites, yet their impact on consumers’ use of these sites remains underexplored. The current study focuses on avatars, which are three-dimensional animated graphical web interfaces that verbally aid the brand stakeholders (e.g., customers, employees, and suppliers). Avatars provide administrative and technical information through the brand website. Drawing upon the stimuli-organism-response (S-O-R) paradigm, this research examines the impact of avatars as an information provision and interacting tool (vs. a traditional format) on consumers’ perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward a brand. It also investigates the roles of familiarity with avatar use and the language used by an avatar in shaping consumers’ responses.Design/methodology/approach: Across two laboratory experiments, the authors examined and confirmed causal relationships between the use of avatars (vs. a traditional format) on a website and attitudinal and behavioral constructs.Findings: We show that avatars (vs. written information) had a significant effect on controlling information. The users in our experiments had greater control over the information provided when it was presented as text on a website compared to the case of avatars “telling” the information. Different languages and familiarity with avatar use also affected the consumers’ hedonism in terms of website use.Originality: We advance understanding of avatar use in website design, particularly avatars’ verbal interaction, in shaping consumers’ cognitive, affective, attitudinal, and behavioral response and add important empirical evidence to the growing body of research and practices involving using avatars in interactive marketing.

    Ernest Emeka Izogo , CHANAKA RUWIN KUMARASIRI JAYAWARDHENA, Heikki Karjaluoto (2022)Negative eWOM and perceived credibility: a potent mix in consumer relationships?, In: International journal of retail & distribution management Emerald

    Purpose - Based on the foundations of the schema theory, the elaboration likelihood model, andcustomer experience literature, this research examines how the interplay between a consumer’sprevious shopping experience(s) and perceived credibility of negative online word-of-mouthleads to improved consumer-firm relationship quality.Design/methodology/approach – We utilised series of scenario-based experiments (N = 918) totest our research hypotheses.Findings – We show that a focal customer’s previous shopping experiences attenuate theperceived credibility of negative word-of-mouth on social media by other customers, which inturn weakens consumer-firm relationship quality. We also show that positive and negativeperceptual experiences are asymmetric.Research limitations/implications – First, the online shopping experiences described in theexperimental scenarios were generic and did not refer to any particular product/service. Thus,calibrating products and services into categories, and studying how product type differencesimpact online shopping experiences warrant further research.Practical implications – From a practical perspective, we demonstrate that not only doesenhancing consumer-firm relationship quality demand meticulous integration of consumers'website and social media experiences, in positive vs. negative perception scenarios, relationshipquality wane as review frequency increases.Originality/value – We contribute significant insight to the existing literature by specificallyadopting the premise that consumers’ previous online shopping experience(s) will influence howcredibly they will perceive negative online WOM posted on social media.

    Hongfei Liu, CHANAKA RUWIN KUMARASIRI JAYAWARDHENA, Victoria-Sophie Osburg, Vignesh Yoganathan, Severina Cartwright (2021)Social sharing of consumption emotion in electronic word of mouth (eWOM): A cross-media perspective, In: Journal of Business Research132pp. 208-220 Elsevier

    Despite increased research into electronic word of mouth (eWOM) in the hospitality sector, the role of emotion in consumers' eWOM behavior remains underexplored. Highlighting media differences in eWOM, we apply online disinhibition effect and social sharing of emotion theory to investigate the consequences of consumption emotion for consumers' eWOM behavior and emotion-specific media preferences (social networking sites [SNSs] vs. review sites). Experimental results identify emotional intensity as the key driver of consumers' eWOM-giving intention on both media, whereas emotional valence shows media-specific effects on eWOM-giving. Satisfaction demonstrates a 'positivity bias' in consumers' eWOM-giving, but only on SNSs. Expressive suppression also regulates the impact of emotional intensity on eWOM-giving intention. We push the boundaries of valence-centered assertions in eWOM research and advance theoretical understanding of consumers' eWOM behavior through the lenses of emotion and media differences. Our findings have important implications for practitioners in the hospitality sector and for eWOM media providers.

    Chanaka Jayawardhena, Hongfei Liu, Ahmed Shaalan (2022)The impact of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on consumer behaviours, In: The SAGE Handbook of Digital Marketing SAGE Publications

    Consumers have always had a propensity to share their personal experiences of products/services/brands with others. Marketers have long appreciated the importance of such user-generated content and Ernest Dichter coined the term ‘word of mouth’ (WOM) advertising in 1966. In online environments, electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has become important to consumers, marketing academics and marketing practitioners. In an era where technology is ever-developing, the Internet is increasingly playing a vital role in our lives. In 2021, the number of Internet users had reached 4.54 billion, accounting for 59% of the world’s population (wearesocial, 2021). It is undeniable that the Internet has had a very significant influence on people’s lives, thereby also leading to an evolution in customers’ consumption habits (Liu et al., 2020; Yoo et al., 2013). Customers are now able to shop, communicate, acquire information and share thoughts without leaving their home, simply by moving their fingers (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2004; Jacobsen & Munar, 2012; Zhang et al., 2011). Formally put, eWOM refers to any positive or negative statement made by potential, actual, or former customers about a product or company via the Internet (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2004; Ryan & Jones, 2009). According to a definition by Hennig-Thurau et al. (2004), any product/service/brand-related user generated content (UGC) can be seen as eWOM information. Meanwhile, eWOM also exists in most online media that support users in generating their own content. Therefore, eWOM is a very broad concept that exists in consumers’ generation of product/service/brand-related content in multiple online media. It is apparent that eWOM is a near-universal trend that has profoundly influenced the customer decision-making cycle and business performance. This chapter conceptualises and defines eWOM, highlighting the theoretical foci. Subsequently, the motivations of consumers’ eWOM engagement are examined, followed by categories of eWOM-related theories. The chapter concludes by presenting a contemporary view of the concept.