Amorphous iron disilicide (a-FeSi ) shows potential as a photovoltaic material due to its bandgap of
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Surface modification of amorphous PET in incompatible blends is demonstrated using fluorocarbon end-functional polystyrenes. Contact angles with water and decane were consistent with high levels of surface fluorocarbon, even for spin-cast films with no further processing required. Hydrophobicity and lipophobicity were further increased by annealing above the glass transition temperature. High resolution depth profiling using complementary ion beam analysis and specular neutron reflectometry has enabled accurate characterisation of the composition profile of the additive including the minimum in additive concentration found just below the surface enriched layer. This analysis quantified the very low compatibility between the modifying polymer and the amorphous PET and was consistent with the highly segregated nature of the adsorbing species and its sharp interface with the subphase. For these incompatible polymer blends, surfaces enriched with the surface active polymer could coexist at equilibrium with extremely low (
Ashwin MJ, Pritchard RE, Newman RC, Joyce TB, Bullough TJ, Wagner J, Jeynes C, Breuer SJ, Jones R, Briddon PR, Oberg S (1996) The bonding of C-As acceptors in InxGa1-xAs grown by chemical beam epitaxy using carbon tetrabromide as the source of carbon, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 80 (12) pp. 6754-6760 AMER INST PHYSICS
RAMAN VK, MAHMOOD F, MCMAHON RA, AHMED H, JEYNES C (1988) RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM REACTED TANTALUM TITANIUM BILAYERS ON SILICON, JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 1-REGULAR PAPERS SHORT NOTES & REVIEW PAPERS 27 (12) pp. 2333-2339 JAPAN J APPLIED PHYSICS
Clough AS, Collins SA, Gauntlett FE, Hodgson MR, Jeynes C, Rihawy MS, Todd AM, Thompson RL (2006) In situ water permeation measurement using an external He-3(2+) ion beam, JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE 285 (1-2) pp. 137-143 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
The cell-to-cell variation of gold nanoparticle (GNP) uptake is important for therapeutic applications. We directly counted the GNPs in hundreds of individual cells, and showed that the large variation from cell-to-cell could be directly modelled by assuming log-normal distributions of both cell mass and GNP rate of uptake. This was true for GNPs non-specifically bound to fetal bovine serum or conjugated to a cell penetrating peptide. Within a population of cells, GNP content varied naturally by a factor greater than 10 between individual cells.
MATTHEWS AP, JEYNES C, REESON KJ, THORNTON J, SPYROU NM (1992) QUANTIFICATION OF THE SEPARATE MATRIX CONSTITUENTS OF SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE CAST-IRON IMPLANTED WITH N-15 BY NUCLEAR-REACTION ANALYSIS USING AN ION MICROPROBE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 64 (1-4) pp. 452-456 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KAZOR A, JEYNES C, BOYD IW (1994) FLUORINE ENHANCED OXIDATION OF SILICON AT LOW-TEMPERATURES, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 65 (12) pp. 1572-1574 AMER INST PHYSICS
Alzanki T, Gwilliam R, Emerson N, Tabatabaian Z, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ (2004) Concentration profiles of antimony-doped shallow layers in silicon, SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 19 (6) PII S0268-1242(04)71935-5 pp. 728-732 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Jenkin M, Marriott PK (1999) Bayesian error analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectra, THIN SOLID FILMS 343 pp. 31-34 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Shtereva KS, Novotny I, Tvarozek V, Vojs M, Flickyngerova S, Sutta P, Vincze A, Milosavljevi? M, Jeynes C, Peng N (2012) Carrier Control in Polycrystalline ZnO:Ga Thin Films via Nitrogen Implantation
Electronic Materials and Processing, ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology 1 (5) pp. 237-240
The Electrochemical Society
The electrical characteristics of gallium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) thin films prepared by rf diode sputtering were altered via nitrogen implantation by performing two implants at 40 keV and 80 keV with doses of 1×1015 and 1×1016 cm?2 to achieve a p-type semiconductor. An implantation of 1×1015 cm?2 N+-ions yielded a p-type with hole concentrations 1017?1018 cm?3 in some as-implanted samples. The films annealed at temperatures above 200°C in O2 and above 400°C in N2 were n-type with electron concentrations 1017?1020 cm?3. The higher nitrogen concentration (confirmed by SRIM and SIMS), in the films implanted with a 1×1016 cm?2 dose, resulted in lower electron concentrations, respectively, higher resistivity, due to compensation of donors by nitrogen acceptors. The electron concentrations ratio n(1×1015)/n(1×1016) decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Hall measurements showed that 1×1016 cm?2 N-implanted films became p-type after low temperature annealing in O2 at 200°C and in N2 at 400°C with hole concentrations of 3.2×1017 cm?3 and 1.6×1019 cm?3, respectively. Nitrogen-implanted ZnO:Ga films showed a c-axes preferred orientation of the crystallites. Annealing is shown to increase the average transmittance (>80%) of the films and to cause bandgap widening (3.19?3.3 eV).
Kozanecki N, Jantsch W, Heis W, Prechtl G, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C (1997) Infrared luminescence in Er and Er+O implanted 6H SiC, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A 92 (5) pp. 879-882 POLISH ACAD SCIENCES INST PHYSICS
BIBIC N, MILOSAVLJEVIC M, PERUSKO D, SERRUYS Y, JEYNES C (1992) ION-BEAM INDUCED MIXING IN PD THIN-FILMS ON SILICON, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 67 (1-4) pp. 500-503 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Peaker AR, Markevich VP, Slotte J, Rummukainen M, Capan I, Pivac B, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Dobaczewski L (2006) Understanding ion implantation defects in germanium, ECS Transactions 3 (2) pp. 67-76
The recent interest in germanium as an alternative channel material for PMOS has revealed major differences from silicon in relation to ion implantation. In this paper we describe some initial results of a fundamental study into defect creation and removal in ion implanted germanium. In this stage of the work we have used silicon and germanium implants into germanium and into germanium rich silicon-germanium. The defect evolution in these samples is compared with electron and neutron irradiated material using annealing studies in conjunction with deep level transient spectroscopy, positron annihilation and Rutherford back scattering. It is proposed that both vacancy and interstitial clustering are important mechanisms in implanted germanium and the likely significance of this is discussed. copyright The Electrochemical Society.
SEALY BJ, TAN BL, GWILLIAM RM, REESON KJ, JEYNES C (1989) RESISTIVITY OF ION-BEAM SYNTHESIZED COSI2, ELECTRONICS LETTERS 25 (22) pp. 1532-1533 IEE-INST ELEC ENG
Mordi CU, Eleruja MA, Taleatu BA, Egharevba GO, Adedeji AV, Akinwunmi OO, Olofinjana B, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2009) Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposited Thin Films of Cobalt Oxide Prepared via Cobalt Acetylacetonate, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 25 (1) pp. 85-89 JOURNAL MATER SCI TECHNOL
Peng N, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Webb RP, Pan F, Chen X (2012) On fabrication of high concentration Mn doped Si by ion implantation: problem and challenge, 18TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM CONGRESS (IVC-18) 32 pp. 408-411 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MILOSAVLJEVIC M, JEYNES C, WILSON IH (1984) SOLID-PHASE EPITAXY OF EVAPORATED AMORPHOUS-SILICON FILMS, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 45 (8) pp. 874-876 AMER INST PHYSICS
Eleruja MA, Egharevba GO, Abulude OA, Akinwunmi OO, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2007) Preparation and characterization of metalorganic chemical vapor deposited nickel oxide and lithium nickel oxide thin films, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 42 (8) pp. 2758-2765 SPRINGER
SINGH M, LIGHTOWLERS EC, DAVIES G, JEYNES C, REESON KJ (1989) ISOELECTRONIC BOUND EXCITON PHOTOLUMINESCENCE FROM A METASTABLE DEFECT IN SULFUR-DOPED SILICON, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY 4 (1-4) pp. 303-307 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Crean GM, Jeynes C, Somekh MG, Webb RP (1989) Characterization of shallow junction ion implantation profiles: Correlation between a noncontact photodisplacement thermal wave technique and rutherford backscattering analysis, European Solid-State Device Research Conference pp. 929-932
© 1989 Springer-Verlag Heidelberg. © 1989 Springer-Verlag Bcrbn Heidelberg. All Rights Reserved.This paper correlates photodisplacement thermal wave characterization of ion implanted silicon wafers with the lattice information provided by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry.
Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Chakarov IR, Blamire MG (2001) Monte Carlo simulations of masked ion beam irradiation damage profiles in YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 178 pp. 242-246 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Simon A, Csako T, Jeynes C, Szorenyi T (2006) High lateral resolution 2D mapping of the B/C ratio in a boron carbide film formed by ferntosecond pulsed laser deposition, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 249 pp. 454-457 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Blewett MJ, Webb RP (1998) Improved ion beam analysis facilities at the University of Surrey, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 136 pp. 1229-1234 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Nejim A, Knights AP, Jeynes C, Coleman PG, Patel CJ (1998) Profile broadening of high dose germanium implants into (100) silicon at elevated temperatures due to channeling, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 83 (7) pp. 3565-3573 AMER INST PHYSICS
Eleruja MA, Adedeji AV, Egharevba GO, Lambi JN, Akanni MS, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2002) Preparation and characterization of undoped zinc oxide and uranium doped zinc oxide thin films, OPTICAL MATERIALS 20 (2) PII S0925-3467(02)00057-5 pp. 119-123 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Ross GJ, Barradas NP, Hill MP, Jeynes C, Morrissey P, Watts JF (2001) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and computer simulation for the in-depth analysis of chemically modified poly(vinylidene fluoride), JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 36 (19) pp. 4731-4738 KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL
BALIGA CB, TSAKIROPOULOS P, JEYNES C (1991) SURFACE CONTAMINATION AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CORROSION OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED MG-AL ALLOY SPLATS, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 26 (6) pp. 1497-1504 CHAPMAN HALL LTD
Adedeji AV, Egharevba GO, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2002) Preparation and characterization of pyrolytically deposited (Co-V-O and Cr-V-O) thin films, THIN SOLID FILMS 402 (1-2) pp. 49-54 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Mynard JE, Jeynes C, Thornton J, Way A, Webb R, Albury D, Hemment PLF, Stephens KG (1985) Improved facilities for ion beam surface analysis at the University of Surrey, Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B 6 (1-2) pp. 264-269
Additional, facilities, which are being installed on the 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Surrey, are described. These include improvements to the microbeam equipment and optical viewing system using an image intensifier, modifications to a 3-axis goniometer to provide batch processing, a goniometer control system and new software for data collection and analysis. © 1985.
AJAYI OB, AKANNI MS, LAMBI JN, JEYNES C, WATTS JF (1990) COMPOSITIONAL STUDIES OF VARIOUS METAL-OXIDE COATINGS ON GLASS, THIN SOLID FILMS 185 (1) pp. 123-136 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Martinez FL, Ruiz-Merino R, del Prado A, San Andres E, Martil I, Gonzalez-Diaz G, Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Wang L, Reehal HS (2004) Bonding structure and hydrogen content in silicon nitride thin films deposited by the electron cyclotron resonance plasma method, THIN SOLID FILMS 459 (1-2) pp. 203-207 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
There are many technical challenges in the fabrication of devices from novel materials. The characterization of these materials is critical in the development of efficient photovoltaic systems. We show how the application of recent advances in MeV IBA, providing the self-consistent treatment of RBS (Rutherford backscattering) and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) spectra, makes a new set of powerful complementary depth profiling techniques available for all thin film technologies, including the chalcopyrite compound semiconductors. We will give and discuss a detailed analysis of a CuInAl metallic precursor film, showing how similar methods are also applicable to other films of interest.
Jeynes C (2002) Science and Creation,
An abridgement of S.L.Jaki, Science and Creation, from eternal cycles to an oscillating universe, Scottish Academic Press 1974: 367pp, 14 chapters
MILOSAVLJEVIC M, JEYNES C, WILSON IH (1985) EPITAXIAL (100) SILICON FILMS GROWN AT LOW-TEMPERATURES IN AN ELECTRON-BEAM EVAPORATOR, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 57 (4) pp. 1252-1255 AMER INST PHYSICS
Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Bibic N, McKinty CN, Jeynes C, Homewood KP (2002) Synthesis of amorphous FeSi2 by ion beam mixing, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 188 pp. 166-169 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Jackson SM (1998) RBS/simulated annealing analysis of buried SiCOx layers formed by implantation of O into cubic silicon carbide, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 136 pp. 1168-1171 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Sharp JA, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C, Hamilton JJ, Kirkby KJ (2005) Evaluation of BBr2+ and B++Br+ implants in silicon, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY 124 pp. 196-199 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
KING BV, JEYNES C, WEBB RP, KILNER JA (1993) ION-BEAM MIXING OF ISOTOPIC SILVER BILAYERS BY 200 KEV GERMANIUM, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 80-1 pp. 163-166 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
RAMAN VK, MAHMOOD F, MCMAHON RA, AHMED H, JEYNES C, HUTT KW, COOPER N, GODFREY DJ (1988) CHARACTERIZATION OF RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM ANNEALED THIN TITANIUM SILICIDE FILMS, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY 135 (3) pp. C125-C125 ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC
Barradas NP, Arstila K, Battistig G, Bianconi M, Dytlewski N, Jeynes C, Kotai E, Lulli G, Mayer M, Rauhala E, Szilagyi E, Thompson M (2008) Summary of "IAEA intercomparison of IBA software", NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 266 (8) pp. 1338-1342
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Zhao Q, Liu Y, Wang C, Wang S, Peng N, Jeynes C (2008) Reduction of bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces, MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS 30 (3) pp. 341-349 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Chakarov I, Blamire M (2002) Optimisation of masked ion irradiation damage profiles in YBCO thin films by Monte Carlo simulation, PHYSICA C-SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS 372 pp. 55-58 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
© The Royal Society of Chemistry.Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is a non-destructive thin film analytical technique of the highest absolute accuracy which, when used for elemental depth profiling, depends at first order on the gain of the pulse-height spectrometry system. We show here for the first time how this gain can be reliably and robustly determined at about 0.1%. This journal is
BRUNSON KM, SANDS D, THOMAS CB, JEYNES C, WATTS JF (1990) COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF SEMI-INSULATING POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILMS, PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES 61 (3) pp. 361-376 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Murtagh M, Beechinor JT, Herbert PAF, Kelly PV, Crean GM, Jeynes C (1994) Photoreflectance characterization of reactive ion etched silicon, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 324 pp. 167-173
Reactive ion etching (RIE) of p-type 2-3 ©cm resistivity silicon (100) was characterized using Photoreflectance (PR), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). Isochronal (5 minutes) etching was performed at various DC etch biases (0-500 V) using a SiCl4 etch chemistry. The substrate etch rate dependence on applied bias was determined using mechanical profilometry. A distinct shift in the 3-1 Si transition and significant spectral broadening of the room temperature PR spectra was observed as a function of etch bias. Photoreflectance results are correlated with RBS, SE and etch rate analysis. It is demonstrated that the PR spectra reflect a complex, competitive, plasma-surface interaction during the RIE process.
YOUSIF KM, SMITH BE, JEYNES C (1994) STUDY OF DURABILITY OF (MOLYBDENUM-COPPER)-BLACK COATINGS IN RELATION TO THEIR USE AS SOLAR SELECTIVE ABSORBERS, RENEWABLE ENERGY 5 (1-4) pp. 324-329 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Yousif KM, Smith BE, Jeynes C (1996) Investigation of microstructure of molybdenum-copper black electrodeposited coatings with reference to solar selectivity, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 31 (1) pp. 185-191 CHAPMAN HALL LTD
Milosavljevic M, Perusko D, Milinovic V, Stojanovic Z, Zalar A, Kovac J, Jeynes C (2010) Ion irradiation stability of multilayered AlN/TiN nanocomposites, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS 43 (6) ARTN 065302 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Molodtsov SL, Gurbich AF, Jeynes C (2008) Accurate ion beam analysis in the presence of surface roughness, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 41 (20)
Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a powerful materials characterization technique with very wide applicability. However, despite the fact that most natural and many industrial samples are rough, there is currently no way to correctly take severe roughness into account when processing the IBA spectra from rough samples, without resorting to Monte Carlo calculations which are too slow for routine use. In this work we demonstrate a new approach which parametrizes a Monte Carlo calculation so that the analytical codes can rapidly calculate the effect of asperities for a wide variety of rough surfaces. We successfully apply this method to real samples. This new analytical algorithm allows us to overcome the longstanding problem of the correct depth profiling of these common samples, hence dramatically increasing the power of the IBA technique. It also allows us to extract physically meaningful roughness parameters on samples whose roughness cannot be easily measured directly. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Chakarov I, Kang DJ, Moore D, Blamire M (2002) Monte Carlo simulations of energetic proton beam irradiation damage defect productions in YBCO thin films with Au masks, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 188 pp. 189-195 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Peng NH, Chakarov I, Jeynes C, Webb R, Booij W, Blamire M, Kelly M (2000) 2D Monte Carlo simulation of proton implantation of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films through high aspect ratio Nb masks, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 164 pp. 979-985 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Nejim A, Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Cristiano F, Wendler E, Gartner K, Sealy BJ (1998) Residual post anneal damage of Ge and C co-implantation of Si determined by quantitative RBS-channelling, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 139 (1-4) pp. 244-248 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Jeynes C, McKinty CN, Homewood KP (2001) Properties of beta-FeSi2 grown by combined ion irradiation and annealing of Fe/Si bilayers, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 175 pp. 309-313 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MURTAGH M, CREAN GM, FLAHERTY T, JEYNES C (1992) SENSITIVITY OF A MODULATED OPTICAL REFLECTANCE PROBE TO PROCESS-INDUCED LATTICE DISORDER, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE 54 pp. 497-501 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, Reid DP, Maddrell ER, Peng N, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Woicik JC (2009) Characterisation of Ion Beam Irradiated Zirconolite for Pu Disposition, SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXXII 1124 pp. 243-248 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
There are few techniques capable of the non-destructive and model-free measurement at 1% absolute accuracy of quantity of material in thin films without the use of sample-matched standards. We demonstrate that Rutherford backscattering spectrometry can achieve this robustly, reliably and conveniently. Using 1.5 MeV He+, a 150 keV ion implant into silicon with a nominal fluence of 5 × 1015 As cm-2 has been independently measured repeatedly over a period of 2 years with a mean total combined standard uncertainty of 0.9 ± 0.3% relative to an internal standard given by the silicon stopping power (a coverage factor k = 1 is used for all uncertainties given). The stopping power factor of this beam in silicon is determined absolutely with a mean total combined standard uncertainty of 0.8 ± 0.1%, traceable to the 0.6% uncertainty of the Sb-implanted certified reference material (CRM) from IRMM, Geel. The uncertainty budget highlights the need for the accurate determination of the electronic gain of the detection system and the scattering angle, parameters conventionally regarded as trivial. This level of accuracy is equally applicable to much lower fluences since it is not dominated by any one effect; but it cannot be reached without good control of all of these effects. This analytical method is extensible to non-Rutherford scattering. The stopping power factor of 4.0 MeV lithium in silicon is also determined at 1.0% absolute accuracy traceable to the Sb-implanted CRM. This work used SRIM2003 stopping powers which are therefore demonstrated correct at 0.8% for 1.5 MeV He in Si and 1% for 4 MeV Li in Si. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Jeynes C, Jafri ZH, Webb RP, Kimber AC, Ashwin MJ (1997) Accurate RBS measurements of the indium content of InGaAs thin films, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS 25 (4) pp. 254-260 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Merchant MJ, Mistry P, Browton M, Clough AS, Gauntlett FE, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Grime GW (2005) Characterisation of the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre in-air scanning microbeam, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 231 pp. 26-31 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Barradas NP, Almeida SA, Jeynes C, Knights AP, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ (1999) RBS and ERDA study of ion beam synthesised amorphous gallium nitride, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 148 (1-4) pp. 463-467 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Simonsen AC, Pohler JP, Jeynes C, Tougaard S (1999) Quantification of Au deposited on Ni: XPS peak shape analysis compared to RES, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS 27 (1) pp. 52-56 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Tzitzinou A, Keddie JL, Jeynes C, Mulder M, Geurts J, Treacher KE, Satguru R, Zhdan P (1999) Molecular weight effects on film formation of latex and surfactant morphology., ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 218 pp. U609-U609 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
SEAH MP, DAVID D, DAVIES JA, JACKMAN TE, JEYNES C, ORTEGA C, READ PM, SOFIELD CJ, WEBER G (1988) AN INTERCOMPARISON OF ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENTS OF THE OXYGEN AND TANTALUM THICKNESS OF TANTALUM PENTOXIDE REFERENCE MATERIALS, BCR 261, BY 6 LABORATORIES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 30 (2) pp. 140-151 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Jeynes C, Bailey MJ, Bright NJ, Christopher ME, Grime GW, Jones BN, Palitsin VV, Webb RP (2012) "total IBA" - Where are we?, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 271 pp. 107-118
The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information ? the secret of ?Total IBA? is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far ?Total IBA? can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.
Too P, Ahmed S, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Gwilliam R (2002) Electrical isolation of n-type InP using MeV iron implantation at different doses and substrate temperatures, ELECTRONICS LETTERS 38 (20) pp. 1225-1226 IEE-INST ELEC ENG
Webb RP, Jeynes C, Wilson IH (1986) The effect of angle of incidence on interface broadening, Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B 13 (1-3) pp. 449-452
The broadening of a thin (~3 nm) Au marker, sandwiched between two sputtered silicon films deposited on a single crystal silicon substrate, bombarded with 100 keV argon ions has been observed for different angles of incidence using Rutherford backscattering. The results are compared to a theory used to predict the behaviour of the sputtering yield with angle of incidence. It is found that the effect of incomplete collision cascades and anisotropy of the cascade distribution determine the behaviour of the broadening. © 1986.
CURRENT MI, GUITNER T, OHNO N, HURLEY K, KEENAN WA, JOHNSON W, HILLARD RJ, JEYNES C (1991) MONITORING THE MICRO-UNIFORMITY PERFORMANCE OF A SPINNING DISK IMPLANTER, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 55 (1-4) pp. 173-177 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Chakalov RA, Jeynes C, Mikheenko P, Allsworth MD, Darlington CNW, Colclough MS, Muirhead CM (2004) Difference in individual layer properties in cuprate/manganite structures deposited by laser ablation, ANNALEN DER PHYSIK 13 (1-2) pp. 81-82 WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Ilori OO, Osasona O, Eleruja MA, Egharevba GO, Adegboyega GA, Chiodelli G, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2005) Preparation and characterization of metallorganic chemical vapour deposited LixMoyOz using a single source solid precursor, IONICS 11 (5-6) pp. 387-392 INST IONICS
Perusko D, Webb MJ, Milinovic V, Timotijevic B, Miosavljevic M, Jeynes C, Webb RP (2008) On the ion irradiation stability of Al/Ti versus AlN/TiN multilayers, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 266 (8) pp. 1749-1753 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
PEEL RMA, MILLEN D, JEYNES C, WEBB RP (1994) TRANSPUTERS IN A DISTRIBUTED DATA-COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR MEV ION MICROBEAM ANALYSIS, PROGRESS IN TRANSPUTER AND OCCAM RESEARCH 38 pp. 87-97 I O S PRESS
Ajayi OB, Osuntola OK, Ojo IA, Jeynes C (1994) Preparation and characterization of MOCVD thin films of cadmium sulphide, Thin Solid Films 248 (1) pp. 57-62
A film of stoichiometric cadmium sulphide on quartz substrate was deposited by pyrolysis from bis-(morpholinodithioato-S,S') cadmium (C10H16N2O2S4Cd) (a single source precursor). The band gap of 2.4 eV was confirmed by optical absorption measurements. The stoichiometry and thickness were determined by Rutherford backscattering, and the absence of organic remmants in the film demonstrated by IR spectroscopy. © 1994.
Hashim S, Al-Ahbabi S, Bradley DA, Webb M, Jeynes C, Ramli AT, Wagiran H (2009) The thermoluminescence response of doped SiO2 optical fibres subjected to photon and electron irradiations, APPLIED RADIATION AND ISOTOPES 67 (3) pp. 423-427 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Milosavljevic M, Stojanovic N, Perusko D, Timotijevic B, Toprek D, Kovac J, Drazic G, Jeynes C (2012) Ion irradiation induced Al-Ti interaction in nano-scaled Al/Ti multilayers, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE 258 (6) pp. 2043-2046
Puttick K, Jeynes C, Gee T (1998) Surface amorphization of machined silicon, PROCEEDINGS OF: SILICON MACHINING pp. 15-18 AMER SOC PRECISION ENGINEERING
WENDLER E, WILSON RJ, JEYNES C, WESCH W, GARTNER K, GWILLIAM RM, SEALY BJ (1995) 2 MEV AS+ IMPLANTATION IN INAS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 96 (1-2) pp. 298-301 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Yakovlev EV, Talalaev RA, Martin RW, Jeynes C, Peng N, Deatcher CJ, Watson IM (2006) Modeling and experimental analysis of InGaN MOVPE in the Aixtron AIX 200/4 RF-S horizontal reactor, Physica Status Solidi C - Current Topics in Solid State Physics, Vol 3, No 6 3 (6) pp. 1620-1623 WILEY-VCH, INC
Dilliway GDM, Cowern NEB, Xu L, McNally PJ, Jeynes C, Mendoza E, Ashburn P, Bagnall DM (2004) Influence of H2 preconditioning on the nucleation and growth of self-assembled germanium islands on silicon (001), Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 820 pp. 351-356
Understanding the effects of growth conditions on the process of self-organisation of Ge nanostructures on Si is a key requirement for their practical applications. In this study we investigate the effect of preconditioning with a high-temperature hydrogenation step on the nucleation and subsequent temporal evolution of Ge self-assembled islands on Si (001). Two sets of structures, with and without H2 preconditioning, were grown by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) at 650°C. Their structural and compositional evolution was characterised by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-Raman (¼Raman) spectroscopy. In the absence of preconditioning, we observe the known evolution of self-assembled Ge nanostructures on Si (001), from small islands with a narrow size distribution, to a bimodal size distribution, through to large islands. Surface coverage and island size increase steadily as a function of deposition time. On the H2 preconditioned surface, however, both nucleation rates and surface coverage are greatly increased during the early stages of self-assembly. After the first five seconds, the density of the islands is twice that on the unconditioned surface, and the mean island size is also larger, but the subsequent evolution is much slower than in the case of the unconditioned surface. This retardation correlates with a relatively high measured stress within the islands. Our results demonstrate that standard processes used during growth, like H2 preconditioning, can yield dramatic changes in the uniformity and distribution of Ge nanostructures self-assembled on Si. © 2004 Materials Research Society.
Peng N, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Kirkby KJ, Webb RP (2007) Depth profile analysis for MgB2 thin films, formed by B implantation in Mg ribbons using energetic ion backscatterings, PHYSICA C-SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS 460 pp. 600-601 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Both Rutherford backscatterings of He-4(+) beams and non-Rutherford backscatterings of He-4(+) and H+ beams have been used in this study to investigate the depth profiles of B dopant in Mg target upon B implantation and post annealing. Primitive data analysis suggests an enhanced diffusion of surface C contaminant during the B implantation process, together with enhanced surface oxidation upon implantation and thermal annealing in flowing N-2 atmosphere. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Jeynes C, Grime GW (2012) Atomic Excitation Exploited by Energetic-Beam Characterization Methods, In: Kaufmann EN (eds.), Characterization of Materials Vol.1: Common Concepts pp. 74-90 Wiley
Many disparate methods of compositional analysis of materials are underpinned by the same fundamental atomic processes: the excitation of the electronic system of the atoms followed by its subsequent relaxation. These methods include the electron spectroscopies (XPS, AES) used for surface studies, the electron microscopies used for elemental and structural characterisation (SEM using EDS and WDX; TEM using EELS), the X-ray methods (XRF, XAS) and ion beam analysis (PIXE) used for elemental and chemical characterisation. All rely on measuring the characteristic energy absorbed or emitted by the unknown target atom when its electronic system is excited by ionisation due to charged particles or electromagnetic radiation. This excitation is defined by the energy levels of the atomic electrons, determined primarily by the atomic number of the atom. (Atoms can also be excited without ionisation, as in optical and infra-red spectroscopy: this is outside the scope of this article.)
The theoretical description of the electronic structure of atoms is a major intellectual triumph of the twentieth century and this body of knowledge is exploited in the theoretical description of each of these methods, but the treatment of any particular method is usually presented by specialists in that method in isolation from all others. In this chapter we present a brief synthetic overview of materials analysis using atomic excitation, highlighting those features and physical concepts which underpin all these apparently disparate analysis methods. We hope to encourage modern analysts to appreciate the truly complementary nature of the powerful methods at their disposal.
Jenneson PM, Clough AS, Hollands R, Mulheron MJ, Jeynes C (1998) Profiling chlorine diffusion into ordinary Portland cement and pulverized fuel ash pastes using scanning MeV proton micro-PIXE, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS 17 (14) pp. 1173-1175 SPRINGER
RAMAN VK, MAHMOOD F, MCMAHON RA, AHMED H, JEYNES C, SARKAR D (1989) RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM INDUCED TANTALUM SILICON REACTIONS, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE 36 (1-4) pp. 654-663 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Gennaro S, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Collart EJH, Licciardello A (2003) Effects of carbon content and annealing conditions on the electrical activation of indium implanted silicon, IIT2002: ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS pp. 552-555 IEEE
Ohe T, Zou B, Morris PM, Wogelius RA, Noshita K, Gomez-Morilla I, Jeynes C (2012) Adsorption and diffusion of strontium in simulated rock fractures quantified via ion beam analysis, Mineralogical Magazine 76 (8) pp. 3203-3215
An experimental technique has been developed and applied to the problem of determining effective diffusion coefficients and partition coefficients of Sr in low permeability geological materials. This technique, the micro-reactor simulated channel method (MRSC), allows rapid determination of contaminant transport parameters with resulting values comparable to those determined by more traditional methods and also creates product surfaces that are amenable for direct chemical analysis. An attempt to further constrain mass flux was completed by detailed ion beam analysis of polished tuff surfaces (tuff is a polycrystalline polyminerallic aggregate dominated by silicate phases) that had been reacted with Sr solutions at concentrations of 10, 10 and 10 mol 1. Ion beam analysis was carried out using beams of both protons (using particle induced X-ray emission and elastic backscattering spectrometry or EBS) and alpha-particles (using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry). The ion beam analyses showed that increased solution concentrations resulted in increased surface concentrations and that in the highest concentration experiment, Sr penetrated to at least 4 mm below the primary interface. The Sr surface concentrations determined by EBS were 0.06 (±0.05), 0.87 (±0.30) and 2.40 (±1.0) atomic weight % in the experiments with starting solution concentrations of 10 , 10, and 10 mol 1, respectively. © 2012 The Mineralogical Society.
BANGERT U, JEYNES C, GOODHEW P, WILSON IH (1984) DAMAGE EFFECTS IN SILICON AND MNOS STRUCTURES CAUSED BY BEAMS OF IONIZED AND NEUTRAL ARGON ATOMS WITH ENERGIES BELOW 5 KEV, VACUUM 34 (1-2) pp. 163-166 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
TANG YS, WILKINSON CDW, JEYNES C (1992) PD/TI BILAYER CONTACTS TO HEAVILY DOPED POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 72 (1) pp. 311-312 AMER INST PHYSICS
Barradas NP, Alves E, Jeynes C, Tosaki M (2006) Accurate simulation of backscattering spectra in the presence of sharp resonances, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 247 (2) pp. 381-389
In elastic backscattering spectrometry, the shape of the observed spectrum due to resonances in the nuclear scattering cross-section is influenced by many factors. If the energy spread of the beam before interaction is larger than the resonance width, then a simple convolution with the energy spread on exit and with the detection system resolution will lead to a calculated spectrum with a resonance much sharper than the observed signal. Also, the yield from a thin layer will not be calculated accurately. We have developed an algorithm for the accurate simulation of backscattering spectra in the presence of sharp resonances. Albeit approximate, the algorithm leads to dramatic improvements in the quality and accuracy of the simulations. It is simple to implement and leads to only small increases of the calculation time, being thus suitable for routine data analysis. We show different experimental examples, including samples with roughness and porosity. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guan W, Ghatak J, Peng Y, Peng N, Jeynes C, Inkson B, Moebus G (2012) Patterned ion beam implantation of Co ions into a SiO2 thin film via ordered nanoporous alumina masks, NANOTECHNOLOGY 23 (4) ARTN 045605
Barradas NP, Added N, Arnoldbik WM, Bogdanovic-Radovic I, Bohne W, Cardoso S, Danner C, Dytlewski N, Freitas PP, Jaksic M, Jeynes C, Krug C, Lennard WN, Lindner S, Linsmeier C, Medunic Z, Pelicon P, Pezzi RP, Radtke C, Rohrich J, Sajavaara T, Salgado TDM, Stedile FC, Tabacniks MH, Vickridge I (2005) A round robin characterisation of the thickness and composition of thin to ultra-thin AlNO films, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 227 (3) pp. 397-419 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Mallegol J, Gorce JP, Dupont O, Jeynes C, McDonald PJ, Keddie JL (2002) Origins and effects of a surfactant excess near the surface of waterborne acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives, LANGMUIR 18 (11) pp. 4478-4487 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Jeynes C, Peng N, Barradas NP, Gwilliam RM (2006) Quality assurance in an implantation laboratory by high accuracy RBS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 249 pp. 482-485 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JEYNES C, MILES RE, BOLT M, SIMMONS JG (1986) RAPID ANALYSIS OF SIPOS FILMS BY ELASTIC BACKSCATTERING AND RBS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 15 (1-6) pp. 275-279 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Rafla-Yuan H, Hichwa BP, Close R (2000) Accurate depth profiling of complex optical coatings, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS 30 (1) pp. 237-242 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Kahlmann F, Booij WE, Blamire MG, McBrien PF, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Romans EJ, Pegrum CM, Tarte EJ (2001) Performance of high-T-c dc SQUID magnetometers with resistively shunted inductances compared to "unshunted" devices, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 11 (1) pp. 916-919 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Li YP, Kilner JA, Thomas J, Lacey D, Cohen LF, Caplin AD, Li YH, Saba FM, Quincey PG, Somekh RE, Jeynes C, Jafri ZH (1996) Characterization of YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 31 (23) pp. 6137-6144 CHAPMAN HALL LTD
Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Smith RC, Thomson D, Grime GW, Webb RP, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ (2007) Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 260 (1) pp. 437-441 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Bailey MJ, Howard KT, Kirkby KJ, Jeynes C (2009) Characterisation of inhomogeneous inclusions in Darwin glass using ion beam analysis, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 267 (12-13) pp. 2219-2224 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Darwin glass is an impact glass resulting from the melting of local rocks during the meteorite impact that formed the 1.2 km diameter Darwin Crater in western Tasmania. These glass samples have small spheroidal inclusions, typically a few tens of microns in diameter, that are of great interest to the geologists. We have analysed one such inclusion in detail with proton microbeam ion beam analysis (IBA). A highly heterogeneous composition is observed, both laterally and in depth, by using self-consistent fitting of photon emission and particle backscattering spectra. With various proton energies near 2 MeV we excite the C-12(p,p)C-12 resonance at 1734 keV at various depths, and thus we can probe both the C concentration, and also the energy straggling of the proton beam as a function of depth which gives information on the sample structure. This inclusion has an average composition of (C, O, Si) = (28, 56, 16) mol% with S, K, Ca, Ti and Fe as minor elements and Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br as trace elements. This composition includes, at specific points, an elemental depth profile and a density variation with depth consistent with discrete quartz crystals a few microns in size. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kozanecki A, Stepikhova M, Lanzerstorfer S, Jantsch W, Palmetshofer L, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C (1998) Excitation of Er3+ ions in silicon dioxide films thermally grown on silicon, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 73 (20) pp. 2929-2931 AMER INST PHYSICS
Jeynes C (2012) "Total" Ion Beam Analysis ? 3D imaging of complex samples using MeV ion beams, In: Kaufmann EN (eds.), Characterization of Materials Vol.3: Ion Beam Methods 12(ii) pp. 1948-1959 Wiley
In this Chapter the synergy between a number of closely related techniques for thin film depth profiling are described; they all use ion beams from MV accelerators as probes. These include the nuclear methods: RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA (and see PARTICLE SCATTERING in the COMMON METHODS Chapter). But they can also include PIXE (see ATOMIC EXCITATIONS in the COMMON METHODS Chapter). See Table 1 for the expansion of the acronyms and references to the list of the detailed articles on individual techniques: this article will not describe the techniques themselves but will concentrate specifically on the synergisms available. I will use acronyms for complementary techniques freely: a Glossary for these can be found in the INTRODUCTION to this Chapter (ION BEAM METHODS).
"Total IBA" is operating when multiple IBA techniques are being handled self-consistently to obtain more information than the sum of that available from each technique handled separately [ ]. We will show that the sum of the whole is far more than the sum of the parts, to the extent that new classes of samples become tractable and new types of characterisation become feasible: the various IBA techniques are in fact strongly complementary. Indeed, we believe that chemical tomography is feasible with these new techniques.
The alert reader will object that we are only stating the obvious here: it is easy to find examples showing that this complementarity has always been recognised. For example, Feldman et al presented a paper combining He-RBS and He-PIXE to the first Ion Beam Analysis Conference nearly forty years ago in 1973 [ ]. The Abstract (not available electronically) is informative for us :-
Anodic oxide films on GaAs have been studied by the combined use of He back-scattering [sic] and He-induced X-rays. Back-scattering is hampered by the lack of mass resolution between Ga and As. X-ray analysis has excellent mass resolution but poor depth resolution. This poor depth resolution is overcome by increasing the effective thickness of the films by entering at grazing angles and making use of the property that the He-induced X-ray cross-sections fall steeply with decreasing energy. This technique and the methods of data analysis are discussed in detail. The anodic oxide films are found to be deficient in As within 200Å of the surface and to have a Ga:As ratio of approximately 1:1 for the rest of the oxide. On heating to 650°C most of the As diffuses out of the films.
This early use
DUCKWORTH RG, HARPER RE, JEYNES C (1986) BACKSCATTERING ANALYSIS OF ZRN ALLOYS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 15 (1-6) pp. 272-274 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JEYNES C, KIMBER AC (1985) HIGH-ACCURACY DATA FROM RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING SPECTRA - MEASUREMENTS OF THE RANGE AND STRAGGLING OF 60-400 KEV AS IMPLANTS INTO SI, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS 18 (8) pp. L93-L97 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Jeynes JCG, Bailey MJ, Coley H, Kirkby KJ, Jeynes C (2010) Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 268 (11-12) pp. 2168-2171 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Mistry P, Gornez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb R, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ (2005) New developments on the Surrey microbeam applications to lithography, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 231 pp. 428-432 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Milosavljevi? M, Peruako D, Milinovi? V, Timotijevi? B, Zalar A, Kova
J, Jeynes C (2009) High ion irradiation tolerance of multilayered AlN/TiN nanocomposites, Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Research Applications and Utilization of Accelerators International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Gurbich AF, Abriola D, Barradas NP, Ramos AR, Bogdanovic-Radovic I, Chiari M, Jeynes C, Kokkoris M, Mayer M, Shi L, Vickridge I (2011) Measurements and Evaluation of Differential Cross-sections for Ion Beam Analysis, JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY 59 (2) pp. 2010-2013
Ion beam analysis (IBA) methods always rely on available differential cross section data to obtain quantitative results about composition and structure of the near-surface layer of a sample. In order to meet the nuclear data needs of the IBA community, the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) ``Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis'' was initiated by the IAEA in 2005 and will be concluded in 2010. A summary of the results of this IAEA Coordinated Research Project activity is presented, problems still existing in the field are discussed, and ways to further develop nuclear data for IBA are indicated.
Lazzeri P, Oehrlein GS, Stueber GJ, McGowan R, Busch E, Pederzoli S, Jeynes C, Bersani M, Anderle M (2008) Interactions of photoresist stripping plasmas with nanoporous organo-silicate ultra low dielectric constant dielectrics, THIN SOLID FILMS 516 (11) pp. 3697-3703 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Pascual-Izarra C, Barradas NP, Reis MA, Jeynes C, Menu M, Lavedrine B, Jacques Ezrati J, Roehrs S (2007) Towards truly simultaneous PIXE and RBS analysis of layered objects in cultural heritage, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 261 (1-2) pp. 426-429 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
REESON KJ, DEVEIRMAN A, GWILLIAM R, JEYNES C, SEALY BJ, VANLANDUYT J (1989) TEM AND RBS STUDIES OF EPITAXIAL COSI2 LAYERS FORMED BY HIGH-DOSE COBALT IMPLANTATION INTO SILICON, INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES (100) pp. 627-634 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Toal SJ, Reehal HS, Webb SJ, Barradas NP, Jeynes C (1999) Structural analysis of nanocrystalline SiC thin films grown on silicon by ECR plasma CVD, THIN SOLID FILMS 343 pp. 292-294 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Mironov OA, Phillips PJ, Parker EHC, Dowsett MG, Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Mironov M, Gnezdilov VP, Ushakov V, Eremenko VV (1997) Structural and optical characterisation of undoped Si-Si0.78Ge0.22/Si(001) superlattices grown by MBE, THIN SOLID FILMS 306 (2) pp. 307-312 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Wilde JR, Greer AL (2000) Composition of Ni-Ta-C thick films using simulated annealing analysis of elastic backscattering spectrometry data, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 161 pp. 287-292 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Stojanovic M, Vasic A, Jeynes C (1996) Ion implanted silicides studies by frequency noise level measurements, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 112 (1-4) pp. 192-195 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Webb R, Bailey M, Jeynes C, Grime G (2010) 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 268 (11-12)
Stojanovic M, Milosavljevic M, Jeynes C (1998) Characterization of as implanted silicides by frequency noise level measurements, ADVANCED MATERIALS AND PROCESSES 282-2 pp. 153-156 TRANSTEC PUBLICATIONS LTD
Khamsuwan J, Intarasiri S, Kirkby K, Jeynes C, Chu PK, Kamwanna T, Yu LD (2011) High-energy heavy ion beam annealing effect on ion beam synthesis of silicon carbide, Surface and Coatings Technology 206 (5) pp. 770-774 Elsevier
Silicon carbide (SiC) is a superior material potentially replacing conventional silicon for high-power and high-frequency microelectronic applications. Ion beam synthesis (IBS) is a novel technique to produce large-area, high-quality and ready-to-use SiC crystals. The technique uses high-fluence carbon ion implantation in silicon wafers at elevated temperatures, followed by high-energy heavy ion beam annealing. This work focuses on studying effects from the ion beam annealing on crystallization of SiC from implanted carbon and matrix silicon. In the ion beam annealing experiments, heavy ion beams of iodine and xenon, the neighbors in the periodic table, with different energies to different fluences, I ions at 10, 20, and 30MeV with 1-5×10 12ions/cm 2, while Xe ions at 4MeV with 5×10 13 and 1×10 14ions/cm 2, bombarded C-ion in implanted Si at elevated temperatures. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the formation of SiC. Non-Rutherford backscattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry were used to analyze changes in the carbon depth profiles. The results from this study were compared with those previously reported in similar studies. The comparison showed that ion beam annealing could indeed induce crystallization of SiC, mainly depending on the single ion energy but not on the deposited areal density of the ion beam energy (the product of the ion energy and the fluence). The results demonstrate from an aspect that the electronic stopping plays the key role in the annealing.
BACHMANN T, WENDLER E, WESCH W, HERRE O, WILSON RJ, JEYNES C, GWILLIAM RM, SEALY BJ (1995) DAMAGE PRODUCTION DURING MEV ION-IMPLANTATION IN GAAS AND INAS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 99 (1-4) pp. 619-622 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MILOSAVLJEVIC M, BIBIC N, PERUSKO D, WILSON IH, JEYNES C (1990) PROCESSING OF TIN/TI METALLIZATION ON SILICON BY ARSENIC ION-IMPLANTATION, SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY 43-4 (1-3) pp. 996-1006 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
JEYNES C (1983) A PROPOSED DIAMOND POLISHING PROCESS, PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 48 (2) pp. 169-197 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Nejim A, Gwilliam RM, Emerson NG, Knights AP, Cristiano F, Barradas NP, Jeynes C (1999) Electrical behaviour associated with defect tails in germanium implanted silicon, Proceedings of the International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology 1 pp. 506-509
In this study the impact of the defect tails generated by germanium implantation into n-type silicon wafers on the deep energy states, the doping profiles and mobilities, are investigated. 100 mm (100) silicon wafers with a base doping concentration of 3×1015/cm3 have been Implanted with 80 keV germanium on the Danfysik DF1090 high current implanter using instantaneous current density of 5 ¼A/cm2-95 ¼A/cm2, which correspond to power loading values of 0.4 and 7.6 W/cm2 respectively. Channelling Rutherford Backscattering analysis of a wafer implanted with 1×1016 Ge/cm2 and a dose rate of 80 ¼A/cm2 indicates a defect tail extending to 0.65 ¼m compared with 0.35 ¼m from a similar implant using 20 ¼A/cm2. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements of samples implanted with 3×1014 Ge/cm2 followed by a regrowth anneal of 700 °C for 20 mins reveal a high concentration of deep levels beyond the projected range of germanium of 58 nm at depths extending from 0.15 ¼m to depths greater than 0.4 ¼m. The main peak indicate a deep level at 0.35 eV. The increase in the dose rate from 5 ¼A/cm2 to 95 ¼A/cm2 is accompanied by a 5 times reduction of the 0.35 eV trap concentration. This difference could be attributed to the dynamic annealing effects during the implant using 95 ¼A/cm2.
Barradas NP, Almeida SA, Jeynes C, Knights AP, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ (1999) RBS and ERDA study of ion beam synthesised amorphous gallium nitride, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 148 (1-4) pp. 463-467
Amorphous GaN was synthesised by Ga implantation into N-rich PECVD a-SiNx:H films after annealing between 200°C and 500°C. Similar implantation into Si-rich films did not form GaN. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated the presence of GaN bonds in the former, but not the latter, case. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) demonstrated that implanted Ga substituted for Si in the N-rich films but not in the Si-rich ones. The RBS/ERDA analysis used self-consistent fitting of multiple spectra using the combinatorial optimisation Simulated Annealing algorithm, followed by a determination of the confidence limits on the depth profiles obtained using Bayesian Inference. © 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Individual particles of gunshot residue were studied with particle-induced X-ray emission and backscattering spectrometry using a 2.5 MeV H+ beam focussed to
Fedorenko YG, Hughes MA, Colaux JL, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP, Yao J, Hewak DW, Lee TH, Elliott SR, Gholipour B, Curry RJ (2014) Electrical properties of amorphous chalcogenide/silicon heterojunctions modified by ion implantation, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 8982
Doping of amorphous chalcogenide films of rather dissimilar bonding type and resistivity, namely, Ga-La-S, GeTe, and Ge-Sb-Te by means of ion implantation of bismuth is considered. To characterize defects induced by ionbeam implantation space-charge-limited conduction and capacitance-voltage characteristics of amorphous chalcogenide/silicon heterojunctions are investigated. It is shown that ion implantation introduces substantial defect densities in the films and their interfaces with silicon. This comes along with a gradual decrease in the resistivity and the thermopower coefficient. It is shown that conductivity in GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te films is consistent with the two-type carrier conduction model. It is anticipated that ion implantation renders electrons to become less localized than holes leading to electron conductivity in certain cases as, for example, in GeTe.
Webb M, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Tabatabaian Z, Royle A, Sealy BJ (2005) The influence of the ion implantation temperature and the flux on smart-cut (c) in GaAs, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 237 (1-2) pp. 193-196 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Milosavljevic M, Bibic N, Perusko D, Jeynes C, Bangert U (2000) The effects of implanted arsenic on Ti-silicide formation, SOLID STATE PHENOMENA 71 pp. 147-171 TRANS TECH-SCITEC PUBLICATIONS LTD
Davoisne C, Lee WE, Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, Peng N, Jeynes C (2010) Irradiation effects in ceramics for plutonium disposition, Ceramic Transactions 222 pp. 3-9
Blamire MG, Kang DJ, Burnell G, Peng NH, Webb R, Jeynes C, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B (2002) Masked ion damage and implantation for device fabrication, VACUUM 69 (1-3) pp. 11-15 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Jeynes C, Puttick KE, Whitmore LC, Gartner K, Gee AE, Millen DK, Webb RP, Peel RMA, Sealy BJ (1996) Laterally resolved crystalline damage in single-point-diamond-turned silicon, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 118 (1-4) pp. 431-436 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JEYNES C (1989) NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF ION-IMPLANTATION, VACUUM 39 (11-12) pp. 1047-1056 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
SHOJAI A, REED GT, JEYNES C (1992) DIFFUSION OF ION-IMPLANTED NEODYMIUM IN SILICA, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS 25 (8) pp. 1280-1283 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Vieira A, Barradas NP, Jeynes C (2001) Error performance analysis of artificial neural networks applied to Rutherford backscattering, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS 31 (1) pp. 35-38 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Bibic N, Milosavljevic M, Perusko D, Jeynes C (1998) Investigation of ion beam mixing effects in Ta/Pd bilayers deposited on Si, THIN SOLID FILMS 317 (1-2) pp. 274-277 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Altrip JL, Evans AGR, Logan JR, Jeynes C (1990) Towards the limit of ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing as a technique for shallow junction formation, European Solid-State Device Research Conference pp. 221-224
© 1990 IOP Publishing Ltd.High temperature, very short time annealing techniques have been used to study dopant activation during and immediately after solid phase epitaxial regrowth of amorphous layers produced by ion implantation of As into Si. Short annealing timescales have revealed electrically inactive As tails, correlated with a region of implant-induced excess point defects, indicating the formation of stable dopant-interstitial complexes which are not removed during the timescales of these anneals.
MAHMOOD F, AHMED H, JEYNES C, GILLIN WP (1992) REACTIVE FORMATION OF COBALT SILICIDE ON SINGLE-CRYSTAL SILICON UNDER RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM HEATING, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE 59 (1) pp. 55-62 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
ALTRIP JL, EVANS AGR, LOGAN J, JEYNES C (1990) HIGH-TEMPERATURE MILLISECOND ANNEALING OF ARSENIC IMPLANTED SILICON, SOLID-STATE ELECTRONICS 33 (6) pp. 659-664 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Surkova T, Patane A, Eaves L, Main PC, Henini M, Polimeni A, Knights AP, Jeynes C (2001) Indium interdiffusion in annealed and implanted InAs/(AlGa)As self-assembled quantum dots, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 89 (11) pp. 6044-6047 AMER INST PHYSICS
JEYNES C (1978) NATURAL POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND, INDUSTRIAL DIAMOND REVIEW (JAN) pp. 14-23 INDUSTRIAL DIAMOND REVIEW
Webb M, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Royle A, Sealy B (2006) Characterising ion-cut in GaAs by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 249 pp. 429-431 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Alzanki T, Bennett N, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Sealy B, Bailey P, Noakes T (2014) Ion beam analysis for hall scattering factor measurements in antimony implanted bulk and strained silicon, Journal of Engineering Research 2 (1) pp. 122-132
Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) and Medium Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS) have been used to determine the lattice site occupancy of antimony (Sb) implanted into silicon (Si) and strained silicon (sSi) for ion energies of 2keV to 40keV. After annealing in the range 600-1100°C for various times, Ilall effect measurements were used to provide a measure of the percentage electrical activity. A comparison of the lattice site occupancy with the percentage electrical activity was used to confirm whether the assumption that the Hall scattering factor is equal to unity is valid. Our results demonstrate that for 40keV implants the electrical activation is about 90%. In the case of 2keV implants the electrical activation is lower and in the range 10-80%, depending on the ion fluence and annealing conditions. This reduction in activation for lower energy implants is a result of inactive Sb close to the semiconductor/native-oxide interface, or above concentrations of 4.5×10cm . Tensile strain facilitates the lattice site occupancy and electrical activation of Sb in Si by raising the doping ceiling. For both 40keV and 2keV implants, we have carried out a comparison of RBS/MEIS and Hall effect data to show that for Sb implants into both bulk Si and strained Si the Hall scattering factor is equal to unity within experimental error.
CURRENT MI, OHNO N, HURLEY K, KEENAN WA, GUITNER TL, JEYNES C (1993) MICROUNIFORMITY MEASUREMENTS OF ION-IMPLANTED SILICON, SOLID STATE TECHNOLOGY 36 (7) pp. 111-& PENNWELL PUBL CO SOLID STATE TECHNOLOGY OFFICE
Jeynes C (2012) Elastic Backscattering of Ions for Compositional Analysis, In: Kaufmann EN (eds.), Characterization of Materials Vol.3: Ion Beam Methods 12(iv) pp. 1972-1993 Wiley
Composition analyses for all of the elements in the periodic table can be performed through a combin¬ation of techniques using ion beams at MeV energies (MeV-IBA: see INTRODUCTION TO ION BEAM TECHNIQUES) including PIXE, RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA. See also PARTICLE SCATTERING and ATOMIC EXCITATION METHODS in the COMMON CONCEPTS chapter.
In this unit we consider the MeV elastic backscattering techniques: RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; and EBS, elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattering. RBS, following Rutherford's treatment in 1911 of Geiger & Marsden's 1909 alpha-scattering experiment, approximates the scattering cross-section by that expected for the Coulomb interaction of point charges. This approximation is valid providing the interacting nuclei do not come too close during the interaction. As the energy is increased this approximation fails, and quantum mechanical effects become visible: then the scattering is called "EBS".
BS (elastic backscattering spectrometry, either RBS or EBS) using MeV beams is used to obtain elemental depth profiles of thin films up to ~10 mm thick. Depth resolution degrades with depth but can be ~1 nm at the surface. Various ion beams and various beam energies can be selected to obtain the optimal analytical conditions for particular samples. Barbour's article was on "Elastic Scattering", which included the important ERD technique now covered separately (see: ELASTIC RECOIL DETECTION ANALYSIS).
We will mention the use of microbeams since many samples are small or laterally non-homogeneous, but microbeam IBA is reviewed in ION BEAM TOMOGRAPHY. We will also mention the use of ion channelling geometries for characterising defects in single crystal samples, but this is reviewed extensively in MEDIUM-ENERGY ION BEAM ANALYSIS. We should also mention that LEIS and MEIS are both RBS techniques, but they use low energy beams and will not be covered in this article (see, respectively, LOW-ENERGY ION SCATTERING and MEDIUM-ENERGY ION BEAM ANALYSIS).
The Wiley Characterisation of Materials book of which this article is part has a section on Ion Beam Analysis (MeV-IBA: part of the ION BEAM TECHNIQUES section). The 2002 edition treated all the IBA techniques independently, but this 2012 edition will treat them synergistically. The present article considers the details of analysis using a particle detector placed in the backscattering direction.
We explicitly distinguish between RBS and EBS, even though in any parti
Gurbich AF, Jeynes C (2014) Evaluation of Non-Rutherford Alpha Elastic Scattering Cross-sections for Silicon, NUCLEAR DATA SHEETS 119 pp. 270-272 ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Barradas NP, Knights AP, Jeynes C, Mironov OA, Grasby TJ, Parker EHC (1999) High-depth-resolution Rutherford backscattering data and error analysis of SiGe systems using the simulated annealing and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, PHYSICAL REVIEW B 59 (7) pp. 5097-5105 AMER PHYSICAL SOC
Kang DJ, Burnell G, Lloyd SJ, Speaks RS, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG (2002) Realization and properties of YBa2Cu3O7-delta Josephson junctions by metal masked ion damage technique, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 80 (5) pp. 814-816 AMER INST PHYSICS
Simon A, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Finnis R, Tabatabian Z, Sellin PJ, Breese MBH, Fellows DF, van den Broek R, Gwilliam RM (2004) The new Surrey ion beam analysis facility, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 219 pp. 405-409 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
RENNIE J, ELLIOTT S, JEYNES C (1986) RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING STUDY OF THE PHOTODISSOLUTION OF AG IN AMORPHOUS GESE2, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 48 (21) pp. 1430-1432 AMER INST PHYSICS
Zhao Q, Liu Y, Wang C, Wang S, Peng N, Jeynes C (2007) Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE 253 (21) pp. 8674-8681 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Mironov OA, Phillips PJ, Parker EHC (1998) High depth resolution Rutherford backscattering analysis of Si-Si0.78Ge0.22/(0 0 1)Si superlattices, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 139 (1-4) pp. 239-243 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Aramendia E, Mallegol J, Jeynes C, Barandiaran MJ, Keddie JL, Asua JM (2003) Distribution of surfactants near acrylic latex film surfaces: A comparison of conventional and reactive surfactants (surfmers), LANGMUIR 19 (8) pp. 3212-3221 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Jeynes C (2014) Double-blind bind, PHYSICS WORLD 27 (7) pp. 20-20 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, Reid DP, Maddrell ER, Peng N, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Woicik JC, Ravel B (2009) Heavy ion implantation combined with grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (GIXAS): A new methodology for the characterisation of radiation damage in nuclear ceramics, MRS Proceedings 1193 pp. 67-72
An understanding of the effect of cumulative radiation damage on the integrity of ceramic wasteforms for plutonium and minor actinide disposition is key to the scientific case for safe disposal. Alpha recoil due to the decay of actinide species leads to the amorphisation of the initially crystalline host matrix, with potentially deleterious consequences such as macroscopic volume swelling and reduced resistance to aqueous dissolution. For the purpose of laboratory studies the effect of radiation damage can be simulated by various accelerated methodologies. The incorporation of short-lived actinide isotopes accurately reproduces damage arising from both alpha-particle and the heavy recoil nucleus, but requires access to specialist facilities. In contrast, fast ion implantation of inactive model ceramics effectively simulates the heavy recoil nucleus, leading to amorphisation of the host crystal lattice over very short time-scales. Although the resulting materials are easily handled, quantitative analysis of the resulting damaged surface layer has proved challenging.
In this investigation, we have developed an experimental methodology for characterisation of radiation damaged structures in candidate ceramics for actinide disposition. Our approach involves implantation of bulk ceramic samples with 2 MeV Kr+ ions, to simulate heavy atom recoil; combined with grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (GI-XAS) to characterise only the damaged surface layer. Here we present experimental GI-XAS data acquired at the Ti and Zr K-edges of ion implanted zirconolite, as a function of grazing angle, demonstrating that this technique can be successfully applied to characterise only the amorphised surface layer. Comparison of our findings with data from metamict natural analogues provide evidence that heavy ion implantation reproduces the amorphous structure arising from naturally accumulated radiation damage.
Simon A, Sellin P, Lohstroh A, Jeynes C (2003) Ion beam indneed charge microscopy imaging of CVD diamond, MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 2003 (180) pp. 449-452 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
HEMMENT PLF, SEALY BJ, STEPHENS KG, MYNARD JE, JEYNES C, BROWTON MD, WILSON RJ, MA MX, CANSELL A, MOUS DJW, KOUDIJS R (1993) A 2-MV HEAVY-ION VANDEGRAAFF IMPLANTER FOR RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS 74 (1-2) pp. 27-31 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Utgenannt A, Maspero Ross, Fortini Andrea, Turner R, Florescu Marian, Jeynes Christopher, Kanaras AG, Muskens OL, Sear Richard, Keddie Joseph (2016) Fast Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles in Large-Area 2-D Nanogrids Using a One-Step, Near-Infrared Radiation-Assisted Evaporation Process, ACS Nano 10 (2) pp. 2232-2242
American Chemical Society
When fabricating photonic crystals from suspensions in volatile liquids using the horizontal deposition method, the conventional approach is to evaporate slowly to increase the time for particles to settle in an ordered, periodic close-packed structure. Here, we show that the greatest ordering of 10 nm aqueous gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a template of larger spherical polymer particles (mean diameter of 338 nm) is achieved with very fast water evaporation rates obtained with near-infrared radiative heating. Fabrication of arrays over areas of a few cm2 takes only seven minutes. The assembly process requires that the evaporation rate is fast relative to the particles? Brownian diffusion. Then a two-dimensional colloidal crystal forms at the falling surface, which acts as a sieve through which the AuNPs pass, according to our Langevin dynamics computer simulations. With sufficiently fast evaporation rates, we create a hybrid structure consisting of a two-dimensional AuNP nanoarray (or ?nanogrid?) on top of a three-dimensional polymer opal. The process is simple, fast and one-step. The interplay between the optical response of the plasmonic Au nanoarray and the microstructuring of the photonic opal results in unusual optical spectra with two extinction peaks, which are analyzed via finite-difference time-domain method simulations. Comparison between experimental and modelling results reveals a strong interplay of plasmonic modes and collective photonic effects, including the formation of a high-order stop band and slow-light enhanced plasmonic absorption. The structures, and hence their optical signatures, are tuned by adjusting the evaporation rate via the infrared power density.
We have introduced defects into clean samples of the organic superconductor ý-ýBEDTTTF
ý2CuýSCNý2 in order to determine their effect on the temperature dependence of the interlayer
conductivity ý and the critical temperature Tc. We find a violation of Matthiessen?s rule that can be
explained by a model of ý involving a defect-assisted interlayer channel which acts in parallel with the
bandlike conductivity. We observe an unusual dependence of Tc on residual resistivity, inconsistent with
the generalized Abrikosov-Gor?kov theory for an order parameter with a single component, providing an
important constraint on models of the superconductivity in this material.
There are many possible biomedical applications for titania nanoparticles (NPs) doped with rare earth elements (REEs), from dose enhancement and diagnostic imaging in radiotherapy, to biosensing. However, there are concerns that the NPs could disintegrate in the body thus releasing toxic REE ions to undesired locations. As a first step, we investigate how accurately the Ti/REE ratio from the NPs can be measured inside human cells. A quantitative analysis of whole, unsectioned, individual human cells was performed using proton microprobe elemental microscopy. This method is unique in being able to quantitatively analyse all the elements in an unsectioned individual cell with micron resolution, while also scanning large fields of view. We compared the Ti/REE signal inside cells to NPs that were outside the cells, non-specifically absorbed onto the polypropylene substrate. We show that the REE signal in individual cells co-localises with the titanium signal, indicating that the NPs have remained intact. Within the uncertainty of the measurement, there is no difference between the Ti/REE ratio inside and outside the cells. Interestingly, we also show that there is considerable variation in the uptake of the NPs from cell-to-cell, by a factor of more than 10. We conclude that the NPs enter the cells and remain intact. The large heterogeneity in NP concentrations from cell-to-cell should be considered if they are to be used therapeutically.
The CdS window layer in thin film solar cells is frequently grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Deposited films are typically less than 100 nm thick and the inability to identify the exact start of the deposition can make CBD an imprecise process. This paper describes the construction and testing of a simple optical fibre sensor that detects the start of the deposition process and also allows for its mechanism to be studied. The in situ optical fibre monitoring technique utilises the change in optical reflectance off the glass/deposited film/precursor solution interfaces at an operating wavelength of 1550 nm. A theoretical expression for the reflection of light from the interface is discussed and compared with experimental results. The monitoring technique shows the presence of two different deposition mechanisms. This result is confirmed by film densities calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and an optical model for ellipsometry measurements which indicates that the deposited CdS films consist of a double layer structure with a porous layer on top of a dense under layer. The application of the theoretical expression is optimised by assuming the refractive index of the CdS layer to be 2.02. The ellipsometry model shows that the refractive index of the CdS deposited is 2.14 for a two layer model of the film that included a porous upper layer through the effective medium approximation.
The biblical book of Psalms is discussed from an historical point of view. Who were the original poets, when did they write and what did they intend by their poetry? The short answer to these questions is: "we don't know for sure", but the long answer is considerably more interesting. This poetry from three millennia ago has changed the world, and has the potential to continue changing it.
This is an abridgement of S.L.Jaki, "Science and Creation, from eternal cycles to an oscillating universe" (Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh, 1974: 367pp, 14 chapters). Why is it that in all recorded history, modern science with all its technical success and mastery has arisen only in Europe? Science was stillborn in civilisations that thought of time as infinite in extent and cyclic in effect. Only in Europe, under the strong philosophical influence of Christianity, was time thought of as finite in extent and progressive in effect. The primary requirement for a scientific attitude to take hold is for there to be underlying presumptions that God is rational and that people matter. This essay attempts a summary of Stanley Jaki?s book, mostly in Jaki?s own words.
Jeynes Christopher, Thompson RL (2014) Thin Film Depth Profiling, In: Nastasi M, Mayer JW, Wang Y (eds.), Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals & Applications pp. 197-220
Taylor & Francis
A series of examples of increasing complexity is given of the unequivocal measurement of elemental depth profiles in thin films, typically with a depth resolution of 10 nm or better. The parameters of Fickian and related diffusion depth profiles can readily be obtained, reaction mechanisms under thermal annealing can be followed, layered structures can be characterised, and a robust statistical estimate of the solution uncertainties can be calculated. What is particularly interesting is that although individual IBA techniques (RBS, PIXE, etc) are powerful separately, using them together self-consistently - so-called "Total-IBA" is much more powerful, enabling the solution of complex systems inaccessible to individual techniques. There are now a number of Total-IBA examples in the literature and we choose two of them, one is the analysis by the Louvre Museum of corrosion in an iconic photograph from 1827 - one of their treasures - and the other an analysis of a geological sample 800,000 years old, from a meteor strike near Mount Darwin, Tasmania.
Techniques to analyze human telomeres are imperative in studying the molecular mechanism of aging and related diseases. Two important aspects of telomeres are their length in DNA base pairs (bps) and their biophysical nanometer dimensions. However, there are currently no techniques that can simultaneously measure these quantities in individual cell nuclei. Here, we develop and evaluate a telomere ?dual? gold nanoparticle-fluorescent probe simultaneously compatible with both X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and super resolution microscopy. We used silver enhancement to independently visualize the spatial locations of gold nanoparticles inside the nuclei, comparing to a standard QFISH (quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization) probe, and showed good specificity at
The quantity of material in thin films can be measured reliably, non-destructively, and at an absolute traceable accuracy with a combined standard uncertainty of 1% by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). We have demonstrated a measurement protocol for the determination of quantity of material by RBS that has been accredited at this accuracy to the ISO 17025 standard by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). The method is entirely traceable to SI units relying on no artefacts, and thus qualifies as a primary direct reference method as defined by the ISO Guide 35:1985 (paragraph 9.4.1).
The fluorescence yield of the K- and L3-shell of gallium was determined using the
radiometrically calibrated (reference-free) X-ray fluorescence instrumentation at the BESSY II
synchrotron radiation facility. Simultaneous transmission and fluorescence signals from GaSe
foils were obtained, resulting in K- and L3-shell fluorescence yield values (ÉGa,K = 0.515 ±
0.019, ÉGa,L3 = 0.013 ± 0.001) consistent with existing database values. For the first time,
these standard combined uncertainties are obtained from a properly constructed Uncertainty
Budget. These K-shell fluorescence yield values support Bambynek?s semi-empirical
compilation from 1972: these and other measurements yield a combined recommended value
of ÉGa,K = 0.514 ± 0.010. Using the measured fluorescence yields together with production
yields from reference Ga-implanted samples where the quantity of implanted Ga was
determined at 1.3% traceable accuracy by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, the K-shell
and L3-subshell photoionization cross sections at selected incident photon energies were also
determined and compared critically with the standard databases.
Kearsley A T, Colaux J L, Ross D K, Wozniakiewicz P J, Gerlach L, Anz-Meador P, Griffin T, Reed B, Opiela J, Palitsin V V, Grime G W, Webb R P, Jeynes C, Spratt J, Salge T, Cole M J, Price M C, Burchell M J (2017) Hypervelocity impact in low earth orbit: finding subtle impactor signatures on the Hubble Space Telescope, Procedia Engineering 204 pp. 492-499
Return of materials from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during shuttle orbiter service missions has allowed inspection of large numbers of hypervelocity impact features from long exposure at about 615 km altitude in low Earth orbit (LEO) [1,2]. Here we describe the application of advanced X-ray microanalysis techniques on scanning electron microscopes (SEM), microprobes and a 2 MV Tandetron, to nearly 400 impacts on the painted metal surface of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) radiator shield [3,4]. We identified artificial Orbital Debris (OD) and natural Micrometeoroid (MM) origins for small  and even for larger particles , which usually may leave little or no detectable trace on HST solar arrays, as they penetrate through the full cell thickness [2,7].
Ion beam analysis (IBA) includes modern analytical techniques involving the use of energetic
ion beams to probe the composition of the surface layers of solids. Major areas of application
include microelectronics, cultural heritage, forensics, biology and materials sciences. The
underlying science for IBA is the physics of the interactions between the ions in the beam and
the atoms in the solid. Emission products from the interaction of charged particles with
matter are measured, and specialized simulation and data analysis software provide
information on the material composition.
Although the basic physical processes are well understood, the reliability of data
interpretation is limited by the knowledge of the physical data. The primary quantities
required are the stopping powers describing the slowing of the ion in the material and the
cross-sections of the interactions involved. The need for reliable data on stopping powers is
adequately catered for by Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) computer code. The
situation, however, is quite different for cross-sections for nuclear reactions and non-
Rutherford elastic scattering. Although there is a considerable body of published data in
nuclear physics literature, examination of the unevaluated experimental data has revealed
numerous discrepancies beyond the error limits reported by the authors. The lack of reliable
cross-sections has been recognized by the IBA community and has been discussed at several
workshops and IAEA meetings, resulting in various recommendations including the
organization of a coordinated research project (CRP) on a reference database for IBA.
The main objective of the CRP was to develop a reference database for IBA that contains
reliable and usable data that will be made freely available to the user community. Starting
from the existing collection of data in the IAEA Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library
(IBANDL), the CRP focused exclusively on the relevant nuclear cross-sections (nuclear
reactions and non-Rutherford elastic scattering). During the course of the CRP, however, it
was soon realized that there was also a growing demand for compilation and evaluation of
nuclear reactions with gamma rays in the exit channel, which are used in the particle induced
gamma ray emission technique. The recommendations led to a second CRP on the
development of a reference database for particle induced gamma ray emission spectroscopy.
The output of which will be published in a forthcoming IAEA publication.
The IAEA wishes to thank all the participants of the CRP for their contributions to IBANDL
and to this publication. The IAEA officers responsible for this publication were D. Abriola
and P. Dimitriou of the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences.
The ubiquity of double helical and logarithmic spirals in nature is well observed, but no
explanation is ever offered for their prevalence. DNA and the Milky Way galaxy are examples
of such structures, whose geometric entropy we study using an information-theoretic (Shannon
entropy) complex-vector analysis to calculate, respectively, the Gibbs free energy difference
between B-DNA and P-DNA, and the galactic virial mass. Both of these analytic calculations
(without any free parameters) are consistent with observation to within the experimental
uncertainties. We define conjugate hyperbolic space and entropic momentum co-ordinates to
describe these spiral structures in Minkowski space-time, enabling a consistent and holographic
Hamiltonian-Lagrangian system that is completely isomorphic and complementary to that of
conventional kinematics. Such double spirals therefore obey a maximum-entropy path-integral
variational calculus (?the principle of least exertion?, entirely comparable to the principle of
least action), thereby making them the most likely geometry (also with maximal structural
stability) to be adopted by any such system in space-time. These simple analytical calculations
are quantitative examples of the application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics as
expressed in geometric entropy terms. They are underpinned by a comprehensive entropic
action (?exertion?) principle based upon Boltzmann?s constant as the quantum of exertion.
Schlegel projections of selected fullerenes (the non-chiral C60, C384; and the weakly-chiral C28, C76 and C380) are used to show that these fullerenes can all be represented by pairs of counter-propagating spirals featuring anti-parallel (C2) symmetry, even though C380 and C384 are nonface-spiral fullerenes. In the case of C60, the high symmetry is used to construct an analytical approximation for these spirals, demonstrating that they form a holomorphic function satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equations, and thus confirming that the entropic equivalent of the Principle of Least Action (that is, the Principle of Least Exertion) is obeyed. Hence the C60 structure has Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt), is therefore maximum likelihood, and consequently its stability is established on entropic grounds. The present MaxEnt stability criterion is general, depending only on the geometry and not the physics of the system. A Shannon entropy-based fragmentation metric is used to quantify both the intrinsic sense and the degree of chirality for C76 and C380. We have shown that the stability of C60 is a general property of the thermodynamics of the system. This is a significant methodological advance since it shows that a detailed treatment of the energetics is not always necessary: this may prove fruitful, not only for fullerenes but also for general problems of molecular stability and in other applications of conformational chemistry.
Jeynes C., Nolot E., Costa C., Sabbione C., Pessoa W., Pierre F., Roule A., Mantler M. (2018) Quantifying nitrogen in GeSbTe:N alloys, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry
Royal Society of Chemistry
We have calibrated on-site WD-XRF (wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence) measurements of GeSbTe:N (GST:N) stoichiometry with off-site accurate ion beam analysis (IBA). N is determined by elastic backscattering spectrometry (EBS) using the resonance at 3.7 MeV in the 14N(a, a)14N reaction. Ge and Sb+Te are determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) separately but self-consistently with the resonant EBS: the Sb/Te ratio can be determined by RBS but not with useful precision. The XRF instrumental function is determined using pure metal standards and the spectra are quantified using Fundamental Parameters code. We find that, as expected, for both Ge and (Sb+Te) the heavy elements are determined accurately by XRF (within the uncertainties), but for N the standardless XRF has non-linear errors around 10%. Using the absolute N content determined by IBA a calibration curve is obtained allowing N determination by WD-XRF at a precision of about 1% and an absolute accuracy (traceable through IBA) of about 4 % for GST films with N content between 4-20 at%. The IBA measurement precision of the N content of the GST-N XRF calibration samples is 0.4 at% (that is, a relative precision ranging from 10 % to 2 % for N contents between 4-20 at%).