Understanding the effect of radiation damage and noble gas accommodation in potential ceramic hosts
for plutonium disposition is necessary to evaluate their long-term behaviour during geological disposal.
Polycrystalline samples of Nd-doped zirconolite and Nd-doped perovskite were irradiated ex situ with
2 MeV Kr+ at a dose of 5 1015 ions cm2 to simulate recoil of Pu nuclei during alpha decay. The feasibility
of thin section preparation of both pristine and irradiated samples by Focused Ion Beam sectioning
was demonstrated. After irradiation, the Nd-doped zirconolite revealed a well defined amorphous region
separated from the pristine material by a thin (40?60 nm) damaged interface. The zirconolite lattice was
lost in the damaged interface, but the fluorite sublattice was retained. The Nd-doped perovskite contained
a defined irradiated layer composed of an amorphous region surrounded by damaged but still
crystalline layers. The structural evolution of the damaged regions is consistent with a change from
orthorhombic to cubic symmetry. In addition in Nd-doped perovskite, the amorphisation dose depended
on crystallographic orientation and possibly sample configuration (thin section or bulk). Electron Energy
Loss Spectroscopy revealed Ti remained in the 4+ oxidation state but there was a change in Ti coordination
in both Nd-doped perovskite and Nd-doped zirconolite associated with the crystalline to amorphous
CREAN GM, COLE PD, JEYNES C (1990) RANGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ION-IMPLANTED BORON, PHOSPHORUS AND ARSENIC DOPANTS IN THERMALLY REACTED TITANIUM SILICIDE THIN-FILMS, SOLID-STATE ELECTRONICS33(6)pp. 655-658 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
ONEILL M, BRYCE AC, MARSH JH, DELARUE RM, ROBERTS JS, JEYNES C (1989) MULTIPLE QUANTUM WELL OPTICAL WAVE-GUIDES WITH LARGE ABSORPTION-EDGE BLUE SHIFT PRODUCED BY BORON AND FLUORINE IMPURITY-INDUCED DISORDERING, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS55(14)pp. 1373-1375 AMER INST PHYSICS
DUNSTAN DJ, DIXON RH, KIDD P, HOWARD LK, WILKINSON VA, LAMBKIN JD, JEYNES C, HALSALL MP, LANCEFIELD D, EMENY MT, GOODHEW PJ, HOMEWOOD KP, SEALY BJ, ADAMS AR (1993) GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RELAXED EPILAYERS OF INGAAS ON GAAS, JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH126(4)pp. 589-600 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Kaabar W, Daar E, Bunk O, Farquharson MJ, Laklouk A, Bailey M, Jeynes C, Gundogdu O, Bradley DA (2011) Elemental and structural studies at the bonecartilage interface, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment652(1)pp. 786-790
MILOSAVLJEVIC M, JEYENS C, WILSON IH (1983) LOW-TEMPERATURE EPITAXIAL-GROWTH OF (100) SILICON, ELECTRONICS LETTERS19(17)pp. 669-671 IEE-INST ELEC ENG
We investigate a new approach for efficient generation of the lasing G-centre (carbon substitutional-silicon self-interstitial complex) which crucially is fully compatible with standard silicon ultra-large-scale integration technology. Silicon wafers were implanted with carbon and irradiated with high energy protons to produce self-interstitials that are crucial in the formation of the G-centre. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the structure of the post-implanted silicon samples and to investigate the behaviour of the self-interstitials and damage introduced by the carbon and proton implantation. The effect of substrate pre-amorphisation on the G-centre luminescence intensity and formation properties was also investigated by implanting Ge prior to the carbon and proton irradiation. Photoluminescence measurements and RBS results show a significantly higher G-centre peak intensity and silicon yield, respectively, in samples without pre-amorphisation. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
JAFRI ZH, JEYNES C, WEBB RP, WILSON IH (1989) OBSERVATION OF SWELLING AND SPUTTERING OF A SILICON TARGET UNDER ARGON ION IRRADIATION USING A DOUBLE MARKER TECHNIQUE, VACUUM39(11-12)pp. 1119-1121 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Jeynes C, Barradas NP (2009) Pitfalls in Ion Beam Analysis,In: Wang Y, Nastasi MA (eds.), Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis15pp. 347-383
Materials Research Society
Accurate elemental depth profiling by IBA is of great value to many modern thin-film technologies. IBA is a quantitative analytical technique now capable of traceable accuracy below 1%. In this chapter we describe sources of errors in data collection and analysis (pitfalls) greater than about 1/4%.
©2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.We describe in detail a calibration method for the terminal voltage of small accelerators used for ion beam analysis, with the elastic resonance of 16O(±,±)16O at 3038 keV as the intrinsic measurement standard. The beam energy relative to this resonance is determined with a precision around 300 eV and an evaluated reproducibility of 1.0 keV. We show that this method is both robust and convenient, and demonstrate consistency with calibration relative to three other independent methods: using radioactive sources and using the resonant 27Al(p,³)28Si and non-resonant 16O(p,³)17F direct capture reactions. We re-evaluate the literature and show that the peak in the cross-section function is at 3038.1 ± 2.3 keV. By comparing the results obtained with 16O(±,±)16O to the other calibration methods we show that this uncertainty can be reduced to 1.3 keV.
Guan W, Ghatak J, Peng Y, Möbus G, Peng N, Jeynes C (2011) XTEM characterization of modulated ion implantation through self-organized anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings1411pp. 49-54
Penetration of a nanochannel mask by 190keV Co ions is tested for the purpose of achieving laterally modulated ion implantation into a SiO thin film on a Si substrate. A 2D-nanoporous membrane of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is chosen as the mask. Criteria and challenges for designing the mask are presented. Implantation experiments through a mask with pore diameter of 125 nm and inter-pore distance of 260 nm are carried out. Cross-sectional TEM (XTEM) is shown as an ideal tool to assess depth distribution and lateral distribution of implanted ions at the same time, complemented by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy linescans, a Co distribution with lateral modulation is found at 120 nm below the oxide surface. First experiments in converting the atomic distribution of Co to discrete nanoparticles by in-situ TEM annealing are presented. © 2012 Materials Research Society.
Simpson TRE, Tabatabaian Z, Jeynes C, Parbhoo B, Keddie JL (2004) Influence of interfaces on the rates of crosslinking in poly(dimethyl siloxane) coatings, JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE PART A-POLYMER CHEMISTRY42(6)pp. 1421-1431 JOHN WILEY & SONS INC
Abriola D, Barradas NP, Bogdanovi?-Radovi? I, Chiari M, Gurbich AF, Jeynes C, Kokkoris M, Mayer M, Ramos AR, Shi L, Vickridge I (2011) Development of a reference database for Ion Beam Analysis and future perspectives, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B269(24)pp. 2972-2978 Elsevier
Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is a set of material characterization techniques using energetic ion beams. IBA provides information about composition and the depth profile of elements in the near-surface layers of a sample, from the energy spectra of backscattered primary particles, recoils, nuclear reaction products or emitted ³-radiation. All IBA methods presuppose knowledge of the differential cross-section data however, only for strict Rutherford scattering is the cross-section known exactly. In order to address the data needs of the IBA community, the IAEA initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis" in 2005 which will conclude in 2010. The project focuses on the measurement, assessment, evaluation and benchmarking of elastic scattering and reaction cross sections. Data measured in this work have been incorporated in the IBANDL database (http://www-nds.iaea.org/ibandl/), whereas the evaluated cross-sections (calculated from the fit to the data of a nuclear model) are made available to the community through the on-line calculator SigmaCalc (http://www-nds.iaea.org/sigmacalc/).A summary of the results of the CRP activity is presented, and ways to further develop nuclear data for IBA are indicated. In particular, a newly proposed CRP devoted to particle induced gamma-ray emission is described.
SPYROU NM, ARSHED W, FAROOQI AS, IBEANU GI, AKANLE OA, JEYNES C, ASUBIOJO OI, OBIOH IB, OLUYEMI EA, OLUWOLE AF (1992) USEFULNESS OF NUCLEAR AND ATOMIC-BASED ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES IN AIR-POLLUTION STUDIES IN NIGERIA, JOURNAL OF RADIOANALYTICAL AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY-ARTICLES161(1)pp. 189-199 AKADEMIAI KIADO
Hamilton JJ, Collart EJH, Colombeau B, Jeynes C, Bersani M, Giubertoni D, Sharp JA, Cowern NEB, Kirkby KJ (2005) Electrical activation of solid-phase epitaxially regrown ultra-low energy boron implants in Ge preamorphised silicon and SOI, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS237(1-2)pp. 107-112 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Webb M, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Too P, Kozanecki A, Domagala J, Royle A, Sealy B (2005) The influence of the ion implantation temperature and the dose rate on smart-cut (c) in GaAs, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS240(1-2)pp. 142-145 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Sharp JA, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C, Hamilton JJ, Kirkby KJ (2005) Comparison of elemental boron and boron halide implants into silicon, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS237(1-2)pp. 93-97 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Webb RP (1997) Simulated annealing analysis of Rutherford backscattering data, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS71(2)pp. 291-293 AMER INST PHYSICS
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Kusano Y, Evetts JE, Hutchings IM (1999) RBS/simulated annealing and FTIR characterisation of BCN films deposited by dual cathode magnetron sputtering, APPLICATION OF ACCELERATORS IN RESEARCH AND INDUSTRY, PTS 1 AND 2475pp. 504-507 AMER INST PHYSICS
Howard KT, Berhanu D, Cressey G, Howard LE, Bailey MJ, Bland PA, Jeynes C, Matthewman R, Martins Z, Sephton MA, Stolojan V, Verchovsky S (2013) Biomass preservation in impact melt ejecta, Nature Geoscience6(12)pp. 1018-1022
Meteorites can have played a role in the delivery of the building blocks of life to Earth only if organic compounds are able to survive the high pressures and temperatures of an impact event. Although experimental impact studies have reported the survival of organic compounds, there are uncertainties in scaling experimental conditions to those of a meteorite impact on Earth and organic matter has not been found in highly shocked impact materials in a natural setting. Impact glass linked to the 1.2-km-diameter Darwin crater in western Tasmania is strewn over an area exceeding 400 km 2 and is thought to have been ejected by a meteorite impact about 800 kyr ago into terrain consisting of rainforest and swamp. Here we use pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to show that biomarkers representative of plant species in the local ecosystem - including cellulose, lignin, aliphatic biopolymer and protein remnants - survived the Darwin impact. We find that inside the impact glass the organic components are trapped in porous carbon spheres. We propose that the organic material was captured within impact melt and preserved when the melt quenched to glass, preventing organic decomposition since the impact. We suggest that organic material can survive capture and transport in products of extreme impact processing, at least for a Darwin-sized impact event. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
REESON K, DEVEIRMAN A, GWILLIAM R, JEYNES C, SEALY B, VANLANDUYT J (1989) TEM AND RBS STUDIES OF EPITAXIAL COSI2 LAYERS FORMED BY HIGH-DOSE COBALT IMPLANTATION INTO SILICON, INST PHYS CONF SER(100)pp. 627-634 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Buried layers of CoSi2 have been fabricated by implanting high doses of energetic Co atoms, into single crystal (100) silicon substrates maintained at approximately 550-degrees-C. For doses greater-than-or-equal-to 4 x 10(17) Co-59+ cm-2, at 350 keV, a continuous buried layer of CoSi2 grows epitaxially during implantation. For lower doses the 'as implanted' structure is discontinuous and consists of discrete precipitates of both A- and B- type CoSi2. After annealing at 1000-degrees-C for 30 minutes a continuous buried layer of stoichiometric CoSi2 is produced for doses greater-than-or-equal-to 2 x 10(17) Co-59+ cm-2, at 200 keV and greater-than-or-equal-to 4 x 10(17) Co-59+ cm-2, at 350 keV. For lower doses the synthesised layer is discontinuous and consists of discrete octahedral CoSi2 precipitates which are aligned with the matrix (A-type).
Milosavljevi? M, Obradovi? M, Grce A, Peruako D, Pjevi? D, Kova J, Dra~i G, Jeynes C (2013) High dose ion irradiation effects on immiscible AlN/TiN nano-scaled multilayers, Thin Solid Films
The effects of high dose Ar ion irradiation on immiscible AlN/TiN multilayered structures were studied. The structures with 30 alternate layers of a total thickness of ~ 260 nm were deposited by reactive sputtering on (100) Si wafers. Individual layer thickness was ~ 8 nm AlN and ~ 9.3 nm TiN. Irradiation was done with 180 keV Ar ions to 1 × 10-8 × 10 ions/cm, with the projected range around mid-depth of the structures. It was found that the highest applied dose induced a considerable intermixing, where the growing TiN grains consume the adjacent AlN layers, transforming partly to (TiAl)N phase. Intermixing occurs due to a high contribution of collision cascades, which was not compensated in demixing by chemical driving forces. However, a multilayered structure with relatively flat surface and interfaces is still preserved, with measured nano-hardness value above the level for the as-deposited sample. The results are compared to other systems and discussed in the light of the existing ion beam mixing models. They can be interesting towards better understanding of the processes involved and to development of radiation tolerant coatings. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Wendler E, Nejim A, Webb RP, Watjen U (2002) Accurate RBS measurement of ion implant doses in a silicon, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS33(6)pp. 478-486 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Romolo FS, Christopher ME, Donghi M, Ripani L, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Ward NI, Kirkby KJ, Bailey MJ (2013) Integrated Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) in Gunshot Residue (GSR) characterisation, Forensic Science International231(1-3)pp. 219-228
Gunshot Residue (GSR) is residual material from the discharge of a firearm, which frequently provides crucial information in criminal investigations. Changes in ammunition manufacturing are gradually phasing out the heavy metals on which current forensic GSR analysis is based, and the latest Heavy Metal Free (HMF) primers urgently demand new forensic solutions. Proton scanning microbeam Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), in conjunction with the Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), can be introduced into forensic analysis to solve both new and old problems, with a procedure entirely commensurate with current forensic practice. Six cartridges producing GSR particles known to be interesting in casework by both experience and the literature were selected for this study. A standard procedure to relocate the same particles previously analysed by SEM-EDS, based on both secondary electron (SE) and X-ray imaging was developed and tested. Elemental Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) mapping of the emitted X-rays allowed relocation in a scan of 10¼m×10¼m of even a 1¼m GSR particle. The comparison between spectra from the same particle obtained by SEM-EDS and IBA-PIXE showed that the latter is much more sensitive at mid-high energies. Results that are very interesting in a forensic context were obtained with particles from a cartridge containing mercury fulminate in the primer. Particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) maps of a particles from HMF cartridges allowed identification of Boron and Sodium in particles from hands using the 10B(p,±1³)7Be, 11B(p,p1³)11B and 23Na(p,p1³)23Na reactions, which is extraordinary in a forensic context. The capability for quantitative analysis of elements within individual particles by IBA was also demonstrated, giving the opportunity to begin a new chapter in the research on GSR particles. The integrated procedure that was developed, which makes use of all the IBA signals, has unprecedented characterisation and discrimination power for GSR samples. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Winston SH, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Kirkby KJ (2003) Evaluation of the Boron activation and depth distribution using BBr2+ implants, IIT2002: ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGSpp. 115-118 IEEE
Naveed AT, Huda MQ, Abd El-Rahman KF, Hartung J, Evans-Freeman JH, Peaker AR, Houghton DC, Jeynes C, Gillin WP (1998) Erbium in silicon-germanium quantum wells, JOURNAL OF LUMINESCENCE80(1-4)pp. 381-386 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Kimber AC, Jeynes C (1987) APPLICATION OF THE TRUNCATED TWO-PIECE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION TO THE MEASUREMENT OF DEPTHS OF ARSENIC IMPLANTS IN SILICON., Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C: Applied Statistics36(3)pp. 352-357
The truncated two-piece normal distribution is applied to data obtained from backscattering experiments in order to investigate the depth of arsenic implants in silicon.
Gurbich A, Bogdanovic-Radovic I, Chiari M, Jeynes C, Kokkoris M, Ramos AR, Mayer M, Rauhala E, Schwerer O, Liqun S, Vickridge I (2008) Status of the problem of nuclear cross section data for IBA, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS266(8)pp. 1198-1202 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Webb RP (1997) DataFurnace for Ion Beam Analysis, University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre
Code for extracting elemental depth profiles from IBA data, including Rutherford and non-Rutherford elastic scattering, nuclear reaction analysis, and particle induced X-ray emission. Designed for self-consistent fits of multiple spectra in large datasets. Validated by IAEA intercomparison, and many peer reviewed publications.
KIMBER AC, JEYNES C (1987) AN APPLICATION OF THE TRUNCATED 2-PIECE NORMAL-DISTRIBUTION TO THE MEASUREMENT OF DEPTHS OF ARSENIC IMPLANTS IN SILICON, JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY SERIES C-APPLIED STATISTICS36(3)pp. 352-357 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Homewood KP, Sealy BJ, Milosavljevic M (1998) RBS/simulated annealing analysis of silicide formation in Fe/Si systems, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS139(1-4)pp. 235-238 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Jeynes JCG, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Ruemmeli A, Silva SRP (2008) RBS/EBS/PIXE measurement of single-walled carbon nanotube modification by nitric acid purification treatment, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS266(8)pp. 1569-1573 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Osasona O, Djebah A, Ojo IAO, Eleruja MA, Adedeji AV, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (1997) Preparation and characterization of MOCVD thin films of zinc sulphide, OPTICAL MATERIALS7(3)pp. 109-115 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Riley LS, Hall S, Harris J, Fernandez J, Gallas B, Evans AGR, Clarke JF, Humphrey J, Murray RT, Jeynes C (1999) SiGe nMOSFETs with gate oxide grown by low temperature plasma anodisation, MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING48(1-4)pp. 227-230 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Peaker AR, Evans-Freeman JH, Kan PYY, Hawkins ID, Terry J, Jeynes C, Rubaldo L (2000) Vacancy-related defects in ion implanted and electron irradiated silicon, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY71pp. 143-147 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Seah MP, Spencer SJ, Bensebaa F, Vickridge I, Danzebrink H, Krumrey M, Gross T, Oesterle W, Wendler E, Rheinländer B, Azuma Y, Kojima I, Suzuki N, Suzuki M, Tanuma S, Moon DW, Lee HJ, Cho HM, Chen HY, Wee ATS, Osipowicz T, Pan JS, Jordaan WA, Hauert R, Klotz U, Van Der Marel C, Verheijen M, Tamminga Y, Jeynes C, Bailey P, Biswas S, Falke U, Nguyen NV, Chandler-Horowitz D, Ehrstein JR, Muller D, Dura JA (2004) Critical review of the current status of thickness measurements for ultrathin SiO on Si Part V: Results of a CCQM pilot study, Surface and Interface Analysis36(9)pp. 1269-1303
A study was carried out for the measurement of ultrathin SiO on (100) and (111) orientation silicon wafer in the thickness range 1.5-8 nm. XPS, medium-energy ion scattering spectrometry (MEIS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), RBS, elastic backscattering spectrometry (EBS), SIMS, ellipsometry, gazing-incidence x-ray reflectometry (GIXRR), neutron reflectometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the measurements. Water and carbonaceous contamination about 1 nm were observed by ellipsometry and adsorbed oxygen mainly from water at thickness of 0.5 nm were seen by MEIS, NRA, RBS and GIXRR. The different uncertainty of the techniques for the scaling constant were also discussed.
Toal SJ, Reehal HS, Barradas NP, Jeynes C (1999) Growth of microcrystalline beta-SiC films on silicon by ECR plasma CVD, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE138pp. 424-428 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Kang DJ, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Lee HN, Oh B, Moon SH, Burnell G, Stelmashenko NA, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG (2003) Josephson effects in MgB2 metal masked ion damage junctions,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY13(2)pp. 1071-1074
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Kang DJ, Peng NH, Webb R, Jeynes C, Burnell G, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Kelly M, Blamire MG (2002) Irradiation damage technology for manufacturable Josephson junctions, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS188pp. 183-188 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb R, Jeynes C, Gwilliarn R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ (2006) Proton beam lithography at the University of Surrey's Ion Beam Centre, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS242(1-2)pp. 387-389 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Loiacono R, Reed GT, Gwilliam R, Mashanovich GZ, O'Faolain L, Krauss T, Lulli G, Jeynes C, Jones R (2010) Germanium implanted Bragg gratings in silicon on insulator waveguides, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering7606
Integrated Bragg gratings are an interesting candidate for waveguide coupling, telecommunication applications, and for the fabrication of integrated photonic sensors. These devices have a high potential for optical integration and are compatible with CMOS processing techniques if compared to their optical fibre counterpart. In this work we present design, fabrication, and testing of Germanium ion implanted Bragg gratings in silicon on insulator (SOI). A periodic refractive index modulation is produced in a 1¼m wide SOI rib waveguide by implanting Germanium ions through an SiO2 hardmask. The implantation conditions have been analysed by 3D ion implantation modelling and the induced refractive index change has been investigated on implanted samples by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and ellipsometry analysis. An extinction ratio of up to 30dB in transmission, around the 1.55¼m wavelength, has been demonstrated for Germanium implanted gratings on SOI waveguides. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.
MUTTI P, SKLAR Z, BRIGGS GAD, JEYNES C (1995) ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF GAAS DURING AMORPHIZATION BY ION-IMPLANTATION, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS77(6)pp. 2388-2392 AMER INST PHYSICS
Ilori OO, Osasona O, Eleruja MA, Egharevba GO, Adegboyega GA, Chiodelli G, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2005) Preparation and characterization of metallorganic chemical vapour deposited molybdenum (II) oxide (MoO) thin films, THIN SOLID FILMS472(1-2)pp. 84-89 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Stojanovic M, Jeynes C, Bibic N, Milosavljevic M, Vasic A, Milosevic Z (1996) Frequency noise level of as ion implanted TiN-Ti-Si structures, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS115(1-4)pp. 554-556 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Kozanecki A, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Nejim A (1998) Ion beam analysis of 6H SiC implanted with erbium and ytterbium ions, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 1272-1276 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MATTHEWS AP, JEYNES C, REESON KJ, THORNTON J, SPYROU NM (1988) NUCLEAR-REACTION STUDIES OF N-15 IMPLANTED SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE CAST-IRON USING AN ION MICROPROBE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(3)pp. 497-502 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
We present experimental results on shallow junction formation in germanium by phosphorus ion implantation and standard rapid thermal processing. An attempt is made to improve phosphorus activation by implanting phosphorus at high and low temperature. The focus is on studying the germanium damage and phosphorus activation as a function of implant temperature. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with channelling and Hall Effect measurements are employed for characterisation of germanium damage and phosphorus activation, respectively. High and low temperature implants were found to be better compared to room temperature implant. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
FAROOQI AS, ARSHED W, AKANLE OA, JEYNES C, SPYROU NM (1992) FLUORINE DETERMINATION IN DIET SAMPLES USING CYCLIC INAA AND PIGE ANALYSIS, JOURNAL OF RADIOANALYTICAL AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY-ARTICLES161(1)pp. 71-78 AKADEMIAI KIADO
Antwis L, Wong L, Smith A, Homewood K, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R (2010) Optimization and characterisation of amorphous iron disilicide formed by ion beam mixing of Fe/Si multilayer structures for photovoltaic applications, AIP Conference Proceedings1321pp. 278-281
This study presents an optimization and characterization of amorphous Iron Disilicide (a-FeSi2) synthesized using Ion Beam Mixing (IBM) of Fe/Si multilayer structures. The layers were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering, and subsequently irradiated with Ar+ and Fe+ beams of 150 and 200 keV. Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) analysis was used to determine the structure and level of silicidation of the samples. The nature of the band-gap and the optical absorption coefficients were determined by optical transmission analysis. The results demonstrate that the synthesis of a-FeSi 2 can be achieved using this technique, with the total level of silicidation being highly dependant upon the initial structure configuration and beam parameters. Direct band-gap energies of <0.90 eV have been observed for those samples with the highest levels of silicidation, with optical absorption coefficients of <104cm-1. Therefore this method of fabrication has been shown to produce a-FeSi2 layers without the need for post-synthesis treatment, using established technologies without compromising the optical properties that make this material such a promising semiconductor for the photovoltaics market. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
Kang DJ, Peng NH, Webb R, Jeynes C, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Burnell G, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG (2002) Realization and properties of MgB2 metal-masked ion damage junctions, Applied Physics Letters81(19)pp. 3600-3602
Ion beam damage combined with nanoscale focused-ion-beam direct milling was used to create manufacturable superconductor-normal-superconductor type (SNS) Josephson junctions in 100-nm-thick MgB2 with TC of 38 K. The junctions show nonhysteretic current-voltage characteristics between 36 and 4.2 K. Experimental evidence for the dc and ac Josephson effects in MgB 2 metal-masked ion damage junctions are presented. This technique is particularly useful for prototyping devices due to its simplicity and flexibility of fabrication and has a great potential for high-density integration. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
DeSouza RA, Kilner JA, Jeynes C (1997) The application of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to the study of high temperature proton conductors (HTPC), SOLID STATE IONICS97(1-4)pp. 409-419 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
DEVEIRMAN A, VANLANDUYT J, REESON KJ, GWILLIAM R, JEYNES C, SEALY BJ (1990) IDENTIFICATION OF COSI INCLUSIONS WITHIN BURIED COSI2 LAYERS FORMED BY ION-IMPLANTATION, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS68(7)pp. 3792-3794 AMER INST PHYSICS
Sealy BJ, Smith AJ, Alzanki T, Bennett N, Li L, Jeynes C, Colombeau B, Collart EJH, Emerson NG, Gwilliam RM, Cowern NEB (2006) Shallow junctions in silicon via low thermal budget processing, Extended Abstracts of the Sixth International Workshop on Junction Technology, IWJT '06pp. 10-15
The paper summarises recent findings concerning the fabrication of ultra-shallow junctions in silicon for future generations of CMOS devices. In particular we concentrate on vacancy engineering to achieve carrier concentrations of 5-6 × 1020 cm-3 for boron in silicon without diffusion and report for the first time preliminary data for antimony implants into strained silicon in which even higher carrier concentrations were obtained. All of this can be produced at temperatures below 800°C for annealing times of 10 seconds, without the need for spike annealing, fast ramp rates or laser processing. © 2006 IEEE.
Way AS, Jeynes C, Webb RP (1999) Measurement of lateral stress in argon implanted thin gold films using quartz resonator techniques, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS148(1-4)pp. 238-241 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KOZANECKI A, SEALY BJ, JEYNES C, GILLIN WP, GREY R (1994) INTERDIFFUSION AND THERMALLY-INDUCED STRAIN RELAXATION IN GAAS/IN0.2GA0.8AS/GAAS SINGLE-QUANTUM-WELL STRUCTURES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS85(1-4)pp. 192-196 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Guan W, Ghatak J, Peng Y, Bhatta UM, Inkson BJ, Möbus G, Peng N, Jeynes C, Ross IM (2013) Fabrication and characterisation of embedded metal nanostructures by ion implantation with nanoporous anodic alumina masks, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms307pp. 273-276
Lateral ordered Co, Pt and Co/Pt nanostructures were fabricated in SiO2 and Si3N4 substrates by high fluence metal ion implantation through periodic nanochannel membrane masks based on anodic aluminium oxides (AAO). The quality of nanopatterning transfer defined by various AAO masks in different substrates was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in both imaging and spectroscopy modes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Buis C, Gros D'Aillon E, Lohstroh A, Marrakchi G, Jeynes C, Verger L (2014) Effects of dislocation walls on charge carrier transport properties in CdTe single crystal, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment735pp. 188-192
Radiation detectors for medical imaging at room temperature have been developed thanks to the availability of large chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride (CdTe:Cl) crystals. Microstructural defects affect the performance of CdTe:Cl radiation detectors. Advanced characterization tools, such as Ion Beam Induced Current (IBIC) measurements and chemical etching on tellurium and cadmium faces were used to evaluate the influence of sub-grain-boundaries on charge carrier transport properties. We performed IBIC imaging to correlate inhomogeneities in charge collection for both types of charge carrier with distribution of dislocation walls in the sample. This information should help improve performance in medical imaging applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Olofinjana B, Egharevba GO, Eleruja MA, Jeynes C, Adedeji AV, Akinwunmi OO, Taleatu BA, Mordi CU, Ajayi EOB (2010) Synthesis and Some Properties of Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposited Molybdenum Oxysulphide Thin Films, J MATER SCI TECHNOL26(6)pp. 552-557 JOURNAL MATER SCI TECHNOL
Li YP, Kilner JA, Tate TJ, Chater RJ, Jeynes C, Jafri ZH (1996) SIMS, RBS, and ion channelling studies of H-2(+) or O-18(+) irradiated LaAlO3, (100) single crystal, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS118(1-4)pp. 133-138 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Webb RP, Bailey MJ, Jeynes C, Grime GW (2010) 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, 268
Held in the University of Cambridge 7th-11th September 2009 to mark the first centenary of the observation of backscattering. 270 delegates from 40 countries attended the conference.
DANN AJ, FAHY MR, JEYNES C, WILLIS MR (1986) IODINE IMPLANTATION OF POLYMERIC PHTHALOCYANINES, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS19(11)pp. L217-L224 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Kahlmann F, Booij WE, Blamire MG, McBrien PF, Tarte EJ, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Romans EJ, Pegrum CM (2000) Transfer function and noise properties of YBa2Cu3O7-delta direct-current superconducting-quantum-interference-device magnetometers with resistively shunted inductances, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS77(4)pp. 567-569 AMER INST PHYSICS
From measurements over the last two years we have demonstrated that the charge collection system based on Faraday cups can robustly give near-1% absolute implantation fluence accuracy for our electrostatically scanned 200 kV Danfysik ion implanter, using four-point-probe mapping with a demonstrated accuracy of 2%, and accurate Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) of test implants from our quality assurance programme. The RBS is traceable to the certified reference material IRMM-ERM-EG001/BAM-L001, and involves convenient calibrations both of the electronic gain of the spectrometry system (at about 0.1% accuracy) and of the RBS beam energy (at 0.06% accuracy). We demonstrate that accurate RBS is a definitive method to determine quantity of material. It is therefore useful for certifying high quality reference standards, and is also extensible to other kinds of samples such as thin self-supporting films of pure elements. The more powerful technique of Total-IBA may inherit the accuracy of RBS.
Booij WE, Elwell CA, Tarte EJ, McBrien PF, Kahlmann F, Moore DF, Blamire MG, Peng NH, Jeynes C (1999) Electrical properties of electron and ion beam irradiated YBa2Cu3O7-delta, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY9(2)pp. 2886-2889 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Kang DJ, Burnell G, Lloyd SJ, Speaks RS, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG (2002) Realization and properties of YBa2Cu3O 7-´ Josephson junctions by metal masked ion damage technique, Applied Physics Letters80(5)pp. 814-816
We have developed a simple process to fabricate high-TC Josephson junctions by a combination of focused ion beam milling and 100 keV H2+ ion implantation. The resistively shunted junction-like current-voltage characteristics were observed in the temperature range of 48 to 4.2 K. The devices showed clear dc and ac Josephson effects. This technique is very promising in terms of simplicity and flexibility of fabrication and has potential for high-density integration. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
Rickerby J, Simon A, Jeynes C, Morgan TJ, Steinke JHG (2006) 1,1,1,5,5,5-Hexafluoroacetylacetonate copper(I) poly(vinylsiloxane)s as precursors for copper direct-write, CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS18(10)pp. 2489-2498 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Harry MA (1998) RBS/simulated annealing analysis of iron-cobalt silicides, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 1163-1167 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
DANN AJ, FAHY MR, JEYNES C, WILLIS MR (1987) ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES OF ION-IMPLANTED PCALF FILMS, PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLIED RESEARCH101(1)pp. K45-K48 AKADEMIE VERLAG GMBH
Kaabar W, Daar E, Gundogdu O, Jenneson PM, Farquharson MJ, Webb M, Jeynes C, Bradley DA (2009) Metal deposition at the bone-cartilage interface in articular cartilage, APPLIED RADIATION AND ISOTOPES67(3)pp. 475-479 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Nejim A, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Cowern NEB, Patel CJ (1997) Influence of dynamic annealing on the depth distribution of germanium implanted in (100) silicon at elevated temperatures, DEFECTS AND DIFFUSION IN SILICON PROCESSING469pp. 387-393 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
Jeynes C (2012) Ion Beam Techniques, In: Kaufmann EN (eds.), Characterization of Materials, 2nd edition312pp. 1941-2161 Wiley
Comprises nine sections: Low Energy Ion Scattering, Medium Energy Ion Scattering and Forward Recoil Spectrometry, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Helium Ion Microscopy, Atom Probe Tomography and Field Ion Microscopy, Charged Particle Irradiation for Neutron Radiation Damage Studies, Radiation Effects Microscopy, Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, and Total-IBA. The latter includes "Total" Ion Beam Analysis, Particle-Induced X-ray Emission, Elastic Backscattering, Elastic Recoil Detection, Nuclear Reaction Analysis and Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission.
Giubertoni D, Demenev E, Gupta S, Jestin Y, Meirer F, Gennaro S, Iacob E, Pepponi G, Pucker G, Gwilliam RM, Jeynes C, Colaux JL, Saraswat KC, Bersani M (2012) Solid phase epitaxial re-growth of Sn ion implanted germanium thin films,AIP Conference Proceedings1496pp. 103-106
Doping of Ge with Sn atoms by ion implantation and annealing by solid phase epitaxial re-growth process was investigated as a possible way to create Ge1-xSnx layers. Ion implantation was carried out at liquid nitrogen to avoid nano-void formation and three implant doses were tested: 5×1015, 1×1015 and 5×10 14 at/cm2, respectively. Implant energy was set to 45 keV and implants were carried out through an 11 nm SiNxOy film to prevent Sn out-diffusion upon annealing. This was only partially effective. Samples were then annealed in inert atmosphere either at 350°C varying anneal time or for 100 s varying temperature from 300 to 500°C. SPER was effective to anneal damage without Sn diffusion at 350° for samples implanted at medium and low fluences whereas the 5×1015 at/cm2 samples remained with a <15 nm amorphous layer even when applying the highest thermal budget. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Taylor JW, Saleh AS, Rice-Evans PC, Knights AP, Jeynes C (1999) Depth profiling of defects in nitrogen implanted silicon using a slow positron beam, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE149(1-4)pp. 175-180 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Wendler E (2002) Accurate determination of the stopping power of He-4 in Si using Bayesian inference, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS194(1)PII S0168-583X(02)00494-9pp. 15-25 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Peng N, Jeynes C, Bailey MJ, Adikaari D, Stolojan V, Webb RP (2009) High concentration Mn ion implantation in Si, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS267(8-9)pp. 1623-1625 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Kreissig U, Grotzschel R (1999) Unambiguous automatic evaluation of multiple Ion Beam Analysis data with Simulated Annealing, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS149(1-2)pp. 233-237 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Antwis L, Gwilliam R, Smith A, Jeynes C, Homewood K (2012) Characterization of a-FeSi /c-Si heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications, Semiconductor Science and Technology27(3)
Amorphous iron disilicide (a-FeSi ) shows potential as a photovoltaic material due to its bandgap of <0.9 eV and high absorption coefficient. We present a detailed characterization of a-FeSi , with particular emphasis on the electrical properties of a-FeSi /c-Si heterostructures, under both dark and illuminated conditions. The samples were prepared on quartz and silicon substrates using RF co-sputtering of an iron/silicon target. Optical transmission spectroscopy was used to confirm the bandgap of the samples. Van der Pauw measurements and currentvoltage analysis techniques were used to determine the carrier type and conduction mechanisms of the samples. The results show that a-FeSi forms a rectifying pn heterojunction on p-type crystalline silicon. The silicide is characterized by very high carrier concentrations, resulting in the depletion region being almost entirely formed within the silicon substrate. Initial JV results suggest carrier recombination within the silicide to be the dominant contribution to the conduction across the junction, with photovoltaic effects having been observed under AM1.5 conditions. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Lee WP, Gundabala VR, Akpa BS, Johns ML, Jeynes C, Routh AF (2006) Distribution of surfactants in latex films: A Rutherford backscattering study, LANGMUIR22(12)pp. 5314-5320 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Marriott PK, Jenkin M, Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Webb RP, Sealy BJ (1999) Rapid accurate automated analysis of complex ion beam analysis data, APPLICATION OF ACCELERATORS IN RESEARCH AND INDUSTRY, PTS 1 AND 2475pp. 592-595 AMER INST PHYSICS
Perusko D, Milosavljevic M, Milinovic V, Timotijevic B, Zalar A, Kovac J, Pracek B, Jeynes C (2008) High fluence nitrogen implantation in Al/Ti multilayers, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS266(10)pp. 2503-2506 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
LYNCH S, MURTAGH M, CREAN GM, KELLY PV, OCONNOR M, JEYNES C (1993) NONDESTRUCTIVE DEPTH PROFILING OF SILICON ION-IMPLANTATION INDUCED DAMAGE IN SILICON (100) SUBSTRATES, THIN SOLID FILMS233(1-2)pp. 199-202 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
The benchmarking procedure in IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) regards the validation of charged-particle differential cross-section data via the acquisition of EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry) spectra from uniform thick target of known composition followed by their detailed simulation. In the present work such benchmarking measurements have been performed for the elastic scattering of protons on 23Na, 31P and natS in the energy range of 1-3.5 MeV in steps of 250 keV at three backward angles, at 120.6, 148.8 and 173.5 in an attempt to validate the corresponding existing evaluated cross-section datasets from SigmaCalc and to facilitate their extension at higher energies. The EBS spectra acquired were compared with simulated ones using the DataFurnace code, along with an a posteriori treatment of the surface roughness. All the experimental parameters were thoroughly investigated and the results obtained and the discrepancies found are discussed and analyzed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jeynes C, Rozenberg GG, Speakman SP, Steinke JHG (2002) A microbeam RBS analysis of low temperature direct-write inkjet deposited copper, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS188PII S0168-583X(01)01063-1pp. 141-145 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Secchi M, Demenev E, Colaux JL, Giubertoni D, Dell'Anna R, Iacob E, Gwilliam M, Jeynes C, Bersani M (2015) Development of nanotopography during SIMS characterization of thin films of Ge1-xSnx alloy, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE356pp. 422-428 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Kozanecki A, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Jantsch W, Lanzerstorfer S, Heiss W, Prechtl G (1998) Photoluminescence and backscattering characterization of 6H SiC implanted with erbium and oxygen ions, SILICON CARBIDE, III-NITRIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS, PTS 1 AND 2264-2pp. 501-504 TRANSTEC PUBLICATIONS LTD
Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Szilágyi E (2012) Accurate determination of quantity of material in thin films by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Analytical Chemistry84(14)pp. 6061-6069
Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a cluster of techniques including Rutherford and non-Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Recently, the ability to treat multiple IBA techniques (including PIXE) self-consistently has been demonstrated. The utility of IBA for accurately depth profiling thin films is critically reviewed. As an important example of IBA, three laboratories have independently measured a silicon sample implanted with a fluence of nominally 5 × 10 15 As/cm 2 at an unprecedented absolute accuracy. Using 1.5 MeV 4He + Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), each lab has demonstrated a combined standard uncertainty around 1% (coverage factor k = 1) traceable to an Sb-implanted certified reference material through the silicon electronic stopping power. The uncertainty budget shows that this accuracy is dominated by the knowledge of the electronic stopping, but that special care must also be taken to accurately determine the electronic gain of the detection system and other parameters. This RBS method is quite general and can be used routinely to accurately validate ion implanter charge collection systems, to certify SIMS standards, and for other applications. The generality of application of such methods in IBA is emphasized: if RBS and PIXE data are analysed self-consistently then the resulting depth profile inherits the accuracy and depth resolution of RBS and the sensitivity and elemental discrimination of PIXE. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Gilbert M, Davoisne C, Stennett M, Hyatt N, Peng N, Jeynes C, Lee WE (2011) Krypton and helium irradiation damage in neodymium-zirconolite, Journal of Nuclear Materials416(1-2)pp. 221-224 Elsevier
Gurbich AF, Jeynes C (2007) Evaluation of non-Rutherford proton elastic scattering cross-section for magnesium, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS265(2)pp. 447-452 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Admans LL, Jeynes C, Clarke J, Spyrou NM (2006) Elemental content of erythrocytes from patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) surgery using PIXE analysis, JOURNAL OF RADIOANALYTICAL AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY269(3)pp. 619-623 SPRINGER
Barradas NP, Marriott PK, Jeynes C, Webb RP (1998) The RBS data furnace: Simulated annealing, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 1157-1162 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
PUTTICK KE, JEYNES C, RUDMAN M, GEE AE, CHAO CL (1992) SURFACE DAMAGE IN NANOMACHINED SILICON, SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY7(2)pp. 255-259 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
The analysis of thin films is of central importance for functional materials, including the very large and
active field of nanomaterials. Quantitative elemental depth profiling is basic to analysis, and many
techniques exist, but all have limitations and quantitation is always an issue. We here review recent
significant advances in ion beam analysis (IBA) which now merit it a standard place in the analyst?s
Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been in use for half a century to obtain elemental
depth profiles non-destructively from the first fraction of a micron from the surface of materials: more
generally, ?IBA? refers to the cluster of methods including elastic scattering (RBS; elastic recoil
detection, ERD; and non-Rutherford elastic backscattering, EBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA),
particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) which is a form
We have at last demonstrated what was long promised, that RBS can be used as a primary reference
technique for the best traceable accuracy available for non-destructive model-free methods in thin
films. Also, it has become clear over the last decade that we can effectively combine synergistically the
quite different information available from the atomic (PIXE) and nuclear (RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA) methods.
Although it is well known that RBS has severe limitations that curtail its usefulness for elemental depth
profiling, these limitations are largely overcome when we make proper synergistic use of IBA methods.
In this Tutorial Review we aim to briefly explain to analysts what IBA is and why it is now a general
quantitative method of great power. Analysts have got used to the availability of the large synchrotron
facilities for certain sorts of difficult problem, but there are many much more easily accessible mid-range IBA
facilities also able to address (and often more quantitatively) a wide range of otherwise almost intractable
thin film questions.
Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Bibic N, McKinty CN, Jeynes C, Homewood KP (2001) Amorphous-iron disilicide: A promising semiconductor, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS79(10)pp. 1438-1440 AMER INST PHYSICS
Jeynes C, Webb RP, Lohstroh A (2011) Ion Beam Analysis: A Century of Exploiting the Electronic and Nuclear Structure of the Atom for Materials Characterisation, Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology4pp. 41-82 World Scientific
Analysis using MeV ion beams is a thin film characterisation technique invented some 50 years ago which has recently had the benefit of a number of important advances. This review will cover damage profiling in crystals including studies of defects in semiconductors, surface studies, and depth profiling with sputtering. But it will concentrate on thin film depth profiling using Rutherford backscattering, particle induced X-ray emission and related techniques in the deliberately synergistic way that has only recently become possible. In this review of these new developments, we will show how this integrated approach, which we might call ?total IBA?, has given the technique great analytical power.
Bailey MJ, Kirkby KJ, Jeynes C (2009) Trace element profiling of gunshot residues by PIXE and SEM-EDS: a feasibility study, X-RAY SPECTROMETRY38(3)pp. 190-194 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Xu L, McNally PJ, Dilliway GDM, Cowern NEB, Jeynes C, Mendoza E, Ashburn P, Bagnall DM (2005) Raman study of the strain and H-2 preconditioning effect on self-assembled Ge island on Si (001), JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS16(7)pp. 469-474 SPRINGER
STOEV IG, YANKOV RA, JEYNES C (1989) FORMATION OF ETCH-STOP STRUCTURES UTILIZING ION-BEAM SYNTHESIZED BURIED OXIDE AND NITRIDE LAYERS IN SILICON, SENSORS AND ACTUATORS19(2)pp. 183-197 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Boudreault G, Elliman RG, Grotzschel R, Gujrathi SC, Jeynes C, Lennard WN, Rauhala E, Sajavaara T, Timmers H, Wang YQ, Weijers TDM (2004) Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS222(3-4)pp. 547-566 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Emerson NG, Gwilliam RM, Shannon JM, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Tsvetkova T, Tzenov N, Tzolov M, Dimova-Malinovska D (2000) Electrical and optical properties of Co+ ion implanted a-Si1-xCx : H alloys, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS160(4)pp. 505-509 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MILOSAVLJEVIC M, BIBIC N, PERUSKO D, JEYNES C (1995) INFLUENCE OF ARSENIC ION-IMPLANTATION ON THE FORMATION OF TI-SILICIDES, VACUUM46(8-10)pp. 1009-1012 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Gurbich AF, Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Wendler E (2002) Applying elastic backscattering spectrometry when the nuclear excitation function has a fine structure, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS190PII S0168-583X(01)01211-3pp. 237-240 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Rozenberg GG, Bresler E, Speakman SP, Jeynes C, Steinke JHG (2002) Patterned low temperature copper-rich deposits using inkjet printing, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS81(27)pp. 5249-5251 AMER INST PHYSICS
Christopher ME, Warmenhoeven JW, Romolo FS, Donghi M, Webb RP, Jeynes C, Ward NI, Kirkby KJ, Bailey MJ (2013) A new quantitative method for gunshot residue analysis by ion beam analysis., Analystpp. 4649-4655 Royal Society of Chemistry
Imaging and analyzing gunshot residue (GSR) particles using the scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) is a standard technique that can provide important forensic evidence, but the discrimination power of this technique is limited due to low sensitivity to trace elements and difficulties in obtaining quantitative results from small particles. A new, faster method using a scanning proton microbeam and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (¼-PIXE), together with Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) is presented for the non-destructive, quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of single GSR particles. In this study, the GSR particles were all Pb, Ba, Sb. The precision of the method is assessed. The grouping behaviour of different makes of ammunition is determined using multivariate analysis. The protocol correctly groups the cartridges studied here, with a confidence >99%, irrespective of the firearm or population of particles selected.
REESON KJ, STANLEY CJ, JEYNES C, GRIME G, WATT F (1990) PIXE ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE TRACE-ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN A SERIES OF GALENA (PBS) SPECIMENS FROM DIFFERENT LOCALITIES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS45(1-4)pp. 327-332 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Dilliway GDM, Cowern NEB, Jeynes C, O'Reilly L, McNally PJ, Bagnall DM (2003) Structural and compositional evolution of self-assembled germanium islands on silicon (001) during high growth rate LPCVD, Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings775pp. 275-280
Understanding the process of self-organization of Ge nanostructures on Si with controlled size distribution is a key requirement for their application to devices. In this study, we investigate the temporal evolution of self-assembled islands during the low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) of Ge on Si at 650°C using high growth rates (6-9 nm/min). The islands were characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We found that the first nanostructures to assemble were small islands, with a narrow size distribution, typical of the 'lens-shaped' structures reported in previous studies. Next to form were a population of larger 'lens-shaped' islands with a similar surface density to that of the small islands, but with broad height and width distributions. These islands differ from the pyramid-shaped islands previously reported for a similar size range. On further Ge deposition, the population evolves into one of large square-based truncated pyramids with a very narrow size distribution. Such pyramidal structures were previously reported at smaller sizes. Furthermore, we see no evidence of the multifaceted domes previously reported in this size range. The small 'lens-shaped' islands appear to be strained, whilst some of the intermediate-sized islands and all the large truncated pyramids contain misfit strain relaxation induced defects. Additionally, in the both the intermediate size 'lens-shaped' islands and in the large size truncated pyramidal islands, there is evidence of Si-Ge strain-induced alloying, more significant in the first than in the latter. Our observation of 'lens shaped' islands and truncated pyramids at larger sizes than are normally observed, suggests a kinetically driven process that delays the evolution of energetically favourable island structures until larger island sizes are reached.
Breese MBH, de Kerckhove DG, Jeynes C, Peel RMA, Murray CW (2001) An electrostatic beam rocking system on the Surrey nuclear microprobe, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS181pp. 54-59 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
SPYROU NM, ALTAF WJ, GILL BS, JEYNES C, NICOLAOU G, PIETRA R, SABBIONI E, SURIAN M (1990) FLUORINE CONCENTRATIONS IN BONE-BIOPSY SAMPLES DETERMINED BY PROTON-INDUCED GAMMA-RAY EMISSION AND CYCLIC NEUTRON-ACTIVATION, BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH26-7pp. 161-168 HUMANA PRESS INC
Wilson IH, Chen YJ, Xu JB, Devine RAB, Jeynes C (1996) Ion impacts and nanostructures on Ge(111), In0.22Ga0.78As/GaAs(100) and alpha quartz surfaces observed by atomic force microscopy, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS24(13)pp. 881-886 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Murtagh M, Lynch SM, Kelly PV, Hildebrant S, Herbert PAF, Jeynes C, Crean GM (1997) Photoreflectance characterisation of Ar+ ion etched and SiCl4 reactive ion etched silicon (100), MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY13(11)pp. 961-964 INST MATERIALS
Beck L, Jeynes C, Barradas NP (2008) Characterization of paint layers by simultaneous self-consistent fitting of RBS/PIXE spectra using simulated annealing, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS266(8)pp. 1871-1874 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KOZANECKI A, CHAN M, JEYNES C, SEALY B, HOMEWOOD K (1991) LATTICE LOCATION OF ERBIUM IMPLANTED INTO GAAS, SOLID STATE COMMUNICATIONS78(8)pp. 763-766 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Dilliway GDM, Bagnall DM, Cowern NEB, Jeynes C (2003) Self-assembled germanium islands grown on (001) silicon substrates by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS14(5-7)pp. 323-327 KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL
DANN AJ, FAHY MR, WILLIS MR, JEYNES C (1987) ION-IMPLANTATION OF POLYMERIC PHTHALOCYANINES, SYNTHETIC METALS18(1-3)pp. 581-584 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Nejim A, Jeynes C, Zhao Q, Muller-Steinhagen H (1999) Ion implantation of stainless steel heater alloys for anti-fouling applications, Proceedings of the International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology2pp. 869-872
Ion implantation of fluorine and silicon ions into stainless steel heater alloys inhibits the accumulation of CaSO4 deposits when used in an saturated aqueous solution of 1.6 g/l concentration. This anti-fouling action leads to an increase in the heat transfer coefficient by more than 100% under a heat flux of 200 kW/m2 and 200% under a heat flux of 100 kW/m2 when compared to unimplanted heater elements. Heat transfer data indicate that following a heating cycle of 4000 minutes a thick layer of CaSO4 deposit remain on unimplanted heater surfaces. Similar CaSO4 deposits also formed on the implanted alloys initially but did not remain after 1000 minutes causing a significant recovery in the heat transfer coefficient. Ion implanting these alloys leads to surface energy reduction and hence the anti-fouling action observed.
Perusko D, Milinovic V, Mitric M, Petrovic S, Jeynes C, Milosavljevic M (2009) Ion Beam Modification of Al/Ti Multilayers, MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING PROCESSES24(10-11)pp. 1130-1133 TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
Kang DJ, Peng NH, Webb R, Jeynes C, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Burnell G, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG (2002) Realization and properties of MgB2 metal-masked ion damage junctions, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS81(19)pp. 3600-3602 AMER INST PHYSICS
Jeynes C (2015) Costs of open data, PHYSICS WORLD28(4)pp. 21-21 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
STRICKLAND KR, EDWARDS SC, WIGMORE JK, COLLINS RA, JEYNES C (1992) STUDY OF ION-IMPLANTATION AND ANNEALING EFFECTS IN SILICON-WAFERS USING HIGH-FREQUENCY PHONON-SCATTERING, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS18(8)pp. 631-636 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Mefo J, Kirkby KJ, Sealy BJ, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Collart EJH (2003) Elemental analysis of residual deposits in an ion implanter using IBA techniques, IIT2002: ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGSpp. 467-470 IEEE
BANGERT U, GOODHEW PJ, JEYNES C, WILSON IH (1986) LOW-ENERGY (2-5 KEV) ARGON DAMAGE IN SILICON, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS19(4)pp. 589-603 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Kozanecki A, Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Sealy BJ, Jantsch W (1999) The influence of implantation and annealing conditions on optical activity of Er3+ ions in 6H SiC, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS148(1-4)pp. 512-516 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Sealy B, Gwilliam R, Shannon J, Jeynes C, Angelov C, Tsvetkova T (1998) Surface electrical conductivity of Co+-implanted a-SiC : H films, VACUUM51(2)pp. 281-284 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Barradas NP, Arstila K, Battistig G, Bianconi M, Dytlewski N, Jeynes C, Kotai E, Lulli G, Mayer M, Rauhala E, Szilagyi E, Thompson M (2007) International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS262(2)pp. 281-303 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Jeynes C (2012) Ion Beam Methods ? Introduction, In: Kaufmann EN (eds.), Characterization of MaterialsVol.3: Ion Beam Methodspp. 1941-1948 Wiley
Ion beam techniques are used with ion energies from eV to many MeV and a very wide range of ion species to characterise materials at length scales from sub-nm to sub-mm and in a wide variety of different ways. Many of these techniques are non destructive.
Atomic concentration can be determined from matrix elements (the stoichiometry) to minor and trace elements (at ng/g sensitivity and better), in one dimension (depth profiles), two dimensions (elemental maps), and three dimensions with full tomography being feasible. There is sensitivity to the whole Periodic Table one way or another, with nuclear techniques for isotopic sensitivity, and high resolution mass spectrometry for obtaining isotopic ratios at ultra-high sensitivities of 1014 and better.
Other techniques include ultra-high resolution microscopy, characterisation of semiconductor device defects at high spacial resolution, and the investigation of damage processes in the nuclear irradiation of materials.
ION BEAM METHODS for thin film materials have major application areas from archaeology to zoology (including materials science, geology, cultural heritage, electronics and many others).
Boudreault G, Claudio G, Jeynes C, Low R, Sealy BJ (2004) Accurate calibration of the retained fluence from a versatile single wafer implanter using RBS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS217(1)pp. 177-182 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Webb RP, Winston SH, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ (2003) Comparison of boron halide, decaborane and B implants in Si from molecular dynamics simulations, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS202pp. 143-148 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Bailey MJ, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Webb RP, Gwilliam RM (2010) On artefacts in the secondary ion mass spectrometry profiling of high fluence H+ implants in GaAs, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS268(11-12)pp. 2051-2055 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JAFRI ZH, JEYNES C, WEBB RP, WILSON IH (1990) MASS-TRANSPORT OF SILICON DURING ARGON IRRADIATION EMPLOYING A DOUBLE-MARKER SYSTEM, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS48(1-4)pp. 457-460 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Surface modification of amorphous PET in incompatible blends is demonstrated using fluorocarbon end-functional polystyrenes. Contact angles with water and decane were consistent with high levels of surface fluorocarbon, even for spin-cast films with no further processing required. Hydrophobicity and lipophobicity were further increased by annealing above the glass transition temperature. High resolution depth profiling using complementary ion beam analysis and specular neutron reflectometry has enabled accurate characterisation of the composition profile of the additive including the minimum in additive concentration found just below the surface enriched layer. This analysis quantified the very low compatibility between the modifying polymer and the amorphous PET and was consistent with the highly segregated nature of the adsorbing species and its sharp interface with the subphase. For these incompatible polymer blends, surfaces enriched with the surface active polymer could coexist at equilibrium with extremely low (<0.4%) bulk loadings of the additive. This suggests that for thicker films at even lower additive concentrations than the minimum 1% that we studied, it may be possible to achieve efficient surface modification. However, at this concentration, the efficiency of surface modification is limited by the processing conditions. Finally we note that in higher loadings of surface active additive there is clear evidence for lateral phase separation into patterned domains of differing composition. The enhancement in surface properties is due to local reorganisation rather than bulk redistribution of the components within the film, as the composition versus depth distributions of the polymer blend components was observed to be relatively unaffected by annealing.
Ashwin MJ, Pritchard RE, Newman RC, Joyce TB, Bullough TJ, Wagner J, Jeynes C, Breuer SJ, Jones R, Briddon PR, Oberg S (1996) The bonding of C-As acceptors in InxGa1-xAs grown by chemical beam epitaxy using carbon tetrabromide as the source of carbon, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS80(12)pp. 6754-6760 AMER INST PHYSICS
RAMAN VK, MAHMOOD F, MCMAHON RA, AHMED H, JEYNES C (1988) RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM REACTED TANTALUM TITANIUM BILAYERS ON SILICON, JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 1-REGULAR PAPERS SHORT NOTES & REVIEW PAPERS27(12)pp. 2333-2339 JAPAN J APPLIED PHYSICS
Clough AS, Collins SA, Gauntlett FE, Hodgson MR, Jeynes C, Rihawy MS, Todd AM, Thompson RL (2006) In situ water permeation measurement using an external He-3(2+) ion beam, JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE285(1-2)pp. 137-143 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MATTHEWS AP, JEYNES C, REESON KJ, THORNTON J, SPYROU NM (1992) QUANTIFICATION OF THE SEPARATE MATRIX CONSTITUENTS OF SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE CAST-IRON IMPLANTED WITH N-15 BY NUCLEAR-REACTION ANALYSIS USING AN ION MICROPROBE, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS64(1-4)pp. 452-456 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
KAZOR A, JEYNES C, BOYD IW (1994) FLUORINE ENHANCED OXIDATION OF SILICON AT LOW-TEMPERATURES, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS65(12)pp. 1572-1574 AMER INST PHYSICS
Alzanki T, Gwilliam R, Emerson N, Tabatabaian Z, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ (2004) Concentration profiles of antimony-doped shallow layers in silicon, SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY19(6)PII S0268-1242(04)71935-5pp. 728-732 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Jenkin M, Marriott PK (1999) Bayesian error analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectra, THIN SOLID FILMS343pp. 31-34 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Shtereva KS, Novotny I, Tvarozek V, Vojs M, Flickyngerova S, Sutta P, Vincze A, Milosavljevi? M, Jeynes C, Peng N (2012) Carrier Control in Polycrystalline ZnO:Ga Thin Films via Nitrogen Implantation
Electronic Materials and Processing,ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology1(5)pp. 237-240
The Electrochemical Society
The electrical characteristics of gallium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) thin films prepared by rf diode sputtering were altered via nitrogen implantation by performing two implants at 40 keV and 80 keV with doses of 1×1015 and 1×1016 cm?2 to achieve a p-type semiconductor. An implantation of 1×1015 cm?2 N+-ions yielded a p-type with hole concentrations 1017?1018 cm?3 in some as-implanted samples. The films annealed at temperatures above 200°C in O2 and above 400°C in N2 were n-type with electron concentrations 1017?1020 cm?3. The higher nitrogen concentration (confirmed by SRIM and SIMS), in the films implanted with a 1×1016 cm?2 dose, resulted in lower electron concentrations, respectively, higher resistivity, due to compensation of donors by nitrogen acceptors. The electron concentrations ratio n(1×1015)/n(1×1016) decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Hall measurements showed that 1×1016 cm?2 N-implanted films became p-type after low temperature annealing in O2 at 200°C and in N2 at 400°C with hole concentrations of 3.2×1017 cm?3 and 1.6×1019 cm?3, respectively. Nitrogen-implanted ZnO:Ga films showed a c-axes preferred orientation of the crystallites. Annealing is shown to increase the average transmittance (>80%) of the films and to cause bandgap widening (3.19?3.3 eV).
Kozanecki N, Jantsch W, Heis W, Prechtl G, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C (1997) Infrared luminescence in Er and Er+O implanted 6H SiC, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A92(5)pp. 879-882 POLISH ACAD SCIENCES INST PHYSICS
BIBIC N, MILOSAVLJEVIC M, PERUSKO D, SERRUYS Y, JEYNES C (1992) ION-BEAM INDUCED MIXING IN PD THIN-FILMS ON SILICON, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS67(1-4)pp. 500-503 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Peaker AR, Markevich VP, Slotte J, Rummukainen M, Capan I, Pivac B, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Dobaczewski L (2006) Understanding ion implantation defects in germanium, ECS Transactions3(2)pp. 67-76
The recent interest in germanium as an alternative channel material for PMOS has revealed major differences from silicon in relation to ion implantation. In this paper we describe some initial results of a fundamental study into defect creation and removal in ion implanted germanium. In this stage of the work we have used silicon and germanium implants into germanium and into germanium rich silicon-germanium. The defect evolution in these samples is compared with electron and neutron irradiated material using annealing studies in conjunction with deep level transient spectroscopy, positron annihilation and Rutherford back scattering. It is proposed that both vacancy and interstitial clustering are important mechanisms in implanted germanium and the likely significance of this is discussed. copyright The Electrochemical Society.
SEALY BJ, TAN BL, GWILLIAM RM, REESON KJ, JEYNES C (1989) RESISTIVITY OF ION-BEAM SYNTHESIZED COSI2, ELECTRONICS LETTERS25(22)pp. 1532-1533 IEE-INST ELEC ENG
Mordi CU, Eleruja MA, Taleatu BA, Egharevba GO, Adedeji AV, Akinwunmi OO, Olofinjana B, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2009) Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposited Thin Films of Cobalt Oxide Prepared via Cobalt Acetylacetonate, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY25(1)pp. 85-89 JOURNAL MATER SCI TECHNOL
Peng N, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Webb RP, Pan F, Chen X (2012) On fabrication of high concentration Mn doped Si by ion implantation: problem and challenge, 18TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM CONGRESS (IVC-18)32pp. 408-411 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MILOSAVLJEVIC M, JEYNES C, WILSON IH (1984) SOLID-PHASE EPITAXY OF EVAPORATED AMORPHOUS-SILICON FILMS, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS45(8)pp. 874-876 AMER INST PHYSICS
Eleruja MA, Egharevba GO, Abulude OA, Akinwunmi OO, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2007) Preparation and characterization of metalorganic chemical vapor deposited nickel oxide and lithium nickel oxide thin films, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE42(8)pp. 2758-2765 SPRINGER
SINGH M, LIGHTOWLERS EC, DAVIES G, JEYNES C, REESON KJ (1989) ISOELECTRONIC BOUND EXCITON PHOTOLUMINESCENCE FROM A METASTABLE DEFECT IN SULFUR-DOPED SILICON, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY4(1-4)pp. 303-307 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
© 1989 Springer-Verlag Heidelberg. © 1989 Springer-Verlag Bcrbn Heidelberg. All Rights Reserved.This paper correlates photodisplacement thermal wave characterization of ion implanted silicon wafers with the lattice information provided by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry.
Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Chakarov IR, Blamire MG (2001) Monte Carlo simulations of masked ion beam irradiation damage profiles in YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS178pp. 242-246 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Simon A, Csako T, Jeynes C, Szorenyi T (2006) High lateral resolution 2D mapping of the B/C ratio in a boron carbide film formed by ferntosecond pulsed laser deposition, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS249pp. 454-457 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Blewett MJ, Webb RP (1998) Improved ion beam analysis facilities at the University of Surrey, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 1229-1234 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Nejim A, Knights AP, Jeynes C, Coleman PG, Patel CJ (1998) Profile broadening of high dose germanium implants into (100) silicon at elevated temperatures due to channeling, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS83(7)pp. 3565-3573 AMER INST PHYSICS
Eleruja MA, Adedeji AV, Egharevba GO, Lambi JN, Akanni MS, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2002) Preparation and characterization of undoped zinc oxide and uranium doped zinc oxide thin films, OPTICAL MATERIALS20(2)PII S0925-3467(02)00057-5pp. 119-123 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Ross GJ, Barradas NP, Hill MP, Jeynes C, Morrissey P, Watts JF (2001) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and computer simulation for the in-depth analysis of chemically modified poly(vinylidene fluoride), JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE36(19)pp. 4731-4738 KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL
BALIGA CB, TSAKIROPOULOS P, JEYNES C (1991) SURFACE CONTAMINATION AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CORROSION OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED MG-AL ALLOY SPLATS, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE26(6)pp. 1497-1504 CHAPMAN HALL LTD
Adedeji AV, Egharevba GO, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2002) Preparation and characterization of pyrolytically deposited (Co-V-O and Cr-V-O) thin films, THIN SOLID FILMS402(1-2)pp. 49-54 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Mynard JE, Jeynes C, Thornton J, Way A, Webb R, Albury D, Hemment PLF, Stephens KG (1985) Improved facilities for ion beam surface analysis at the University of Surrey, Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B6(1-2)pp. 264-269
Additional, facilities, which are being installed on the 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Surrey, are described. These include improvements to the microbeam equipment and optical viewing system using an image intensifier, modifications to a 3-axis goniometer to provide batch processing, a goniometer control system and new software for data collection and analysis. © 1985.
AJAYI OB, AKANNI MS, LAMBI JN, JEYNES C, WATTS JF (1990) COMPOSITIONAL STUDIES OF VARIOUS METAL-OXIDE COATINGS ON GLASS, THIN SOLID FILMS185(1)pp. 123-136 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Martinez FL, Ruiz-Merino R, del Prado A, San Andres E, Martil I, Gonzalez-Diaz G, Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Wang L, Reehal HS (2004) Bonding structure and hydrogen content in silicon nitride thin films deposited by the electron cyclotron resonance plasma method, THIN SOLID FILMS459(1-2)pp. 203-207 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
There are many technical challenges in the fabrication of devices from novel materials. The characterization of these materials is critical in the development of efficient photovoltaic systems. We show how the application of recent advances in MeV IBA, providing the self-consistent treatment of RBS (Rutherford backscattering) and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) spectra, makes a new set of powerful complementary depth profiling techniques available for all thin film technologies, including the chalcopyrite compound semiconductors. We will give and discuss a detailed analysis of a CuInAl metallic precursor film, showing how similar methods are also applicable to other films of interest.
Jeynes C (2002) Science and Creation,
An abridgement of S.L.Jaki, Science and Creation, from eternal cycles to an oscillating universe, Scottish Academic Press 1974: 367pp, 14 chapters
MILOSAVLJEVIC M, JEYNES C, WILSON IH (1985) EPITAXIAL (100) SILICON FILMS GROWN AT LOW-TEMPERATURES IN AN ELECTRON-BEAM EVAPORATOR, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS57(4)pp. 1252-1255 AMER INST PHYSICS
Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Bibic N, McKinty CN, Jeynes C, Homewood KP (2002) Synthesis of amorphous FeSi2 by ion beam mixing, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS188pp. 166-169 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Jackson SM (1998) RBS/simulated annealing analysis of buried SiCOx layers formed by implantation of O into cubic silicon carbide, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS136pp. 1168-1171 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Sharp JA, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C, Hamilton JJ, Kirkby KJ (2005) Evaluation of BBr2+ and B++Br+ implants in silicon, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY124pp. 196-199 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
KING BV, JEYNES C, WEBB RP, KILNER JA (1993) ION-BEAM MIXING OF ISOTOPIC SILVER BILAYERS BY 200 KEV GERMANIUM, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS80-1pp. 163-166 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
RAMAN VK, MAHMOOD F, MCMAHON RA, AHMED H, JEYNES C, HUTT KW, COOPER N, GODFREY DJ (1988) CHARACTERIZATION OF RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM ANNEALED THIN TITANIUM SILICIDE FILMS, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY135(3)pp. C125-C125 ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC
Barradas NP, Arstila K, Battistig G, Bianconi M, Dytlewski N, Jeynes C, Kotai E, Lulli G, Mayer M, Rauhala E, Szilagyi E, Thompson M (2008) Summary of "IAEA intercomparison of IBA software",NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS266(8)pp. 1338-1342
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Zhao Q, Liu Y, Wang C, Wang S, Peng N, Jeynes C (2008) Reduction of bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces, MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS30(3)pp. 341-349 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Chakarov I, Blamire M (2002) Optimisation of masked ion irradiation damage profiles in YBCO thin films by Monte Carlo simulation, PHYSICA C-SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS372pp. 55-58 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
© The Royal Society of Chemistry.Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is a non-destructive thin film analytical technique of the highest absolute accuracy which, when used for elemental depth profiling, depends at first order on the gain of the pulse-height spectrometry system. We show here for the first time how this gain can be reliably and robustly determined at about 0.1%. This journal is
BRUNSON KM, SANDS D, THOMAS CB, JEYNES C, WATTS JF (1990) COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF SEMI-INSULATING POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILMS, PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES61(3)pp. 361-376 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Murtagh M, Beechinor JT, Herbert PAF, Kelly PV, Crean GM, Jeynes C (1994) Photoreflectance characterization of reactive ion etched silicon, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings324pp. 167-173
Reactive ion etching (RIE) of p-type 2-3 ©cm resistivity silicon (100) was characterized using Photoreflectance (PR), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). Isochronal (5 minutes) etching was performed at various DC etch biases (0-500 V) using a SiCl4 etch chemistry. The substrate etch rate dependence on applied bias was determined using mechanical profilometry. A distinct shift in the 3-1 Si transition and significant spectral broadening of the room temperature PR spectra was observed as a function of etch bias. Photoreflectance results are correlated with RBS, SE and etch rate analysis. It is demonstrated that the PR spectra reflect a complex, competitive, plasma-surface interaction during the RIE process.
YOUSIF KM, SMITH BE, JEYNES C (1994) STUDY OF DURABILITY OF (MOLYBDENUM-COPPER)-BLACK COATINGS IN RELATION TO THEIR USE AS SOLAR SELECTIVE ABSORBERS, RENEWABLE ENERGY5(1-4)pp. 324-329 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Yousif KM, Smith BE, Jeynes C (1996) Investigation of microstructure of molybdenum-copper black electrodeposited coatings with reference to solar selectivity, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE31(1)pp. 185-191 CHAPMAN HALL LTD
Milosavljevic M, Perusko D, Milinovic V, Stojanovic Z, Zalar A, Kovac J, Jeynes C (2010) Ion irradiation stability of multilayered AlN/TiN nanocomposites, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS43(6)ARTN 065302 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Molodtsov SL, Gurbich AF, Jeynes C (2008) Accurate ion beam analysis in the presence of surface roughness, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics41(20)
Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a powerful materials characterization technique with very wide applicability. However, despite the fact that most natural and many industrial samples are rough, there is currently no way to correctly take severe roughness into account when processing the IBA spectra from rough samples, without resorting to Monte Carlo calculations which are too slow for routine use. In this work we demonstrate a new approach which parametrizes a Monte Carlo calculation so that the analytical codes can rapidly calculate the effect of asperities for a wide variety of rough surfaces. We successfully apply this method to real samples. This new analytical algorithm allows us to overcome the longstanding problem of the correct depth profiling of these common samples, hence dramatically increasing the power of the IBA technique. It also allows us to extract physically meaningful roughness parameters on samples whose roughness cannot be easily measured directly. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Chakarov I, Kang DJ, Moore D, Blamire M (2002) Monte Carlo simulations of energetic proton beam irradiation damage defect productions in YBCO thin films with Au masks, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS188pp. 189-195 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Peng NH, Chakarov I, Jeynes C, Webb R, Booij W, Blamire M, Kelly M (2000) 2D Monte Carlo simulation of proton implantation of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films through high aspect ratio Nb masks, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS164pp. 979-985 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Nejim A, Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Cristiano F, Wendler E, Gartner K, Sealy BJ (1998) Residual post anneal damage of Ge and C co-implantation of Si determined by quantitative RBS-channelling, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS139(1-4)pp. 244-248 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Jeynes C, McKinty CN, Homewood KP (2001) Properties of beta-FeSi2 grown by combined ion irradiation and annealing of Fe/Si bilayers, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS175pp. 309-313 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MURTAGH M, CREAN GM, FLAHERTY T, JEYNES C (1992) SENSITIVITY OF A MODULATED OPTICAL REFLECTANCE PROBE TO PROCESS-INDUCED LATTICE DISORDER, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE54pp. 497-501 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, Reid DP, Maddrell ER, Peng N, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Woicik JC (2009) Characterisation of Ion Beam Irradiated Zirconolite for Pu Disposition, SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXXII1124pp. 243-248 MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY
There are few techniques capable of the non-destructive and model-free measurement at 1% absolute accuracy of quantity of material in thin films without the use of sample-matched standards. We demonstrate that Rutherford backscattering spectrometry can achieve this robustly, reliably and conveniently. Using 1.5 MeV He+, a 150 keV ion implant into silicon with a nominal fluence of 5 × 1015 As cm-2 has been independently measured repeatedly over a period of 2 years with a mean total combined standard uncertainty of 0.9 ± 0.3% relative to an internal standard given by the silicon stopping power (a coverage factor k = 1 is used for all uncertainties given). The stopping power factor of this beam in silicon is determined absolutely with a mean total combined standard uncertainty of 0.8 ± 0.1%, traceable to the 0.6% uncertainty of the Sb-implanted certified reference material (CRM) from IRMM, Geel. The uncertainty budget highlights the need for the accurate determination of the electronic gain of the detection system and the scattering angle, parameters conventionally regarded as trivial. This level of accuracy is equally applicable to much lower fluences since it is not dominated by any one effect; but it cannot be reached without good control of all of these effects. This analytical method is extensible to non-Rutherford scattering. The stopping power factor of 4.0 MeV lithium in silicon is also determined at 1.0% absolute accuracy traceable to the Sb-implanted CRM. This work used SRIM2003 stopping powers which are therefore demonstrated correct at 0.8% for 1.5 MeV He in Si and 1% for 4 MeV Li in Si. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Jeynes C, Jafri ZH, Webb RP, Kimber AC, Ashwin MJ (1997) Accurate RBS measurements of the indium content of InGaAs thin films, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS25(4)pp. 254-260 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Merchant MJ, Mistry P, Browton M, Clough AS, Gauntlett FE, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Grime GW (2005) Characterisation of the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre in-air scanning microbeam, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS231pp. 26-31 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Barradas NP, Almeida SA, Jeynes C, Knights AP, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ (1999) RBS and ERDA study of ion beam synthesised amorphous gallium nitride, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS148(1-4)pp. 463-467 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Simonsen AC, Pohler JP, Jeynes C, Tougaard S (1999) Quantification of Au deposited on Ni: XPS peak shape analysis compared to RES, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS27(1)pp. 52-56 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Tzitzinou A, Keddie JL, Jeynes C, Mulder M, Geurts J, Treacher KE, Satguru R, Zhdan P (1999) Molecular weight effects on film formation of latex and surfactant morphology., ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY218pp. U609-U609 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
SEAH MP, DAVID D, DAVIES JA, JACKMAN TE, JEYNES C, ORTEGA C, READ PM, SOFIELD CJ, WEBER G (1988) AN INTERCOMPARISON OF ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENTS OF THE OXYGEN AND TANTALUM THICKNESS OF TANTALUM PENTOXIDE REFERENCE MATERIALS, BCR 261, BY 6 LABORATORIES, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS30(2)pp. 140-151 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Jeynes C, Bailey MJ, Bright NJ, Christopher ME, Grime GW, Jones BN, Palitsin VV, Webb RP (2012) "total IBA" - Where are we?,Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms271pp. 107-118
The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information ? the secret of ?Total IBA? is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far ?Total IBA? can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.
Too P, Ahmed S, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Gwilliam R (2002) Electrical isolation of n-type InP using MeV iron implantation at different doses and substrate temperatures, ELECTRONICS LETTERS38(20)pp. 1225-1226 IEE-INST ELEC ENG
Webb RP, Jeynes C, Wilson IH (1986) The effect of angle of incidence on interface broadening, Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B13(1-3)pp. 449-452
The broadening of a thin (~3 nm) Au marker, sandwiched between two sputtered silicon films deposited on a single crystal silicon substrate, bombarded with 100 keV argon ions has been observed for different angles of incidence using Rutherford backscattering. The results are compared to a theory used to predict the behaviour of the sputtering yield with angle of incidence. It is found that the effect of incomplete collision cascades and anisotropy of the cascade distribution determine the behaviour of the broadening. © 1986.
CURRENT MI, GUITNER T, OHNO N, HURLEY K, KEENAN WA, JOHNSON W, HILLARD RJ, JEYNES C (1991) MONITORING THE MICRO-UNIFORMITY PERFORMANCE OF A SPINNING DISK IMPLANTER, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS55(1-4)pp. 173-177 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Chakalov RA, Jeynes C, Mikheenko P, Allsworth MD, Darlington CNW, Colclough MS, Muirhead CM (2004) Difference in individual layer properties in cuprate/manganite structures deposited by laser ablation, ANNALEN DER PHYSIK13(1-2)pp. 81-82 WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Ilori OO, Osasona O, Eleruja MA, Egharevba GO, Adegboyega GA, Chiodelli G, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2005) Preparation and characterization of metallorganic chemical vapour deposited LixMoyOz using a single source solid precursor, IONICS11(5-6)pp. 387-392 INST IONICS
Perusko D, Webb MJ, Milinovic V, Timotijevic B, Miosavljevic M, Jeynes C, Webb RP (2008) On the ion irradiation stability of Al/Ti versus AlN/TiN multilayers, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS266(8)pp. 1749-1753 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
PEEL RMA, MILLEN D, JEYNES C, WEBB RP (1994) TRANSPUTERS IN A DISTRIBUTED DATA-COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR MEV ION MICROBEAM ANALYSIS, PROGRESS IN TRANSPUTER AND OCCAM RESEARCH38pp. 87-97 I O S PRESS
Ajayi OB, Osuntola OK, Ojo IA, Jeynes C (1994) Preparation and characterization of MOCVD thin films of cadmium sulphide, Thin Solid Films248(1)pp. 57-62
A film of stoichiometric cadmium sulphide on quartz substrate was deposited by pyrolysis from bis-(morpholinodithioato-S,S') cadmium (C10H16N2O2S4Cd) (a single source precursor). The band gap of 2.4 eV was confirmed by optical absorption measurements. The stoichiometry and thickness were determined by Rutherford backscattering, and the absence of organic remmants in the film demonstrated by IR spectroscopy. © 1994.
Hashim S, Al-Ahbabi S, Bradley DA, Webb M, Jeynes C, Ramli AT, Wagiran H (2009) The thermoluminescence response of doped SiO2 optical fibres subjected to photon and electron irradiations, APPLIED RADIATION AND ISOTOPES67(3)pp. 423-427 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Milosavljevic M, Stojanovic N, Perusko D, Timotijevic B, Toprek D, Kovac J, Drazic G, Jeynes C (2012) Ion irradiation induced Al-Ti interaction in nano-scaled Al/Ti multilayers, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE258(6)pp. 2043-2046
Puttick K, Jeynes C, Gee T (1998) Surface amorphization of machined silicon, PROCEEDINGS OF: SILICON MACHININGpp. 15-18 AMER SOC PRECISION ENGINEERING
WENDLER E, WILSON RJ, JEYNES C, WESCH W, GARTNER K, GWILLIAM RM, SEALY BJ (1995) 2 MEV AS+ IMPLANTATION IN INAS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS96(1-2)pp. 298-301 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Yakovlev EV, Talalaev RA, Martin RW, Jeynes C, Peng N, Deatcher CJ, Watson IM (2006) Modeling and experimental analysis of InGaN MOVPE in the Aixtron AIX 200/4 RF-S horizontal reactor, Physica Status Solidi C - Current Topics in Solid State Physics, Vol 3, No 63(6)pp. 1620-1623 WILEY-VCH, INC
Dilliway GDM, Cowern NEB, Xu L, McNally PJ, Jeynes C, Mendoza E, Ashburn P, Bagnall DM (2004) Influence of H2 preconditioning on the nucleation and growth of self-assembled germanium islands on silicon (001), Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings820pp. 351-356
Understanding the effects of growth conditions on the process of self-organisation of Ge nanostructures on Si is a key requirement for their practical applications. In this study we investigate the effect of preconditioning with a high-temperature hydrogenation step on the nucleation and subsequent temporal evolution of Ge self-assembled islands on Si (001). Two sets of structures, with and without H2 preconditioning, were grown by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) at 650°C. Their structural and compositional evolution was characterised by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-Raman (¼Raman) spectroscopy. In the absence of preconditioning, we observe the known evolution of self-assembled Ge nanostructures on Si (001), from small islands with a narrow size distribution, to a bimodal size distribution, through to large islands. Surface coverage and island size increase steadily as a function of deposition time. On the H2 preconditioned surface, however, both nucleation rates and surface coverage are greatly increased during the early stages of self-assembly. After the first five seconds, the density of the islands is twice that on the unconditioned surface, and the mean island size is also larger, but the subsequent evolution is much slower than in the case of the unconditioned surface. This retardation correlates with a relatively high measured stress within the islands. Our results demonstrate that standard processes used during growth, like H2 preconditioning, can yield dramatic changes in the uniformity and distribution of Ge nanostructures self-assembled on Si. © 2004 Materials Research Society.
Peng N, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Kirkby KJ, Webb RP (2007) Depth profile analysis for MgB2 thin films, formed by B implantation in Mg ribbons using energetic ion backscatterings, PHYSICA C-SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS460pp. 600-601 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Both Rutherford backscatterings of He-4(+) beams and non-Rutherford backscatterings of He-4(+) and H+ beams have been used in this study to investigate the depth profiles of B dopant in Mg target upon B implantation and post annealing. Primitive data analysis suggests an enhanced diffusion of surface C contaminant during the B implantation process, together with enhanced surface oxidation upon implantation and thermal annealing in flowing N-2 atmosphere. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Jeynes C, Grime GW (2012) Atomic Excitation Exploited by Energetic-Beam Characterization Methods, In: Kaufmann EN (eds.), Characterization of MaterialsVol.1: Common Conceptspp. 74-90 Wiley
Many disparate methods of compositional analysis of materials are underpinned by the same fundamental atomic processes: the excitation of the electronic system of the atoms followed by its subsequent relaxation. These methods include the electron spectroscopies (XPS, AES) used for surface studies, the electron microscopies used for elemental and structural characterisation (SEM using EDS and WDX; TEM using EELS), the X-ray methods (XRF, XAS) and ion beam analysis (PIXE) used for elemental and chemical characterisation. All rely on measuring the characteristic energy absorbed or emitted by the unknown target atom when its electronic system is excited by ionisation due to charged particles or electromagnetic radiation. This excitation is defined by the energy levels of the atomic electrons, determined primarily by the atomic number of the atom. (Atoms can also be excited without ionisation, as in optical and infra-red spectroscopy: this is outside the scope of this article.)
The theoretical description of the electronic structure of atoms is a major intellectual triumph of the twentieth century and this body of knowledge is exploited in the theoretical description of each of these methods, but the treatment of any particular method is usually presented by specialists in that method in isolation from all others. In this chapter we present a brief synthetic overview of materials analysis using atomic excitation, highlighting those features and physical concepts which underpin all these apparently disparate analysis methods. We hope to encourage modern analysts to appreciate the truly complementary nature of the powerful methods at their disposal.
Jenneson PM, Clough AS, Hollands R, Mulheron MJ, Jeynes C (1998) Profiling chlorine diffusion into ordinary Portland cement and pulverized fuel ash pastes using scanning MeV proton micro-PIXE, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS17(14)pp. 1173-1175 SPRINGER
RAMAN VK, MAHMOOD F, MCMAHON RA, AHMED H, JEYNES C, SARKAR D (1989) RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM INDUCED TANTALUM SILICON REACTIONS, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE36(1-4)pp. 654-663 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Gennaro S, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Collart EJH, Licciardello A (2003) Effects of carbon content and annealing conditions on the electrical activation of indium implanted silicon, IIT2002: ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGSpp. 552-555 IEEE
Ohe T, Zou B, Morris PM, Wogelius RA, Noshita K, Gomez-Morilla I, Jeynes C (2012) Adsorption and diffusion of strontium in simulated rock fractures quantified via ion beam analysis, Mineralogical Magazine76(8)pp. 3203-3215
An experimental technique has been developed and applied to the problem of determining effective diffusion coefficients and partition coefficients of Sr in low permeability geological materials. This technique, the micro-reactor simulated channel method (MRSC), allows rapid determination of contaminant transport parameters with resulting values comparable to those determined by more traditional methods and also creates product surfaces that are amenable for direct chemical analysis. An attempt to further constrain mass flux was completed by detailed ion beam analysis of polished tuff surfaces (tuff is a polycrystalline polyminerallic aggregate dominated by silicate phases) that had been reacted with Sr solutions at concentrations of 10, 10 and 10 mol 1. Ion beam analysis was carried out using beams of both protons (using particle induced X-ray emission and elastic backscattering spectrometry or EBS) and alpha-particles (using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry). The ion beam analyses showed that increased solution concentrations resulted in increased surface concentrations and that in the highest concentration experiment, Sr penetrated to at least 4 mm below the primary interface. The Sr surface concentrations determined by EBS were 0.06 (±0.05), 0.87 (±0.30) and 2.40 (±1.0) atomic weight % in the experiments with starting solution concentrations of 10 , 10, and 10 mol 1, respectively. © 2012 The Mineralogical Society.
BANGERT U, JEYNES C, GOODHEW P, WILSON IH (1984) DAMAGE EFFECTS IN SILICON AND MNOS STRUCTURES CAUSED BY BEAMS OF IONIZED AND NEUTRAL ARGON ATOMS WITH ENERGIES BELOW 5 KEV, VACUUM34(1-2)pp. 163-166 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
TANG YS, WILKINSON CDW, JEYNES C (1992) PD/TI BILAYER CONTACTS TO HEAVILY DOPED POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS72(1)pp. 311-312 AMER INST PHYSICS
Barradas NP, Alves E, Jeynes C, Tosaki M (2006) Accurate simulation of backscattering spectra in the presence of sharp resonances, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms247(2)pp. 381-389
In elastic backscattering spectrometry, the shape of the observed spectrum due to resonances in the nuclear scattering cross-section is influenced by many factors. If the energy spread of the beam before interaction is larger than the resonance width, then a simple convolution with the energy spread on exit and with the detection system resolution will lead to a calculated spectrum with a resonance much sharper than the observed signal. Also, the yield from a thin layer will not be calculated accurately. We have developed an algorithm for the accurate simulation of backscattering spectra in the presence of sharp resonances. Albeit approximate, the algorithm leads to dramatic improvements in the quality and accuracy of the simulations. It is simple to implement and leads to only small increases of the calculation time, being thus suitable for routine data analysis. We show different experimental examples, including samples with roughness and porosity. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guan W, Ghatak J, Peng Y, Peng N, Jeynes C, Inkson B, Moebus G (2012) Patterned ion beam implantation of Co ions into a SiO2 thin film via ordered nanoporous alumina masks, NANOTECHNOLOGY23(4)ARTN 045605
Barradas NP, Added N, Arnoldbik WM, Bogdanovic-Radovic I, Bohne W, Cardoso S, Danner C, Dytlewski N, Freitas PP, Jaksic M, Jeynes C, Krug C, Lennard WN, Lindner S, Linsmeier C, Medunic Z, Pelicon P, Pezzi RP, Radtke C, Rohrich J, Sajavaara T, Salgado TDM, Stedile FC, Tabacniks MH, Vickridge I (2005) A round robin characterisation of the thickness and composition of thin to ultra-thin AlNO films, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS227(3)pp. 397-419 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Mallegol J, Gorce JP, Dupont O, Jeynes C, McDonald PJ, Keddie JL (2002) Origins and effects of a surfactant excess near the surface of waterborne acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives, LANGMUIR18(11)pp. 4478-4487 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Jeynes C, Peng N, Barradas NP, Gwilliam RM (2006) Quality assurance in an implantation laboratory by high accuracy RBS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS249pp. 482-485 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JEYNES C, MILES RE, BOLT M, SIMMONS JG (1986) RAPID ANALYSIS OF SIPOS FILMS BY ELASTIC BACKSCATTERING AND RBS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS15(1-6)pp. 275-279 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Rafla-Yuan H, Hichwa BP, Close R (2000) Accurate depth profiling of complex optical coatings, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS30(1)pp. 237-242 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Kahlmann F, Booij WE, Blamire MG, McBrien PF, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Romans EJ, Pegrum CM, Tarte EJ (2001) Performance of high-T-c dc SQUID magnetometers with resistively shunted inductances compared to "unshunted" devices, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY11(1)pp. 916-919 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Li YP, Kilner JA, Thomas J, Lacey D, Cohen LF, Caplin AD, Li YH, Saba FM, Quincey PG, Somekh RE, Jeynes C, Jafri ZH (1996) Characterization of YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE31(23)pp. 6137-6144 CHAPMAN HALL LTD
Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Smith RC, Thomson D, Grime GW, Webb RP, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ (2007) Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS260(1)pp. 437-441 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Bailey MJ, Howard KT, Kirkby KJ, Jeynes C (2009) Characterisation of inhomogeneous inclusions in Darwin glass using ion beam analysis, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS267(12-13)pp. 2219-2224 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Darwin glass is an impact glass resulting from the melting of local rocks during the meteorite impact that formed the 1.2 km diameter Darwin Crater in western Tasmania. These glass samples have small spheroidal inclusions, typically a few tens of microns in diameter, that are of great interest to the geologists. We have analysed one such inclusion in detail with proton microbeam ion beam analysis (IBA). A highly heterogeneous composition is observed, both laterally and in depth, by using self-consistent fitting of photon emission and particle backscattering spectra. With various proton energies near 2 MeV we excite the C-12(p,p)C-12 resonance at 1734 keV at various depths, and thus we can probe both the C concentration, and also the energy straggling of the proton beam as a function of depth which gives information on the sample structure. This inclusion has an average composition of (C, O, Si) = (28, 56, 16) mol% with S, K, Ca, Ti and Fe as minor elements and Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br as trace elements. This composition includes, at specific points, an elemental depth profile and a density variation with depth consistent with discrete quartz crystals a few microns in size. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kozanecki A, Stepikhova M, Lanzerstorfer S, Jantsch W, Palmetshofer L, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C (1998) Excitation of Er3+ ions in silicon dioxide films thermally grown on silicon, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS73(20)pp. 2929-2931 AMER INST PHYSICS
Jeynes C (2012) "Total" Ion Beam Analysis ? 3D imaging of complex samples using MeV ion beams, In: Kaufmann EN (eds.), Characterization of MaterialsVol.3: Ion Beam Methods12(ii)pp. 1948-1959 Wiley
In this Chapter the synergy between a number of closely related techniques for thin film depth profiling are described; they all use ion beams from MV accelerators as probes. These include the nuclear methods: RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA (and see PARTICLE SCATTERING in the COMMON METHODS Chapter). But they can also include PIXE (see ATOMIC EXCITATIONS in the COMMON METHODS Chapter). See Table 1 for the expansion of the acronyms and references to the list of the detailed articles on individual techniques: this article will not describe the techniques themselves but will concentrate specifically on the synergisms available. I will use acronyms for complementary techniques freely: a Glossary for these can be found in the INTRODUCTION to this Chapter (ION BEAM METHODS).
"Total IBA" is operating when multiple IBA techniques are being handled self-consistently to obtain more information than the sum of that available from each technique handled separately [ ]. We will show that the sum of the whole is far more than the sum of the parts, to the extent that new classes of samples become tractable and new types of characterisation become feasible: the various IBA techniques are in fact strongly complementary. Indeed, we believe that chemical tomography is feasible with these new techniques.
The alert reader will object that we are only stating the obvious here: it is easy to find examples showing that this complementarity has always been recognised. For example, Feldman et al presented a paper combining He-RBS and He-PIXE to the first Ion Beam Analysis Conference nearly forty years ago in 1973 [ ]. The Abstract (not available electronically) is informative for us :-
Anodic oxide films on GaAs have been studied by the combined use of He back-scattering [sic] and He-induced X-rays. Back-scattering is hampered by the lack of mass resolution between Ga and As. X-ray analysis has excellent mass resolution but poor depth resolution. This poor depth resolution is overcome by increasing the effective thickness of the films by entering at grazing angles and making use of the property that the He-induced X-ray cross-sections fall steeply with decreasing energy. This technique and the methods of data analysis are discussed in detail. The anodic oxide films are found to be deficient in As within 200Å of the surface and to have a Ga:As ratio of approximately 1:1 for the rest of the oxide. On heating to 650°C most of the As diffuses out of the films.
This early use
DUCKWORTH RG, HARPER RE, JEYNES C (1986) BACKSCATTERING ANALYSIS OF ZRN ALLOYS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS15(1-6)pp. 272-274 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JEYNES C, KIMBER AC (1985) HIGH-ACCURACY DATA FROM RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING SPECTRA - MEASUREMENTS OF THE RANGE AND STRAGGLING OF 60-400 KEV AS IMPLANTS INTO SI, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS18(8)pp. L93-L97 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Jeynes JCG, Bailey MJ, Coley H, Kirkby KJ, Jeynes C (2010) Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS268(11-12)pp. 2168-2171 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Mistry P, Gornez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb R, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ (2005) New developments on the Surrey microbeam applications to lithography, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS231pp. 428-432 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Milosavljevi? M, Peruako D, Milinovi? V, Timotijevi? B, Zalar A, Kova J, Jeynes C (2009) High ion irradiation tolerance of multilayered AlN/TiN nanocomposites, Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Research Applications and Utilization of Accelerators International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Gurbich AF, Abriola D, Barradas NP, Ramos AR, Bogdanovic-Radovic I, Chiari M, Jeynes C, Kokkoris M, Mayer M, Shi L, Vickridge I (2011) Measurements and Evaluation of Differential Cross-sections for Ion Beam Analysis, JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY59(2)pp. 2010-2013
Ion beam analysis (IBA) methods always rely on available differential cross section data to obtain quantitative results about composition and structure of the near-surface layer of a sample. In order to meet the nuclear data needs of the IBA community, the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) ``Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis'' was initiated by the IAEA in 2005 and will be concluded in 2010. A summary of the results of this IAEA Coordinated Research Project activity is presented, problems still existing in the field are discussed, and ways to further develop nuclear data for IBA are indicated.
Lazzeri P, Oehrlein GS, Stueber GJ, McGowan R, Busch E, Pederzoli S, Jeynes C, Bersani M, Anderle M (2008) Interactions of photoresist stripping plasmas with nanoporous organo-silicate ultra low dielectric constant dielectrics, THIN SOLID FILMS516(11)pp. 3697-3703 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Pascual-Izarra C, Barradas NP, Reis MA, Jeynes C, Menu M, Lavedrine B, Jacques Ezrati J, Roehrs S (2007) Towards truly simultaneous PIXE and RBS analysis of layered objects in cultural heritage, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS261(1-2)pp. 426-429 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
REESON KJ, DEVEIRMAN A, GWILLIAM R, JEYNES C, SEALY BJ, VANLANDUYT J (1989) TEM AND RBS STUDIES OF EPITAXIAL COSI2 LAYERS FORMED BY HIGH-DOSE COBALT IMPLANTATION INTO SILICON, INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES(100)pp. 627-634 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Toal SJ, Reehal HS, Webb SJ, Barradas NP, Jeynes C (1999) Structural analysis of nanocrystalline SiC thin films grown on silicon by ECR plasma CVD, THIN SOLID FILMS343pp. 292-294 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Mironov OA, Phillips PJ, Parker EHC, Dowsett MG, Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Mironov M, Gnezdilov VP, Ushakov V, Eremenko VV (1997) Structural and optical characterisation of undoped Si-Si0.78Ge0.22/Si(001) superlattices grown by MBE, THIN SOLID FILMS306(2)pp. 307-312 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Wilde JR, Greer AL (2000) Composition of Ni-Ta-C thick films using simulated annealing analysis of elastic backscattering spectrometry data, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS161pp. 287-292 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Stojanovic M, Vasic A, Jeynes C (1996) Ion implanted silicides studies by frequency noise level measurements, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS112(1-4)pp. 192-195 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Webb R, Bailey M, Jeynes C, Grime G (2010) 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms268(11-12)
Stojanovic M, Milosavljevic M, Jeynes C (1998) Characterization of as implanted silicides by frequency noise level measurements, ADVANCED MATERIALS AND PROCESSES282-2pp. 153-156 TRANSTEC PUBLICATIONS LTD
Khamsuwan J, Intarasiri S, Kirkby K, Jeynes C, Chu PK, Kamwanna T, Yu LD (2011) High-energy heavy ion beam annealing effect on ion beam synthesis of silicon carbide, Surface and Coatings Technology206(5)pp. 770-774 Elsevier
Silicon carbide (SiC) is a superior material potentially replacing conventional silicon for high-power and high-frequency microelectronic applications. Ion beam synthesis (IBS) is a novel technique to produce large-area, high-quality and ready-to-use SiC crystals. The technique uses high-fluence carbon ion implantation in silicon wafers at elevated temperatures, followed by high-energy heavy ion beam annealing. This work focuses on studying effects from the ion beam annealing on crystallization of SiC from implanted carbon and matrix silicon. In the ion beam annealing experiments, heavy ion beams of iodine and xenon, the neighbors in the periodic table, with different energies to different fluences, I ions at 10, 20, and 30MeV with 1-5×10 12ions/cm 2, while Xe ions at 4MeV with 5×10 13 and 1×10 14ions/cm 2, bombarded C-ion in implanted Si at elevated temperatures. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the formation of SiC. Non-Rutherford backscattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry were used to analyze changes in the carbon depth profiles. The results from this study were compared with those previously reported in similar studies. The comparison showed that ion beam annealing could indeed induce crystallization of SiC, mainly depending on the single ion energy but not on the deposited areal density of the ion beam energy (the product of the ion energy and the fluence). The results demonstrate from an aspect that the electronic stopping plays the key role in the annealing.
BACHMANN T, WENDLER E, WESCH W, HERRE O, WILSON RJ, JEYNES C, GWILLIAM RM, SEALY BJ (1995) DAMAGE PRODUCTION DURING MEV ION-IMPLANTATION IN GAAS AND INAS, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS99(1-4)pp. 619-622 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
MILOSAVLJEVIC M, BIBIC N, PERUSKO D, WILSON IH, JEYNES C (1990) PROCESSING OF TIN/TI METALLIZATION ON SILICON BY ARSENIC ION-IMPLANTATION, SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY43-4(1-3)pp. 996-1006 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
JEYNES C (1983) A PROPOSED DIAMOND POLISHING PROCESS, PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES48(2)pp. 169-197 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Nejim A, Gwilliam RM, Emerson NG, Knights AP, Cristiano F, Barradas NP, Jeynes C (1999) Electrical behaviour associated with defect tails in germanium implanted silicon, Proceedings of the International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology1pp. 506-509
In this study the impact of the defect tails generated by germanium implantation into n-type silicon wafers on the deep energy states, the doping profiles and mobilities, are investigated. 100 mm (100) silicon wafers with a base doping concentration of 3×1015/cm3 have been Implanted with 80 keV germanium on the Danfysik DF1090 high current implanter using instantaneous current density of 5 ¼A/cm2-95 ¼A/cm2, which correspond to power loading values of 0.4 and 7.6 W/cm2 respectively. Channelling Rutherford Backscattering analysis of a wafer implanted with 1×1016 Ge/cm2 and a dose rate of 80 ¼A/cm2 indicates a defect tail extending to 0.65 ¼m compared with 0.35 ¼m from a similar implant using 20 ¼A/cm2. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements of samples implanted with 3×1014 Ge/cm2 followed by a regrowth anneal of 700 °C for 20 mins reveal a high concentration of deep levels beyond the projected range of germanium of 58 nm at depths extending from 0.15 ¼m to depths greater than 0.4 ¼m. The main peak indicate a deep level at 0.35 eV. The increase in the dose rate from 5 ¼A/cm2 to 95 ¼A/cm2 is accompanied by a 5 times reduction of the 0.35 eV trap concentration. This difference could be attributed to the dynamic annealing effects during the implant using 95 ¼A/cm2.
Barradas NP, Almeida SA, Jeynes C, Knights AP, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ (1999) RBS and ERDA study of ion beam synthesised amorphous gallium nitride, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms148(1-4)pp. 463-467
Amorphous GaN was synthesised by Ga implantation into N-rich PECVD a-SiNx:H films after annealing between 200°C and 500°C. Similar implantation into Si-rich films did not form GaN. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated the presence of GaN bonds in the former, but not the latter, case. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) demonstrated that implanted Ga substituted for Si in the N-rich films but not in the Si-rich ones. The RBS/ERDA analysis used self-consistent fitting of multiple spectra using the combinatorial optimisation Simulated Annealing algorithm, followed by a determination of the confidence limits on the depth profiles obtained using Bayesian Inference. © 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Individual particles of gunshot residue were studied with particle-induced X-ray emission and backscattering spectrometry using a 2.5 MeV H+ beam focussed to <4 ¼m and self-consistent fitting of the data. The geometry of these spherical particles was considered in order to accurately fit the corresponding particle spectrum and therefore to quantify the trace element composition of these particles. The demonstrable self-consistency of this method allows the compositions of most residue particles to be determined unambiguously and with a higher sensitivity to trace elements than conventional methods. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fedorenko YG, Hughes MA, Colaux JL, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP, Yao J, Hewak DW, Lee TH, Elliott SR, Gholipour B, Curry RJ (2014) Electrical properties of amorphous chalcogenide/silicon heterojunctions modified by ion implantation, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering8982
Doping of amorphous chalcogenide films of rather dissimilar bonding type and resistivity, namely, Ga-La-S, GeTe, and Ge-Sb-Te by means of ion implantation of bismuth is considered. To characterize defects induced by ionbeam implantation space-charge-limited conduction and capacitance-voltage characteristics of amorphous chalcogenide/silicon heterojunctions are investigated. It is shown that ion implantation introduces substantial defect densities in the films and their interfaces with silicon. This comes along with a gradual decrease in the resistivity and the thermopower coefficient. It is shown that conductivity in GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te films is consistent with the two-type carrier conduction model. It is anticipated that ion implantation renders electrons to become less localized than holes leading to electron conductivity in certain cases as, for example, in GeTe.
Webb M, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Tabatabaian Z, Royle A, Sealy BJ (2005) The influence of the ion implantation temperature and the flux on smart-cut (c) in GaAs, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS237(1-2)pp. 193-196 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Milosavljevic M, Bibic N, Perusko D, Jeynes C, Bangert U (2000) The effects of implanted arsenic on Ti-silicide formation, SOLID STATE PHENOMENA71pp. 147-171 TRANS TECH-SCITEC PUBLICATIONS LTD
Davoisne C, Lee WE, Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, Peng N, Jeynes C (2010) Irradiation effects in ceramics for plutonium disposition, Ceramic Transactions222pp. 3-9
Blamire MG, Kang DJ, Burnell G, Peng NH, Webb R, Jeynes C, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B (2002) Masked ion damage and implantation for device fabrication, VACUUM69(1-3)pp. 11-15 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Jeynes C, Puttick KE, Whitmore LC, Gartner K, Gee AE, Millen DK, Webb RP, Peel RMA, Sealy BJ (1996) Laterally resolved crystalline damage in single-point-diamond-turned silicon, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS118(1-4)pp. 431-436 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
JEYNES C (1989) NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF ION-IMPLANTATION, VACUUM39(11-12)pp. 1047-1056 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
SHOJAI A, REED GT, JEYNES C (1992) DIFFUSION OF ION-IMPLANTED NEODYMIUM IN SILICA, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS25(8)pp. 1280-1283 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Vieira A, Barradas NP, Jeynes C (2001) Error performance analysis of artificial neural networks applied to Rutherford backscattering, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS31(1)pp. 35-38 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Bibic N, Milosavljevic M, Perusko D, Jeynes C (1998) Investigation of ion beam mixing effects in Ta/Pd bilayers deposited on Si, THIN SOLID FILMS317(1-2)pp. 274-277 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
© 1990 IOP Publishing Ltd.High temperature, very short time annealing techniques have been used to study dopant activation during and immediately after solid phase epitaxial regrowth of amorphous layers produced by ion implantation of As into Si. Short annealing timescales have revealed electrically inactive As tails, correlated with a region of implant-induced excess point defects, indicating the formation of stable dopant-interstitial complexes which are not removed during the timescales of these anneals.
MAHMOOD F, AHMED H, JEYNES C, GILLIN WP (1992) REACTIVE FORMATION OF COBALT SILICIDE ON SINGLE-CRYSTAL SILICON UNDER RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM HEATING, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE59(1)pp. 55-62 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
ALTRIP JL, EVANS AGR, LOGAN J, JEYNES C (1990) HIGH-TEMPERATURE MILLISECOND ANNEALING OF ARSENIC IMPLANTED SILICON, SOLID-STATE ELECTRONICS33(6)pp. 659-664 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Surkova T, Patane A, Eaves L, Main PC, Henini M, Polimeni A, Knights AP, Jeynes C (2001) Indium interdiffusion in annealed and implanted InAs/(AlGa)As self-assembled quantum dots, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS89(11)pp. 6044-6047 AMER INST PHYSICS
JEYNES C (1978) NATURAL POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND, INDUSTRIAL DIAMOND REVIEW(JAN)pp. 14-23 INDUSTRIAL DIAMOND REVIEW
Webb M, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Royle A, Sealy B (2006) Characterising ion-cut in GaAs by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS249pp. 429-431 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Alzanki T, Bennett N, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Sealy B, Bailey P, Noakes T (2014) Ion beam analysis for hall scattering factor measurements in antimony implanted bulk and strained silicon, Journal of Engineering Research2(1)pp. 122-132
Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) and Medium Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS) have been used to determine the lattice site occupancy of antimony (Sb) implanted into silicon (Si) and strained silicon (sSi) for ion energies of 2keV to 40keV. After annealing in the range 600-1100°C for various times, Ilall effect measurements were used to provide a measure of the percentage electrical activity. A comparison of the lattice site occupancy with the percentage electrical activity was used to confirm whether the assumption that the Hall scattering factor is equal to unity is valid. Our results demonstrate that for 40keV implants the electrical activation is about 90%. In the case of 2keV implants the electrical activation is lower and in the range 10-80%, depending on the ion fluence and annealing conditions. This reduction in activation for lower energy implants is a result of inactive Sb close to the semiconductor/native-oxide interface, or above concentrations of 4.5×10cm . Tensile strain facilitates the lattice site occupancy and electrical activation of Sb in Si by raising the doping ceiling. For both 40keV and 2keV implants, we have carried out a comparison of RBS/MEIS and Hall effect data to show that for Sb implants into both bulk Si and strained Si the Hall scattering factor is equal to unity within experimental error.
CURRENT MI, OHNO N, HURLEY K, KEENAN WA, GUITNER TL, JEYNES C (1993) MICROUNIFORMITY MEASUREMENTS OF ION-IMPLANTED SILICON, SOLID STATE TECHNOLOGY36(7)pp. 111-& PENNWELL PUBL CO SOLID STATE TECHNOLOGY OFFICE
Jeynes C (2012) Elastic Backscattering of Ions for Compositional Analysis, In: Kaufmann EN (eds.), Characterization of MaterialsVol.3: Ion Beam Methods12(iv)pp. 1972-1993 Wiley
Composition analyses for all of the elements in the periodic table can be performed through a combin¬ation of techniques using ion beams at MeV energies (MeV-IBA: see INTRODUCTION TO ION BEAM TECHNIQUES) including PIXE, RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA. See also PARTICLE SCATTERING and ATOMIC EXCITATION METHODS in the COMMON CONCEPTS chapter.
In this unit we consider the MeV elastic backscattering techniques: RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; and EBS, elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattering. RBS, following Rutherford's treatment in 1911 of Geiger & Marsden's 1909 alpha-scattering experiment, approximates the scattering cross-section by that expected for the Coulomb interaction of point charges. This approximation is valid providing the interacting nuclei do not come too close during the interaction. As the energy is increased this approximation fails, and quantum mechanical effects become visible: then the scattering is called "EBS".
BS (elastic backscattering spectrometry, either RBS or EBS) using MeV beams is used to obtain elemental depth profiles of thin films up to ~10 mm thick. Depth resolution degrades with depth but can be ~1 nm at the surface. Various ion beams and various beam energies can be selected to obtain the optimal analytical conditions for particular samples. Barbour's article was on "Elastic Scattering", which included the important ERD technique now covered separately (see: ELASTIC RECOIL DETECTION ANALYSIS).
We will mention the use of microbeams since many samples are small or laterally non-homogeneous, but microbeam IBA is reviewed in ION BEAM TOMOGRAPHY. We will also mention the use of ion channelling geometries for characterising defects in single crystal samples, but this is reviewed extensively in MEDIUM-ENERGY ION BEAM ANALYSIS. We should also mention that LEIS and MEIS are both RBS techniques, but they use low energy beams and will not be covered in this article (see, respectively, LOW-ENERGY ION SCATTERING and MEDIUM-ENERGY ION BEAM ANALYSIS).
The Wiley Characterisation of Materials book of which this article is part has a section on Ion Beam Analysis (MeV-IBA: part of the ION BEAM TECHNIQUES section). The 2002 edition treated all the IBA techniques independently, but this 2012 edition will treat them synergistically. The present article considers the details of analysis using a particle detector placed in the backscattering direction.
We explicitly distinguish between RBS and EBS, even though in any parti
Gurbich AF, Jeynes C (2014) Evaluation of Non-Rutherford Alpha Elastic Scattering Cross-sections for Silicon, NUCLEAR DATA SHEETS119pp. 270-272 ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Barradas NP, Knights AP, Jeynes C, Mironov OA, Grasby TJ, Parker EHC (1999) High-depth-resolution Rutherford backscattering data and error analysis of SiGe systems using the simulated annealing and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, PHYSICAL REVIEW B59(7)pp. 5097-5105 AMER PHYSICAL SOC
Kang DJ, Burnell G, Lloyd SJ, Speaks RS, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG (2002) Realization and properties of YBa2Cu3O7-delta Josephson junctions by metal masked ion damage technique, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS80(5)pp. 814-816 AMER INST PHYSICS
Simon A, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Finnis R, Tabatabian Z, Sellin PJ, Breese MBH, Fellows DF, van den Broek R, Gwilliam RM (2004) The new Surrey ion beam analysis facility, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS219pp. 405-409 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
RENNIE J, ELLIOTT S, JEYNES C (1986) RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING STUDY OF THE PHOTODISSOLUTION OF AG IN AMORPHOUS GESE2, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS48(21)pp. 1430-1432 AMER INST PHYSICS
Zhao Q, Liu Y, Wang C, Wang S, Peng N, Jeynes C (2007) Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE253(21)pp. 8674-8681 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Mironov OA, Phillips PJ, Parker EHC (1998) High depth resolution Rutherford backscattering analysis of Si-Si0.78Ge0.22/(0 0 1)Si superlattices, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS139(1-4)pp. 239-243 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Aramendia E, Mallegol J, Jeynes C, Barandiaran MJ, Keddie JL, Asua JM (2003) Distribution of surfactants near acrylic latex film surfaces: A comparison of conventional and reactive surfactants (surfmers), LANGMUIR19(8)pp. 3212-3221 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Jeynes C (2014) Double-blind bind, PHYSICS WORLD27(7)pp. 20-20 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, Reid DP, Maddrell ER, Peng N, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Woicik JC, Ravel B (2009) Heavy ion implantation combined with grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (GIXAS): A new methodology for the characterisation of radiation damage in nuclear ceramics, MRS Proceedings1193pp. 67-72
An understanding of the effect of cumulative radiation damage on the integrity of ceramic wasteforms for plutonium and minor actinide disposition is key to the scientific case for safe disposal. Alpha recoil due to the decay of actinide species leads to the amorphisation of the initially crystalline host matrix, with potentially deleterious consequences such as macroscopic volume swelling and reduced resistance to aqueous dissolution. For the purpose of laboratory studies the effect of radiation damage can be simulated by various accelerated methodologies. The incorporation of short-lived actinide isotopes accurately reproduces damage arising from both alpha-particle and the heavy recoil nucleus, but requires access to specialist facilities. In contrast, fast ion implantation of inactive model ceramics effectively simulates the heavy recoil nucleus, leading to amorphisation of the host crystal lattice over very short time-scales. Although the resulting materials are easily handled, quantitative analysis of the resulting damaged surface layer has proved challenging.
In this investigation, we have developed an experimental methodology for characterisation of radiation damaged structures in candidate ceramics for actinide disposition. Our approach involves implantation of bulk ceramic samples with 2 MeV Kr+ ions, to simulate heavy atom recoil; combined with grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (GI-XAS) to characterise only the damaged surface layer. Here we present experimental GI-XAS data acquired at the Ti and Zr K-edges of ion implanted zirconolite, as a function of grazing angle, demonstrating that this technique can be successfully applied to characterise only the amorphised surface layer. Comparison of our findings with data from metamict natural analogues provide evidence that heavy ion implantation reproduces the amorphous structure arising from naturally accumulated radiation damage.
Simon A, Sellin P, Lohstroh A, Jeynes C (2003) Ion beam indneed charge microscopy imaging of CVD diamond, MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 2003(180)pp. 449-452 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
HEMMENT PLF, SEALY BJ, STEPHENS KG, MYNARD JE, JEYNES C, BROWTON MD, WILSON RJ, MA MX, CANSELL A, MOUS DJW, KOUDIJS R (1993) A 2-MV HEAVY-ION VANDEGRAAFF IMPLANTER FOR RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS74(1-2)pp. 27-31 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Utgenannt A, Maspero Ross, Fortini Andrea, Turner R, Florescu Marian, Jeynes Christopher, Kanaras AG, Muskens OL, Sear Richard, Keddie Joseph (2016) Fast Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles in Large-Area 2-D Nanogrids Using a One-Step, Near-Infrared Radiation-Assisted Evaporation Process,ACS Nano10(2)pp. 2232-2242
American Chemical Society
When fabricating photonic crystals from suspensions in volatile liquids using the horizontal deposition method, the conventional approach is to evaporate slowly to increase the time for particles to settle in an ordered, periodic close-packed structure. Here, we show that the greatest ordering of 10 nm aqueous gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a template of larger spherical polymer particles (mean diameter of 338 nm) is achieved with very fast water evaporation rates obtained with near-infrared radiative heating. Fabrication of arrays over areas of a few cm2 takes only seven minutes. The assembly process requires that the evaporation rate is fast relative to the particles? Brownian diffusion. Then a two-dimensional colloidal crystal forms at the falling surface, which acts as a sieve through which the AuNPs pass, according to our Langevin dynamics computer simulations. With sufficiently fast evaporation rates, we create a hybrid structure consisting of a two-dimensional AuNP nanoarray (or ?nanogrid?) on top of a three-dimensional polymer opal. The process is simple, fast and one-step. The interplay between the optical response of the plasmonic Au nanoarray and the microstructuring of the photonic opal results in unusual optical spectra with two extinction peaks, which are analyzed via finite-difference time-domain method simulations. Comparison between experimental and modelling results reveals a strong interplay of plasmonic modes and collective photonic effects, including the formation of a high-order stop band and slow-light enhanced plasmonic absorption. The structures, and hence their optical signatures, are tuned by adjusting the evaporation rate via the infrared power density.
We have introduced defects into clean samples of the organic superconductor ý-ýBEDTTTF
ý2CuýSCNý2 in order to determine their effect on the temperature dependence of the interlayer
conductivity ý and the critical temperature Tc. We find a violation of Matthiessen?s rule that can be
explained by a model of ý involving a defect-assisted interlayer channel which acts in parallel with the
bandlike conductivity. We observe an unusual dependence of Tc on residual resistivity, inconsistent with
the generalized Abrikosov-Gor?kov theory for an order parameter with a single component, providing an
important constraint on models of the superconductivity in this material.
There are many possible biomedical applications for titania nanoparticles (NPs) doped with rare earth elements (REEs), from dose enhancement and diagnostic imaging in radiotherapy, to biosensing. However, there are concerns that the NPs could disintegrate in the body thus releasing toxic REE ions to undesired locations. As a first step, we investigate how accurately the Ti/REE ratio from the NPs can be measured inside human cells. A quantitative analysis of whole, unsectioned, individual human cells was performed using proton microprobe elemental microscopy. This method is unique in being able to quantitatively analyse all the elements in an unsectioned individual cell with micron resolution, while also scanning large fields of view. We compared the Ti/REE signal inside cells to NPs that were outside the cells, non-specifically absorbed onto the polypropylene substrate. We show that the REE signal in individual cells co-localises with the titanium signal, indicating that the NPs have remained intact. Within the uncertainty of the measurement, there is no difference between the Ti/REE ratio inside and outside the cells. Interestingly, we also show that there is considerable variation in the uptake of the NPs from cell-to-cell, by a factor of more than 10. We conclude that the NPs enter the cells and remain intact. The large heterogeneity in NP concentrations from cell-to-cell should be considered if they are to be used therapeutically.
The CdS window layer in thin film solar cells is frequently grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Deposited films are typically less than 100 nm thick and the inability to identify the exact start of the deposition can make CBD an imprecise process. This paper describes the construction and testing of a simple optical fibre sensor that detects the start of the deposition process and also allows for its mechanism to be studied. The in situ optical fibre monitoring technique utilises the change in optical reflectance off the glass/deposited film/precursor solution interfaces at an operating wavelength of 1550 nm. A theoretical expression for the reflection of light from the interface is discussed and compared with experimental results. The monitoring technique shows the presence of two different deposition mechanisms. This result is confirmed by film densities calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and an optical model for ellipsometry measurements which indicates that the deposited CdS films consist of a double layer structure with a porous layer on top of a dense under layer. The application of the theoretical expression is optimised by assuming the refractive index of the CdS layer to be 2.02. The ellipsometry model shows that the refractive index of the CdS deposited is 2.14 for a two layer model of the film that included a porous upper layer through the effective medium approximation.
The biblical book of Psalms is discussed from an historical point of view. Who were the original poets, when did they write and what did they intend by their poetry? The short answer to these questions is: "we don't know for sure", but the long answer is considerably more interesting. This poetry from three millennia ago has changed the world, and has the potential to continue changing it.
This is an abridgement of S.L.Jaki, "Science and Creation, from eternal cycles to an oscillating universe" (Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh, 1974: 367pp, 14 chapters). Why is it that in all recorded history, modern science with all its technical success and mastery has arisen only in Europe? Science was stillborn in civilisations that thought of time as infinite in extent and cyclic in effect. Only in Europe, under the strong philosophical influence of Christianity, was time thought of as finite in extent and progressive in effect. The primary requirement for a scientific attitude to take hold is for there to be underlying presumptions that God is rational and that people matter. This essay attempts a summary of Stanley Jaki?s book, mostly in Jaki?s own words.
Jeynes Christopher, Thompson RL (2014) Thin Film Depth Profiling,In: Nastasi M, Mayer JW, Wang Y (eds.), Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals & Applicationspp. 197-220
Taylor & Francis
A series of examples of increasing complexity is given of the unequivocal measurement of elemental depth profiles in thin films, typically with a depth resolution of 10 nm or better. The parameters of Fickian and related diffusion depth profiles can readily be obtained, reaction mechanisms under thermal annealing can be followed, layered structures can be characterised, and a robust statistical estimate of the solution uncertainties can be calculated. What is particularly interesting is that although individual IBA techniques (RBS, PIXE, etc) are powerful separately, using them together self-consistently - so-called "Total-IBA" is much more powerful, enabling the solution of complex systems inaccessible to individual techniques. There are now a number of Total-IBA examples in the literature and we choose two of them, one is the analysis by the Louvre Museum of corrosion in an iconic photograph from 1827 - one of their treasures - and the other an analysis of a geological sample 800,000 years old, from a meteor strike near Mount Darwin, Tasmania.
Techniques to analyze human telomeres are imperative in studying the molecular mechanism of aging and related diseases. Two important aspects of telomeres are their length in DNA base pairs (bps) and their biophysical nanometer dimensions. However, there are currently no techniques that can simultaneously measure these quantities in individual cell nuclei. Here, we develop and evaluate a telomere ?dual? gold nanoparticle-fluorescent probe simultaneously compatible with both X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and super resolution microscopy. We used silver enhancement to independently visualize the spatial locations of gold nanoparticles inside the nuclei, comparing to a standard QFISH (quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization) probe, and showed good specificity at <90%. For sensitivity, we calculated telomere length based on a DNA/gold binding ratio using XRF and compared to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) measurements. The sensitivity was low (<10%), probably because of steric interference prohibiting the relatively large 10 nm gold nanoparticles access to DNA space. We then measured the biophysical characteristics of individual telomeres using super resolution microscopy. Telomeres that have an average length of <10 kbps, have diameters ranging between <60?300 nm. Further, we treated cells with a telomere-shortening drug and showed there was a small but significant difference in telomere diameter in drug-treated vs control cells. We discuss our results in relation to the current debate surrounding telomere compaction.
The quantity of material in thin films can be measured reliably, non-destructively, and at an absolute traceable accuracy with a combined standard uncertainty of 1% by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). We have demonstrated a measurement protocol for the determination of quantity of material by RBS that has been accredited at this accuracy to the ISO 17025 standard by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). The method is entirely traceable to SI units relying on no artefacts, and thus qualifies as a primary direct reference method as defined by the ISO Guide 35:1985 (paragraph 9.4.1).
The fluorescence yield of the K- and L3-shell of gallium was determined using the
radiometrically calibrated (reference-free) X-ray fluorescence instrumentation at the BESSY II
synchrotron radiation facility. Simultaneous transmission and fluorescence signals from GaSe
foils were obtained, resulting in K- and L3-shell fluorescence yield values (ÉGa,K = 0.515 ±
0.019, ÉGa,L3 = 0.013 ± 0.001) consistent with existing database values. For the first time,
these standard combined uncertainties are obtained from a properly constructed Uncertainty
Budget. These K-shell fluorescence yield values support Bambynek?s semi-empirical
compilation from 1972: these and other measurements yield a combined recommended value
of ÉGa,K = 0.514 ± 0.010. Using the measured fluorescence yields together with production
yields from reference Ga-implanted samples where the quantity of implanted Ga was
determined at 1.3% traceable accuracy by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, the K-shell
and L3-subshell photoionization cross sections at selected incident photon energies were also
determined and compared critically with the standard databases.
Kearsley A T, Colaux J L, Ross D K, Wozniakiewicz P J, Gerlach L, Anz-Meador P, Griffin T, Reed B, Opiela J, Palitsin V V, Grime G W, Webb R P, Jeynes C, Spratt J, Salge T, Cole M J, Price M C, Burchell M J (2017) Hypervelocity impact in low earth orbit: finding subtle impactor signatures on the Hubble Space Telescope,Procedia Engineering204pp. 492-499
Return of materials from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during shuttle orbiter service missions has allowed inspection of large numbers of hypervelocity impact features from long exposure at about 615 km altitude in low Earth orbit (LEO) [1,2]. Here we describe the application of advanced X-ray microanalysis techniques on scanning electron microscopes (SEM), microprobes and a 2 MV Tandetron, to nearly 400 impacts on the painted metal surface of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) radiator shield [3,4]. We identified artificial Orbital Debris (OD) and natural Micrometeoroid (MM) origins for small  and even for larger particles , which usually may leave little or no detectable trace on HST solar arrays, as they penetrate through the full cell thickness [2,7].
Ion beam analysis (IBA) includes modern analytical techniques involving the use of energetic
ion beams to probe the composition of the surface layers of solids. Major areas of application
include microelectronics, cultural heritage, forensics, biology and materials sciences. The
underlying science for IBA is the physics of the interactions between the ions in the beam and
the atoms in the solid. Emission products from the interaction of charged particles with
matter are measured, and specialized simulation and data analysis software provide
information on the material composition.
Although the basic physical processes are well understood, the reliability of data
interpretation is limited by the knowledge of the physical data. The primary quantities
required are the stopping powers describing the slowing of the ion in the material and the
cross-sections of the interactions involved. The need for reliable data on stopping powers is
adequately catered for by Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) computer code. The
situation, however, is quite different for cross-sections for nuclear reactions and non-
Rutherford elastic scattering. Although there is a considerable body of published data in
nuclear physics literature, examination of the unevaluated experimental data has revealed
numerous discrepancies beyond the error limits reported by the authors. The lack of reliable
cross-sections has been recognized by the IBA community and has been discussed at several
workshops and IAEA meetings, resulting in various recommendations including the
organization of a coordinated research project (CRP) on a reference database for IBA.
The main objective of the CRP was to develop a reference database for IBA that contains
reliable and usable data that will be made freely available to the user community. Starting
from the existing collection of data in the IAEA Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library
(IBANDL), the CRP focused exclusively on the relevant nuclear cross-sections (nuclear
reactions and non-Rutherford elastic scattering). During the course of the CRP, however, it
was soon realized that there was also a growing demand for compilation and evaluation of
nuclear reactions with gamma rays in the exit channel, which are used in the particle induced
gamma ray emission technique. The recommendations led to a second CRP on the
development of a reference database for particle induced gamma ray emission spectroscopy.
The output of which will be published in a forthcoming IAEA publication.
The IAEA wishes to thank all the participants of the CRP for their contributions to IBANDL
and to this publication. The IAEA officers responsible for this publication were D. Abriola
and P. Dimitriou of the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences.
The ubiquity of double helical and logarithmic spirals in nature is well observed, but no
explanation is ever offered for their prevalence. DNA and the Milky Way galaxy are examples
of such structures, whose geometric entropy we study using an information-theoretic (Shannon
entropy) complex-vector analysis to calculate, respectively, the Gibbs free energy difference
between B-DNA and P-DNA, and the galactic virial mass. Both of these analytic calculations
(without any free parameters) are consistent with observation to within the experimental
uncertainties. We define conjugate hyperbolic space and entropic momentum co-ordinates to
describe these spiral structures in Minkowski space-time, enabling a consistent and holographic
Hamiltonian-Lagrangian system that is completely isomorphic and complementary to that of
conventional kinematics. Such double spirals therefore obey a maximum-entropy path-integral
variational calculus (?the principle of least exertion?, entirely comparable to the principle of
least action), thereby making them the most likely geometry (also with maximal structural
stability) to be adopted by any such system in space-time. These simple analytical calculations
are quantitative examples of the application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics as
expressed in geometric entropy terms. They are underpinned by a comprehensive entropic
action (?exertion?) principle based upon Boltzmann?s constant as the quantum of exertion.
Jeynes C., Palitsin V.V., Grime G.W., Pascual-Izarra C., Taborda A., Reis M.A., Barradas N.P. (2020) External Beam Total-IBA using DataFurnace,Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms481pp. 47-61
The self-consistent Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) of cultural heritage samples using the external beam is technically demanding. We report on the calibration of an analysis of glass samples from the Rosslyn Chapel where the interest will ultimately be in the full characterisation of the weathered glass. Such an analysis requires a comprehensive Total-IBA approach using p-PIGE and He-PIXE to obtain ?bulk? and surface Na, with H-PIXE/EBS for multielemental depth profiling to 10 ¼m and He-PIXE/EBS for higher depth resolution near the surface; also with two PIXE detectors as usual for the high and low energy parts of the spectrum. A revised NDF v.10 code capable of a self-consistent handling of all these signals at state-of-the-art accuracy is described, together with the calibration protocols required for such an analysis. Other capabilities of the NDF code not previously discussed are also reviewed.
Schlegel projections of selected fullerenes (the non-chiral C60, C384; and the weakly-chiral C28, C76 and C380) are used to show that these fullerenes can all be represented by pairs of counter-propagating spirals featuring anti-parallel (C2) symmetry, even though C380 and C384 are nonface-spiral fullerenes. In the case of C60, the high symmetry is used to construct an analytical approximation for these spirals, demonstrating that they form a holomorphic function satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equations, and thus confirming that the entropic equivalent of the Principle of Least Action (that is, the Principle of Least Exertion) is obeyed. Hence the C60 structure has Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt), is therefore maximum likelihood, and consequently its stability is established on entropic grounds. The present MaxEnt stability criterion is general, depending only on the geometry and not the physics of the system. A Shannon entropy-based fragmentation metric is used to quantify both the intrinsic sense and the degree of chirality for C76 and C380. We have shown that the stability of C60 is a general property of the thermodynamics of the system. This is a significant methodological advance since it shows that a detailed treatment of the energetics is not always necessary: this may prove fruitful, not only for fullerenes but also for general problems of molecular stability and in other applications of conformational chemistry.
Jeynes C., Nolot E., Costa C., Sabbione C., Pessoa W., Pierre F., Roule A., Mantler M. (2018) Quantifying nitrogen in GeSbTe:N alloys,Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry
Royal Society of Chemistry
We have calibrated on-site WD-XRF (wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence) measurements of GeSbTe:N (GST:N) stoichiometry with off-site accurate ion beam analysis (IBA). N is determined by elastic backscattering spectrometry (EBS) using the resonance at 3.7 MeV in the 14N(a, a)14N reaction. Ge and Sb+Te are determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) separately but self-consistently with the resonant EBS: the Sb/Te ratio can be determined by RBS but not with useful precision. The XRF instrumental function is determined using pure metal standards and the spectra are quantified using Fundamental Parameters code. We find that, as expected, for both Ge and (Sb+Te) the heavy elements are determined accurately by XRF (within the uncertainties), but for N the standardless XRF has non-linear errors around 10%. Using the absolute N content determined by IBA a calibration curve is obtained allowing N determination by WD-XRF at a precision of about 1% and an absolute accuracy (traceable through IBA) of about 4 % for GST films with N content between 4-20 at%. The IBA measurement precision of the N content of the GST-N XRF calibration samples is 0.4 at% (that is, a relative precision ranging from 10 % to 2 % for N contents between 4-20 at%).
Jeynes Christopher, Palitsin Vladimir, Kokkoris M., Hamilton A., Grime Geoffrey (2020) On the accuracy of Total-IBA,Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms465pp. 85-100
?Total-IBA? implies the synergistic use of multiple IBA techniques. It has been claimed that Total?IBA inherits the accuracy of the most accurate IBA technique used. A specific example is now given of this where (in vacuo) EBS/PIXE of a glass sample uniform in depth is validated against absolutely calibrated EPMA of the same sample. The EPMA results had a mass closure gap of 2.0 ± 0.6 wt%; the full PIXE analysis determined the composition of this missing 2 wt%. The PIXE calibration was against a single certified glass sample, with uncertainties per line ~10%. Benchmarking also demonstrates ~10% underestimation of the Si scattering cross-section at proton energies ~3 MeV. But the Total-IBA determination of the silica content had a low standard uncertainty of about 2%. This is due to the strong constraints of both the chemical prior and also the mass closure properties of the EBS. Irradiation-induced sodium migration in this soda-lime glass is explored.