This chapter starts off by analysing the oppositional frames of reference animated by a translated text used by a Greek broadsheet newspaper during the December 2008 riots in Athens: a skewed modern Greek translation of an excerpt from Isocrates’ Areopagiticus speech that decries the equation of real democracy to unlimited freedom/anarchy. Taking the contextual embeddedness of this short text as the point or departure, the chapter discusses how translators, interpreters and subtitlers as mediators have a pivotal role to play in identifying dividing lines between ‘us’ and cultural and political ‘others’. Dynamic groupings and (counteractive) regroupings of textual repertoires, of ideas, and of social groups thus map out three areas of investigation: ‘rewriting’, including the texts with the ideas or poetological values that characterise them and the institutions of patronage that allow patterns of action and value-formation to emerge; the active agency of translators, subtitlers and interpreters who may decide to align themselves with structures around them or oppose them; the interacting social fields involved, that is, the greater (often conflictive) social forces that provide a context for action, with distinct ‘stakes’, conditions, and gate-keeping rules.
Translation and Opposition is an edited volume that brings together cultural and sociological perspectives by examining translation through the prism of linguistic/cultural hybridity and inter/intra-social agency. In a collection of diverse case studies, ranging from the translation of political texts to interpreting in concentration camps, the book explores issues of power struggle, ideology, censorship and identity construction. The contributors to the volume show how translators, interpreters and subtitlers as mediators put their specific professional and ethical competences to the test by treading the dividing lines between constellations of ‘in-groups’ and cultural or political ‘others’.
This study examines the translation field in Turkey by examining social, cultural, economic and political factors that impact on translators and translation. It is an attempt to contribute to the literature on the sociology of translation by adopting a Bourdieusian perspective whilst looking at how the translation field, along with various forms of translator capital and (dis)positions can be studied, in a contemporary and Turkish context. At the same time, the study elaborates on Lefevere’s concept of patronage and analyses the forces and control mechanisms which influence the field of translation and literary (fiction and other genres) translators in Turkey. The prosecution of a considerable number of translators in Turkey after they were held responsible for the content of their translations, particularly when these included “insulting Turkishness”, and the lack of research in the field of prosecution of translators in the Turkish context as well as the desire to know Turkish translational culture better by looking at this particular issue led to the carrying out of this study. Yet, neither the scope nor the expected contribution is limited to this. The contribution of the project to Translation Studies will result from its multi-layered, multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary approach to investigating the translator as one of the main agents of the act of translating, before positioning him/her within a wider system of translation, and to uncovering the perceived influence of control factors on the field of translation and translational behaviour in Turkey. While the historical dimension will help us in identifying the developments in translation studies in Turkey, the sociological, cultural, economic, and political perspectives will solidify our understanding of the translator as an individual, with the legal perspective foregrounding the link of this individual, not only with the society in which s/he lives, but also with the political apparatus. The research used a qualitative and exploratory approach for the 16 in-depth interviews conducted. Since the motivation for this study was to understand, in the sociological sense, rather than explain, it mainly attempted to document the world from the point of view of the people studied. The dynamics of the field of translation and the power structures within the field in the context of Turkey were uncovered through a thematic analysis method, where various aspects of the translation world in Turkey were explored under different themes, and political/ ideological, economic and social control factors were found to impact significantly on the field of translation and translational behaviour in Turkey.
The subject of this thesis is the translation of fiction relating to two movements that emerged in Taiwan towards the end of the last century. Tongzhi and ku-er arose during a period of liberalisation that permitted expression to the to the previously inexpressible, in this case, issues surrounding unconventional sexual identity. The growth of these movements was inspired by an increasing awareness among the sexually marginalised in Taiwan, of the developments that had occurred in the West regarding sexual identity. The newly tolerant political climate enabled a demand for previously unobtainable cultural material to be supplied, leading to a demand for translators of this material. This thesis concerns itself with the role of translation in the formation and evolution of tongzhi and ku-er movements through fiction. In the history of literature dealing with same sex desire, the rise of tongzhi and ku-er literature reflects a variety of social, political and literary trends, the international and politically rebellious elements that characterized tongzhi and ku-er identities. Translation, by turn is an important component that brings in foreign influence to tongzhi and ku-er literature, whereby the literature itself translates aspects from Western sources in a way that is characterized as ‘translocal’. Despite the close ties of tongzhi and ku-er literature with global and local political movements and translation, very little has been written on the subject of tongzhi and ku-er translation. The two translated texts selected for analysis, Angelwings: Contemporary Queer Fiction from Taiwan and Notes of a Desolate Man engage with the aforementioned global and local frameworks. Through analysing the translated text, interweaving strands in this thesis are connected.
In an age where technological advancements are providing people with new forms of communication, or increasing the communicative potential of forms previously available, translation is an activity which is growing more and more complex and cannot be accounted for in linguistic terms only. Translation Studies has traditionally dealt with meaning as a linguistic product; however, source texts nowadays very often include resources like images and/or sounds, which interact with the linguistically communicated message, considerably affecting meaning. More accurately, it can be said that linguistic, visual and aural meaning influence each other and create a multimodal message whose interpretation requires different types of literacy and the ability to combine them. Appropriate models analysing multimodal texts, however, are still missing. Furthermore, as no area of translation has been left untouched by the multimodal phenomenon, future translators need to be competent ‘readers’ of multimodal texts. However, the theoretical resources available to train translators are mostly concerned with texts in which the message is communicated verbally; this creates a gap between translation theory and practice as well as a gap between the training translators receive and the reality of the translation industry they need to face, in which translators find themselves working on texts where the message is communicated by more than ‘just’ words. Addressing these gaps, the main aim of this work is to develop a new model for source text analysis for translation purposes. The model brings together aspects of meaning production as it is viewed in Pragmatics, Multimodality, Translation and Semiotics and merges them in a single theoretical framework that can be applied to the analysis of any multimodal source text in order to gain a better understanding of how it conveys meaning. The model aims to contribute to a better general understanding of meaning not just as a linguistic, but as a multimodal product and it is also proposed as a theoretical resource for trainee translators.
Narratives are increasingly intermedial nowadays and adaptation is prominent in the performing arts (e.g. theatre, opera) and in various forms of media (e.g. film, television, radio, video games). The process of adaptation has been paralleled to that of translation, as both deal with the transfer of meaning from one sociocultural context to another. In a similar vein, translation has been viewed as a process of adaptation when the communicated message needs to be tailored to the values of the target culture. Nevertheless, a framework building on the affinities of translation and adaptation remains relatively under-researched. A model for a systematic adaptation analysis seems to be currently missing in Adaptation Studies. Translation Studies can also benefit from a closer look into the workings of cultural production. An analysis of adaptation as intersemiotic and intermedial translation can give rise to the factors that condition the flow of narratives across media and cultures. Such an analysis can also shed light on the relationship between cultural products and the socio-temporal context that accommodates them. To this end, the present project aims at examining the film adaptation process from a hermeneutic point of view, looking into both textual and contextual parameters that monitor the adaptation process. A model towards the systematic analysis and interpretation of the changes occurring in the adaptation process (i.e. adaptation shifts) is also developed to fulfil this aim. The model draws upon insights from Translation Studies, Film Studies and Narratology and has a descriptive/comparative and an interpretive component. The former is used to examine adaptation as an audiovisual text in relation to its source material and the latter deconstructs the adaptation process in relation to the agents and contexts involved. The model can thus contribute to a systematic study of adaptations and to a better understanding of the adaptation/translation process.
Song translation has only recently become an area of interest for research purposes, with the development of studies on opera, films, folk music, cover songs, and more. Not many scholars have researched stage musicals, generally considered less prestigious and more commercial than opera. However, songs play a fundamental role in this type of performance, conveying meaning via verbal, audio and visual semiotic resources. Although a few studies on lyrics translation in stage musicals can be identified, such as Low’s (2003, 2005) Pentathlon Approach and Franzon’s (2005) functional approach, they do not seem to focus on the interaction between modes that is typical of this genre. These models of translation offer valuable guidelines on how to treat the lyrics, but what is missing is a systematic and multimodal model of analysis that can be applied to the song in its entirety. This research aims to develop a model of analysis that takes into account the complexity of songs. A new approach based on the identification of themes will allow for a more holistic view of the song and of its content. The application of the model to a selection of musicals shows how verbal, audio and visual semiotic resources interact to create meaning, establishing relations of addition, enhancement and modification with each other. The findings provide a clearer understanding of songs of stage musicals, opening up more possibilities for translators approaching this genre, and suggesting the value of a collaborative approach between translator, director and creative team in the adaptation of stage musicals.
Despite the vast research on simultaneous interpreting in different settings, little is known about interpreting practices in the field of TV, particularly between Arabic and English. The recent events of the Arab Spring led to more reliance on simultaneous interpreting for broadcasting presidential speeches live to audiences worldwide. Emotive overtones were a salient feature in the Arabic-language speeches and posed challenges to the TV interpreters who had to handle other difficulties and constraints involved in the task. The current study aims to investigate the way TV interpreters, who worked in the simultaneous mode, handled the task of conveying the emotive overtones employed in Arabic-language political speeches into English. It also aims to examine the difficulties and challenges that emerged during this process and might have influenced the interpreters’ choices. The study also evaluates the way the TV interpreters handled this task and whether the original emotive effect was maintained, upgraded, downgraded or abandoned in their renditions. To achieve its aims, the study analysed a corpus of four Arabic presidential political speeches delivered during the Arab Spring, along with their English simultaneous interpretations produced by different international TV stations. The analysis relied on a macro framework and a micro framework. The macro framework presents an overview of the wider context of the Arabic-language speeches and the individual speakers to help understand the linguistic choices made by the speakers. The micro framework investigates the linguistic tools which were employed by the speakers to stir people’s emotions. The study analyses the Arabic-language speeches through applying emotive categories which are based on Shamaa’s (1978) classification of emotive meaning according to their linguistic level: phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic and lexical levels. The micro level also investigates the strategies which were used by the TV interpreters to render the emotive linguistic tools into English. By adopting a qualitative approach, the study aims to contribute to a better understanding of TV simultaneous interpreting between Arabic and English, as well as the practices of TV interpreters when working into their B language and rendering emotiveness.
The present study investigates, from the point of view of translation, the phenomenon of stand-up comedians performing in more than one language, with a specific focus on English and Italian, and on Italian comedians performing in London. This offers the opportunity to address questions of humour translatability, to observe how performing in a native, as opposed to a second, language impacts performance, and to consider the role that humour and translation can play in situations of diaspora. For these purposes, a new type of translation needs to be conceptualised for it to be recognised as taking place in bilingual comedy. In doing this, the starting point is the recognition that stand-up comedy represents a form of oral communication, in which the presence of a written text cannot be assumed. The type of translation putatively involved in bilingual stand-up comedy is thus defined as “oral self-translation”. The notion of “mental text”, borrowed from the ethnographer Honko (1996), is proposed as the source and target text of this type of translation. The concepts of declarative and procedural memories are then deployed to offer a theoretical model for the content of this mental text. These challenges call for a phenomenological approach as the main method of this study, in which the experience of a sample of ten bilingual stand-up comedians is investigated by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The researcher’s own experience in performing stand-up comedy in both Italian and English is also reflexively interrogated and compared with the participants’ experiences, as collected in the interviews. The results extrapolated from this data suggest that translation does occur in bilingual comedy and that its comic efficacy is considered very satisfactory by the performers themselves, in accordance with their interpretation of the audience’s reaction. This success seems to be correlated with the special degree of freedom enjoyed by the self-translating comedian. The choice of language, moreover, seems to be associated with different performing styles and different levels of emotional involvement from the comedian. In its interaction between performers and audience, oral self-translation of stand-up comedy is shown to partake in the process of “identity negotiation” (Swann 1987), particularly when this interaction occurs between members of a diaspora and members of the host community.
The translation and publication process of foreign literary works and particularly of children’s literature in Russia has been through various changes and reforms following the socio-political shifts that occurred in different periods of Russian history. This thesis examines three Russian translations of Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland published before, during and after the Soviet Era. This periodisation is essential, as the main research question of the thesis is how the shifting socio-political circumstances and ideologies governing Russia in each of the three periods examined affected the translation of children’s literature. The study focuses on power and authority references, which are frequently identified in the book, as the creatures of Wonderland constantly insult and terrify Alice in their attempt to seize power. Through these examples and drawing on Even-Zohar’s polysystem theory, Toury’s concept of norms and House’s model of translation quality assessment, this thesis also answers questions as to how the norms prevailing in the source culture are transferred to the target culture, as well as what translation strategies are used by the Russian translators of Alice Adventures in Wonderland in each of the periods examined. Since the study takes place in a Russian context, references to censorship in translation and publication of children’s literature are inevitable, as previous research has demonstrated that publications were under state control, particularly during the Soviet years. Therefore, the translations used here as observational material, are also examined for any potential censorship effect. Despite the fact that the same examples are examined in all three translations, the result and the translators’ choices, differ to a great extent. The pre-Soviet translation has many deletions, related particularly to the violent scenes of the book. The Soviet translation is a literal rendering of Carroll’s original story. Finally, the post-Soviet translation is a creative work, which contains many additions that bring the story closer to the mentality and understanding of the Russian readership.
This research aims to investigate early-career professional translators' information-seeking behaviour in translating into and out of one's A language. As information seeking is regarded as a key competence for professional translators, a focus on information-seeking behaviour has recently gained a more central place in literature. Few, however, have discussed the relationship between directionality and information-seeking behaviour. Considering the fact that in the Chinese context, it is a common practice for a professional translator to do either Chinese-English or English-Chinese translation, this research focuses on early-career professional translators' information-seeking behaviour in two-way translation. With its exploratory nature, this research employs mixed methods by triangulating think-aloud protocols, screen recordings and interviews to investigate native Chinese translators, who are working based in China. The research combines quantitive analysis and qualitative analysis, exploring main categories of their information seeking behaviour, including information seeking triggers, resources, seeking strategies and seeking paths as well as seeking outcome and self-perception. According to the experiments, this research provides empirical evidence to the different presences of directionality during the process of information seeking. Under a dynamic framework, three dimensions of information-seeking behaviour and their connection with directionality are mainly analysed in the study. Consistent with existing literature, this research finds that, in the text dimension, translators place more emphasis on production over comprehension in both translation directions. In the resource dimension, the categories of resources are similar in both translation directions; instead, translators' individuality in resource selection is more evident. Finally, in the translator dimension, it is shown that translators' familiarity with their A language and their prior knowledge about its culture lead to a more cautious use of equivalents they sought. The finding is different from the view that the familiarity with one's A language helps simplify the translation process.
Reader Response and Reception theories recognize that readerly activity during the reading process means that the reader draws on various resources, such as their knowledge of the world and of literary conventions. A more practical perspective with significant insights into the reader’s input comes from empirical explorations of literature (Hartman 1995, Peskin 1998, Hanauer 1998, 2001). Within Translation Studies there have been some attempts at exploring the role of the reader during the translation process. Cognitive research, using think-aloud protocols and/or eye-tracking and keystroke logging as their methods, has offered valuable information that expands our understanding of what translators do when they read during the translation process (Englund Dimitrova 2005, Jakobsen 2003). In addition, several ‘situated theories’ (Flynn 2013) by translation scholars who are also practitioners has provided several categories with which to describe an initial, exploratory model of the translator as reader. These attempts have been sporadic and not entirely systematic and have been unable to produce a comprehensive picture of what the translator brings into the reading-for-translation process. The object of this study is to merge and expand these categories proposed by translation scholars (Beaugrande 1977, Diaz-Diocaretz 1985, Jones 2011) into a coherent model of the poetry translator as reader. The expanded model is complemented by data from several different sources collected from Modern Greek into English poetry translators. The key issue of how the translatorial habitus affects the reading-for-translation phase is eplored through the examination of a corpus of paratexts created by or about these poetry translators. The study also draws data from the responses of twenty poetry translators to a survey and from ten semi-structured interviews with the same group of poetry translators for the exploration of the translatorial habitus. Finally, the effects of the translatorial habitus on the reading-for-translation phase are explored through verbal protocols with eight poetry translators.
Abstract The present study explains that ideology can affect translators’ linguistic selections which can consequently shape the receivers’ worldviews. Owing to the fact that after the Arab Spring, new leaders with different ideologies and belonging to different political movements sprung forth, their political discourse has become a subject of increasing interest. The language these leaders use to promote their own political and ideological visions and the way to interpret them requires analysis to detect the possibility of translators’ intervention in the translation of these speeches. Adopting a mixed approach of corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis, the present study focuses on investigating the manipulation of the source text ideology in the translation of presidential speeches after the Arab Spring. The source texts analysed in this study are 20 speeches by the former Egyptian president Morsi translated into English by five translators of various ideological backgrounds. The analysis of these source texts is based on the extraction of keywords and a selection of keywords with ideological content. The analysis of the target texts, on the other hand, focuses on the use of ideological keywords in lexical patterns and grammatical structures to detect ideological manipulation in translation. The thesis aims to describe systematically the means through which translations transfer, strengthen, or mitigate the ideology underlying the source texts. Using five parallel corpora of the source texts and their translations, the thesis also aims to ascertain whether the lexical choices and the syntactic structures employed in the target texts engender changes in the ideological content of the source texts and their underlying ideology. The results reveal that two out of the five translations project a manipulated ideology that is at variance with the ideology underlining the original texts. One translation strengthens the ideology of the source texts, whereas the other two translations aim to maintain the original ideology unchanged. This indicates that instances of ideological manipulation are probable even in the translation of presidential speeches due to the nature of the source texts, the ideology underlying them as well as the possibility of an ideological clash.
The preferred mode of audiovisual translation for foreign language programmes on state television and cinemas in Iran is dubbing. Dubbing is done by professionals who are supervised by the authorities, and a considerable part of foreign programmes is being censored. On the other hand, subtitling is not supervised by any formal institutions and is practiced by ‘unofficial’ subtitlers. Although their work does not necessarily follow subtitling norms, some of these subtitlers produce work of high-quality standards and their products are popular among the target audience. In order to shed light on the reason behind this popularity and address this under-researched phenomenon in the Iranian context, the current study focuses on the work of three informally recognised experienced subtitlers, whose works are popular among the audience, by taking animation as a case in point as a genre that has attracted dual audiences of (young) adults/children. The thesis contains a comparative analysis of the subtitles produced by the abovementioned unofficial subtitlers for five popular animated feature films to gauge the most frequently applied strategies by these subtitlers. As cultural elements have widely been recognised by scholars as one of the most challenging aspects of translation, Pedersen’s (2011) taxonomy of transfer strategies for Extralinguistic Cultural References (ECRs) in subtitling has been employed as a tool for analysing the subtitles. Pedersen’s model was adapted through partial redefinitions and extension of the categories to suit the purpose of the present study. The comparison focused on commonalities and differences in the subtitlers’ translation choices regarding the identified ECR instances in the selected animated feature films. The study reveals that unofficial subtitlers have a strong tendency to opt for target-oriented strategies when dealing with the translation of ECRs. Paraphrase was found to be the most frequently used strategy, followed by using a superordinate term and cultural substitution.
Quality in interpreting has been investigated from different perspectives with the main focus being put on conference interpreting. Little research has been conducted on assessing the quality of interpreting in public service settings, more specifically, in legal settings, and in particular within police interpreting. The introduction of the Directive 2010/64/EU of the European Parliament and the European Council, which was established with the intention of strengthening language rights, was a positive development that put more emphasis on quality in legal interpreting, calling for improved quality standards along with more research into interpreting quality in public service interpreting contexts. In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Framework Agreement for interpreting and translation services has not helped to implement the Directive. The dilution of existing standards and procedures for interpreter recruitment in the legal setting, has had drastic effects on interpreting quality and service provision. Therefore, research is imperative, especially research into factors that influence interpreting quality in public service interpreting, in order to create an evidence base. In this context, this experimental study based on simulated data examines the quality of interpreting in the police setting by analysing the performance of interpreters with different professional profiles. It seeks to determine the factors that influence the quality of interpreting and establish links between interpreters’ profiles and their performance. To achieve its aims, the study includes nine interpreters and adopts a multi-method approach, combining qualitative and quantitative empirical investigations of the interpreters’ performance (output quality) with data elicited in reflective sessions and a questionnaire-based analysis of the interpreters’ profiles. The study employs pre-experiment questionnaires that provide information on interpreters’ backgrounds, it analyses the interpreters’ performance in simulated police-suspect interviews against a set of criteria that were devised to evaluate interpreting quality in the legal context. It also employs post-experiment retrospective think-aloud protocols to gain additional insights into the interpreters’ decision-making mechanisms. Through employing a multi-method approach and by creating a model for assessing the quality in the legal settings, the present study complements and extends recent studies on police interpreting conducted by Böser (2013), Braun (2013) or Gallai (2017) and provides a better understanding of factors which influence the quality of interpreting.
Translation studies researchers have for a long time critically engaged with the idea of translation being a mode of creative rewriting across media and cultural or temporal divides. Adaptation studies experts use a similar premise to study products, processes and reception of adaptations for specific locales. This article combines such perspectives in order to shed light on an under-researched area of comic adaptation: this is the metabase, or transfer, of Aristophanic comedies to the comic book format in Greek and their subsequent translation into English for an e-book edition (Metaichmio Publications 2012). The paper suggests a model for the close reading of creative transfer based on Lefèvre’s (2011; 2012) typology of formal properties of comics and Attardo’s (2002) General Theory of Verbal Humour. As is shown, visual rhythm and text-image relations create a rich environment for anachronism, parody, comic characterisation and ideological comments, all of which serve a condensed plot. The English translation rewrites cultural/ideological references, amplifies obscenity and emphasizes narrator visibility, always taking into consideration the mise en scène.
Historiographers, anthropologists and cultural studies experts have shown that discussions of identity in or about the Balkans have been traditionally linked to a sense of ‘deficiency’. Given the history of conflict, the drive towards greater European integration and the effects of the current economic crisis in the region, there is an urgency to deconstruct such ideologies. This article shows how Herzfeld’s approach to Balkan marginality may be productively extended to cover cultural and translation critique. Thus his concept of cultural intimacy is applied to stories of migration. Two Greek works are examined: Gazmend Kapllani’s semi-autobiographic novel A Short Border Diary (2006), translated into English by Marie Stanton-Ife, and Filippos Tsitos’ film Plato’s Academy (2009), subtitled into English. Both works have set a precedent in terms of audience reception and as documents of a historical cycle, the migration of thousands of Albanians to Greece after the collapse of communism. Translation and subtitling into English respectively show that the written and the audiovisual medium present different opportunities for conveying Balkan otherness.
In the last few years, two veritably burgeoning areas, comics studies and translation studies have asserted their autonomy by addressing specificities of form and context of production/reception. Acknowledging similarities between these two fields, and highlighting the role of translation as a conduit of cultural flows and representations, this article explores linguistic transfer and male/female characterisation in the English translations of Assembly of Women and Ladies’ Day. The two comics are adaptations of Aristophanic playtexts and their translations were launched as part of the general educational mission of a Greek publishing house, Metaichmio. Originals and translations are compared with the help of categories of synchrony, a concept traditionally used in audiovisual translation and adapted here to indicate alignment between text and visuals in translation: kinetic synchrony (movement and gestures), content synchrony (contextual equivalence), isochrony (text volume) and character synchrony (performative preferences for individual characters). Despite a general emphasis on space constraints in the literature, a bilingual comics corpus compiled here shows patterns of creative rewriting affecting characterisation.
This paper places an influential anthology of Brecht's texts in the context of the Greek junta (1967-1974). Drawing on the sociological work of Pierre Bourdieu, it shows how the text constitutes an euphemisation of the power of a politically active publisher who opposed the regime with what came to be seen as 'social art' by various agents of the publishing field at the time. It also demonstrates how the tactical presentation of the material in the anthology helps map the oppression of the Nazi rule onto the junta while identifying a 'plural-self' that opposes symbolic and physical violence.
This paper examines the subversive function of an anthology of Bertolt Brecht's political essays that was published in Greece at the time the student movement was emerging. The collection was launched in 1971, four years after the military coup in Greece. Drawing on the notion of frame from social movements theory, the paper focuses on the trajectory of the Greek student movement and the main frames that brought it forward as the most successful form of resistance against the junta. Then the paper illustrates how the Brecht anthology in particular captures the general climate of cultural and political opposition that created the resonance deemed necessary for the success of the student movement.
The understanding that humour constitutes an identity marker with a positive as well as an alienating function cuts across traditional approaches to social identity theories of humour and satire. This article melds such strands of humour by suggesting a concept that may serve as a unifying principle when identifying relevant comic excerpts, namely, the concept of migrant bitter wit. A Greek novel by Gazmend Kapllani and its English translation will be used to illustrate how the coping functions of this type of humour may be reframed in the target text, thus resulting in a shift of voice. The ventriloquising ‘migrant loser’ is presented in a more accessible, sardonic light that makes the dominant rhetorical purpose of the novel more salient.
The Greek junta (1967-1974) can be seen as the as the most recent black page of modern Greek history. It is mostly remembered in terms of shocking oppression as well as for the massive antiauthoritarian student movement that took place in a global sixties context. This paper summarizes significant protest activities under the Greek junta, an authoritarian regime that was in a state of flux. Events are categorized under three broad protest waves: passive resistance/clandestine activities, elaborate cultural activity and mass mobilization. As is shown, networks of resistance developed gradually with the convergence of the needs of various sectors or society. Effective opposition meant resorting to “meaningful” discourse in an authoritarian context. The role of culture in this context proved to be instrumental, because it served as the arena where this meaningful discourse was interpreted and re-interpreted against the backdrop of local and global demands. Cultural activity and consumption morphed into ideological and organizational preparation that eventually determined the stakes of an open antiauthoritarian movement.
The important questions any project on translation history may ask can be distilled into three basic queries: Where can change be observed? Which intermediaries are involved? What materials are relevant? This article focuses on a moment when such a change occurred, namely, the move from preventive censorship to ostensible freedom of expression in Greece in 1970. New publishing houses appeared at this point and sought to make up for lost ground. The article discusses the role of selected intermediaries who can be credited with the first ‘resistance’ anthologies during this transitional period, two anthologies of Brecht’s poetry. As is shown, principles of selection, arrangement and presentation for this previously neglected genre of Brecht’s oeuvre can be seen against the backdrop of a habitus of cultural ambassadorship that was just emerging. A critical overview of information gleaned from translation catalogues, interviews, memoirs and the translated texts themselves, shows that the two anthologies indeed constituted a whole that was greater than the sum of its parts.
This paper will place Brecht’s published works within the socio-political context of the Greek junta (1967–1974). After preventive censorship was lifted in 1969, a massive import of Brecht’s works occurred. Brecht was immediately incorporated in the recently established tradition of serious books addressing important social issues, bringing the reader closer to modern thought and kindling the desire for democracy. Two of the most influential publishers of the time published Brecht’s works and actively subscribed to this trend of defiance against the regime in the publishing industry. The publishers’ activity as well as the content and paratextual elements of Brecht’s works they launched constituted instantiations of the discursive motif of dark times introduced by Brecht himself to describe oppression and distortion of truth.
Problematizing and relativizing components of culture and identity are a constant theme in translation studies, yet there are fields where culture and identity are radically deconstructed, rather than problematized and relativized; such is the case in the uncharted area of transgenderism. By definition, transgenderism entails both great freedom and great constraints with respect to shaping physical and discourse parameters of identity. Taking Cromwell’s (2006) concept of ‘transsituated identities’ as a point of departure, this article discusses the English subtitles for the cinema in Koutras’ recent film Strella (2009). It demonstrates that the filmic language of Strella adopts strategies which are geared towards unsettling fixed hierarchies in society. Harvey’s (2000) grid of strategies – namely, ludicrism, inversion, paradox and parody – is extended here for the analysis of filmic language. The analysis reveals that the move from a minor code (Greek) into a lingua franca, within the context of a transgender subculture, leads to recurrent shifts in the semiotic load of these resources in translation.
Asimakoulas D (2009)Rewriting, In: Baker M, Saldanha G (eds.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studiespp. 241-246
This paper examines the subversive function of an anthology of Bertolt Brecht’s political essays that was published in Greece at the time the student movement was emerging. The collection was launched in 1971, four years after the military coup in Greece. Drawing on the notion of ‘frame’ from social movements theory, the paper focuses on the trajectory of the Greek student movement and the main ‘frames’ that brought it forward as the most successful form of resistance against the junta. Then the paper illustrates how the Brecht anthology in particular captures the general climate of cultural and political opposition that created the resonance deemed necessary for the success of the student movement.