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Dr Dimitris Asimakoulas


Deputy Director (Centre for Translation Studies) Programme Director (MRes in Translation and Interpreting Studies)
+44 (0)1483 689913
11 LC 03
Tuesdays 16:00-17:00 and Wednesdays 12:00-13:00

Biography

Biography

As an undergraduate student of English at the University of Athens I was drawn enough to the subject of translation to later pursue postgraduate studies in this field. I obtained an MSc (with distinction) and a doctorate degree from the University of Manchester after securing a PhD scholarship from the Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation and a stipend from the Language Engineering Department at UMIST. Before joining Surrey in 2006 I worked as a corpus assistant for the Translational English Corpus (CTIS Manchester), as a research associate for a poetry translation project (Newcastle University) and as a part-time Greek translation lecturer (University of Salford).

Currently I serve as Deputy Director (Centre for Translation Studies) and Programme Director (MRes in Translation and Interpreting Studies)

Research interests

The underlying thread in my research is the premise that translation is a form of creative rewriting that occurs at specific moments in time. As such, it sheds light on how identity is mediated across language barriers, time, and media. To date, I have been an examiner for eleven PhD theses (four as internal and seven as external examiner); I am also a reviewer for the Research Grants Council (Hong Kong). As a result of my research activity, I occasionally serve as member of (international) validation panels for MA programmes, interview panels for new appointments and teams for training projects (e.g. subtitling).

Current research: My current research focuses on comic book adaptations for children, humour as a coping/mediation technique in translation, the role of translation is social movements, gender performativity in subtitled filmic discourse and translated dialogue in comic books.

Earlier research: In my doctoral research I examined issues of social agency, publication trends and censorship. Brecht's poetry collections, political essays and plays published under the Greek dictatorship served as exemplars of how translation can be pressed to the service of protest.

 

PhD Supervision (principal supervisor)Konstantina Georgiou. Modern Greek Poetry in English Translation and Reader Response: A Comparative Study.Eleni Karvounidou. Translation of Children's Literature in the Soviet Union: Translating Alice's Adventures in Wonderland into Russian.Laura Martinez. The Foreign Editions Department at Usborne Publishing: Translating Children's Literature for the Italian market.Giacinto Palmieri. Self-Translation Of 'Material' In The Practice Of Bilingual Stand-Up Comedians: Theory, Analysis And Social Function.Shasha Zhang. Exporting the “Real” China: The Study of Dubbed Chinese Documentaries from the Perspective of Culture and Ideology.

PhD Supervision (co-supervisor)Dimitris Bogiatzis. The Use of Historiographic Metafiction in the Novel Free Spirit, a Novel Based on Nikos Kazantzakis' Conflict with the Greek Orthodox Church.Jaleh Delphani. Investigating the Impact of Censorship on the Strategies Applied in Subtliting Animation From English into Persian.Completed ThesesArtemis Lamprinou. A Study of the Cultural Variations in the Expression of Basic Emotions in British English to Greek Translations of Contemporary Bestseller Romances. (awarded 2012)Sara Dicerto. From Multimodal Translation To 'Multimodal Pragmatics': Developing A Theoretical Framework For The Study Of Multimodal Translation. (awarded 2015)Selin Kayhan. A Bourdieusian Perspective on Translators In Turkey: Examining The Role Of Socio-Economic, Cultural And Political Environment. (awarded 2015)Michelle Wu. Michelle Wu. The translation of Taiwanese Tongzhi and Ku-er literature. (awarded 2015)

Katerina Perdikaki. Adaptation As Translation: Examining Film Adaptation as a Recontextualised Act of Communication. (awarded 2016)

Athil Farhan. Investigating Pragmatic Implications Of Presidential Speeches After The Arab Spring And Their Translation: A Corpus-Based Study. (awarded 2017)

 

 

Teaching

I teach the following undergraduate and postgraduate modules:

  • TRA3036 “Translation Issues” (final-year undergraduate module)
  • TRAM058 “Translation of Persuasive Texts” (MA module)
  • TRAM178 “Translating Cultures” (MA module)
  • TRAM411 “Issues in Literary Translation” (MA module)

In addition to my general teaching and programme-related duties, I also have the following administrative duties in the School of Literature and Languages that complement these roles: Subject Leader (Translation), Postgraduate Exams Officer, Exchange Student Co-ordinator (Occasional Students), PhD Admissions Co-ordinator (Translation), studentship evaluation panel member for scholarships awarded by the Faculty and the AHRC (TECHNE).

Supervision Interests

My supervision interests on postgraduate and research level include the following:

  • Humour theory
  • Translation of multimodal cultural products (audiovisual programmes, comics, adverts)
  • Translation and cultural policy-making/questioning
  • Translation history
  • Translation and social movements
  • Translation as intercultural mediation

Affiliations

I am a member of the editorial board for New Voices in Translation and I have been a reviewer for the following publishing houses/journals active in the area of translation: Routledge, Palgrave McMillan, Alif, Intralinea, JosTrans, Meta, Synthesis, The Translator.

I am a member of the Modern Greek Studies Association

Supervision Interests

My supervision interests on postgraduate and research level include the following:

  • Humour theory
  • Translation as intercultural mediation
  • Translation of advertisements/tourism
  • Paratextual elements
  • Translation agency/ideology
  • Cultural policy-making/questioning
  • Translation history
  • Translation and social movements

My publications

Publications

Asimakoulas D (2006) Fear and Misery of the Third Reich... and the Greek Junta, Norwich Papers - Studies in Translation: Identities: The Role of Translation in Global and National Contexts 14 University of East Anglia
Asimakoulas D (2016) How Balkan am I? Translation and cultural intimacy through an Albanian-Greek lens, META pp. 1-18 Les Presses de L'universite de Montreal
Historiographers, anthropologists and cultural studies experts have shown that discussions of identity in or about the Balkans have been traditionally linked to a sense of ?deficiency?. Given the history of conflict, the drive towards greater European integration and the effects of the current economic crisis in the region, there is an urgency to deconstruct such ideologies. This article shows how Herzfeld?s approach to Balkan marginality may be productively extended to cover cultural and translation critique. Thus his concept of cultural intimacy is applied to stories of migration. Two Greek works are examined: Gazmend Kapllani?s semi-autobiographic novel A Short Border Diary (2006), translated into English by Marie Stanton-Ife, and Filippos Tsitos? film Plato?s Academy (2009), subtitled into English. Both works have set a precedent in terms of audience reception and as documents of a historical cycle, the migration of thousands of Albanians to Greece after the collapse of communism. Translation and subtitling into English respectively show that the written and the audiovisual medium present different opportunities for conveying Balkan otherness.
Asimakoulas D (2013) Migrant Bitter Wit: Translating a Coping Mechanism in Gazmend Kapllani?s M¹ºÁÌ —¼µÁ¿»Ì³¹¿ £Å½ÌÁɽ, New Voices in Translation Studies 10 pp. 1-20 St Jerome Publishing
The understanding that humour constitutes an identity marker with a positive as well as an alienating function cuts across traditional approaches to social identity theories of humour and satire. This article melds such strands of humour by suggesting a concept that may serve as a unifying principle when identifying relevant comic excerpts, namely, the concept of migrant bitter wit. A Greek novel by Gazmend Kapllani and its English translation will be used to illustrate how the coping functions of this type of humour may be reframed in the target text, thus resulting in a shift of voice. The ventriloquising ?migrant loser? is presented in a more accessible, sardonic light that makes the dominant rhetorical purpose of the novel more salient.
Asimakoulas D (2009) Rewriting, In: Baker M, Saldanha G (eds.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies pp. 241-246 Routledge
Asimakoulas D (2015) Joining the Dots in Translation History: the First Brecht Poetry Anthologies in Greece., SKASE Journal of Translation and Interpretation. 8 (1) pp. 2-25 Slovak Association for the Study of English
The important questions any project on translation history may ask can be distilled into three basic queries: Where can change be observed? Which intermediaries are involved? What materials are relevant? This article focuses on a moment when such a change occurred, namely, the move from preventive censorship to ostensible freedom of expression in Greece in 1970. New publishing houses appeared at this point and sought to make up for lost ground. The article discusses the role of selected intermediaries who can be credited with the first ?resistance? anthologies during this transitional period, two anthologies of Brecht?s poetry. As is shown, principles of selection, arrangement and presentation for this previously neglected genre of Brecht?s oeuvre can be seen against the backdrop of a habitus of cultural ambassadorship that was just emerging. A critical overview of information gleaned from translation catalogues, interviews, memoirs and the translated texts themselves, shows that the two anthologies indeed constituted a whole that was greater than the sum of its parts.
Asimakoulas D (2008) Series of talks: Norms in Translation?, ?Academic Writing for Translation Students: When in Rome do as the Romans Do?, ?The Many Faces of Advertisement Translation?, ?Censorship, Social Movements and Translation: Greece under the Colonels (1967-1974)?, ?Translating the Familiar and the Quaint: Tourism,
Asimakoulas D (2006) Translations as a Means of Resistance: Paratexts in Translations of Brecht's works Under the Greek Junta (1967-1974), CTIS Occasional Papers 3 pp. 78-103 University of Manchester. Centre for Translation & Intercultural Studies.
Asimakoulas D (2011) Systems and the Boundaries of Agency: Translation as a Site of Opposition, In: Asimakoulas D, Rogers M (eds.), Translation and Opposition pp. 1-36 Multilingual Matters Ltd
This chapter starts off by analysing the oppositional frames of reference animated by a translated text used by a Greek broadsheet newspaper during the December 2008 riots in Athens: a skewed modern Greek translation of an excerpt from Isocrates? Areopagiticus speech that decries the equation of real democracy to unlimited freedom/anarchy. Taking the contextual embeddedness of this short text as the point or departure, the chapter discusses how translators, interpreters and subtitlers as mediators have a pivotal role to play in identifying dividing lines between ?us? and cultural and political ?others?. Dynamic groupings and (counteractive) regroupings of textual repertoires, of ideas, and of social groups thus map out three areas of investigation: ?rewriting?, including the texts with the ideas or poetological values that characterise them and the institutions of patronage that allow patterns of action and value-formation to emerge; the active agency of translators, subtitlers and interpreters who may decide to align themselves with structures around them or oppose them; the interacting social fields involved, that is, the greater (often conflictive) social forces that provide a context for action, with distinct ?stakes?, conditions, and gate-keeping rules.
Asimakoulas D (2008) Poetry in Dark Times. Brecht and the Greek Junta,
Asimakoulas D (2005) Brecht in Dark Times. Translations of His Works Under the Greek Junta (1967-1974), Target 17 (1) pp. 93-110 John Benjamins Publishing Company
This paper will place Brecht?s published works within the socio-political context of the Greek junta (1967?1974). After preventive censorship was lifted in 1969, a massive import of Brecht?s works occurred. Brecht was immediately incorporated in the recently established tradition of serious books addressing important social issues, bringing the reader closer to modern thought and kindling the desire for democracy. Two of the most influential publishers of the time published Brecht?s works and actively subscribed to this trend of defiance against the regime in the publishing industry. The publishers? activity as well as the content and paratextual elements of Brecht?s works they launched constituted instantiations of the discursive motif of dark times introduced by Brecht himself to describe oppression and distortion of truth.
Asimakoulas D (2017) Aristophanes in comic books: Adaptation as metabase, Meta
Translation studies researchers have for a long time critically engaged with the idea of translation being a mode of creative rewriting across media and cultural or temporal divides. Adaptation studies experts use a similar premise to study products, processes and reception of adaptations for specific locales. This article combines such perspectives in order to shed light on an under-researched area of comic adaptation: this is the metabase, or transfer, of Aristophanic comedies to the comic book format in Greek and their subsequent translation into English for an e-book edition (Metaichmio Publications 2012). The paper suggests a model for the close reading of creative transfer based on Lefèvre?s (2011; 2012) typology of formal properties of comics and Attardo?s (2002) General Theory of Verbal Humour. As is shown, visual rhythm and text-image relations create a rich environment for anachronism, parody, comic characterisation and ideological comments, all of which serve a condensed plot. The English translation rewrites cultural/ideological references, amplifies obscenity and emphasizes narrator visibility, always taking into consideration the mise en scène.
Asimakoulas D (2007) Translation as social action: Brecht's 'political texts' in Greek, TTR: Traduction, Terminologie et Redaction 20 (1) pp. 113-140
This paper places an influential anthology of Brecht's texts in the context of the Greek junta (1967-1974). Drawing on the sociological work of Pierre Bourdieu, it shows how the text constitutes an euphemisation of the power of a politically active publisher who opposed the regime with what came to be seen as 'social art' by various agents of the publishing field at the time. It also demonstrates how the tactical presentation of the material in the anthology helps map the oppression of the Nazi rule onto the junta while identifying a 'plural-self' that opposes symbolic and physical violence.
Asimakoulas D (2010) Waves of Protest,
Asimakoulas Dimitris (2017) Synchrony issues in comics. Language transfer and gender-specific characterisation in English translations of Greek Aristophanic comics, Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics 9 (4) pp. 350-372 Taylor & Francis
In the last few years, two veritably burgeoning areas, comics studies and translation studies have asserted their autonomy by addressing specificities of form and context of production/reception. Acknowledging similarities between these two fields, and highlighting the role of translation as a conduit of cultural flows and representations, this article explores linguistic transfer and male/female characterisation in the English translations of Assembly of Women and Ladies? Day. The two comics are adaptations of Aristophanic playtexts and their translations were launched as part of the general educational mission of a Greek publishing house, Metaichmio. Originals and translations are compared with the help of categories of synchrony, a concept traditionally used in audiovisual translation and adapted here to indicate alignment between text and visuals in translation: kinetic synchrony (movement and gestures), content synchrony (contextual equivalence), isochrony (text volume) and character synchrony (performative preferences for individual characters). Despite a general emphasis on space constraints in the literature, a bilingual comics corpus compiled here shows patterns of creative rewriting affecting characterisation.
Asimakoulas D (2009) Framing Brecht and the Greek Student Movement (1972-1973), META 54 (2) pp. 233-247 PRESSES UNIV MONTREAL
This paper examines the subversive function of an anthology of Bertolt Brecht?s political essays
that was published in Greece at the time the student movement was emerging. The collection was
launched in 1971, four years after the military coup in Greece. Drawing on the notion of ?frame?
from social movements theory, the paper focuses on the trajectory of the Greek student movement
and the main ?frames? that brought it forward as the most successful form of resistance against the
junta. Then the paper illustrates how the Brecht anthology in particular captures the general
climate of cultural and political opposition that created the resonance deemed necessary for the success of the student movement.
Asimakoulas D (2009) Translating 'Self' and 'Others' Waves of Protest Under the Greek Junta., The Sixties: a journal of history, politics and culture 2 (1) pp. 25-47 Taylor and Francis
The Greek junta (1967-1974) can be seen as the as the most recent black page of modern Greek history. It is mostly remembered in terms of shocking oppression as
well as for the massive antiauthoritarian student movement that took place in a global
sixties context. This paper summarizes significant protest activities under the Greek
junta, an authoritarian regime that was in a state of flux. Events are categorized under
three broad protest waves: passive resistance/clandestine activities, elaborate cultural
activity and mass mobilization. As is shown, networks of resistance developed
gradually with the convergence of the needs of various sectors or society. Effective
opposition meant resorting to ?meaningful? discourse in an authoritarian context. The
role of culture in this context proved to be instrumental, because it served as the arena
where this meaningful discourse was interpreted and re-interpreted against the
backdrop of local and global demands. Cultural activity and consumption morphed
into ideological and organizational preparation that eventually determined the stakes of an open antiauthoritarian movement.
Asimakoulas D (2002) Subtitling Humour and the Humour of Subtitling, CTIS Occasional Papers 2 pp. 71-84
Asimakoulas D (2012) Dude (looks like a lady): Hijacking Transsexual Identity in the subtitled version of Strella by Panos Koutras, The Translator 18 (1) pp. 45-75 St Jerome Publishing Ltd
Problematizing and relativizing components of culture and identity are a constant theme in translation studies, yet there are fields where culture and identity are radically deconstructed, rather than problematized and relativized; such is the case in the uncharted area of transgenderism. By definition, transgenderism entails both great freedom and great constraints with respect to shaping physical and discourse parameters of identity. Taking Cromwell?s (2006) concept of ?transsituated identities? as a point of departure, this article discusses the English subtitles for the cinema in Koutras? recent film Strella (2009). It demonstrates that the filmic language of Strella adopts strategies which are geared towards unsettling fixed hierarchies in society. Harvey?s (2000) grid of strategies ? namely, ludicrism, inversion, paradox and parody ? is extended here for the analysis of filmic language. The analysis reveals that the move from a minor code (Greek) into a lingua franca, within the context of a transgender subculture, leads to recurrent shifts in the semiotic load of these resources in translation.
Abstract

The present study explains that ideology can affect translators? linguistic selections which can consequently shape the receivers? worldviews. Owing to the fact that after the Arab Spring, new leaders with different ideologies and belonging to different political movements sprung forth, their political discourse has become a subject of increasing interest. The language these leaders use to promote their own political and ideological visions and the way to interpret them requires analysis to detect the possibility of translators? intervention in the translation of these speeches.

Adopting a mixed approach of corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis, the present study focuses on investigating the manipulation of the source text ideology in the translation of presidential speeches after the Arab Spring. The source texts analysed in this study are 20 speeches by the former Egyptian president Morsi translated into English by five translators of various ideological backgrounds. The analysis of these source texts is based on the extraction of keywords and a selection of keywords with ideological content. The analysis of the target texts, on the other hand, focuses on the use of ideological keywords in lexical patterns and grammatical structures to detect ideological manipulation in translation.

The thesis aims to describe systematically the means through which translations transfer, strengthen, or mitigate the ideology underlying the source texts. Using five parallel corpora of the source texts and their translations, the thesis also aims to ascertain whether the lexical choices and the syntactic structures employed in the target texts engender changes in the ideological content of the source texts and their underlying ideology.

The results reveal that two out of the five translations project a manipulated ideology that is at variance with the ideology underlining the original texts. One translation strengthens the ideology of the source texts, whereas the other two translations aim to maintain the original ideology unchanged. This indicates that instances of ideological manipulation are probable even in the translation of presidential speeches due to the nature of the source texts, the ideology underlying them as well as the possibility of an ideological clash.

Asimakoulas Dimitris, Rogers Margaret (2011) Translation and Opposition, Multilingual Matters
Translation and Opposition is an edited volume that brings together cultural and sociological perspectives by examining translation through the prism of linguistic/cultural hybridity and inter/intra-social agency. In a collection of diverse case studies, ranging from the translation of political texts to interpreting in concentration camps, the book explores issues of power struggle, ideology, censorship and identity construction. The contributors to the volume show how translators, interpreters and subtitlers as mediators put their specific professional and ethical competences to the test by treading the dividing lines between constellations of ?in-groups? and cultural or political ?others?.
Narratives are increasingly intermedial nowadays and adaptation is prominent in the performing arts (e.g. theatre, opera) and in various forms of media (e.g. film, television, radio, video games). The process of adaptation has been paralleled to that of translation, as both deal with the transfer of meaning from one sociocultural context to another. In a similar vein, translation has been viewed as a process of adaptation when the communicated message needs to be tailored to the values of the target culture. Nevertheless, a framework building on the affinities of translation and adaptation remains relatively under-researched.
A model for a systematic adaptation analysis seems to be currently missing in Adaptation Studies. Translation Studies can also benefit from a closer look into the workings of cultural production. An analysis of adaptation as intersemiotic and intermedial translation can give rise to the factors that condition the flow of narratives across media and cultures. Such an analysis can also shed light on the relationship between cultural products and the socio-temporal context that accommodates them.
To this end, the present project aims at examining the film adaptation process from a hermeneutic point of view, looking into both textual and contextual parameters that monitor the adaptation process. A model towards the systematic analysis and interpretation of the changes occurring in the adaptation process (i.e. adaptation shifts) is also developed to fulfil this aim. The model draws upon insights from Translation Studies, Film Studies and Narratology and has a descriptive/comparative and an interpretive component. The former is used to examine adaptation as an audiovisual text in relation to its source material and the latter deconstructs the adaptation process in relation to the agents and contexts involved. The model can thus contribute to a systematic study of adaptations and to a better understanding of the adaptation/translation process.
The present study investigates, from the point of view of translation, the phenomenon of stand-up comedians performing in more than one language, with a specific focus on English and Italian, and on Italian comedians performing in London. This offers the opportunity to address questions of humour translatability, to observe how performing in a native, as opposed to a second, language impacts performance, and to consider the role that humour and translation can play in situations of diaspora.
For these purposes, a new type of translation needs to be conceptualised for it to be recognised as taking place in bilingual comedy. In doing this, the starting point is the recognition that stand-up comedy represents a form of oral communication, in which the presence of a written text cannot be assumed. The type of translation putatively involved in bilingual stand-up comedy is thus defined as ?oral self-translation?. The notion of ?mental text?, borrowed from the ethnographer Honko (1996), is proposed as the source and target text of this type of translation. The concepts of declarative and procedural memories are then deployed to offer a theoretical model for the content of this mental text.
These challenges call for a phenomenological approach as the main method of this study, in which the experience of a sample of ten bilingual stand-up comedians is investigated by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The researcher?s own experience in performing stand-up comedy in both Italian and English is also reflexively interrogated and compared with the participants? experiences, as collected in the interviews.
The results extrapolated from this data suggest that translation does occur in bilingual comedy and that its comic efficacy is considered very satisfactory by the performers themselves, in accordance with their interpretation of the audience?s reaction. This success seems to be correlated with the special degree of freedom enjoyed by the self-translating comedian. The choice of language, moreover, seems to be associated with different performing styles and different levels of emotional involvement from the comedian. In its interaction between performers and audience, oral self-translation of stand-up comedy is shown to partake in the process of ?identity negotiation? (Swann 1987), particularly when this interaction occurs between members of a diaspora and members of the host community.
The translation and publication process of foreign literary works and particularly of children?s literature in Russia has been through various changes and reforms following the socio-political shifts that occurred in different periods of Russian history. This thesis examines three Russian translations of Lewis Carroll?s Alice?s Adventures in Wonderland published before, during and after the Soviet Era. This periodisation is essential, as the main research question of the thesis is how the shifting socio-political circumstances and ideologies governing Russia in each of the three periods examined affected the translation of children?s literature.

The study focuses on power and authority references, which are frequently identified in the book, as the creatures of Wonderland constantly insult and terrify Alice in their attempt to seize power. Through these examples and drawing on Even-Zohar?s polysystem theory, Toury?s concept of norms and House?s model of translation quality assessment, this thesis also answers questions as to how the norms prevailing in the source culture are transferred to the target culture, as well as what translation strategies are used by the Russian translators of Alice Adventures in Wonderland in each of the periods examined.

Since the study takes place in a Russian context, references to censorship in translation and publication of children?s literature are inevitable, as previous research has demonstrated that publications were under state control, particularly during the Soviet years. Therefore, the translations used here as observational material, are also examined for any potential censorship effect.

Despite the fact that the same examples are examined in all three translations, the result and the translators? choices, differ to a great extent. The pre-Soviet translation has many deletions, related particularly to the violent scenes of the book. The Soviet translation is a literal rendering of Carroll?s original story. Finally, the post-Soviet translation is a creative work, which contains many additions that bring the story closer to the mentality and understanding of the Russian readership.

Reader Response and Reception theories recognize that readerly activity during the reading process means that the reader draws on various resources, such as their knowledge of the world and of literary conventions. A more practical perspective with significant insights into the reader?s input comes from empirical explorations of literature (Hartman 1995, Peskin 1998, Hanauer 1998, 2001).
Within Translation Studies there have been some attempts at exploring the role of the reader during the translation process. Cognitive research, using think-aloud protocols and/or eye-tracking and keystroke logging as their methods, has offered valuable information that expands our understanding of what translators do when they read during the translation process (Englund Dimitrova 2005, Jakobsen 2003). In addition, several ?situated theories? (Flynn 2013) by translation scholars who are also practitioners has provided several categories with which to describe an initial, exploratory model of the translator as reader. These attempts have been sporadic and not entirely systematic and have been unable to produce a comprehensive picture of what the translator brings into the reading-for-translation process. The object of this study is to merge and expand these categories proposed by translation scholars (Beaugrande 1977, Diaz-Diocaretz 1985, Jones 2011) into a coherent model of the poetry translator as reader.
The expanded model is complemented by data from several different sources collected from Modern Greek into English poetry translators. The key issue of how the translatorial habitus affects the reading-for-translation phase is eplored through the examination of a corpus of paratexts created by or about these poetry translators. The study also draws data from the responses of twenty poetry translators to a survey and from ten semi-structured interviews with the same group of poetry translators for the exploration of the translatorial habitus. Finally, the effects of the translatorial habitus on the reading-for-translation phase are explored through verbal protocols with eight poetry translators.