Judy Lee

Dr Judy Lee

Senior Lecturer, Director of Learning and Teaching for Chemical and Process Engineering
B.Eng. (Chemical Engineering, Hons), B.Sc. (Physics), PG.Dip.Ed. (Secondary), Ph.D.
+44 (0)1483 682618
26 BC 02


Affiliations and memberships

European Society of Sonochemistry (ESS)
British Association for Crystal Growth (BACG)
European Membrane Society (EMS)
Associate Member of School on Advanced Oxidation Processes


Research interests

Research projects

Research collaborations

Indicators of esteem

  • Invited Conference Presentations


    • Keynote Speaker: “Membrane filtration of complex water and wastewaters”, 10th International Membrane Science and  Technology Conference, Sydney, Australia (2-6th February, 2020).
    • Keynote Speaker: “A short-cut method for quantifying the effective transmembrane pressure for a system with significant concentration polarisation”, Membrane Society of Australia Early Career Researcher Membrane Symposium, Sydney, Australia (1-2nd February, 2020).
    • Invited Speaker: “Correlation of cavitation activity with sonocrystallisation” 3rd Asia-Oceania Sonochemical Society Conference, Chennai, India (14-16th Sep 2017).
    • Plenary Speaker: “Importance of solution and sonication conditions on sonocrystallisation” 16th Meeting of the European Society of Sonochemistry,  Besancon, France (15th -19h Apr, 2018).
    • Invited Speaker: “A “Sound” Method of Inducing Crystallisation”, Ultrasonics 2016, Caparica, Portugal (6-8th Jun 2016).
    • Invited Speaker: “A “Sound” Method of Inducing Crystallisation”, NPL Cavitation User Forum at AFPA Conference, Croydon, UK (13-15th Jan 2016).
    • Invited Speaker: “Application of Ultrasound for Crystallization and Nanoparticle Deposition onto Surfaces”, Pacifichem 2015, Hawaii, USA (15-20th Dec 2015).
  • Academic Awards

    • 2012 Australian Research Council's Discovery Early Career Research Award (DECRA)
    • 2007 Japan Society of Promotional Science Fellowship (JSPS)

    Editorial Roles


Current PhD/MEng students

Principle supervision:

  • Ms Bethany Campbell (PhD)
  • Mr Pello Alfonso Muniozguren (PhD)
  • Ms Marie Enfrin (PhD)
  • Ms Silvia Nalesso (PhD)
  • Ms Anna Artemi (PhD)


  • Mr Oliver Crossley (PhD)
  • Mr Timothy Sidnell (PhD)

Past PhD/MEng Students

Principle supervision:

  • Ms Nikolina Pieri (MEng 2018/2019)
  • Mr Dylan Dhinsa (MEng 2018/2019)
  • Mr Umar Ahmed (MEng 2018/2019)
  • Mr Isuru Umayanga (MEng 2018/2019)
  • Ms Anna Currington (MEng 2017/2018))
  • Mr Ben Fowler (MEng 2017/2018))
  • Mr Mod Bohari (MEng 2017/2018))
  • Ms Nadhirah Muhammad Fithri (MEng 2017/2018))
  • Mr Yaseen Mohammed (MEng 2017/2018))
  • Mr Tajwarul Huda (MEng 2017/2018)
  • Ms Anna Artemi (MEng 2016/2017)
  • Ms Florentia Zorba (MEng 2016/2017)
  • Mr Gobind Sian (MEng 2016/2017)
  • Mr Bertie Traill (MEng 2016/2017)
  • Mr Mohammad Sikandar Rana (MEng 2016/2017)
  • Mr Alex Joseph (MEng 2016/2017)
  • Mr Sean Wong (MEng, 2015/2016)
  • Mr Hugo Currell (MEng, 2015/2016)


  • Mr Richard Woods (PhD, 2019)
  • Mr Matthew Prescott (MEng, 2015/2016)
  • Mr James Mitchell (MEng, 2015/2016)
  • Ms Kezia Kezia (PhD, 2016)
  • Mr Junjie (Jack) Jiao (PhD, 2015)


Research Opportunities

We welcome all inquires from prospective students, PhD students and postdoctoral fellows.

Potential high-calibre applicants that are interested in our research areas are encouraged to consider applying to various scholarships or fellowships. For further information please contact Dr. Judy Lee.


Postgraduate research supervision

Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised

My teaching

Courses I teach on


My publications



  1. A. Artemi, G. Chen, S. E. Kentish and J. Lee, "The relevance of critical flux concept in the concentration of skim milk using forward osmosis and reverse osmosis ", J. Mem. Sci., 2020, 611, 118357
  2. A. Artemi, G. Chen, S. E. Kentish and J. Lee, "Pilot-scale concentration of cheese whey by forward osmosis: a short-cut method for evaluating the effective pressure driving force", J. Sep. Purif, 2020, 250, 117263
  3. P. Alfonso-Muniozguren, S. Cotillas, R. A.R. Boaventura, F.C. Moreira, J. Lee, V. J.P. Vilar, "Single and combined electrochemical oxidation driven processes for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater", J. Clean. Prod., 2020, 270, 121858
  4. M. Enfrin, J. Lee, P. Le-Clech and L. Dumee, "Kinetic and mechanistic aspects of ultrafiltration membrane fouling by nano- and microplastics", J. Membrane Sci., 2020, 601, 117890
  5. P. Alfonso-Muniozguren, M.H. Bohari, A. Sicilia, C. Avignone-Rossa, M. Bussemaker, D. Saroj, J. Lee, "Tertiary Treatment of Real Abattoir Wastewater using Combined Acoustic Cavitation and Ozonation" Ultrason. Sonochem, 2020, 64, 104986
  6. O. P. Crossley, R. B. Thorpe, D. Peus and J. Lee, "Phosphorus recovery from process waste water made by the hydrothermal carbonisation of spent coffee grounds", Bioresour. Technol., 2020, 301, 122664
  7. J. Lee, L. Hallez, F. Touyeras, A. Nevers, M. Ashokkumar and J.-Y., Hihn “"Influence of frequency sweep on sonochemiluminescence and sonoluminescence." Ultrason. Sonochem., 2020, 64, 105047.
  8. M. Enfrin, J. Lee, Y. Gibert, F. Basheer, L. Kong and L. F. Dumee, "Release of hazardous nanoplastic contaminants due to microplastics fragmentation under various shear stress forces" Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2020, 384, 121393
  9. V. J.P. Vilar, P. Alfonso-Muniozguren, J. P. Monteiro, J. Lee, S. M. Miranda and R. A.R. Boaventura, "Tube-in-Tube Membrane Microreactor for Photochemical UVC/H2O2 Processes: A Proof of Concept", Chem. Eng. J., 2020, 379, 122341
  10. R. Wood, C. Vévert,J. Lee and M. J. Bussemaker, "Flow effects on phenol degradation and sonoluminescence at different ultrasonic frequencies", Ultrason. Sonochem. 2020, 63, 104892
  11. M. Enfrin, L. F. Dumee , J. Lee, "Nano/microplastics in water and wastewater treatment processes - origin, impact and potential solutions", Water Res., 2019, 161, 621
  12. R. Wood, J. Lee and M. J. Bussemaker, "Disparities between sonoluminescence, sonochemiluminescence and dosimetry with frequency variation under flow", Ultrason. Sonochem. 2019, 58, 104645
  13. S. Nalesso, M. Bussemaker, R. Sear, M. Hodnett, J. Lee, " A review on possible mechanisms of sonocrystallisation in solution", Ultrason. Sonochem. 2019, 57, 125
  14. G. Q. Chen, A. Artemi, J. Lee, Sally L. Gras, S. E. Kentish, " A pilot scale study on the concentration of milk and whey by forward osmosis", Sep. Purif. Technol., 2019, 215, 652.
  15. S. Nalesso, M. Bussemaker, R. Sear, M. Hodnett, J. Lee, " Development of sodium chloride crystal size during antisolvent crystallization under different sonication modes", Cryst. Growth Des., 2019, 19, 141.
  16. V. Gonzales, R. Wood, J. Lee, S. Taylor, M. Bussemarker, "Ultrasound-enhanced hair dye application for natural dyeing formulations", Ultrason. Sonochem. 2019, 52, 294
  17. J. Lee, S.Yang, "Antisolvent sonocrystallisation of sodium chloride and the evaluation of ultrasound energy using modified classical nucleation theory", Crystals, 2018, 8, 320.
  18. W. Li, F.M. Allioux, J. Lee, M. Ashokkumar, L. F. Dumee, "Ultrasound-assisted fabrication of metal nano-porous shells across polymer beads and their catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol", Ultrason. Sonochem. 2018, 49, 63.
  19. P. Alfonso-Muniozguren, J. Lee, M. Bussemaker, R. Chadeesingh, C. Jones, D. Oakley and D. Saroj, "A combined activated sludge-filtration-ozonation process for abattoir wastewater treatment", J. Water Process Eng. 2018, 25, 157.
  20. J. Lee, K. Yasui, M. Ashokkumar, S. E. Kentish, "Quantification of cavitation activity by sonoluminescence to study the sonocrystallisation process under different ultrasound parameters", Cryst. Growth Des., 2018, 18, 5180.
  21. M. Prescott, J. Mitchell, S. Totti, J. Lee, E. Velliou and M. Bussemaker, "Sonodynamic therapy combined with novel anti-cancer agents, sanguinarine and ginger root extract: Synergistic increase in toxicity in presence of PANC-1 cells in vitro", Ultrason. Sonochem. 2018, 40, 72-80.
  22. R. Wood, J. Lee and M. J. Bussemaker, "A parametric review of sonochemistry: control and augmentation of sonochemical activity in aqueous solutions", Ultrason. Sonochem., 2017, 38, 351-370.
  23. K. Kezia, J. Lee, B. Zisu, G. Chen, S. L. Gras and S.E. Kentish, " Solubility of calcium phosphate in concentrated dairy effluent brines", J. Agri. Food Chem., 2017, 65, 4027-4034.
  24. K. Kezia, J. Lee, B. Zisu, M. Weeks, G. Chen, S. Gras and S. Kentish, “Crystallisation of minerals from concentrated saline dairy effluent”, Water Res., 2016, 101, 300-308.
  25. S. K. Bhangu, M. Ashokkumar, and J. Lee, "Ultrasound assisted crystallization of paracetamol: Crystal size distribution and polymorph control" Cryst. Growth Des., 2016, 16, 1934-1941.
  26. O. Ojajuni, S. Holder, G. Cavalli, J. Lee, and D. P. Saroj, "Rejection of caffeine and carbamazepine by surface-coated PVDF hollow-fiber membrane system", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2016, 55, 2417-2425.
  27. L. Hallez, J. Lee, F. Touyeras, A. Nevers, M. Ashokkumar and J., Hihn “Enhancement and quenching of high-intensity focused ultrasound cavitation activity via short frequency sweep range” Ultrason. Sonochem., Ultrason. Sonochem, 2016, 29, 194-197.
  28. R. Pflieger, J. Lee, S. Nikitenko and M. Ashokkuma, "Influence of He and Ar flowrate and NaCl concentration on the size distribution of bubbles generated by power ultrasound" J. Phys. Chem. B, 2015, 119, 12682-12688.
  29. K. Kezia, J. Lee, M. Weeks and S. E. Kentish “Direct contact membrane distillation for the concentration of saline dairy effluent”, Water Research, 2015, 81, 167-177
  30. J. Jiao, Y. He, S. E. Kentish, M. Ashokkumar, R. Manasseh and J. Lee, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of secondary Bjerknes forces between two bubbles in a standing wave”, Ultrasonics, 2015, 58, 35-42.
  31. J. Jiao, Y. He, K. Yasui, S. E. Kentish, M. Ashokkumar, R. Manasseh and J. Lee, “Influence of acoustic pressure and bubble sizes on the coalescence of two contacting bubbles in an acoustic field”, Ultrason. Sonochem, 2015, 22, 70-77.
  32. K. Kezia, J. Lee, W. Ogieglo, A. J. Hill, N. E. Benes and S. E. Kentish, “The transport of hydronium and hydroxide ions through reverse osmosis membranes” J. Membrane Sci., 2014, 459, 197-206.
  33. J. Lee, M. Ashokkumar and S. E. Kentish, “Influence of mixing and ultrasound frequency on antisolvent crystallisation of sodium chloride”, Ultrason. Sonochem, 2014, 21 (1), 60-68.
  34. J. Jiao, Y. He, T. Leong, S. E. Kentish, M. Ashokkumar, R. Manasseh and J. Lee, “Experimental and theoretical studies on the movements of two bubbles in an acoustic standing wave field”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2013, 117, 12549-12555.
  35. K. Kezia, J. Lee, A. J. Hill and S. E. Kentish, “Convective transport of boron through a brackish water reverse osmosis membrane”, J. Membrane Sci., 2013, 445, 160-169.
  36. J. Lee, A. J. Hill and S. Kentish, “Formation of a thick aromatic polyamide membrane by interfacial polymerisation”, Sep. Purif. Technol., 2013, 104, 276-283.
  37. L. Dumée, J. Lee, K. Sears, B. Tardy, M. Duke and S. Gray, “Fabrication of thin film composite poly(amide)-carbon-nanotube supported membranes for enhanced performance in osmotically driven desalination systems”, J. Membrane Sci., 2013, 427, 422-430.
  38. J. Lee, C. M. Doherty, A. J. Hill and S. E. Kentish, “Water vapour sorption and free volume in the aromatic polyamide layer of reverse osmosis membranes”, J. Membrane Sci., 2013, 425-426, 217-226.
  39. J. Lee, M. Ashokkumar, K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “ Development and optimization of acoustic bubble structures at high frequencies”, Ultrason. Sonochem, 2011, 18(1), 92-98.
  40. A. Towata, J. Lee, K.Yasui, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka and Y. Iida, “Fabrication of silver nanoparticles deposited on boehmite sol for surface enhanced Raman scattering”, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2011, 257 (14), 6010-6015.
  41. B. Zisu, J. Lee, J. Chandrapala, R. Bhaskaracharya, M. Palmer, S. Kentish and M. Ashokkumar “Effect of ultrasound on the physical and functional properties of reconstituted whey protein powders” J. Dairy Res., 2011, 78, 1-8.
  42. J. Lee, I. U. Vakarelski, K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Variations in the spatial distribution of sonoluminescing bubbles in the presence of an ionic surfactant and electrolyte”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2010, 114(8), 2572-2577
  43. M. Ashokkumar, J. Lee, Y. Iida, K. Yasui, T. Kozuka, T. Tuziuti and A. Towata, “Spatial distribution of acoustic cavitation bubbles at different ultrasound frequencies” Chem. Phys. Chem., 2010, 11(8) 1680-1684.
  44. M. Ashokkumar, R. Bhaskaracharya, S. Kentish, J. Lee, M. Palmer and B. Zisu “The ultrasonic processing of dairy products- An overview” Dairy Sci. Technol., 2010, 90(2-3) 147-168
  45. Y. Iida, M. Ashokkumar, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka, K. Yasui, A. Towata and J. Lee, “Bubble population phenomena in sonochemical reactor: I Estimation of bubble size distribution and its number density with pulsed sonication-laser diffraction method”, Ultrason. Sonochem, 2010, 17, 473-479.
  46. Y. Iida, M. Ashokkumar, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka, K. Yasui, A. Towata and J. Lee, “Bubble population phenomena in sonochemical reactor: II Estimation of bubble size distribution and its number density by simple coalescence model”, Ultrason. Sonochem., 2010, 17(2), 480-486.
  47. K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Numerical simulations of acoustic cavitation noise with the temporal fluctuation in the number of bubbles”, Ultrason. Sonochem., 2010, 17(2), 460-472.
  48. T. Kozuka, K. Yasui, S. Hatanaka, T. Tuziuti, J. Lee, and A. Towata, “Study of an acoustic field in a microchannel” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 2010, 49, 07HE141-2.
  49. M. Ashokkumar, J. Lee, Y. Iida, K. Yasui, T. Kozuka, T. Tuziuti and A. Towata, “The Detection and Control of Stable and Transient Acoustic Cavitation bubbles” J. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009, 11, 10118-10121.
  50. M. Ashokkumar, J. Lee, B. Zisu, R. Bhaskaracharya, M. Palmer and S. Kentish “ Sonication Increases the Heat Stability of Whey Proteins” Hot topic in J. Dairy Sci., 2009, 92, 5353-5356.
  51. Y. Iida and J. Lee, “Protein microbubbles: Ultrasonic fabrication, chemical treatment and their characterization” Materials Integration (Japanese), 2009, 22 (6), 30-34.
  52. Y. Iida, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, K. Yasui, A. Towata and T. Tuziuti, “Optical cavitation probe using light scattering from bubble clouds”, Ultrason. Sonochem., 2009, 16 (4), 519-524.
  53. K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Influence of the bubble-bubble interaction on encapsulated microbubbles under ultrasound” J. Acoust. Soc. Am, 2009, 126 (3), 973-982.
  54. T. Tuziuti, K. Yasui, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Influence of surface active solute on ultrasonic waveform distortion in liquid containing air bubbles” J. Phys. Chem. A., 2009, 113 (31) 8893-8900.
  55. J. Lee, K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Spatial distribution enhancement of sonoluminescence activity by altering sonication and solution conditions, J. Phys. Chem. B. 2008, 112 (48), 15333-15341
  56. K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “The range of ambient radius for an active bubble in sonoluminescence and sonochemical reactions” J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 128 (18), 184705
  57. T. Tuziuti, K. Yasui, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Mechanism of enhancement of sonochemical-reaction efficiency by pulsed ultrasound”, J. Phys. Chem. A., 2008, 112 (22), 4875-4878.
  58. I. U. Vakarelski, J. Lee, R. R. Dagastine, D. Y. C. Chan, G. W. Steven and F. Grieser, “Bubble colloidal AFM probes formed from ultrasonically generated bubbles” Langmuir, 2008, 24 (3), 603-605.
  59. J. Lee, T. Tuziuti, K. Yasui, S. Kentish, F. Grieser, M. Ashokkumar and Y. Iida, “Influence of surface-active solutes on the coalescence, clustering and fragmentation of acoustic bubbles confined in a microspace” J. Phys. Chem. C, 2007, 111 (51) 19015-19023.
  60. M. Ashokkumar, J. Lee, S. Kentish and F. Grieser “Bubbles in an ultrasonic field: An overview” Ultrason. Sonochem., 2007, 14(4) 470-475
  61. J. Lee, S. Kentish, M. Ashokkumar, and F. Grieser “Effect of Alcohols on the Initial Growth of Multibubble Sonoluminescence” J. Phys. Chem. B, 2006, 110 (34), 17282-17285
  62. S. Kentish, J. Lee, M. Davidson and M. Ashokkumar “The dissolution of a stationary spherical bubble beneath a flat plate” Chem. Eng. Sci., 2006, 61(23), 7697-7705
  63. J. Lee, S. Kentish and M. Ashokkumar, “The Effect of Surface-Active Solutes on Bubble Coalescence in the Presence of Ultrasound” J. Phys. Chem. B, 2005, 109(11), 5095-5099.
  64. J. Lee, S. Kentish, T.J. Matula and M. Ashokkumar, “Effect of surfactants on inertial cavitation activity in a pulsed acoustic field” J. Phys. Chem. B, 2005, 109 (35), 16860-16865.
  65. J. Lee, S. Kentish and M. Ashokkumar "Effect of surfactants on the rate of growth of an air bubble by rectified diffusion" J. Phys. Chem. B, 2005, 109(30), 14595-14598.
  66. J. Lee, M. Ashokkumar, S. Kentish and F. Grieser “Determination of the Size Distribution of Sonoluminescing Bubbles in a Pulsed Acoustic Field” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127 (48), 16810-16811.

Conference Papers

  1. C. M. Doherty, J. I. Mardel, A. J. Hill, J. Lee, G. Q. Chen, S. E. Kentish, H. Ju, J. E. McGrath, W. Xie, G. M. Geise, D. R. Paul and B. D. Freeman, “Dynamic porosity and transport properties of membrane materials”, 244th National Fall Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society, Philadelphia, USA, 19th -23rd August, (2012).
  2. J. Lee, A. Widjaya, A. Hill and S. Kentish, “Determination of Water Vapor Sorption and Some Transport Parameters for the Aromatic Polyamide Layer of RO Membranes”, AWA Membranes and Desalination Specialty Conference IV, Gold Coast, Australia, 8-10th February (2011), 1-4.


  1. J. Lee, "Importance of sonication and solution conditions on the acoustic cavitation activity" In: M. Ashokkumar e.d. Handbook of Ultrasonics and Sonochemistry, Springer Science and Business Media, Singapore, 2016, p.137-175.
  2. J. Lee, S. E. Kentish, G. Q. Chen, "The use of ultrasound in the recovery of food materials: Sonocrystallization and Membrane Processing" Reference Module in Food Science, Elsevier, 2020. 


  1. M. Ashokkumar, S. Kentish, J. Lee, B. Zisu, P. Martin and M. A. Augustin, "Processing of dairy ingredients by ultrasonication" WO2009/079691 A1