Judy Lee

Dr Judy Lee

Senior Lecturer
B.Eng. (Chemical Engineering, Hons), B.Sc. (Physics), PG.Dip.Ed. (Secondary), Ph.D.
+44 (0)1483 682618
26 BC 02


Areas of specialism

Acoustic Cavitation: Bubble dynamics, Sonoluminescence, Bubble Coalescence, Surfactants etc.; Ultrasonic Processing/Synthesis: Crystallisation, Dairy Materials, Emulsions, Nanoparticles, Microspheres etc.; Membrane Filtration: Waste water treatment and recycling, nano/micro plastic remediation, Dairy whey etc.

Affiliations and memberships

European Society of Sonochemistry (ESS)
British Association for Crystal Growth (BACG)
European Membrane Society (EMS)


Research interests

Research collaborations

Indicators of esteem

  • Invited Conference Presentations

    • Invited Speaker: “Correlation of cavitation activity with sonocrystallisation” 3rd Asia-Oceania Sonochemical Society Conference, Chennai, India (14-16th Sep 2017).
    • Plenary Speaker: “Importance of solution and sonication conditions on sonocrystallisation” 16th Meeting of the European Society of Sonochemistry,  Besancon, France (15th -19h Apr, 2018).
    • Invited Speaker: “A “Sound” Method of Inducing Crystallisation”, Ultrasonics 2016, Caparica, Portugal (6-8th Jun 2016).
    • Invited Speaker: “A “Sound” Method of Inducing Crystallisation”, NPL Cavitation User Forum at AFPA Conference, Croydon, UK (13-15th Jan 2016).
    • Invited Speaker: “Application of Ultrasound for Crystallization and Nanoparticle Deposition onto Surfaces”, Pacifichem 2015, Hawaii, USA (15-20th Dec 2015).
  • Academic Awards

    • 2012 Australian Research Council's Discovery Early Career Research Award (DECRA)
    • 2007 Japan Society of Promotional Science Fellowship (JSPS)

    Editorial Roles

My teaching

Courses I teach on


Postgraduate research supervision

Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised

My publications



  1. J. Lee, S.Yang, "Antisolvent sonocrystallisation of sodium chloride and the evaluation of ultrasound energy using modified classical nucleation theory", Crystals, 2018, 8, 320.
  2. W. Li, F.M. Allioux, J. Lee, M. Ashokkumar, L. F. Dumee, "Ultrasound-assisted fabrication of metal nano-porous shells across polymer beads and their catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol", Ultrason. Sonochem. 2018, 49, 63.
  3. P. Alfonso-Muniozguren, J. Lee, M. Bussemaker, R. Chadeesingh, C. Jones, D. Oakley and D. Saroj, "A combined activated sludge-filtration-ozonation process for abattoir wastewater treatment", J. Water Process Eng. 2018, 25, 157.
  4. J. Lee, K. Yasui, M. Ashokkumar, S. E. Kentish, "Quantification of cavitation activity by sonoluminescence to study the sonocrystallisation process under different ultrasound parameters", Cryst. Growth Des., 2018, 18, 5180.
  5. M. Prescott, J. Mitchell, S. Totti, J. Lee, E. Velliou and M. Bussemaker, "Sonodynamic therapy combined with novel anti-cancer agents, sanguinarine and ginger root extract: Synergistic increase in toxicity in presence of PANC-1 cells in vitro", Ultrason. Sonochem. 2018, 40, 72-80.
  6. R. Wood, J. Lee and M. J. Bussemaker, "A parametric review of sonochemistry: control and augmentation of sonochemical activity in aqueous solutions", Ultrason. Sonochem., 2017, 38, 351-370.
  7. K. Kezia, J. Lee, B. Zisu, G. Chen, S. L. Gras and S.E. Kentish, " Solubility of calcium phosphate in concentrated dairy effluent brines", J. Agri. Food Chem., 2017, 65, 4027-4034.
  8. K. Kezia, J. Lee, B. Zisu, M. Weeks, G. Chen, S. Gras and S. Kentish, “Crystallisation of minerals from concentrated saline dairy effluent”, Water Res., 2016, 101, 300-308.
  9. S. K. Bhangu, M. Ashokkumar, and J. Lee, "Ultrasound assisted crystallization of paracetamol: Crystal size distribution and polymorph control" Cryst. Growth Des., 2016, 16, 1934-1941.
  10. O. Ojajuni, S. Holder, G. Cavalli, J. Lee, and D. P. Saroj, "Rejection of caffeine and carbamazepine by surface-coated PVDF hollow-fiber membrane system", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2016, 55, 2417-2425.
  11. L. Hallez, J. Lee, F. Touyeras, A. Nevers, M. Ashokkumar and J., Hihn “Enhancement and quenching of high-intensity focused ultrasound cavitation activity via short frequency sweep range” Ultrason. Sonochem., Ultrason. Sonochem, 2016, 29, 194-197.
  12. R. Pflieger, J. Lee, S. Nikitenko and M. Ashokkuma, "Influence of He and Ar flowrate and NaCl concentration on the size distribution of bubbles generated by power ultrasound" J. Phys. Chem. B, 2015, 119, 12682-12688.
  13. K. Kezia, J. Lee, M. Weeks and S. E. Kentish “Direct contact membrane distillation for the concentration of saline dairy effluent”, Water Research, 2015, 81, 167-177
  14. J. Jiao, Y. He, S. E. Kentish, M. Ashokkumar, R. Manasseh and J. Lee, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of secondary Bjerknes forces between two bubbles in a standing wave”, Ultrasonics, 2015, 58, 35-42.
  15. J. Jiao, Y. He, K. Yasui, S. E. Kentish, M. Ashokkumar, R. Manasseh and J. Lee, “Influence of acoustic pressure and bubble sizes on the coalescence of two contacting bubbles in an acoustic field”, Ultrason. Sonochem, 2015, 22, 70-77.
  16. K. Kezia, J. Lee, W. Ogieglo, A. J. Hill, N. E. Benes and S. E. Kentish, “The transport of hydronium and hydroxide ions through reverse osmosis membranes” J. Membrane Sci., 2014, 459, 197-206.
  17. J. Lee, M. Ashokkumar and S. E. Kentish, “Influence of mixing and ultrasound frequency on antisolvent crystallisation of sodium chloride”, Ultrason. Sonochem, 2014, 21 (1), 60-68.
  18. J. Jiao, Y. He, T. Leong, S. E. Kentish, M. Ashokkumar, R. Manasseh and J. Lee, “Experimental and theoretical studies on the movements of two bubbles in an acoustic standing wave field”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2013, 117, 12549-12555.
  19. K. Kezia, J. Lee, A. J. Hill and S. E. Kentish, “Convective transport of boron through a brackish water reverse osmosis membrane”, J. Membrane Sci., 2013, 445, 160-169.
  20. J. Lee, A. J. Hill and S. Kentish, “Formation of a thick aromatic polyamide membrane by interfacial polymerisation”, Sep. Purif. Technol., 2013, 104, 276-283.
  21. L. Dumée, J. Lee, K. Sears, B. Tardy, M. Duke and S. Gray, “Fabrication of thin film composite poly(amide)-carbon-nanotube supported membranes for enhanced performance in osmotically driven desalination systems”, J. Membrane Sci., 2013, 427, 422-430.
  22. J. Lee, C. M. Doherty, A. J. Hill and S. E. Kentish, “Water vapour sorption and free volume in the aromatic polyamide layer of reverse osmosis membranes”, J. Membrane Sci., 2013, 425-426, 217-226.
  23. J. Lee, M. Ashokkumar, K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “ Development and optimization of acoustic bubble structures at high frequencies”, Ultrason. Sonochem, 2011, 18(1), 92-98.
  24. A. Towata, J. Lee, K.Yasui, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka and Y. Iida, “Fabrication of silver nanoparticles deposited on boehmite sol for surface enhanced Raman scattering”, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2011, 257 (14), 6010-6015.
  25. B. Zisu, J. Lee, J. Chandrapala, R. Bhaskaracharya, M. Palmer, S. Kentish and M. Ashokkumar “Effect of ultrasound on the physical and functional properties of reconstituted whey protein powders” J. Dairy Res., 2011, 78, 1-8.
  26. J. Lee, I. U. Vakarelski, K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Variations in the spatial distribution of sonoluminescing bubbles in the presence of an ionic surfactant and electrolyte”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2010, 114(8), 2572-2577
  27. M. Ashokkumar, J. Lee, Y. Iida, K. Yasui, T. Kozuka, T. Tuziuti and A. Towata, “Spatial distribution of acoustic cavitation bubbles at different ultrasound frequencies” Chem. Phys. Chem., 2010, 11(8) 1680-1684.
  28. M. Ashokkumar, R. Bhaskaracharya, S. Kentish, J. Lee, M. Palmer and B. Zisu “The ultrasonic processing of dairy products- An overview” Dairy Sci. Technol., 2010, 90(2-3) 147-168
  29. Y. Iida, M. Ashokkumar, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka, K. Yasui, A. Towata and J. Lee, “Bubble population phenomena in sonochemical reactor: I Estimation of bubble size distribution and its number density with pulsed sonication-laser diffraction method”, Ultrason. Sonochem, 2010, 17, 473-479.
  30. Y. Iida, M. Ashokkumar, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka, K. Yasui, A. Towata and J. Lee, “Bubble population phenomena in sonochemical reactor: II Estimation of bubble size distribution and its number density by simple coalescence model”, Ultrason. Sonochem., 2010, 17(2), 480-486.
  31. K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Numerical simulations of acoustic cavitation noise with the temporal fluctuation in the number of bubbles”, Ultrason. Sonochem., 2010, 17(2), 460-472.
  32. T. Kozuka, K. Yasui, S. Hatanaka, T. Tuziuti, J. Lee, and A. Towata, “Study of an acoustic field in a microchannel” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 2010, 49, 07HE141-2.
  33. M. Ashokkumar, J. Lee, Y. Iida, K. Yasui, T. Kozuka, T. Tuziuti and A. Towata, “The Detection and Control of Stable and Transient Acoustic Cavitation bubbles” J. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009, 11, 10118-10121.
  34. M. Ashokkumar, J. Lee, B. Zisu, R. Bhaskaracharya, M. Palmer and S. Kentish “ Sonication Increases the Heat Stability of Whey Proteins” Hot topic in J. Dairy Sci., 2009, 92, 5353-5356.
  35. Y. Iida and J. Lee, “Protein microbubbles: Ultrasonic fabrication, chemical treatment and their characterization” Materials Integration (Japanese), 2009, 22 (6), 30-34.
  36. Y. Iida, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, K. Yasui, A. Towata and T. Tuziuti, “Optical cavitation probe using light scattering from bubble clouds”, Ultrason. Sonochem., 2009, 16 (4), 519-524.
  37. K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Influence of the bubble-bubble interaction on encapsulated microbubbles under ultrasound” J. Acoust. Soc. Am, 2009, 126 (3), 973-982.
  38. T. Tuziuti, K. Yasui, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Influence of surface active solute on ultrasonic waveform distortion in liquid containing air bubbles” J. Phys. Chem. A., 2009, 113 (31) 8893-8900.
  39. J. Lee, K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Spatial distribution enhancement of sonoluminescence activity by altering sonication and solution conditions, J. Phys. Chem. B. 2008, 112 (48), 15333-15341
  40. K. Yasui, T. Tuziuti, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “The range of ambient radius for an active bubble in sonoluminescence and sonochemical reactions” J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 128 (18), 184705
  41. T. Tuziuti, K. Yasui, J. Lee, T. Kozuka, A. Towata and Y. Iida, “Mechanism of enhancement of sonochemical-reaction efficiency by pulsed ultrasound”, J. Phys. Chem. A., 2008, 112 (22), 4875-4878.
  42. I. U. Vakarelski, J. Lee, R. R. Dagastine, D. Y. C. Chan, G. W. Steven and F. Grieser, “Bubble colloidal AFM probes formed from ultrasonically generated bubbles” Langmuir, 2008, 24 (3), 603-605.
  43. J. Lee, T. Tuziuti, K. Yasui, S. Kentish, F. Grieser, M. Ashokkumar and Y. Iida, “Influence of surface-active solutes on the coalescence, clustering and fragmentation of acoustic bubbles confined in a microspace” J. Phys. Chem. C, 2007, 111 (51) 19015-19023.
  44. M. Ashokkumar, J. Lee, S. Kentish and F. Grieser “Bubbles in an ultrasonic field: An overview” Ultrason. Sonochem., 2007, 14(4) 470-475
  45. J. Lee, S. Kentish, M. Ashokkumar, and F. Grieser “Effect of Alcohols on the Initial Growth of Multibubble Sonoluminescence” J. Phys. Chem. B, 2006, 110 (34), 17282-17285
  46. S. Kentish, J. Lee, M. Davidson and M. Ashokkumar “The dissolution of a stationary spherical bubble beneath a flat plate” Chem. Eng. Sci., 2006, 61(23), 7697-7705
  47. J. Lee, S. Kentish and M. Ashokkumar, “The Effect of Surface-Active Solutes on Bubble Coalescence in the Presence of Ultrasound” J. Phys. Chem. B, 2005, 109(11), 5095-5099.
  48. J. Lee, S. Kentish, T.J. Matula and M. Ashokkumar, “Effect of surfactants on inertial cavitation activity in a pulsed acoustic field” J. Phys. Chem. B, 2005, 109 (35), 16860-16865.
  49. J. Lee, S. Kentish and M. Ashokkumar "Effect of surfactants on the rate of growth of an air bubble by rectified diffusion" J. Phys. Chem. B, 2005, 109(30), 14595-14598.
  50. J. Lee, M. Ashokkumar, S. Kentish and F. Grieser “Determination of the Size Distribution of Sonoluminescing Bubbles in a Pulsed Acoustic Field” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127 (48), 16810-16811.

Conference Papers

  1. C. M. Doherty, J. I. Mardel, A. J. Hill, J. Lee, G. Q. Chen, S. E. Kentish, H. Ju, J. E. McGrath, W. Xie, G. M. Geise, D. R. Paul and B. D. Freeman, “Dynamic porosity and transport properties of membrane materials”, 244th National Fall Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society, Philadelphia, USA, 19th -23rd August, (2012).
  2. J. Lee, A. Widjaya, A. Hill and S. Kentish, “Determination of Water Vapor Sorption and Some Transport Parameters for the Aromatic Polyamide Layer of RO Membranes”, AWA Membranes and Desalination Specialty Conference IV, Gold Coast, Australia, 8-10th February (2011), 1-4.


  1. J. Lee, "Importance of sonication and solution conditions on the acoustic cavitation activity" In: M. Ashokkumar e.d. Handbook of Ultrasonics and Sonochemistry, Springer Science and Business Media, Singapore, 2016, p.137-175.


  1. M. Ashokkumar, S. Kentish, J. Lee, B. Zisu, P. Martin and M. A. Augustin, "Processing of dairy ingredients by ultrasonication" WO2009/079691 A1