Dr Manijeh Bashar


Senior Research Fellow in Wireless Communications
BSc, MSc, PhD, MIEEE

Biography

My publications

Publications

Mostafa Rahmani, Manijeh Bashar, Mohammad J. Dehghani, Pei Xiao, Rahim Tafazolli, Mérouane Debbahz (2022)Deep Reinforcement Learning-based Power Allocation in Uplink Cell-Free Massive MIMO

A cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) uplink is investigated in this paper. We address a power allocation design problem that considers two conflicting metrics, namely the sum rate and fairness. Different weights are allocated to the sum rate and fairness of the system, based on the requirements of the mobile operator. The knowledge of the channel statistics is exploited to optimize power allocation. We propose to employ large scale-fading (LSF) coefficients as the input of a twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient (TD3). This enables us to solve the non-convex sum rate fairness trade-off optimization problem efficiently. Then, we exploit a use-and-then-forget (UatF) technique, which provides a closed-form expression for the achievable rate. The sum rate fairness trade-off optimization problem is subsequently solved through a sequential convex approximation (SCA) technique. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms outperform conventional power control algorithms in terms of both the sum rate and minimum user rate. Furthermore, the TD3-based approach can increase the median of sum rate by 16%-46% and the median of minimum user rate by 11%-60% compared to the proposed SCA-based technique. Finally, we investigate the complexity and convergence of the proposed scheme. cc Index terms— Cell-free massive MIMO, deep reinforcement learning, fairness, power control, sequential convex approximation .

Manijeh Bashar, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Alister G. Burr, Hien Quoc Ngo, Lajos Hanzo, Pei Xiao (2019)NOMA/OMA Mode Selection-Based Cell-Free Massive MIMO, In: Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC): Wireless Communications Symposium Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

In this paper, non-orthogonal-multiple-access (NOMA)-based cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is investigated, where the users are grouped into multiple clusters. Exploiting conjugate beamforming, the bandwidth efficiency (BE) of the system is derived while the assumption that the users performing realistic successive interference cancellation (SIC) based on only the knowledge of channel statistics. The max-min fairness problem of maximizing the lowest user BE is investigated and an iterative bisection method is developed to determine the optimal solution to the max-min BE problem. Numerical results are presented for validating the proposed design’s performance, and a mode switching scheme is conceived for selecting a specific Mode = f OMA, NOMA g that maximizes the system’s BE.

Manijeh Bashar, Ali Akbari, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Hien Quoc Ngo, Alister G. Burr, Pei Xiao, Merouane Debbah (2020)Deep Learning-Aided Finite-Capacity Fronthaul Cell-Free Massive MIMO with Zero Forcing, In: IEEE ICC 2020

We consider a cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system where the channel estimates and the received signals are quantized at the access points (APs) and forwarded to a central processing unit (CPU). Zero-forcing technique is used at the CPU to detect the signals transmitted from all users.. To solve the non-convex sum rate maximization problem, a heuristic sub-optimal scheme is proposed to convert the problem into a geometric programme (GP). Exploiting a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) allows us to determine both a mapping from the large-scale fading (LSF) coefficients and the optimal power by solving the optimization problem using the quantized channel. Depending on how the optimization problem is solved, different power control schemes are investigated; i) small-scale fading (SSF)-based power control; ii) LSF use-and-then-forget (UatF)-based power control; and iii) LSF deep learning (DL)-based power control. The SSF-based power control scheme needs to be solved for each coherence interval of the SSF, which is practically impossible in real time systems. Numerical results reveal that the proposed LSF-DL-based scheme significantly increases the performance compared to the practical and well-known LSF-UatF-based power control, thanks to the mapping obtained using DCNN.

Manijeh Bashar, Ali Akbari, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Hien Quoc Ngo, Alister G. Burr, Pei Xiao, Merouane Debbah, Josef Kittler (2020)Exploiting Deep Learning in Limited-Fronthaul Cell-Free Massive MIMO Uplink, In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

A cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) uplink is considered, where quantize-and-forward (QF) refers to the case where both the channel estimates and the received signals are quantized at the access points (APs) and forwarded to a central processing unit (CPU) whereas in combinequantize- and-forward (CQF), the APs send the quantized version of the combined signal to the CPU. To solve the non-convex sum rate maximization problem, a heuristic sub-optimal scheme is exploited to convert the power allocation problem into a standard geometric programme (GP). We exploit the knowledge of the channel statistics to design the power elements. Employing largescale-fading (LSF) with a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) enables us to determine a mapping from the LSF coefficients and the optimal power through solving the sum rate maximization problem using the quantized channel. Four possible power control schemes are studied, which we refer to as i) small-scale fading (SSF)-based QF; ii) LSF-based CQF; iii) LSF use-and-then-forget (UatF)-based QF; and iv) LSF deep learning (DL)-based QF, according to where channel estimation is performed and exploited and how the optimization problem is solved. Numerical results show that for the same fronthaul rate, the throughput significantly increases thanks to the mapping obtained using DCNN.

Manijeh Bashar, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Alister G Burr, Hien Quoc Ngo, Pei Xiao (2019)Max-Min Rate of Cell-Free Massive MIMO Uplink with Optimal Uniform Quantization, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC

Cell-free Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is considered, where distributed access points (APs) multiply the received signal by the conjugate of the estimated channel, and send back a quantized version of this weighted signal to a central processing unit (CPU). For the first time, we present a performance comparison between the case of perfect fronthaul links, the case when the quantized version of the estimated channel and the quantized signal are available at the CPU, and the case when only the quantized weighted signal is available at the CPU. The Bussgang decomposition is used to model the effect of quantization. The max-min problem is studied, where the minimum rate is maximized with the power and fronthaul capacity constraints. To deal with the non-convex problem, the original problem is decomposed into two sub-problems (referred to as receiver filter design and power allocation). Geometric programming (GP) is exploited to solve the power allocation problem whereas a generalized eigenvalue problem is solved to design the receiver filter. An iterative scheme is developed and the optimality of the proposed algorithm is proved through uplink-downlink duality. A user assignment algorithm is proposed which significantly improves the performance. Numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed schemes.

Manijeh Bashar, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Alister G. Burr, Hien Quoc Ngo, Erik G. Larsson, Pei Xiao (2019)On the Energy Efficiency of Limited-Backhaul Cell-Free Massive MIMO, In: Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC): Green Communication Systems and Networks Symposium Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

We investigate the energy efficiency performance of cell-free Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), where the access points (APs) are connected to a central processing unit (CPU) via limited-capacity links. Thanks to the distributed maximum ratio combining (MRC) weighting at the APs, we propose that only the quantized version of the weighted signals are sent back to the CPU. Considering the effects of channel estimation errors and using the Bussgang theorem to model the quantization errors, an energy efficiency maximization problem is formulated with per-user power and backhaul capacity constraints as well as with throughput requirement constraints. To handle this non-convex optimization problem, we decompose the original problem into two sub-problems and exploit a successive convex approximation (SCA) to solve original energy efficiency maximization problem. Numerical results confirm the superiority of the proposed optimization scheme.

Manijeh Bashar, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Alister G. Burr, Hien Quoc Ngo, Erik G. Larsson, Pei Xiao (2019)Energy Efficiency of the Cell-Free Massive MIMO Uplink With Optimal Uniform Quantization, In: IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking3(4)pp. 971-987 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

A cell-free Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) uplink is considered, where the access points (APs) are connected to a central processing unit (CPU) through limited-capacity wireless microwave links. The quantized version of the weighted signals are available at the CPU, by exploiting the Bussgang decomposition to model the effect of quantization. A closed-form expression for spectral efficiency is derived taking into account the effects of channel estimation error and quantization distortion. The energy efficiency maximization problem is considered with per-user power, backhaul capacity and throughput requirement constraints. To solve this non-convex problem, we decouple the original problem into two sub-problems, namely, receiver filter coefficient design, and power allocation. The receiver filter coefficient design is formulated as a generalized eigenvalue problem whereas a successive convex approximation (SCA) and a heuristic sub-optimal scheme are exploited to convert the power allocation problem into a standard geometric programming (GP) problem. An iterative algorithm is proposed to alternately solve each sub-problem. Complexity analysis and convergence of the proposed schemes are investigated. Numerical results indicate the superiority of the proposed algorithms over the case of equal power allocation.

Manijeh Bashar, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Alister G. Burr, Hien Quoc Ngo, Lajos Hanzo, Pei Xiao (2019)On the Performance of Cell-Free Massive MIMO Relying on Adaptive NOMA/OMA Mode-Switching, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONSpp. 1-1 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC

The downlink (DL) of a non-orthogonal-multiple-access (NOMA)-based cell-free massive multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) system is analyzed, where the channel state information (CSI) is estimated using pilots. It is assumed that the users are grouped into multiple clusters. The same pilot sequences are assigned to the users within the same clusters whereas the pilots allocated to all clusters are mutually orthogonal. First, a user’s bandwidth efficiency (BE) is derived based on his/her channel statistics under the assumption of employing successive interference cancellation (SIC) at the users’ end with no DL training. Next, the classic max-min optimization framework is invoked for maximizing the minimum BE of a user under per-access point (AP) power constraints. The max-min user BE of NOMA-based cell-free massive MIMO is compared to that of its orthogonal multiple-access (OMA) counter part, where all users employ orthogonal pilots. Finally, our numerical results are presented and an operating mode switching scheme is proposed based on the average per-user BE of the system, where the mode set is given by Mode = { OMA, NOMA }. Our numerical results confirm that the switching point between the NOMA and OMA modes depends both on the length of the channel’s coherence time and on the total number of users.

Manijeh Bashar, Alister G. Burr, Katsuyuki Haneda, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Mehdi M. Molu, Mohsen Khalily, Pei Xiao (2019)Evaluation of Low Complexity Massive MIMO Techniques Under Realistic Channel Conditions, In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

A low complexity massive multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) technique is studied with a geometry-based stochastic channel model, called COST 2100 model. We propose to exploit the discrete-time Fourier transform of the antenna correlation function to perform user scheduling. The proposed algorithm relies on a trade off between the number of occupied bins of the eigenvalue spectrum of the channel covariance matrix for each user and spectral overlap among the selected users. We next show that linear precoding design can be performed based only on the channel correlation matrix. The proposed scheme exploits the angular bins of the eigenvalue spectrum of the channel covariance matrix to build up an “approximate eigenchannels” for the users. We investigate the reduction of average system throughput with no channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). Analysis and numerical results show that while the throughput slightly decreases due to the absence of CSIT, the complexity of the system is reduced significantly.

Manijeh Bashar, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Alister G. Burr, Merouane Debbah, Hien Quoc Ngo (2018)On the Uplink Max-Min SINR of Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems, In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communicationspp. 1-1 IEEE

A cell-free Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system is considered using a max-min approach to maximize the minimum user rate with per-user power constraints. First, an approximated uplink user rate is derived based on channel statistics. Then, the original max-min signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) problem is formulated for optimization of receiver filter coefficients at a central processing unit (CPU), and user power allocation. To solve this max-min non-convex problem, we decouple the original problem into two sub-problems, namely, receiver filter coefficient design and power allocation. The receiver filter coefficient design is formulated as a generalized eigenvalue problem whereas geometric programming (GP) is used to solve the user power allocation problem. Based on these two sub-problems, an iterative algorithm is proposed, in which both problems are alternately solved while one of the design variables is fixed. This iterative algorithm obtains a globally optimum solution, whose optimality is proved through establishing an uplink-downlink duality. Moreover, we present a novel sub-optimal scheme which provides a GP formulation to efficiently and globally maximize the minimum uplink user rate. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed scheme substantially outperforms existing schemes in the literature.

Manijeh Bashar, Hien Quoc Ngo, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Alister G Burr, Pei Xiao, Emil Bjornson, Erik G Larsson (2020)Uplink Spectral and Energy Efficiency of Cell-Free Massive MIMO with Optimal Uniform Quantization, In: IEEE Transactions on Communicationspp. 1-1 IEEE

This paper investigates the performance of limited-fronthaul cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) taking account the fronthaul quantization and imperfect channel acquisition. Three cases are studied, which we refer to as Estimate&Quantize, Quantize&Estimate, and Decentralized, according to where channel estimation is performed and exploited. Maximum-ratio combining (MRC), zero-forcing (ZF), and minimum mean-square error (MMSE) receivers are considered. The Max algorithm and the Bussgang decomposition are exploited to model optimum uniform quantization. Exploiting the optimal step size of the quantizer, analytical expressions for spectral and energy efficiencies are presented. Finally, an access point (AP) assignment algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the decentralized scheme. Numerical results investigate the performance gap between limited fronthaul and perfect fronthaul cases, and demonstrate that exploiting relatively few quantization bits, the performance of limited-fronthaul cell-free massive MIMO closely approaches the perfect-fronthaul performance.

MANIJEH BASHAR, PEI XIAO, RAHIM TAFAZOLLI, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Alister G Burr, Emil Bjornson (2021)Limited-Fronthaul Cell-Free Massive MIMO with Local MMSE Receiver under Rician Fading and Phase Shifts, In: IEEE Wireless Communications Letters Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

A cell-free Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system is considered, where the access points (APs) are linked to a central processing unit (CPU) via the limited-capacity fronthaul links. It is assumed that only the quantized version of the weighted signals are available at the CPU. The achievable rate of a limited fronthaul cell-free massive MIMO with local minimum mean square error (MMSE) detection is studied. We study the assumption of uncorrelated quantization distortion, which is commonly used in literature. We show that this assumption will not affect the validity of the insights obtained in our work. To investigate this, we compare the uplink per-user rate with different system parameters for two different scenarios; 1) the exact uplink per-user rate and 2) the uplink per-user rate while ignoring the correlation between the inputs of the quantizers. Finally, we present the conditions which imply that the quantization distortions across APs can be assumed to be uncorrelated.