Poole H, Terlouw DJ, Naunje A, Mzembe K, Stanton M, Betson M, Lalloo DG, Stothard JR (2014) Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails., Parasites & vectors7
BACKGROUND: To complement ongoing schistosomiasis control within national control programmes (NCPs) that administer praziquantel to school-age children, assessing the risk and extent of schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children (PSAC) is important. METHODS: In June 2012, schistosomiasis in Chikhwawa district, Malawi was assessed across 12 villages examining pre-school-age children (PSAC) and their mothers by serological and parasitological diagnosis, as supplemented with urine-antigen and questionnaire-interview methods. Urinary tract morbidity was inferred by haematuria and albuminuria assays. RESULTS: In total, 49.5% (CI
42.6-56.4) of 208 PSAC and 94.5% (CI
90.9-98.1) of 165 mothers were seropositive for schistosomiasis, in 2 villages seroprevalence exceeded 75% in PSAC. Egg-patent urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis was observed; 17.7% (CI
12.4-23.2) of PSAC and 45.1% (CI
37.4-52.8) of mothers having active schistosomiasis by parasitological and urine-antigen testing combined. PSAC often had extensive daily water contact and many (~25%) had haematuria and albuminuria. As eggs with an atypical morphology of Schistosoma haematobium were observed, a general selection of schistosome eggs was characterized by DNA barcoding, finding Group I S. haematobium and Group IV and V S. mansoni. Malacological surveys encountered several populations of Bulinus globosus but failed to find Biomphalaria. CONCLUSIONS: Both PSAC and their mothers appear to be at significant risk of schistosomiasis and should be considered for treatment within the NCP of Malawi.
Standley CJ, Mugisha L, Adriko M, Arinaitwe M, Rukundo J, Ajarova L, Mopya S, Betson M, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2013) Intestinal schistosomiasis in chimpanzees on Ngamba Island, Uganda: observations on liver fibrosis, schistosome genetic diversity and praziquantel treatment., Parasitology140(3)pp. 285-295
Despite treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) at 40 mg/kg in food, several chimpanzees on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary (NICS) continue to excrete eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. To monitor disease, 8 animals were closely examined under anaesthesia in March 2011 with portable ultrasonography and by rectal snip biopsy. Schistosome genetic diversity had been previously assayed within 4 of these chimpanzees, finding extensive diversity with 27 DNA barcodes encountered, although none was common to all animals. Calcified schistosome eggs were found in the rectal snips from 5 chimpanzees and liver fibrosis was clearly documented, indicative of progressive disease in 6 animals, the latter being surprisingly advanced in a younger chimpanzee. All 8 animals were treated under anaesthesia by oral gavage with PZQ at 60 mg/kg dosing that was well tolerated. These animals were again re-examined in June 2012 using stool and urine sampling. Only 1 chimpanzee appeared to be free from infection and active egg excretion was confirmed in 6 animals. If intestinal schistosomiasis is to be controlled within this setting, a long-term disease management plan is required which should combine active case-detection with an insistent treatment regime with praziquantel for these chimpanzees, exploring perhaps the performance of even higher dosing.
There is a need for field-applicable markers to assess morbidity associated with intestinal schistosomiasis, especially in the context of preventive chemotherapy in young children. We investigated whether fecal occult blood (FOB) point-of-care tests could be used to assess intestinal pathology over a 12-month period in a cohort of 382 children (< 5 years of age). We found a strong association between egg-patent schistosomiasis and FOB at baseline (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1, P < 0.0001), 6 months (OR = 3.4, P < 0.0001), and 12 months (OR = 3.5, P < 0.0001), despite repeated chemotherapy. There were tendencies for prevalence of FOB to decrease in children who became egg negative and increase in those who became egg positive. Our results demonstrate overt disease in children less than five years of age. We therefore propose that FOB is useful for assessing dynamics of intestinal morbidity in young children at the community level and monitoring changes in morbidity after mass chemotherapy.
Stothard JR, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Green HK, Seto EY, Garba A, Sacko M, Mutapi F, Vaz Nery S, Amin MA, Mutumba-Nakalembe M, Navaratnam A, Fenwick A, Kabatereine NB, Gabrielli AF, Montresor A (2011) Closing the praziquantel treatment gap: new steps in epidemiological monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool-aged children., Parasitology138(12)pp. 1593-1606
Where very young children come into contact with water containing schistosome cercariae, infections occur and schistosomiasis can be found. In high transmission environments, where mothers daily bathe their children with environmentally drawn water, many infants and preschool-aged children have schistosomiasis. This 'new' burden, inclusive of co-infections with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni, is being formally explored as infected children are not presently targeted to receive praziquantel (PZQ) within current preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Thus an important PZQ treatment gap exists whereby infected children might wait up to 4-5 years before receiving first treatment in school. International treatment guidelines, set within national treatment platforms, are presently being modified to provide earlier access to medication(s). Although detailed pharmacokinetic studies are needed, to facilitate pragmatic dosing in the field, an extended 'dose pole' has been devised and epidemiological monitoring has shown that administration of PZQ (40 mg/kg), in either crushed tablet or liquid suspension, is both safe and effective in this younger age-class; drug efficacy, however, against S. mansoni appears to diminish after repeated rounds of treatment. Thus use of PZQ should be combined with appropriate health education/water hygiene improvements for both child and mother to bring forth a more enduring solution.
Bustinduy AL, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Adriko M, Betson M, Fenwick A, Kabatereine N, Stothard JR (2013) Fecal occult blood and fecal calprotectin as point-of-care markers of intestinal morbidity in Ugandan children with Schistosoma mansoni infection., PLoS neglected tropical diseases7(11)
BACKGROUND: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding cytoplasmic protein found in neutrophils and increasingly used as a marker of bowel inflammation. Fecal occult blood (FOB) is also a dependable indicator of bowel morbidity. The objective of our study was to determine the applicability of these tests as surrogate markers of Schistosoma mansoni intestinal morbidity before and after treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). METHODS: 216 children (ages 3-9 years old) from Buliisa District in Lake Albert, Uganda were examined and treated with PZQ at baseline in October 2012 with 211 of them re-examined 24 days later for S. mansoni and other soil transmitted helminths (STH). POC calprotectin and FOB assays were performed at both time points on a subset of children. Associations between the test results and infection were analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Fecal calprotectin concentrations of 150-300 µg/g were associated with S. mansoni egg patent infection both at baseline and follow up (OR: 12.5 P = 0.05; OR: 6.8 P = 0.02). FOB had a very strong association with baseline anemia (OR: 9.2 P = 0.03) and medium and high egg intensity schistosomiasis at follow up (OR: 6.6 P = 0.03; OR: 51.3 P = 0.003). Both tests were strongly associated with heavy intensity S. mansoni infections. There was a significant decrease in FOB and calprotectin test positivity after PZQ treatment in those children who had egg patent schistosomiasis at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Both FOB and calprotectin rapid assays were found to correlate positively and strongly with egg patent S. mansoni infection with a positive ameloriation response after PZQ treatment indicative of short term reversion of morbidity. Both tests were appropriate for use in the field with excellent operational performance and reliability. Due to its lower-cost which makes its scale-up of use affordable, FOB could be immediately adopted as a monitoring tool for PC campaigns for efficacy evaluation before and after treatment.
Bendall RP, Barlow M, Betson M, Stothard JR, Nejsum P (2011) Zoonotic ascariasis, United Kingdom., Emerging infectious diseases17(10)pp. 1964-1966
Stothard JR, Stanton MC, Bustinduy AL, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Van Dam GJ, Betson M, Waterhouse D, Ward S, Allan F, Hassan AA, Al-Helal MA, Memish ZA, Rollinson D (2014) Diagnostics for schistosomiasis in Africa and Arabia: a review of present options in control and future needs for elimination., Parasitology141(14)pp. 1947-1961
Within the World Health Organization 2012-2020 roadmap for control and elimination of schistosomiasis, the scale-up of mass drug administration with praziquantel is set to change the epidemiological landscape across Africa and Arabia. Central in measuring progress is renewed emphasis upon diagnostics which operate at individual, community and environmental levels by assessing reductions in disease, infections and parasite transmission. However, a fundamental tension is revealed between levels for present diagnostic tools, and methods applied in control settings are not necessarily adequate for application in elimination scenarios. Indeed navigating the transition from control to elimination needs careful consideration and planning. In the present context of control, we review current options for diagnosis of schistosomiasis at different levels, highlighting several strengths and weaknesses therein. Future challenges in elimination are raised and we propose that more cost-effective diagnostics and clinical staging algorithms are needed. Using the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as a contemporary example, embedding new diagnostic methods within the primary care health system is discussed with reference to both urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis.
Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Day M, Betson M, Rowell C, Wamboko A, Arinaitwe M, Kazibwe F, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2011) Field survey for strongyloidiasis in eastern Uganda with observations on efficacy of preventive chemotherapy and co-occurrence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis/intestinal schistosomiasis., Journal of helminthology85(3)pp. 325-333
Following our previous field surveys for strongyloidiasis in western Uganda, 120 mothers and 232 children from four villages in eastern Uganda were examined, with two subsequent investigative follow-ups. As before, a variety of diagnostic methods were used: Baermann concentration, Koga agar plate and strongyloidid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as well as Kato-Katz faecal smears for detection of eggs of other helminths. At baseline, the general prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis was moderate: 5.4% as estimated by Baermann and Koga agar methods combined. A much higher estimate was found by ELISA (42.3%) which, in this eastern setting, appeared to be confounded by putative cross-reaction(s) with other nematode infections. Preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel and albendazole was offered to all participants at baseline. After 21 days the first follow-up was conducted and 'cure rates' were calculated for all parasites encountered. Eleven months later, the second follow-up assessed longer-term trends. Initial treatments had little, if any, effect on S. stercoralis, and did not alter local prevalence, unlike hookworm infections and intestinal schistosomiasis. We propose that geographical patterns of strongyloidiasis are likely not perturbed by ongoing praziquantel/albendazole campaigns. Antibody titres increased after the first follow-up then regressed towards baseline levels upon second inspection. To better define endemic areas for S. stercoralis, careful interpretation of the ELISA is warranted, especially where diagnosis is likely being confounded by polyparasitism and/or other treatment regimens; new molecular screening tools are clearly needed.
Stothard JR, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Seto EY, Kabatereine NB (2011) Investigating the spatial micro-epidemiology of diseases within a point-prevalence sample: a field applicable method for rapid mapping of households using low-cost GPS-dataloggers., Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene105(9)pp. 500-506
Point-prevalence recording of the distribution of tropical parasitic diseases at village level is usually sufficient for general monitoring and surveillance. Whilst within-village spatial patterning of diseases exists, and can be important, mapping infected cases in a household-by-household setting is arduous and time consuming. With the development of low-cost GPS-data loggers (< £40) and available GoogleEarth(TM) satellite imagery, we present a field-applicable method based on crowdsourcing for rapid identification of infected cases (intestinal schistosomiasis, malaria and hookworm) by household. A total of 126 mothers with their 247 preschool children from Bukoba village (Mayuge District, Uganda) were examined with half of these mothers given a GPS-data logger to walk home with, returning the unit the same day for data off-loading, after which, households were assigned GPS coordinates. A satellite image of Bukoba was annotated with households denoting the infection status of each mother and child. General prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis, malaria and hookworm in mothers and children was: 27.2 vs 7.7%, 28.6 vs 87.0% and 60.0 vs 22.3%, respectively. Different spatial patterns of disease could be identified likely representing the intrinsic differences in parasite biology and interplay with human behaviour(s) across this local landscape providing a better insight into reasons for disease micro-patterning.
Betson M, Settleman J (2007) A rho-binding protein kinase C-like activity is required for the function of protein kinase N in Drosophila development., Genetics176(4)pp. 2201-2212
The Rho GTPases interact with multiple downstream effectors to exert their biological functions, which include important roles in tissue morphogenesis during the development of multicellular organisms. Among the Rho effectors are the protein kinase N (PKN) proteins, which are protein kinase C (PKC)-like kinases that bind activated Rho GTPases. The PKN proteins are well conserved evolutionarily, but their biological role in any organism is poorly understood. We previously determined that the single Drosophila ortholog of mammalian PKN proteins, Pkn, is a Rho/Rac-binding kinase essential for Drosophila development. By performing "rescue" studies with various Pkn mutant constructs, we have defined the domains of Pkn required for its role during Drosophila development. These studies suggested that Rho, but not Rac binding is important for Pkn function in development. In addition, we determined that the kinase domain of PKC53E, a PKC family kinase, can functionally substitute for the kinase domain of Pkn during development, thereby exemplifying the evolutionary strategy of "combining" functional domains to produce proteins with distinct biological activities. Interestingly, we also identified a requirement for Pkn in wing morphogenesis, thereby revealing the first postembryonic function for Pkn.
Lampugnani MG, Zanetti A, Breviario F, Balconi G, Orsenigo F, Corada M, Spagnuolo R, Betson M, Braga V, Dejana E (2002) VE-cadherin regulates endothelial actin activating Rac and increasing membrane association of Tiam., Molecular biology of the cell13(4)pp. 1175-1189
Previously published reports support the concept that, besides promoting homotypic intercellular adhesion, cadherins may transfer intracellular signals. However, the signaling pathways triggered by cadherin clustering and their biological significance are still poorly understood. We report herein that transfection of VE-cadherin (VEC) cDNA in VEC null endothelial cells induces actin rearrangement and increases the number of vinculin positive adhesion plaques. VEC expression augments the level of active Rac but decreases active Rho. Microinjection of a dominant negative Rac mutant altered stress fiber organization, whereas inhibition of Rho was ineffective. VEC expression increased protein and mRNA levels of the Rac-specific guanosine exchange factor Tiam-1 and induced its localization at intercellular junctions. In addition, in the presence of VEC, the amounts of Tiam, Rac, and the Rac effector PAK as well as the level of PAK phosphorylation were found increased in the membrane/cytoskeletal fraction. These observations are consistent with a role of VEC in localizing Rac and its signaling partners in the same membrane compartment, facilitating their reciprocal interaction. Through this mechanism VEC may influence the constitutive organization of the actin cytoskeleton.
Stothard JR, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Adriko M, Arinaitwe M, Rowell C, Besiyge F, Kabatereine NB (2011) Schistosoma mansoni Infections in young children: when are schistosome antigens in urine, eggs in stool and antibodies to eggs first detectable?, PLoS neglected tropical diseases5(1)
BACKGROUND: in uganda, control of intestinal schistosomiasis with preventive chemotherapy is typically focused towards treatment of school-aged children; the needs of younger children are presently being investigated as in lakeshore communities very young children can be infected. In the context of future epidemiological monitoring, we sought to compare the detection thresholds of available diagnostic tools for Schistosoma mansoni and estimate a likely age of first infection for these children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: a total of 242 infants and preschool children (134 boys and 108 girls, mean age 2.9 years, minimum 5 months and maximum 5 years) were examined from Bugoigo, a well-known disease endemic village on Lake Albert. Schistosome antigens in urine, eggs in stool and host antibodies to eggs were inspected to reveal a general prevalence of 47.5% (CI(95) 41.1-54.0%), as ascertained by a positive criterion from at least one diagnostic method. Although children as young as 6 months old could be found infected, the average age of infected children was between 3¼-3¾ years, when diagnostic techniques became broadly congruent. CONCLUSION: whilst different assays have particular (dis)advantages, direct detection of eggs in stool was least sensitive having a temporal lag behind antigen and antibody methods. Setting precisely a general age of first infection is problematic but if present Ugandan policies continue, a large proportion of infected children could wait up to 3-4 years before receiving first medication. To better tailor treatment needs for this younger ageclass, we suggest that the circulating cathodic antigen urine dipstick method to be used as an epidemiological indicator.
Lozano E, Betson M, Braga VM (2003) Tumor progression: Small GTPases and loss of cell-cell adhesion., BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology25(5)pp. 452-463
Tumor progression involves the transition from normal to malignant cells, through a series of cumulative alterations. During this process, invasive and migratory properties are acquired, enabling cells to metastasize (reach and grow in tissues far from their origin). Numerous cellular changes take place during epithelial malignancy, and disruption of E-cadherin based cell-cell adhesion is a major event. The small Rho GTPases (Rho, Rac and Cdc42) have been implicated in multiple steps during cellular transformation, including alterations on the adhesion status of the tumor cells. This review focuses on recent in vivo evidence that implicates RhoGTPases in epithelial tumor progression. In addition, we discuss different hypotheses to explain disruption of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, directly or indirectly, through activation of Rho GTPases. Understanding the molecular mechanism of how cadherin adhesion and RhoGTPases interplay in normal cells and how this balance is altered during cellular transformation will provide clues as to how to interfere with tumor progression.
Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Day M, Betson M, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2010) An inclusive dose pole for treatment of schistosomiasis in infants and preschool children with praziquantel., Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene104(11)pp. 740-742
In large-scale interventions for control of schistosomiasis, use of the WHO dose pole is favoured for mass drug administration of praziquantel. Application of this simple tool has enabled pragmatic tablet dosing using patient height as a proxy for bodyweight, allowing control programmes to expand into resource-poor settings. Here we briefly summarize the inception and development of the existing WHO dose pole and discuss a proposed update which now permits dosing of infants and preschool children (height<94cm). Using this pole, we suggest that mass drug administration can be better optimized, streamlining general treatment to reduce drug wastage which could lead to significant programmatic savings and allocation of treatments to younger children with minimal additional cost.
Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Oguttu D, Adriko M, Besigye F, Nankasi A, Arinaitwe M, Namukuta A, Betson M, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2010) Investigating portable fluorescent microscopy (CyScope) as an alternative rapid diagnostic test for malaria in children and women of child-bearing age., Malaria journal9
BACKGROUND: Prompt and correct diagnosis of malaria is crucial for accurate epidemiological assessment and better case management, and while the gold standard of light microscopy is often available, it requires both expertise and time. Portable fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope offers a potentially quicker, easier and more field-applicable alternative. This article reports on the strengths, limitations of this methodology and its diagnostic performance in cross-sectional surveys on young children and women of child-bearing age. METHODS: 552 adults (99% women of child-bearing age) and 980 children (99% d 5 years of age) from rural and peri-urban regions of Ugandan were examined for malaria using light microscopy (Giemsa-stain), a lateral-flow test (Paracheck-Pf) and the CyScope. Results from the surveys were used to calculate diagnostic performance (sensitivity and specificity) as well as to perform a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses, using light microscopy as the gold-standard. RESULTS: Fluorescent microscopy (qualitative reads) showed reduced specificity (<40%), resulting in higher community prevalence levels than those reported by light microscopy, particularly in adults (+180% in adults and +20% in children). Diagnostic sensitivity was 92.1% in adults and 86.7% in children, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.63. Importantly, optimum performance was achieved for higher parasitaemia (>400 parasites/¼L blood): sensitivity of 64.2% and specificity of 86.0%. Overall, the diagnostic performance of the CyScope was found inferior to that of Paracheck-Pf. DISCUSSION: Fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope is certainly a field-applicable and relatively affordable solution for malaria diagnoses especially in areas where electrical supplies may be lacking. While it is unlikely to miss higher parasitaemia, its application in cross-sectional community-based studies leads to many false positives (i.e. small fluorescent bodies of presently unknown origin mistaken as malaria parasites). Without recourse to other technologies, arbitration of these false positives is presently equivocal, which could ultimately lead to over-treatment; something that should be further explored in future investigations if the CyScope is to be more widely implemented.
The field of parasitism is broad, encompassing relationships between organisms where one benefits at the expense of another. Traditionally the discipline focuses on eukaryotes, with the study of bacteria and viruses complementary but distinct. Nonetheless, parasites vary in size and complexity from single celled protozoa, to enormous plants like those in the genus Rafflesia. Lifecycles range from obligate intracellular to extensive exoparasitism. Examples of parasites include high profile medical and zoonotic pathogens such as Plasmodium, veterinary pathogens of wild and captive animals and many of the agents which cause neglected tropical diseases, stretching to parasites which infect plants and other parasites (e.g. (Blake et al., 2015; Hemingway, 2015; Hotez et al., 2014; Kikuchi et al., 2011; Meekums et al., 2015; Sandlund et al., 2015). The breadth of parasitology has been matched by the variety of ways in which parasites are studied, drawing upon biological, chemical, molecular, epidemiological and other expertise. Despite such breadth bridging between disciplines has commonly been problematic, regardless of extensive encouragement from government agencies, peer audiences and funding bodies promoting multi-disciplinary research. Now, progress in understanding and collaboration can benefit from establishment of the One Health concept (Stark et al., 2015; Zinsstag et al., 2012). One Health draws upon biological, environmental, medical, veterinary and social science disciplines in order to improve human, animal and environmental health, although it remains tantalizingly difficult to engage many relevant parties. For infectious diseases traditional divides have been exacerbated as the importance of wildlife reservoirs, climate change, food production systems and socio-economic diversity have been recognised but often not addressed in a multi-disciplinary manner. In response the 2015 Autumn Symposium organized by the British Society for Parasitology (BSP; https://www.bsp.uk.net/home/) was focused on One Health, running under the title ?One Health: parasites and beyond&?. The meeting, held at the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) in Camden, London from September 14th to 15th, drew upon a blend of specialist parasitology reinforced with additional complementary expertise. Scientists, advocates, policy makers and industry representatives were invited to present at the meeting, promoting and developing One Health understanding with relevance to parasitology. The
Stothard JR, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Bustinduy A, Reinhard-Rupp J (2013) Schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool children: let them now be treated!, Trends in parasitology29(4)pp. 197-205
The occurrence of schistosomiasis within African infants and preschool children has been much better documented in recent years, revealing an important burden of disease previously overlooked. Despite mounting evidence showing that treatment with praziquantel is safe, beneficial, and could be delivered within ongoing public health interventions, young children still do not have satisfactory access to this drug, and a significant treatment gap exists. Progress towards resolution of this unfortunate health inequity is highlighted, including the development of an appropriate paediatric praziquantel formulation, and present blocks are identified on securing this issue within the international health agenda.
Owusu-Ofori AK, Betson M, Parry CM, Stothard JR, Bates I (2013) Transfusion-transmitted malaria in Ghana., Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America56(12)pp. 1735-1741
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in blood donors varies from 0.6% to 50%. Although the burden of TTM in malaria-endemic countries is unknown, it is recommended that all donated blood is screened for malaria parasites. This study aimed to establish the incidence of TTM and identify a suitable screening test. METHODS: Pregnant women, children, and immunocompromised malaria-negative transfusion recipients in a teaching hospital in Ghana were recruited over the course of 1 year. Parasites detected in recipients within 14 days of the transfusion were genotyped and compared to parasites in the transfused blood. The presence of genotypically identical parasites in the recipient and the transfused blood confirmed transfusion-transmitted malaria. Four malaria screening tests were compared to assess their usefulness in the context of African blood banks. RESULTS: Of the 50 patients who received transfusions that were positive for Plasmodium falciparum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 7 recipients developed PCR-detectable parasitemia. In only 1 of the 50 recipients (2%) was the parasite identical to that in the transfused blood. The prevalence of P. falciparum malaria in transfused blood was 4.7% (21/445) by microscopy, 13.7% (60/440) by rapid diagnostic test, 18% (78/436) by PCR, and 22.2% (98/442) by enzyme immunoassay. CONCLUSIONS: Although malaria parasites are commonly detected in blood donors in malaria-endemic areas, transfusion-transmitted malaria occurs infrequently. Policies recommend screening blood donors for malaria, but none of the commonly used methods is sufficiently sensitive to be used by blood banks in malaria-endemic countries.
Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Stothard JR (2012) Treatment of schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool-aged children: downward extension and biometric optimization of the current praziquantel dose pole., International health4(2)pp. 95-102
To facilitate administration of praziquantel (PZQ) to African infants and preschool-aged children using a dose pole, the performance of two downwardly extended versions (the first created in 2010 using biometric data from Uganda alone and the second version created here using data from 36 countries) was assessed against height/weight data from a total of 166 210 preschool-aged children (d6 year olds) from 36 African countries. New and optimized thresholds for PZQ tablet administration at one tablet (600 mg), ¾ and ½ tablet divisions are suggested here. Both dose poles investigated estimated an acceptable PZQ dosage (30-60 mg/Kg) for more than 95% of children. Extension and optimization of the current PZQ dose pole, followed by theoretical validation using biometric data from preschool-aged children (0-6 years of age, 60-110 cm in height) from 36 African countries will help future mass drug administration campaigns incorporate younger children. This newly optimized dose pole with single 600 mg (height: 99-110 cm), ¾ (height: 83-99 cm) and ½ (height: 66-83 cm) tablet divisions, also reduces drug waste and facilitates inclusion of preschool-aged children. Our findings also have bearings on the use of other dose poles for treatment of young children.
Porphyre V, Betson M, Rabezanahary H, Mboussou Y, Zafindraibe NJ, Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo H, Costard S, Pfeiffer DU, Michault A (2016) Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city., Veterinary parasitology219pp. 77-83
Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies.
Oguike MC, Betson M, Burke M, Nolder D, Stothard JR, Kleinschmidt I, Proietti C, Bousema T, Ndounga M, Tanabe K, Ntege E, Culleton R, Sutherland CJ (2011) Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri circulate simultaneously in African communities., International journal for parasitology41(6)pp. 677-683
It has been proposed that ovale malaria in humans is caused by two closely related but distinct species of malaria parasite, Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri. It was recently shown that these two parasite types are sympatric at the country level. However, it remains possible that localised geographic, temporal or ecological barriers exist within endemic countries which prevent recombination between the genomes of the two species. Here, using conventional and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods specifically designed to discriminate P. o. curtisi and P. o. wallikeri, it is shown that both species are present among clinic attendees in Congo-Brazzaville, and occur simultaneously both in lake-side and inland districts in Uganda and on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Thus P. o. curtisi and P. o. wallikeri in these localities are exactly sympatric in both time and space. These findings are consistent with the existence of a biological barrier, rather than geographical or ecological factors, preventing recombination between P. o. curtisi and P. o. wallikeri. In cross-sectional surveys carried out in Uganda and Bioko, our results show that infections with P. ovale spp. are more common than previously thought, occurring at a frequency of 1-6% in population samples, with both proposed species contributing to ovale malaria in six sites. Malaria elimination programmes in Africa need to include strategies for control of P. o. curtisi and P. o. wallikeri.
Betson M, Stothard JR (2016) Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum: what's in a name?, The Journal of infectious diseases
Song YH, Mirey G, Betson M, Haber DA, Settleman J (2004) The Drosophila ATM ortholog, dATM, mediates the response to ionizing radiation and to spontaneous DNA damage during development., Current biology : CB14(15)pp. 1354-1359
Cells of metazoan organisms respond to DNA damage by arresting their cell cycle to repair DNA, or they undergo apoptosis. Two protein kinases, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad-3 related (ATR), are sensors for DNA damage. In humans, ATM is mutated in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), resulting in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) and increased cancer susceptibility. Cells from A-T patients exhibit chromosome aberrations and excessive spontaneous apoptosis. We used Drosophila as a model system to study ATM function. Previous studies suggest that mei-41 corresponds to ATM in Drosophila; however, it appears that mei-41 is probably the ATR ortholog. Unlike mei-41 mutants, flies deficient for the true ATM ortholog, dATM, die as pupae or eclose with eye and wing abnormalities. Developing larval discs exhibit substantially increased spontaneous chromosomal telomere fusions and p53-dependent apoptosis. These developmental phenotypes are unique to dATM, and both dATM and mei-41 have temporally distinct roles in G2 arrest after IR. Thus, ATM and ATR orthologs are required for different functions in Drosophila; the developmental defects resulting from absence of dATM suggest an important role in mediating a protective checkpoint against DNA damage arising during normal cell proliferation and differentiation.
Betson M, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Rowell C, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2010) Intestinal schistosomiasis in mothers and young children in Uganda: investigation of field-applicable markers of bowel morbidity., The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene83(5)pp. 1048-1055
To control intestinal schistosomiasis at a national level in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a need for field-applicable markers to measure morbidity associated with this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fecal calprotectin or fecal occult blood assays could be used as morbidity indicators for intestinal schistosomiasis. The study was carried out in Uganda with a cohort of young children (n = 1,327) and their mothers (n = 726). The prevalence of egg-patent schistosomiasis was 27.2% in children and 47.6% in mothers. No association was found between schistosomiasis infection and fecal calprotectin in children (n = 83, odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, P = 0.881), although an inverse relationship (n = 58, OR = 0.17, P = 0.043) was found in mothers. Fecal occult blood was strongly associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection in children (n = 814, OR = 2.30, P < 0.0001) and mothers (n = 448, OR = 1.95, P = 0.004). Fecal occult blood appears to be useful for measuring morbidity associated with intestinal schistosomiasis and could be used in assessing the impact of control programs upon disease.
Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2013) The urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipstick: a valid substitute for microscopy for mapping and point-of-care diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis., PLoS neglected tropical diseases7(1)
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization now recommends the provision of praziquantel treatment to preschool-aged children infected with schistosomiasis. For intestinal schistosomiasis the current operational field diagnostic standard is examination of a thick Kato-Katz smear by microscopy prepared from a single stool specimen, and although pragmatic, this methodology has well-known shortcomings. Here, as a potential alternative, the performance of the urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipstick test was assessed in terms of disease-mapping and point-of-care diagnosis for intestinal schistosomiasis in preschool-aged children. Our manuscript reports on findings at baseline and at the end of a one-year longitudinal treatment study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 925 children (mean age 2.8 years) were initially recruited from six lakeshore villages representative of high, moderate and low levels of disease transmission. At baseline, all children were tested for intestinal schistosomiasis by microscopic examination of duplicate Kato-Katz smears prepared from a single stool faecal, by antigen detection with the urine CCA dipstick test and by serology with a commercially available ELISA test (as 'gold-standard') that measures host antibody titres to soluble egg antigens. As a point-of-care diagnosis, the urine CCA dipstick test achieved sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 52.5-63.2% and 57.7-75.6%, respectively, with faecal microscopy achieving very high specificities (>87%) but sensitivities as low as 16.7% in the low transmission setting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The urine CCA test was shown to be more effective than faecal microscopy especially in lower transmission settings. The diagnostic performance of this test was not significantly impacted by treatment history or co-infections with other intestinal helminths.
Significant numbers of pre-school children are infected with Schistosoma mansoni in sub-Saharan Africa and are likely to play a role in parasite transmission. However, they are currently excluded from control programmes. Molecular phylogenetic studies have provided insights into the evolutionary origins and transmission dynamics of S. mansoni, but there has been no research into schistosome molecular epidemiology in pre-school children. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of S. mansoni in pre-school children and mothers living in lakeshore communities in Uganda and monitored for changes over time after praziquantel treatment. Parasites were sampled from children (<6 years) and mothers enrolled in the longitudinal Schistosomiasis Mothers and Infants Study at baseline and at 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-up surveys. 1347 parasites from 35 mothers and 45 children were genotyped by direct sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) gene. The cox1 region was highly diverse with over 230 unique sequences identified. Parasite populations were genetically differentiated between lakes and non-synonymous mutations were more diverse at Lake Victoria than Lake Albert. Surprisingly, parasite populations sampled from children showed a similar genetic diversity to those sampled from mothers, pointing towards a non-linear relationship between duration of exposure and accumulation of parasite diversity. The genetic diversity six months after praziquantel treatment was similar to pre-treatment diversity. Our results confirm the substantial genetic diversity of S. mansoni in East Africa and provide significant insights into transmission dynamics within young children and mothers, important information for schistosomiasis control programmes.
This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni) or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P < 0.001) in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P = 0.04) in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert (N = 6,183), 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria (N = 13,172) were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene.
Nejsum P, Betson M, Bendall RP, Thamsborg SM, Stothard JR (2012) Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis: looking to the future from an analysis of the past., Journal of helminthology86(2)pp. 148-155
The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected pigs found in most production systems. In areas where pigs and humans live in close proximity or where pig manure is used as fertilizer on vegetables for human consumption, there is a potential risk of cross-infections. We therefore review this relationship between Ascaris and Trichuris in the human and pig host, with special focus on recent evidence concerning the zoonotic potential of these parasites, and identify some open questions for future research.
Braga VM, Betson M, Li X, Lamarche-Vane N (2000) Activation of the small GTPase Rac is sufficient to disrupt cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion in normal human keratinocytes., Molecular biology of the cell11(11)pp. 3703-3721
To achieve strong adhesion to their neighbors and sustain stress and tension, epithelial cells develop many different specialized adhesive structures. Breakdown of these structures occurs during tumor progression, with the development of a fibroblastic morphology characteristic of metastatic cells. During Ras transformation, Rac-signaling pathways participate in the disruption of cadherin-dependent adhesion. We show that sustained Rac activation per se is sufficient to disassemble cadherin-mediated contacts in keratinocytes, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cadherin receptors are removed from junctions before integrin receptors, suggesting that pathways activated by Rac can specifically interfere with cadherin function. We mapped an important region for disruption of junctions to the putative second effector domain of the Rac protein. Interestingly, although this region overlaps the domain necessary to induce lamellipodia, we demonstrate that the disassembly of cadherin complexes is a new Rac activity, distinct from Rac-dependent lamellipodia formation. Because Rac activity is also necessary for migration, Rac is a good candidate to coordinately regulate cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion during tumorigenesis.
Fornace KM, Nuin NA, Betson M, Grigg MJ, William T, Anstey NM, Yeo TW, Cox J, Ying LT, Drakeley CJ (2015) Asymptomatic and Submicroscopic Carriage of Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Household and Community Members of Clinical Cases in Sabah, Malaysia.,The Journal of infectious diseases213(5)pp. 784-787
Although asymptomatic carriage of human malaria species has been widely reported, the extent of asymptomatic, submicroscopic Plasmodium knowlesi parasitemia is unknown. In this study, samples were obtained from individuals residing in households or villages of symptomatic malaria cases with the aim of detecting submicroscopic P. knowlesi in this population. Four published molecular assays were used to confirm the presence of P. knowlesi. Latent class analysis revealed that the estimated proportion of asymptomatic individuals was 6.9% (95% confidence interval, 5.6%-8.4%). This study confirms the presence of a substantial number of asymptomatic monoinfections across all age groups; further work is needed to estimate prevalence in the wider community.
Jiang W, Betson M, Mulloy R, Foster R, Lévay M, Ligeti E, Settleman J (2008) p190A RhoGAP is a glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta substrate required for polarized cell migration., The Journal of biological chemistry283(30)pp. 20978-20988
The Rho GTPases are critical regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and are required for cell adhesion, migration, and polarity. Among the key Rho regulatory proteins in the context of cell migration are the p190 RhoGAPs (p190A and p190B), which function to modulate Rho signaling in response to integrin engagement. The p190 RhoGAPs undergo complex regulation, including phosphorylation by several identified kinases, interactions with phospholipids, and association with a variety of cellular proteins. Here, we have identified an additional regulatory mechanism unique to p190A RhoGAP that involves priming-dependent phosphorylation by glycogen synthase-3-beta (GSK-3beta), a kinase previously implicated in establishing cell polarity. We found that p190A-deficient fibroblasts exhibit a defect in directional cell migration reflecting a requirement for GSK-3beta-mediated phosphorylation of amino acids in the C-terminal "tail" of p190A. This phosphorylation leads to inhibition of p190A RhoGAP activity in vitro and in vivo. These studies identify p190A as a novel GSK-3beta substrate and reveal a mechanism by which GSK-3beta contributes to cellular polarization in directionally migrating cells via effects on Rho GTPase activity.
BACKGROUND: Vector control is an effective way of reducing malaria transmission. The main vector control methods include the use of insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Both interventions rely on the continuing susceptibility of Anopheles to a limited number of insecticides. However, insecticide resistance, in particular pyrethroid-DDT cross-resistance, is a challenge facing malaria vector control in Africa because pyrethroids represent the only class of insecticides approved for treating bed nets and DDT is commonly used for IRS. Here baseline data are presented on the insecticide susceptibility levels of malaria vectors prior to The Gambian indoor residual spraying intervention programme. METHODS: Anopheles larvae were collected from six malaria surveillance sites (Brikama, Essau, Farafenni, Mansakonko, Kuntaur and Basse) established by the National Malaria Control Programme and the UK Medical Research Council Laboratories in The Gambia. The mosquitoes were reared to adulthood and identified using morphological keys and a species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Two- to three-day old adult female mosquitoes were tested for susceptibility to permethrin, deltamethrin and DDT using standard WHO protocols, insecticide susceptibility test kits and treated papers. RESULTS: All Anopheles mosquitoes tested belonged to the Anopheles gambiae complex. Anopheles arabiensis was predominant (54.1%), followed by An. gambiae s.s. (26.1%) and Anopheles melas (19.8%). Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were found at all six sites. Anopheles melas was recorded only at Brikama. Mosquitoes from two of the six sites (Brikama and Basse) were fully susceptible to all three insecticides tested. However, DDT resistance was found in An. gambiae from Essau where the 24 hours post-exposure mortality was <80% but 88% for permethrin and 92% for deltamethrin. CONCLUSION: This current survey of insecticide resistance in Anopheles provides baseline information for monitoring resistance in The Gambia and highlights the need for routine resistance surveillance as an integral part of the proposed nation wide IRS intervention using DDT.
Howell A, Mugisha L, Davies J, LaCourse EJ, Claridge J, Williams DJ, Kelly-Hope L, Betson M, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2012) Bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda., Parasites & vectors5
BACKGROUND: To clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes. RESULTS: A total of 239 cattle were sampled across eight locations ranging in elevation from 1112-2072 m. Faecal material was examined for presence of Fasciola eggs and sera were tested by ELISA for antibodies against Fasciola antigens. Bolstering this, 38 cattle at slaughter from 2 abattoir sites at 1150 m and 1947 m were inspected; in addition, wild buffalo stool (n=10) opportunistically picked within Mount Elgon National Park (MENP) at 3640 m was examined. By faecal egg detection, prevalence of Fasciola gigantica at low (<1500 m) and high (>1500 m) altitude sites was 43.7% (95% CI 35.4-52.2) and 1.1% (95% CI 0.0-6.0), respectively, while by ELISA was much higher, low altitude--77.9% (95% CI 69.7-85.4) and high altitude--64.5% (95% CI 51.3-76.3). The decline in prevalence with increasing altitude was corroborated by abattoir sampling. Thirty seven aquatic habitats, ranging from 1139-3937 m in altitude were inspected for freshwater snails, 12 of which were within MENP. At lower altitudes, Lymnaea (Radix) natalensis was common, and often abundant, but at higher altitudes became much rarer ceasing to be found above 1800 m. On the other hand, Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula was found only at altitudes above 3000 m and within MENP alone. The snail identifications were confirmed by DNA analysis of the ribosomal 18S gene. CONCLUSIONS: Active infections of F. gigantica in cattle are common in lower altitude settings but appear to diminish with increasing elevation. This is likely due to a growing paucity of intermediate hosts, specifically populations of L. natalensis for which a natural boundary of 1800 m appeared. Although F. hepatica was not encountered, the presence of several populations of L. truncatula at elevations over 3000 m point towards a potential transmission zone within MENP should this parasite be introduced.
BACKGROUND: The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation. METHODS: Adult Ascaris organisms were obtained from humans and pigs in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Barcodes were assigned to 536 parasites on the basis of sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. Genotyping of 410 worms was also conducted using a panel of microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic, population genetic, and Bayesian assignment methods were used for analysis. RESULTS: There was marked genetic segregation between worms originating from human hosts and those originating from pig hosts. However, human Ascaris infections in Europe were of pig origin, and there was evidence of cross-transmission between humans and pigs in Africa. Significant genetic differentiation exists between parasite populations from different countries, villages, and hosts. CONCLUSIONS: In conducting an analysis of variation within Ascaris populations from pig and human hosts across the globe, we demonstrate that cross-transmission takes place in developing and developed countries, contingent upon epidemiological potential and local phylogeography. Our results provide novel insights into the transmission dynamics and speciation of Ascaris worms from humans and pigs that are of importance for control programs.
Frasa MA, Maximiano FC, Smolarczyk K, Francis RE, Betson ME, Lozano E, Goldenring J, Seabra MC, Rak A, Ahmadian MR, Braga VM (2010) Armus is a Rac1 effector that inactivates Rab7 and regulates E-cadherin degradation., Current biology : CB20(3)pp. 198-208
BACKGROUND: Cell-cell adhesion and intracellular trafficking are regulated by signaling pathways from small GTPases of the Rho, Arf, and Rab subfamilies. How signaling from distinct small GTPases are integrated in a given process is poorly understood. RESULTS: We find that a TBC/RabGAP protein, Armus, integrates signaling between Arf6, Rac1, and Rab7 during junction disassembly. Armus binds specifically to activated Rac1 and its C-terminal TBC/RabGAP domain inactivates Rab7. Thus, Armus is a novel Rac1 effector and a bona fide GAP for Rab7 in vitro and in vivo, a unique and previously unreported combination. Arf6 activation efficiently disrupts cell-cell contacts and is known to activate Rac1 and Rab7. Arf6-induced E-cadherin degradation is efficiently blocked by expression of Armus C-terminal domain or after Armus RNAi. Coexpression of Arf6 with dominant-negative Rab7 or Rac1 also inhibits junction disassembly. Importantly, Armus RabGAP expression also prevents EGF-induced scattering in keratinocytes, a process shown here to require Arf6, Rac1, and Rab7 function. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate a molecular and functional link between Rac1 and Rab7. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that active Rac1 recruits Armus to locally inactivate Rab7 and facilitate E-cadherin degradation in lysosomes. Thus, the integration of Rac1 and Rab7 activities by Armus provides an important regulatory node for E-cadherin turnover and stability of cell-cell contacts.
Pinot de Moira A, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Jones FM, Fitzsimmons CM, Betson M, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR, Dunne DW (2013) Schistosoma mansoni infection in preschool-aged children: development of immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G4 responses to parasite allergen-like proteins., The Journal of infectious diseases207(2)pp. 362-366
Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses are upregulated during chronic schistosome infection and during allergy. These responses are tightly regulated during schistosomiasis. We have previously shown that IgE regulation depends on the extent and length of exposure to individual parasite allergen-like proteins. Here we compare the development of IgE and immunoglobulin G4 (IgG(4)) responses to the differentially expressed allergen-like proteins SmTAL1 and SmTAL2 among preschool-aged children from 2 villages with different levels of Schistosoma mansoni transmission. We found a lack of SmTAL1 responsiveness among all children, but evidence for IgG(4)-dependent IgE-SmTAL2 desensitization in both villages, occurring earlier among children from the village where the level of transmission was greater. Findings provide insights into the development and regulation of allergic-type immune responses.
Green HK, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Basáñez MG, Betson M, Kabatereine NB, Fenwick A, Stothard JR (2011) Anaemia in Ugandan preschool-aged children: the relative contribution of intestinal parasites and malaria., Parasitology138(12)pp. 1534-1545
Anaemia is a severe public health issue among African preschool-aged children, yet little effective progress has been made towards its amelioration, in part due to difficulties in unravelling its complex, multifactorial aetiology. To determine the current anaemia situation and assess the relative contribution of malaria, intestinal schistosomiasis and infection with soil-transmitted helminths, two separate cross-sectional epidemiological surveys were carried out in Uganda including 573 and 455 preschool-aged children (d6 years) living along the shores of Lake Albert and on the islands in Lake Victoria, respectively. Anaemia was found to be a severe public health problem in Lake Albert, affecting 68·9% of children (ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) 64·9-72·7%), a statistically significant higher prevalence relative to the 27·3% detected in Lake Victoria (95% CI: 23·3-31·7%). After multivariate analysis (controlling for sex and age of the child), the only factor found to be significantly associated with increased odds of anaemia in both lake systems was malaria (Lake Albert, odds ratio (OR)=2·1, 95% CI: 1·4-3·2; Lake Victoria, OR=1·9, 95% CI: 1·2-2·9). Thus intervention strategies primarily focusing on very young children and combating malaria appear to represent the most appropriate use of human and financial resources for the prevention of anaemia in this age group and area. Looking to the future, these activities could be further emphasised within the National Child Health Days(PLUS) agenda.
The complexity and connectedness of eco-social processes have major influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases amongst humans and animals. The disciplinary nature of most research activity has made it difficult to improve our understanding of interactions and feedback loops within the relevant systems. Influenced by the One Health approach, increasing efforts have recently been made to address this knowledge gap. Disease emergence and spread is strongly influenced by host density and contact structures, pathogen characteristics and pathogen population and molecular evolutionary dynamics in different host species, and host response to infection. All these mechanisms are strongly influenced by eco-social processes, such as globalisation and urbanisation, which lead to changes in global ecosystem dynamics, including patterns of mobility, human population density and contact structures, and food production and consumption. An improved understanding of epidemiological and eco-social processes, including their interdependence, will be essential to be able to manage diseases in these circumstances. The interfaces between wild animals, domestic animals and humans need to be examined to identify the main risk pathways and put in place appropriate mitigation. Some recent examples of emerging infectious disease are described to illustrate eco-social processes that are influencing disease emergence and spread.
Haygarth PM, Apsimon H, Betson M, Harris D, Hodgkinson R, Withers PJ (2009) Mitigating diffuse phosphorus transfer from agriculture according to cost and efficiency., Journal of environmental quality38(5)pp. 2012-2022
Potential options for mitigating phosphorus (P) transfer from agriculture to water in England and Wales (E&W) were collated across a range of farm systems to assess their potential effectiveness in reducing mass of P transferred and potential cost (pounds sterling [ pound]) to the farming industry. A simple model framework (called PEASE) incorporating a number of assumptions was used to identify 15 methods for mitigating inputs of P to agricultural systems, 19 methods for preventing mobilization of P, and six methods for controlling the transport of P to streams. The scope for largest reductions in P inputs was to grassland and horticulture. Potential reductions in P mobilization were up to 1.2 kg P ha(-1). Reductions in P transfer associated with transport mitigation were larger than those associated with input and mobilization methods (up to 2.2 kg P ha(-1)). The largest estimated reductions were achieved by installing buffer zones and constructed wetlands, the former being very cost effective ( pound3-5 kg(-1) P saved). Plots of cost curves helped identify where the combined and cumulative P transfer reductions were attainable; these were approximately 0.2 kg ha(-1) for uplands, 0.6 kg ha(-1) for outdoor pigs, 0.9 kg ha(-1) for intensive dairy, and 2.2 kg ha(-1) for arable examples. We concluded that established catchment-scale evidence for mitigation is sparse, especially for specific farm systems in E&W. Sensitivities and uncertainties in the approach, especially associated with expert coefficients, are noted. This approach is nonetheless considered useful for prioritizing where and how best options might be most effectively targeted for least cost but greatest benefit.
Betson M, Halstead FD, Nejsum P, Imison E, Khamis IS, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Rollinson D, Stothard JR (2011) A molecular epidemiological investigation of Ascaris on Unguja, Zanzibar using isoenyzme analysis, DNA barcoding and microsatellite DNA profiling., Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene105(7)pp. 370-379
Ascariasis is of public health importance on the islands of Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba). To shed light on the molecular epidemiology of this parasite, 68 Ascaris worms, obtained from 14 individuals in four Ungujan villages, were examined by isoenzyme analysis (ISA), DNA barcoding and microsatellite DNA profiling. ISA revealed genetic variation, which was confirmed by DNA barcoding. Nineteen worms recovered from individuals in Uganda were included for comparison. Sixteen unique DNA barcodes were identified, 15 on Unguja and three in Uganda with two shared between. These two barcodes were found in all four Ungujan villages. Worms from Tumbatu-Jongowe, an isolated village on an islet off Unguja, seemed particularly diverse. Within our barcodes, three exact matches were found with Chinese Ascaris retrieved from pigs, which is perhaps surprising given the present rarity of these animals on Unguja. Microsatellite profiling and population genetic analysis revealed further genetic diversity within our samples although population sub-structuring within Unguja was minor in comparison to that between Unguja and Uganda. As African Ascaris has not been subjected to detailed molecular scrutiny, this new diversity represents an important piece in its evolutionary jigsaw and such population markers are informative in monitoring worm dynamics during ongoing control.
Verdier V, Johndrow JE, Betson M, Chen GC, Hughes DA, Parkhurst SM, Settleman J (2006) Drosophila Rho-kinase (DRok) is required for tissue morphogenesis in diverse compartments of the egg chamber during oogenesis., Developmental biology297(2)pp. 417-432
The Rho-kinases are widely utilized downstream targets of the activated Rho GTPase that have been directly implicated in many aspects of Rho-dependent effects on F-actin assembly, acto-myosin contractility, and microtubule stability, and consequently play an essential role in regulating cell shape, migration, polarity, and division. We have determined that the single closely related Drosophila Rho-kinase ortholog, DRok, is required for several aspects of oogenesis, including maintaining the integrity of the oocyte cortex, actin-mediated tethering of nurse cell nuclei, "dumping" of nurse cell contents into the oocyte, establishment of oocyte polarity, and the trafficking of oocyte yolk granules. These defects are associated with abnormalities in DRok-dependent actin dynamics and appear to be mediated by multiple downstream effectors of activated DRok that have previously been implicated in oogenesis. DRok regulates at least one of these targets, the membrane cytoskeletal cross-linker DMoesin, via a direct phosphorylation that is required to promote localization of DMoesin to the oocyte cortex. The collective oogenesis defects associated with DRok deficiency reveal its essential role in multiple aspects of proper oocyte formation and suggest that DRok defines a novel class of oogenesis determinants that function as key regulators of several distinct actin-dependent processes required for proper tissue morphogenesis.
Zhang J, Betson M, Erasmus J, Zeikos K, Bailly M, Cramer LP, Braga VM (2005) Actin at cell-cell junctions is composed of two dynamic and functional populations., Journal of cell science118(Pt 23)pp. 5549-5562
The ability of epithelial cells to polarize requires cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin receptors. During cell-cell contact, the mechanism via which a flat, spread cell shape is changed into a tall, cuboidal epithelial morphology is not known. We found that cadherin-dependent adhesion modulates actin dynamics by triggering changes in actin organization both locally at junctions and within the rest of the cell. Upon induction of cell-cell contacts, two spatial actin populations are distinguishable: junctional actin and peripheral thin bundles. With time, the relative position of these two populations changes and becomes indistinguishable to form a cortical actin ring that is characteristic of mature, fully polarized epithelial cells. Junctional actin and thin actin bundles differ in their actin dynamics and mechanism of formation, and interestingly, have distinct roles during epithelial polarization. Whereas junctional actin stabilizes clustered cadherin receptors at cell-cell contacts, contraction of peripheral actin bundle is essential for an increase in the maximum height at the lateral domain during polarization (cuboidal morphology). Thus, both junctional actin and thin bundles are necessary, and cooperate with each other to generate a polarized epithelial morphology.
Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Pleasant J, Day M, Betson M, Rollinson D, Montresor A, Kazibwe F, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2010) Treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in Ugandan preschool children: best diagnosis, treatment efficacy and side-effects, and an extended praziquantel dosing pole., International health2(2)pp. 103-113
The Ugandan national control programme for schistosomiasis has no clear policy for inclusion of preschool-children (=5 years old) children. To re-balance this health inequality, we sought to identify best diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis, observe treatment safety and efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ), and extend the current WHO dose pole for chemotherapy. We examined and treated 363 preschool children from shoreline villages of Lakes Albert and Victoria, and found that 62.3% (CI(95) 57.1-67.3) of the children were confirmed to have intestinal schistosomiasis. One day after treatment, children were reported as having headaches (3.6%), vomiting (9.4%), diarrhoea (10.9%) and urticaria/rash (8.9%) with amelioration at 21-day follow-up, where the parasitological cure rate was found to be 100.0%. Height and weight data were collected from a further 3303 preschool children to establish and validate an extended PZQ dose pole that now includes two new height-intervals: 60-84 cm for one-half tablet and 84-99 cm for three-quarter tablet divisions; which would result in 97.6% of children receiving an acceptable dose (30-60 mg/kg). To conclude, preschool children in lakeshore communities of Uganda are at significant risk of intestinal schistosomiasis; we now strongly advocate for their immediate inclusion within the national control programme to eliminate this health inequity.
Betson M, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Atuhaire A, Arinaitwe M, Adriko M, Mwesigwa G, Nabonge J, Kabatereine NB, Sutherland CJ, Stothard JR (2014) Detection of persistent Plasmodium spp. infections in Ugandan children after artemether-lumefantrine treatment.,Parasitology141(14)pp. 1880-1890
During a longitudinal study investigating the dynamics of malaria in Ugandan lakeshore communities, a consistently high malaria prevalence was observed in young children despite regular treatment. To explore the short-term performance of artemether-lumefantrine (AL), a pilot investigation into parasite carriage after treatment(s) was conducted in Bukoba village. A total of 163 children (aged 2-7 years) with a positive blood film and rapid antigen test were treated with AL; only 8.7% of these had elevated axillary temperatures. On day 7 and then on day 17, 40 children (26.3%) and 33 (22.3%) were positive by microscopy, respectively. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that multi-species Plasmodium infections were common at baseline, with 41.1% of children positive for Plasmodium falciparum/Plasmodium malariae, 9.2% for P. falciparum/ Plasmodium ovale spp. and 8.0% for all three species. Moreover, on day 17, 39.9% of children infected with falciparum malaria at baseline were again positive for the same species, and 9.2% of those infected with P. malariae at baseline were positive for P. malariae. Here, chronic multi-species malaria infections persisted in children after AL treatment(s). Better point-of-care diagnostics for non-falciparum infections are needed, as well as further investigation of AL performance in asymptomatic individuals.
Hawash MB, Betson M, Al-Jubury A, Ketzis J, LeeWillingham A, Bertelsen MF, Cooper PJ, Littlewood DT, Zhu XQ, Nejsum P (2016) Whipworms in humans and pigs: origins and demography.,Parasit Vectors9
BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible for parasite dispersal globally. METHODS: Parts of the mitochondrial nad1 and rrnL genes were sequenced followed by population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. Populations of Trichuris examined were recovered from humans (n = 31), pigs (n = 58) and non-human primates (n = 49) in different countries on different continents, namely Denmark, USA, Uganda, Ecuador, China and St. Kitts (Caribbean). Additional sequences available from GenBank were incorporated into the analyses. RESULTS: We found no differentiation between human-derived Trichuris in Uganda and the majority of the Trichuris samples from non-human primates suggesting a common African origin of the parasite, which then was transmitted to Asia and further to South America. On the other hand, there was no differentiation between pig-derived Trichuris from Europe and the New World suggesting dispersal relates to human activities by transporting pigs and their parasites through colonisation and trade. Evidence for recent pig transport from China to Ecuador and from Europe to Uganda was also observed from their parasites. In contrast, there was high genetic differentiation between the pig Trichuris in Denmark and China in concordance with the host genetics. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for an African origin of T. trichiura which were then transmitted with human ancestors to Asia and further to South America. A host shift to pigs may have occurred in Asia from where T. suis seems to have been transmitted globally by a combination of natural host dispersal and anthropogenic factors.
Kane RA, Stothard JR, Rollinson D, Leclipteux T, Evraerts J, Standley CJ, Allan F, Betson M, Kaba R, Mertens P, Laurent T (2013) Detection and quantification of schistosome DNA in freshwater snails using either fluorescent probes in real-time PCR or oligochromatographic dipstick assays targeting the ribosomal intergenic spacer., Acta tropica128(2)pp. 241-249
Several DNA probes were designed for use in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to target sequence variation within the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) of schistosomes. A sub-section of the IGS (<300bp) was amplified, with cross-specific primers, after which group-specific fluorescent, locked nucleic acid probes were assessed for their ability to differentiate and quantify DNA from Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni group parasites. A number of fluorescent probe candidates were screened and validated against genomic DNA from adult schistosome worms and laboratory infected freshwater snails. Two fluorescent, locked nucleic acid probes ShaemLNA5 and SmanLNA2, of 20-26bp in length, were identified and found to be effective in providing evidence of infection in field-collected snails. To adapt these real-time PCR assays for more resource-poor laboratory settings, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay was developed and primer/probe combinations were modified for use in oligochromatography, a DNA 'dipstick' technology. An appropriate dipstick was developed, inclusive of internal amplification and amplicon migration controls that could be of particular importance for assessing schistosome transmission dynamics. These assays and tools also have future potential for use in detection of schistosome infections in humans and livestock.
Nejsum P, Bertelsen MF, Betson M, Stothard JR, Murrell KD (2010) Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)., Veterinary parasitology171(3-4)pp. 273-276
Chimpanzees in the Copenhagen Zoo frequently excrete ascarid worms onto the cage floor in spite of a regular anthelmintic treatment program. Previously it had been shown that the source of the infections was of pig origin. However, it was unknown whether the recurrence of the infection was due to reintroduction of eggs from an external source or to a sustained transmission cycle within the zoo. We found that isolated eggs were able to embryonate to the infective J3 stage and PCR-RFLP analysis on the ITS region amplified from single embryonated eggs suggest these to be Ascaris suum. In addition, sequence analysis of the cox1 gene ('barcoding') on expelled worms followed by cluster analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are infected with pig A. suum which now, in spite of control efforts, has stabilized into a permanent transmission cycle in the zoo's chimpanzee troop.
Seto EY, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Byalero C, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2012) Patterns of intestinal schistosomiasis among mothers and young children from Lake Albert, Uganda: water contact and social networks inferred from wearable global positioning system dataloggers., Geospatial health7(1)pp. 1-13
The establishment of a national control programme (NCP) in Uganda has led to routine treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis with praziquantel in the communities along Lake Albert. However, because regular water contact remains a way of life for these populations, re-infection continues to mitigate the sustainability of the chemotherapy-based programme. A six-month longitudinal study was conducted in one Lake Albert community with the aim of characterizing water contact exposure and infection among mothers and their young preschool-aged children as the latter are not yet formally included within the NCP. At baseline the cohort of 37 mothers, 36 preschool-aged children had infection prevalences of 62% and 67%, respectively, which diminished to 20% and 29%, respectively, at the 6-month post-treatment follow-up. The subjects wore global positioning system (GPS) datalogging devices over a 3-day period shortly after baseline, allowing for the estimation of time spent at the lakeshore as an exposure metric, which was found to be associated with prevalence at follow-up (OR = 2.1, P = 0.01 for both mothers and young children and odds ratio (OR) = 4.4, P = 0.01 for young children alone). A social network of interpersonal interactions was also derived from the GPS data, and the exposures were positively associated both with the number and duration of peer interaction, suggesting the importance of socio-cultural factors associated with water contact behaviour. The findings illustrate reduction in both prevalence and intensity of infection in this community after treatment as well as remarkably high rates of water contact exposure and re-infection, particularly among younger children. We believe that this should now be formally considered within NCP, which may benefit from more in-depth ethnographic exploration of factors related to water contact as this should provide new opportunities for sustaining control.
Betson M, Nejsum P, Llewellyn-Hughes J, Griffin C, Atuhaire A, Arinaitwe M, Adriko M, Ruggiana A, Turyakira G, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2012) Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda., Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene106(2)pp. 75-83
Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and Musezero, was carried out. Adult Ascaris worms were collected from infected individuals by chemo-expulsion using pyrantel pamoate treatment. Genetic diversity within these worms was assessed by inspection of DNA sequence variation in a mitochondrial marker and length polymorphism at microsatellite loci. Overall prevalence of ascariasis was 42.5% in mothers and 30.4% in their children and a total of 98 worms was examined from 18 hosts. Sequence analysis of a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene revealed 19 different haplotypes, 13 of which had not been previously encountered. Microsatellite analysis using eight loci provided evidence for high gene flow between worm populations from the two villages but comparing these worms with others obtained in a prior study on Unguja, Zanzibar, confirmed little genetic exchange and mixing of worm populations between the two areas. By adding to our understanding of the genetic diversity of Ascaris in Africa, this study provides useful information for monitoring changes in parasite population structure in the face of ongoing and future control.
Meekums H, Hawash MB, Sparks AM, Oviedo Y, Sandoval C, Chico ME, Stothard JR, Cooper PJ, Nejsum P, Betson M (2015) A genetic analysis of Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis from Ecuador.,Parasites & vectors8
Since the nematodes Trichuris trichiura and T. suis are morphologically indistinguishable, genetic analysis is required to assess epidemiological cross-over between people and pigs. This study aimed to clarify the transmission biology of trichuriasis in Ecuador.Adult Trichuris worms were collected during a parasitological survey of 132 people and 46 pigs in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Morphometric analysis of 49 pig worms and 64 human worms revealed significant variation. In discriminant analysis morphometric characteristics correctly classified male worms according to host species. In PCR-RFLP analysis of the ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-2) and 18S DNA (59 pig worms and 82 human worms), nearly all Trichuris exhibited expected restriction patterns. However, two pig-derived worms showed a "heterozygous-type" ITS-2 pattern, with one also having a "heterozygous-type" 18S pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit partitioned worms by host species. Notably, some Ecuadorian T. suis clustered with porcine Trichuris from USA and Denmark and some with Chinese T. suis.This is the first study in Latin America to genetically analyse Trichuris parasites. Although T. trichiura does not appear to be zoonotic in Ecuador, there is evidence of genetic exchange between T. trichiura and T. suis warranting more detailed genetic sampling.
BACKGROUND: In 2012 the WHO formally recognised that infants and preschool children are at significant risk of schistosomiasis and qualify for treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Targeted surveys determining both the performance and safety of this drug are now needed in endemic areas. We have formally assessed parasitological cure and putative side-effects in a prospective cohort of Schistosoma mansoni-infected children (aged 5 months-7 years old) in lakeshore settings of Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From a total of 369 children found to be egg-patent for intestinal schistosomiasis, 305 were followed-up three to four weeks after PZQ treatment and infection status re-assessed. Separately, a previously tested side-effect questionnaire was employed before and 24 hours after PZQ treatment to assess incidence and amelioration of symptoms in young children and their mothers. While the overall observed parasitological cure was 56.4%, a significant difference was found between a sub-set of children who had a history of multiple PZQ treatments (between one and four in an 18 month period), where cure rate was 41.7%, and those who had never received treatment (cure rate was 77·6%). PZQ proved to be safe, with only mild reported side effects which cleared within a month after treatment. Prevalence of reported symptoms was significantly lower in children than in mothers, and fewer side-effects were reported upon subsequent rounds of PZQ treatment. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that PZQ treatment of young children resulted in satisfactory cure rates, and marked reduction in egg-output, with only mild and transient reported side-effects. However, the cure rate is clearly lower in younger children and those with history of previous treatment. Cure rate, but not egg reduction rate, was also lower in children with heavier pre-intervention infection intensity. With chemotherapy now recommended as a long-term strategy for disease control in young children, research into optimising the periodicity of targeted treatment strategies is now crucial.
Marie H, Pratt SJ, Betson M, Epple H, Kittler JT, Meek L, Moss SJ, Troyanovsky S, Attwell D, Longmore GD, Braga VM (2003) The LIM protein Ajuba is recruited to cadherin-dependent cell junctions through an association with alpha-catenin., The Journal of biological chemistry278(2)pp. 1220-1228
Cell-cell adhesive events affect cell growth and fate decisions and provide spatial clues for cell polarity within tissues. The complete molecular determinants required for adhesive junction formation and their function are not completely understood. LIM domain-containing proteins have been shown to be present at cell-cell contact sites and are known to shuttle into the nucleus where they can affect cell fate and growth; however, their precise localization at cell-cell contacts, how they localize to these sites, and what their functions are at these sites is unknown. Here we show that, in primary keratinocytes, the LIM domain protein Ajuba is recruited to cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesive complexes in a regulated manner. At cadherin adhesive complexes Ajuba interacts with alpha-catenin, and alpha-catenin is required for efficient recruitment of Ajuba to cell junctions. Ajuba also interacts directly with F-actin. Keratinocytes from Ajuba null mice exhibit abnormal cell-cell junction formation and/or stability and function. These data reveal Ajuba as a new component at cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions and suggest that Ajuba may contribute to the bridging of the cadherin adhesive complexes to the actin cytoskeleton and as such contribute to the formation or strengthening of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion.
Bustinduy A, King C, Scott J, Appleton S, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Stothard JR (2014) HIV and schistosomiasis co-infection in African children., The Lancet. Infectious diseases14(7)pp. 640-649
HIV/AIDS and schistosomiasis both cause a substantial disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa and the two diseases often overlap in their epidemiological characteristics. Although disease-specific control interventions are continuing, potential synergies in the control efforts for these two diseases have not been investigated. With a focus on children with schistosomiasis, we assess the risk for increased HIV transmission, HIV progression, and impaired response to drugs when given alongside HIV interventions. A new research agenda tailored to children is needed to better understand the interactions of these two diseases and the potential for combined responses.
Standley CJ, Mugisha L, Verweij JJ, Adriko M, Arinaitwe M, Rowell C, Atuhaire A, Betson M, Hobbs E, van Tulleken CR, Kane RA, van Lieshout L, Ajarova L, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR (2011) Confirmed infection with intestinal schistosomiasis in semi-captive wild-born chimpanzees on Ngamba Island, Uganda., Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)11(2)pp. 169-176
BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma mansoni, is endemic to Lake Victoria, with high prevalence of the disease observed in human lakeshore communities. However, nonhuman primates have recently been overlooked as potential hosts of the disease, despite known susceptibility. METHODS: Using a variety of stool, urine, and serological diagnostic methods, 39 semi-captive wild-born chimpanzees and 37 staff members at Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria, Uganda, were examined for S. mansoni infection. Miracidia recovered from stool were DNA barcoded to investigate cross-over between humans and chimpanzees. The island was also surveyed for Biomphalaria intermediate host snails, which were examined for infection with S. mansoni. RESULTS: Chimpanzees were unequivocally shown to be infected with intestinal schistosomiasis with a seroprevalence in excess of 90%. Three egg-positive cases were detected, although the sensitivity of the diagnostic tests varied due to earlier prophylactic praziquantel treatment. Miracidia hatched from chimpanzee stool revealed three DNA haplotypes commonly found in humans living throughout Lake Victoria, including staff on Ngamba Island, as well as two novel haplotypes. At one site, a snail was observed shedding schistosome cercariae. CONCLUSIONS: The anthropozoonotic potential of intestinal schistosomiasis on Ngamba Island is greater than previously thought. Moreover, the ability of chimpanzees to void schistosome eggs capable of hatching into viable miracidia further suggests that these nonhuman primates may be capable of maintaining a local zoonotic transmission of schistosomiasis independently of humans. The implications for management of captive and wild primate populations at risk of exposure are discussed.
Betson M, Lozano E, Zhang J, Braga VM (2002) Rac activation upon cell-cell contact formation is dependent on signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor., The Journal of biological chemistry277(40)pp. 36962-36969
Cadherins are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell adhesion. They play an essential role in embryonic development and maintenance of tissue architecture. The Rho family small GTPases regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics in different cell types. The function of two family members, Rho and Rac, is required for the stability of cadherins at cell-cell contacts. Consistent with the published data we have found that Rac is activated upon induction of intercellular adhesion in epithelial cells. This activation is dependent on functional cadherins (Nakagawa, M., Fukata, M., Yamaga, M., Itoh, N., and Kaibuchi, K. (2001) J. Cell Sci. 114, 1829-1838; Noren, N. K., Niessen, C. M., Gumbiner, B. M., and Burridge, K. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 3305-3308). Here we show for the first time that clustering of cadherins using antibody-coated beads is sufficient to promote Rac activation. In the presence of Latrunculin B, Rac can be partially activated by antibody-clustered cadherins. These results suggest that actin polymerization is not required for initial Rac activation. Contrary to what has been described before, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases are not involved in Rac activation following cell-cell adhesion in keratinocytes. Interestingly, inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling efficiently blocks the increased Rac-GTP levels observed after contact formation. We conclude that cadherin-dependent adhesion can activate Rac via epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.
Betson M, Nejsum P, Stothard JR (2013) From the twig tips to the deeper branches: new insights into the evolutionary history and phylogeography of Ascaris, In: Holland C (eds.), Ascaris: the neglected parasite10 Academic Press Elsevier
To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.
Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are two parasitic nematodes infecting humans and pigs, respectively. There has been considerable debate as to whether Ascaris in the two hosts should be considered a single or two separate species. Previous studies identified at least three major clusters (A, B and C) of human and pig Ascaris based on partial cox1 sequences. In the present study, we selected major haplotypes from these different clusters to characterize their whole mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic analysis. We also undertook coalescent simulations to investigate the evolutionary history of the different Ascaris haplotypes. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences was found to be similar to partial cox1 sequencing, but the support at internal nodes was higher in the former. Coalescent simulations suggested the presence of at least two divergence events: the first one occurring early in the Neolithic period which resulted in a differentiated population of Ascaris in pigs (cluster C), the second occurring more recently (~900 generations ago), resulting in clusters A and B which might have been spread worldwide by human activities.
As part of a longitudinal cohort investigation of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria in Ugandan children and their mothers on the shorelines of Lakes Victoria and Albert, we documented risk factors and morbidity associated with nonfalciparum Plasmodium infections and the longitudinal dynamics of Plasmodium species in children. Host age, household location, and Plasmodium falciparum infection were strongly associated with nonfalciparum Plasmodium infections, and Plasmodium malariae infection was associated with splenomegaly. Despite regular artemisinin combination therapy treatment, there was a 3-fold rise in P. malariae prevalence, which was not accountable for by increasing age of the child. Worryingly, our findings reveal the consistent emergence of nonfalciparum infections in children, highlighting the complex dynamics underlying multispecies infections here. Given the growing body of evidence that nonfalciparum malaria infections cause significant morbidity, we encourage better surveillance for nonfalciparum Plasmodium infections, particularly in children, with more sensitive DNA detection methods and improved field-based diagnostics.
Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease
which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is
particularly prevalent among children living in areas where
sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge
on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human
Trichuris and its relationship to whipworm parasites in
other host species. The evidence for zoonotic transmission of
Trichuris and the emergence of anthelmintic resistance is
assessed. In addition, the implications of the recent publication
of the genomes and transcriptomes of multiple Trichuris
species are discussed. Finally, priorities for future research in
Trichuris genetics are proposed.
Surrey, a county in southern England, is a hot spot for angiostrongylosis in domestic dogs but there have been no investigations into the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus vasorum in this area. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. vasorum in gastropods in Guildford, the most populous town in Surrey, and to ascertain which gastropod species can act as intermediate hosts for A. vasorum. Gastropods (n=97) were sampled in six locations, representing urban, suburban and rural environments and identified to species based on morphological features. A PCR assay was used to detect A. vasorum DNA in gastropod tissue and the species of infected specimens was confirmed by sequencing of mitochondrial genes. 4.1% (4/97) of sampled gastropods and 9.1% (4/44) of sampled slugs were A. vasorum positive. Infected gastropod species were Arion rufus (n=3) and Deroceras invadens (n=1), the first description of the latter species as a potential intermediate host for A. vasorum. Two infected slugs were sampled in urban environments and two in suburban environments. The results demonstrate that there is a risk of transmission of A. vasorum to domestic dogs from the gastropod population in urban and suburban areas of Guildford.
Culicoides biting midges are biological vectors of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of international importance. The emergence of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe has highlighted the vulnerability of the UK to incursions. Persistence of Culicoides-borne viruses through adverse conditions in the cold winter months (?overwintering?) contributes to their economic and welfare impact and is a major source of uncertainty in policy response. Understanding the role of temperature in adult Culicoides activity, particularly in colder months, will inform policy on the likely risk of transmission. Reducing exposure to Culicoides biting is an important factor in controlling the spread of Culicoides-borne viruses following an incursion and immunological responses to the Culicoides bite may provide a novel approach to measuring the exposure of susceptible hosts to Culicoides.
This thesis investigates adult Culicoides seasonal activity and biting in the UK using both field and laboratory-based studies, focusing on the impact of winter. Culicoides activity, examined directly using ultraviolet-baited light-suction traps, was limited to days when maximum temperatures were >7°C in a field study. An experimental system that tested movement of adult Culicoides within a controlled environment further demonstrated the effect of temperature, with the minimum temperature for flight activity varying according to collection location, time of year of collection and species. Furthermore, immunoassays were developed to detect the presence of antibodies against Culicoides salivary proteins in host sera and to indirectly infer Culicoides blood-feeding activity. This work demonstrated that horses, cattle and sheep in the UK produce detectable levels of antibodies recognising Culicoides salivary protein antigens for the first time, as a result of natural biting exposure in the field environment.
These findings have direct implications in future surveillance programs and policy decision making, particularly when defining vector-free periods of adult activity.