Karakoussis V, Brandon NP, Leach A, Leach M, van der Vorst R (2001) The environmental impact of manufacturing planar and tubular solid oxide fuel cells, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES 101 (1) pp. 10-26 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Exarchakos L, Leach M (2006) Electricity storage and demand-side management: Is their co-existence possible?, Series on Energy and Power Systems 2006 pp. 207-212
Electricity market opening tends to cause actual generation costs to be reflected in prices, which become more variable and tend to follow the patterns of load peaks. Generating electricity at peak times is costly and in this occasion there might be an opportunity for electricity storage systems to contribute both technically and financially for relieving grid congestion. But while storage operation is based on exploiting demand and thus price peaks, Demand-Side Management (DSM), when being simultaneously in action, aims at their reduction. These two peak-load management mechanisms might therefore be in conflict, giving rise to concerns for the economic success of storage. We approach the implications for storage profits by such a co-existence, simulating the technical optimization of three main storage technologies, used for energy arbitrage services only, under DSM scenarios. It is revealed by this analysis that under the assumptions made and conditions posed, a substantial amount of DSM had only a small effect on storage profits for all technologies, as the maximization of the electricity discharged was achieved by all. The paper is based on the first stages of a larger research effort in this field, and describes the initial model formulation.
Chalmers H, Leach M, Gibbins J (2011) Built-in flexibility at retrofitted power plants: What is it worth and can we afford to ignore it?, Energy Procedia 4 pp. 2596-2603
Gross R, Leach M, Bauen A (2003) Progress in renewable energy., Environ Int 29 (1) pp. 105-122
This paper provides an overview of some of the key technological and market developments for leading renewable energy technologies--wind, wave and tidal, photovoltaics (PV) and biomass energy. Market growth, innovation and policy are closely interrelated in the development of renewables and the key issues in each area are explored for each of the main types of renewable energy technology. This enables the prospects for future development and cost reduction to be considered in detail. Key issues for policy are outlined.
Hawkes AD, Leach MA (2009) Modelling high level system design and unit commitment for a microgrid, APPLIED ENERGY 86 (7-8) pp. 1253-1265 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Hawkes AD, Leach MA (2007) Cost-effective operating strategy for residential micro-combined heat and power, ENERGY 32 (5) pp. 711-723 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Barnes-Regueiro F, Leach M, Ruth M (2002) The Mexican energy sector: integrated dynamic analysis of the natural gas/refining system, ENERGY POLICY 30 (9) PII S0301-4215(01)00137-9 pp. 767-779 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha y. The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Bioenergy is an important renewable energy source in the UK, but the bioenergy industry and in particular the wood fuel sub sector, is relatively under-developed. Socioeconomic factors have been identified as critical for facilitating deployment levels and sustainable development. However, previous studies have mostly assessed these factors using quantitative methods and models, which are limited in assessing pertinent contextual factors such as institutional/regulatory governance, supply chain structure and governance, capital resource availability as well as actor decisions. As a step further, this research engages with these under-explored aspects of the system by developing a new analytical framework: the Resilience and Livelihoods in Supply Chains (RELISC) framework, which was designed by linking Value Chain Analysis, the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach and a supply chain resilience framework. Its application to a UK wood fuel supply chain produced useful insights. For example, the structure of the chain revealed a high level of dependency on a particular end user and contractor. Key institutional governance was critical in sustaining natural resources and providing access to finance. Internal supply chain governance was limited in ensuring the sustainability of resources and lack of actor awareness and interest were also limiting factors. In addition, five capital analyses revealed gaps in skills, networking and physical infrastructure. Finally, the design of the novel RELISC framework enables it to engage with diverse aspects of the system holistically and its application generated practical recommendations and strategies for supply chain resilience and sector growth, which are useful and applicable to other emerging sectors.
Anderson D, Leach M (2004) Harvesting and redistributing renewable energy: on the role of gas and electricity grids to overcome intermittency through the generation and storage of hydrogen, ENERGY POLICY 32 (14) pp. 1603-1614 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Hart D, Leach MA, Bauen A, Fouquet R, Pearson P (2000) Methanol infrastructure - will it affect the introduction of SPFC vehicles?, Journal of Power Sources 86 (1-2) pp. 542-547 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
An important development in recent years has been increased interest in retrofitting CO2 capture at existing power plants. In parallel, it has also been suggested that flexible operation of power plants with CO2 capture could be important in at least some jurisdictions. It is likely that retrofitted power plants could have significant ?built-in? flexibility, but this potential is often not considered in studies of the economic performance of power plants with CO2 capture. This paper makes a contribution to filling this gap by developing methods for first order screening analysis of flexible operation of power plants with CO2 capture and applying them to the case study example of an appropriately integrated retrofit of post-combustion capture at a coal-fired power plant. The quantitative analysis suggests that rich solvent storage could be an attractive option on a short-run basis for some fuel, CO2 and electricity price combinations. Results from first order analysis can then be used to determine which operating modes should (and shouldn?t) be included in further, more detailed design studies.
Castillo-Castillo A, Leach M, Yassin L, Lettieri P, Simons SJR, Ryu C, Swithenbank J, Sharifi V (2009) Thermal technology scales in future waste management strategies, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Waste and Resource Management 162 (3) pp. 151-168
Hart D, Leach MA, Lucas NJD, Hutchinson D (1996) Strategies and system concepts for hydrogen utilisation in an urban environment, HYDROGEN ENERGY PROGRESS XI, VOLS 1-3 pp. 329-332 DECHEMA
Hawkes AD, Leach MA (2008) On policy instruments for support of micro combined heat and power, Energy Policy 36 (8) pp. 2963-2972
This study presents the findings of applying a Discrete Demand Side Control (DDSC) approach to the
space heating of two case study buildings. High and low tolerance scenarios are implemented on the
space heating controller to assess the impact of DDSC upon buildings with different thermal capacitances,
light-weight and heavy-weight construction. Space heating is provided by an electric heat pump
powered from a wind turbine, with a back-up electrical network connection in the event of insufficient
wind being available when a demand occurs. Findings highlight that thermal comfort is maintained
within an acceptable range while the DDSC controller maintains the demand/supply balance. Whilst it is
noted that energy demand increases slightly, as this is mostly supplied from the wind turbine, this is of
little significance and hence a reduction in operating costs and carbon emissions is still attained.
Staffell I, Baker P, Barton JP, Bergman N, Blanchard R, Brandon NP, Brett DJL, Hawkes A, Infield D, Jardine CN, Kelly N, Leach M, Matian M, Peacock AD, Sudtharalingam S, Woodman B (2010) UK microgeneration. Part II: Technology overviews, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Energy 163 (4) pp. 143-165
Kumar P, Martani C, Morawska L, Norford L, Choudhary R, Bell M, Leach M (2016) Indoor air quality and energy management through real-time sensing in commercial buildings, ENERGY AND BUILDINGS 111 pp. 145-153 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Hawkes A, Leach M (2005) Solid oxide fuel cell systems for residential micro-combined heat and power in the UK: Key economic drivers, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES 149 pp. 72-83 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Butler D, Jowitt P, Ashley R, Blackwood D, Leach MA (2003) SWARD: decision support processes for the UK water industry, Management of Environmental Quality 14 (4) pp. 444-459
Leach M (1997) Not for burning?, NEW SCIENTIST 156 (2112) pp. 56-56 NEW SCIENTIST PUBL EXPEDITING INC
The Food-Energy-Water Local Nexus Network (LNN) for redistributed manufacturing focuses on the
development of local nexuses of food manufacturing and energy and water supply which may
provide opportunities for rationally customising resource utilisation, production, and consumption
while contributing to the shared prosperity between business and community, and between
human society and natural ecosystems.
This network involves a multidisciplinary academic team across six UK universities working with
representative stakeholders that will study the local nexuses along four research themes:
engineering, business, policy and society, and systems integration. Two case study locales provide a
common background for different research themes to interact and integrate, and will serve
purposes ranging from collection of empirical data to stakeholder engagement. These two case
studies represent respectively situations of ?new development?, (Northstowe, Cambridgeshire,
where opportunities exist to introduce a new food, energy and water system), and ?retrofitting?
(Oxford, where an existing system is to be changed to benefit from the paradigm of local nexuses).
The work will be developed through six inter-related feasibility projects. This report covers the work
undertaken to date within the Energy Feasibility Study.
The specific objectives of the Energy Feasibility study are:
1. Assess requirements for energy supply (electricity and heat of different qualities) to
localised food systems (e.g. production, storage), including typical temporal (diurnal
and seasonal) variations
2. Assess opportunities for energy integration across the local supply and production
chains (e.g. CO2 emissions to be used in green-houses to aid tomatoes ripen, re-use
heat loss from cooling down after evaporation etc.).
3. Assess potential for energy recovery from waste arisings from food production
across the local supply chain, plus arisings from local water/wastewater treatment
4. Develop local energy system scenarios, including other potential users
5. Evaluate energy generation and storage technologies suitable for implementing the
scenarios: efficiency, cost effectiveness, safety, and environmental impact
Based on the objectives above, existing literature and data were reviewed on the Nexus and the
linkages between Energy and Water, Energy and Food etc. A review of existing academic and grey
literature and data on energy use for the production of two chosen foo
By ?working with the willing?, the National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (NISP) has successfully facilitated industrial symbiosis throughout the United Kingdom and, in the process, delivered significant economic and environmental benefits for both Programme members and the country as a whole. One of the keys to NISP's success is that, unlike failed attempts to plan and construct eco-industrial systems from scratch, the Programme works largely with existing companies who have already settled in, developed, and successfully operate within a given locale. This article argues that existing and mature industrial systems provide the best prospects for identifying opportunities for, and ultimately facilitating, industrial symbiosis. Due to levels of diversification and operational fundamental niches that, in the fullness of time, develop within all industrial systems, industrially mature areas are deemed to be industrial symbiosis ?conducive environments?. Building on the conservation biology concept of a habitat suitability index, the article presents a methodology for comparing a potential site for eco-industrial development to a known baseline industrial ?habitat? already identified as being highly conducive to industrial symbiosis. The suitability index methodology is further developed and applied to a multi-criteria evaluation geographic information system to produce a ?habitat? suitability map that allows practitioners to quickly identify potential industrial symbiosis hotspots (the methodology is illustrated for England). The article concludes by providing options for the development of symbiosis suitability indices and how they can be used to support the facilitation of industrial symbiosis and regional resource efficiency.
Di Castelnuovo M, Leach M, Pearson P (2008) An analysis of spatial pricing and renewable generation in the British electricity system, International Journal of Global Energy Issues 29 (1-2) pp. 199-220
Chalmers H, Leach M, Lucquiaud M, Gibbins J (2009) Valuing flexible operation of power plants with CO2 capture, GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 9 1 (1) pp. 4289-4296 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Brown C, Jin Y, Leach M, Hodgson M (2015) JADE: adaptive differential evolution with a small population, SOFT COMPUTING 20 (10) pp. 4111-4120 SPRINGER
Keirstead J, Leach M (2008) Bridging the Gaps Between Theory and Practice: a Service Niche Approach to Urban Sustainability Indicators, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 16 (5) pp. 329-340 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Hang MLP, Martinez-Hernandez E, Leach M, Yang A (2015) Engineering Design of Localised Synergistic Production Systems, 12TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PROCESS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND 25TH EUROPEAN SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING, PT C 37 pp. 2363-2368 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Foxon TJ, Leach M, Butler D, Dawes J, Hutchinson D, Pearson P, Rose D (1999) Useful indicators of urban sustainability: Some methodological issues, Local Environment 4 (2) pp. 137-149
This paper considers methodological questions concerning indicators of sustainability, which have arisen in the course of an EPSRC-supported project investigating a systems approach to assessing the sustainability of cities. The project aimed: (a) to develop a methodology, the Reference Sustainability System (RSS), for representing the energy, resource and material flows, on which the environmental sustainability of cities depends; (b) to show how this methodology could contribute to a more systematic assessment of the potential of technological and resource management strategies to enhance urban sustainability. Systems models of the material or resource flows caused by the household demand for paper, energy, water and bottled water have been constructed. The project has highlighted the complexity of assessing the contributions of specific technologies and strategies to enhanced sustainability. Particular issues raised include the relative merits and problems of using externality valuation methods compared to physical indicators, the difficulties of aggregating environmental impacts, the question of where system boundaries should be drawn in a life cycle analysis, and the need to consider both distant and local impacts which arise from the end-use demands of urban populations. The paper explores these issues, through the use of modelling results from the case studies. Particular emphasis is placed on the communication of research results to policy makers, interested organisations and the public, drawing on recent experience with the dissemination of results from the project's first case study relating to waste-paper management options.
Jones E, Leach M, Wade J (2000) Local policies for DSM: the UK's home energy conservation act, ENERGY POLICY 28 (3) pp. 201-211 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Chalmers H, Gibbins J, Lucquiaud M, Leach M (2009) Introducing CCS: Potential changes in coalfired power plant design, operation and regulation in a carbon constrained future, In: Carbon Capture and Storage including Coal-Fired Power Plants pp. 57-78
© 2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.Significant coal reserves are reported in many countries including USA, China, Australia and India and it is often suggested that the use of this coal could play an important role in global energy security until the end of the century and beyond. But at the same time, concerns over the potential for dangerous climate change to be caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from many human activities, including power generation using coal, has led to global efforts to identify technologies that can reduce CO2 emissions. For coal-fired power plants, it is likely that successful development and deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies will be the only way that their continued operation will be allowed, in order to avoid unacceptable environmental impacts. This chapter reviews the key carbon capture technologies closest to commercial deployment at coal-fired power plants. It identifies similarities and differences between options that should be taken into account when investment decisions are made, with a particular focus on operating characteristics. It is very likely that regulation, including on acceptable CO2 emissions, will play a critical role in determining the landscape for power plant investment, so a discussion of some key regulatory issues in determining if, when and where CCS is introduced is also included.
Foxon TJ, Butler D, Dawes JK, Hutchinson D, Leach MA, Pearson PJG, Rose D (2000) An assessment of water demand management options from a systems approach, Journal of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management 14 (3) pp. 171-178
A systems approach is used to model the urban water and wastewater system. Scenarios are developed for the implementation of a range of water demand management measures, including (a) leakage reduction, (b) the increasing use of water metering, (c) the replacement of standard WCs by low-flow WCs, and (d) the introduction of greywater recycling systems. These measures are assessed according to the water saving, cost per unit of water saved, and other indicators of the relative contribution to the sustainability of the system. Preliminary assessments of selected environmental costs and benefits are also included.
Martinez-Hernandez E, Leach M, Yang A (2015) Impact of bioenergy production on ecosystem dynamics and services-a case study on U.K. Heathlands., Environ Sci Technol 49 (9) pp. 5805-5812
For sustainability's sake, the establishment of bioenergy production can no longer overlook the interactions between ecosystem and technological processes, to ensure the preservation of ecosystem functions that provide energy and other goods and services to the human being. In this paper, a bioenergy production system based on heathland biomass is investigated with the aim to explore how a system dynamics approach can help to analyze the impact of bioenergy production on ecosystem dynamics and services and vice versa. The effect of biomass harvesting on the heathland dynamics, ecosystem services such as biomass production and carbon capture, and its capacity to balance nitrogen inputs from atmospheric deposition and nitrogen recycling were analyzed. Harvesting was found to be beneficial for the maintenance of the heathland ecosystem if the biomass cut fraction is higher than 0.2 but lower than 0.6, but this will depend on the specific conditions of nitrogen deposition and nitrogen recycling. With 95% recycling of nitrogen, biomass production was increased by up to 25% for a cut fraction of 0.4, but at the expense of higher nitrogen accumulation and the system being less capable to withstand high atmospheric nitrogen deposition.
Hargreaves A, Cheng V, Deshmukh S, Leach M, Steemers K (2017) Forecasting how residential urban form affects the regional carbon savings and costs of retrofitting and decentralized energy supply, APPLIED ENERGY 186 pp. 549-561 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Anderson D, Leach MA (2005) The Costs of Mitigating Climate Change, World Economics: the journal of current economic analysis and policy 6 (3) pp. 71-90
Skea J, Anderson D, Green T, Gross R, Heptonstall P, Leach M (2008) Intermittent renewable generation and the cost of maintaining power system reliability, IET GENERATION TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION 2 (1) pp. 82-89 INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET
Torriti J, Leach M, Devine-Wright P (2012) Demand-side participation: Price constraints, technical limits and behavioural risks, In: The Future of Electricity Demand: Customers, Citizens and Loads pp. 88-105
© Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge 2011.Introduction: Demand response in domestic contexts may be differentiated into two modes of provision. First, ?automatic? load control involves the direct intervention by utilities to manipulate the performance of domestic appliances using heat or power, without the immediate involvement of domestic end-users. This is sometimes referred to as ?dynamic demand?. For example, in the UK a trial was initiated in December 2009 by a consortium including a fridge manufacturer (Indesit), an energy utility (Npower) and a technology company (RLtec). Three hundred end-users were supplied with ?dynamic demand fridges and fridge freezers?, free of charge and the trial involved the monitoring of each device as well as the switching off of appliances for short durations in response to grid conditions. A second form of demand response can be described as more ?intentional? load control. This involves the direct intervention by domestic end-users themselves, rather than utilities, that would retain total control over the working of domestic appliances and would choose to modify behavioural patterns of energy consumption in response to some form of signal from a utility. This signal is most likely to be a price signal but is not necessarily so ? it could involve communicating the availability of energy generated from different kinds of resource (e.g. fossil fuel or renewable) (Devine-Wright, 2003). The signal is most likely to be communicated via a smart metering device, but could alternatively involve a ?traffic light? device that signals the availability of energy via colour-coded signals, or a communication to other forms of ICT via text messages or emails (e.g. mobile phones).
Sealy I, Wehrmeyer W, France C, Leach M (2010) Sustainable development management systems in global business organizations, Management Research Review 33 (11) pp. 1083-1096
Yassin L, Lettieri P, Simons SJR, Castillo-Castillo A, Leach M, Ryu C, Swithenbank J, Sharifi V (2009) From incineration to advanced fluid-bed gasification of waste, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Waste and Resource Management 162 (3) pp. 169-177
Gross R, Heptonstall P, Leach MA, Anderson D, Green T, Skea J (2007) Renewables and the grid: understanding intermittency, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Energy 160 pp. 31-41 Thomas Telford
The orthodox approach for incentivizing Demand Side Participation (DSP) programs is that utility losses from capital, installation and planning costs should be recovered under financial incentive mechanisms which aim to ensure that utilities have the right incentives to implement DSP activities. The recent national smart metering roll-out in the UK implies that this approach needs to be re-assessed since utilities will recover the capital costs associated with DSP technology through bills. This paper introduces a reward and penalty mechanism focusing on residential users. DSP planning costs are recovered through payments from those consumers who do not react to peak signals. Those consumers who do react are rewarded by paying lower bills. Because real-time incentives to residential consumers tend to fail due to the negligible amounts associated with net gains (and losses) for individual users, in the proposed mechanism the regulator determines benchmarks which are matched against responses to signals and caps the level of rewards/penalties to avoid market distortions. The paper presents an overview of existing financial incentive mechanisms for DSP; introduces the reward/penalty mechanism aimed at fostering DSP under the hypothesis of smart metering roll-out; considers the costs faced by utilities for DSP programs; assesses linear rate effects and value changes; introduces compensatory weights for those consumers who have physical or financial impediments; and shows findings based on simulation runs on three discrete levels of elasticity. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Hargreaves A, Cheng V, Deshmukh S, Leach MA, Steemers K (2017) Forecasting how residential urban form affects the regional carbon savings and costs of retrofitting and decentralized energy supply, Applied Energy 186 (3) pp. 549-561 Elsevier
Low carbon energy supply technologies are increasingly used at the building and community scale and are an important part of the government decarbonisation strategy. However, with their present state of development and costs, many of these decentralised technologies rely on public subsidies to be financially viable. It is questionable whether they are cost effective compared to other ways of reducing carbon emissions, such as decarbonisation of conventional supply and improving the energy efficiency of dwellings. Previous studies have found it difficult to reliably estimate the future potential of decentralised supply because this depends on the available residential space which varies greatly within a city region. To address this problem, we used an integrated modelling framework that converted the residential density forecasts of a regional model into a representation of the building dimensions and land of the future housing stock. This included a method of estimating the variability of the dwellings and residential land. We present the findings of a case study of the wider south east regions of England that forecasted the impacts of energy efficiency and decentralised supply scenarios to year 2031. Our novel and innovative method substantially improves the spatial estimates of energy consumption compared to building energy models that only use standard dwelling typologies. We tested the impact of an alternative spatial planning policy on the future potential of decentralised energy supply and showed how lower density development would be more suitable for ground source heat pumps. Our findings are important because this method would help to improve the evidence base for strategies on achieving carbon budgets by taking into account how future residential space constraints would affect the suitability and uptakes of these technologies.
The recent policy discussion in the UK on the economic case for demand response (DR) calls for a reflection on available evidence regarding its costs and benefits. Existing studies tend to consider the size of investments and returns of certain forms of DR in isolation and do not consider economic welfare effects. From review of existing studies, policy documents, and some simple modelling of benefits of DR in providing reserve for unforeseen events, we demonstrate that the economic case for DR in UK electricity markets is positive. Consideration of economic welfare gains is provided. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Jones E, Leach MA (2000) Devolving domestic energy efficiency responsibility to local government: the case of HECA, Local Environment: the international journal of justice and sustainability 5 pp. 69-81
Chalmers H, Lucquiaud M, Gibbins J, Leach M (2009) Flexible Operation of Coal Fired Power Plants with Postcombustion Capture of Carbon Dioxide, JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-ASCE 135 (6) pp. 449-458 ASCE-AMER SOC CIVIL ENGINEERS
Bergman N, Hawkes A, Brett DJL, Baker P, Barton J, Blanchard R, Brandon NP, Infield D, Jardine C, Kelly N, Leach M, Matian M, Peacock AD, Staffell I, Sudtharalingam S, Woodman B (2009) UK microgeneration. Part I: Policy and behavioural aspects, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Energy 162 (1) pp. 23-36
Hawkes AD, Leach MA (2008) The capacity credit of micro-combined heat and power, ENERGY POLICY 36 (4) pp. 1457-1469 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Zhang J, Basson L, Leach M (2009) Review of Life Cycle Assessment Studies of Coal-fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage, 2009 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE POWER GENERATION AND SUPPLY, VOLS 1-4 pp. 2108-2114 IEEE
Geographic proximity is said to be a key characteristic of the resource reuse and recycling practice known as industrial symbiosis. To date, however, proximity of symbiont companies has remained an abstract characteristic. By conducting a statistical analysis of synergies facilitated by the United Kingdom's National Industrial Symbiosis Programme during their first five years of operation, this article attempts to quantify geographic proximity and in the process provide practitioners with an insight into the movement trends of different waste streams. Among other it was found that the median distance materials travelled within a symbiotic relationship is 20.4 miles. It is argued that quantitative information of this form is of practical value for the effective deployment of industrial symbiosis practitioners and wider resource efficiency planning. The results and discussion presented within this article are specific to industrial symbiosis opportunities facilitated within the United Kingdom; the methodology and assessment of resource movement influences are, however, expected to be relevant to all countries in which industrial activity is similarly mature and diversified.
Cottee J, Lopez-Aviles A, Behzadian K, Bradley D, Butler D, Downing C, Farmani R, Ingram J, Leach M, Pike A, De Propris L, Purvis L, Robinson P, Yang A (2016) The Local Nexus Network: Exploring the Future of Localised Food Systems and Associated Energy and Water Supply,52 pp. 613-624
Over the last few years, load growth, increases in intermittent generation, declining technology costs and increasing recognition of the importance of customer behaviour in energy markets have brought about a change in the focus of Demand Response (DR) in Europe. The long standing programmes involving large industries, through interruptible tariffs and time of day pricing, have been increasingly complemented by programmes aimed at commercial and residential customer groups. Developments in DR vary substantially across Europe reflecting national conditions and triggered by different sets of policies, programmes and implementation schemes. This paper examines experiences within European countries as well as at European Union (EU) level, with the aim of understanding which factors have facilitated or impeded advances in DR. It describes initiatives, studies and policies of various European countries, with in-depth case studies of the UK, Italy and Spain. It is concluded that while business programmes, technical and economic potentials vary across Europe, there are common reasons as to why coordinated DR policies have been slow to emerge. This is because of the limited knowledge on DR energy saving capacities; high cost estimates for DR technologies and infrastructures; and policies focused on creating the conditions for liberalising the EU energy markets. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grimston MC, Karakoussis V, Fouquet R, van der Vorst R, Pearson P, Leach M (2001) The European and global potential of carbon dioxide sequestration in tackling climate change, CLIMATE POLICY 1 (2) pp. 155-171
Hawkes AD, Aguiar P, Hernandez-Aramburo CA, Leach MA, Brandon NP, Green TC, Adjiman CS (2006) Techno-economic modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell stack for micro combined heat and power, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES 156 (2) pp. 321-333 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
LEACH M, LUCAS N (1993) ENERGY INTENSITY AND STRUCTURAL-CHANGE IN EASTERN-EUROPE - METHODOLOGY AND CASE-STUDY OF HUNGARY, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESEARCH 17 (9) pp. 873-884 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Exarchakos L, Leach M, Exarchakos G (2009) Modelling electricity storage systems management under the influence of demand-side management programmes, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESEARCH 33 (1) pp. 62-76 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Chalmers H, Gibbins J, Leach M (2007) Site specific considerations for investments in new coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture, 24th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2007, PCC 2007 1 pp. 95-113
In recent years, concerns have grown about global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the potential for dangerous climate change which is associated with business-as-usual emissions from coal-fired power plants (and other large sources of CO2). Thus, it is increasingly being suggested that CO2 capture will be a requirement for continued use of coal for electricity generation in coming decades. For example, within Europe, it has been proposed that CO2 capture could be mandatory for all new coal-fired power plants from 2020 (Commission of the European Communities, 2007). A number of site-specific considerations can be expected to shape technology choice and other decisions related to investments in new coal-fired power plant. These include restrictions in the coal available at reasonable cost, local environmental legislation and the electricity market that the plant would operate in. This paper outlines some considerations for investors, utilities and possibly regulators when identifying sites and making technology choices for new coal-fired plants which are expected to use CO2 capture, either from the outset or following later retrofit (i.e. the initial plant would be capture-ready). It identifies some extra factors in selecting appropriate sites, when compared to plants built without CO2 capture considerations, and outlines some potential 'show-stoppers'. For example, CO2 capture plants must be sited in locations which allow CO 2 to be transported to safe geological storage (or other use). These new factors must ultimately feed into investment decisions. An initial discussion of approaches which could be used by investors and other stakeholders to compare specific technology options is included here. It is important that methods that allow investors and legislators to make informed choices, taking into account site-specific factors which are often neglected in general comparisons of technology, are identified and developed. The qualitative discussion in this paper is intended to inform the quantitative analyses that will be used by project developers in the next few years to select power plant technology options for capture-ready plants and for plants built from the outset with full-scale CO2 capture as part of integrated carbon capture and storage schemes.
Hawkes A, Leach MA (2005) Solid oxide fuel cell systems for residential micro-combined heat and power in the UK: Key economic drivers, Journal of Power Sources 149 pp. 72-83 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Hawkes AD, Aguiar P, Croxford B, Leach MA, Adjiman CS, Brandon NP (2007) Solid oxide fuel cell micro combined heat and power system operating strategy: Options for provision of residential space and water heating, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES 164 (1) pp. 260-271 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
This paper explores the possible evolution of UK electricity demand as we move along three potential transition pathways to a low carbon economy in 2050. The shift away from fossil fuels through the electrification of demand is discussed, particularly through the uptake of heat pumps and electric vehicles in the domestic and passenger transport sectors. Developments in the way people and institutions may use energy along each of the pathways are also considered and provide a rationale for the quantification of future annual electricity demands in various broad sectors. The paper then presents detailed modelling of hourly balancing of these demands in the context of potential low carbon generation mixes associated with the three pathways. In all cases, hourly balancing is shown to be a significant challenge. To minimise the need for conventional generation to operate with very low capacity factors, a variety of demand side participation measures are modelled and shown to provide significant benefits. Lastly, projections of operational greenhouse gas emissions from the UK and the imports of fossil fuels to the UK for each of the three pathways are presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Hawkes A, Leach M (2005) Impacts of temporal precision in optimisation modelling of micro-combined heat and power, ENERGY 30 (10) pp. 1759-1779 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Jensen, P.D, Basson, L., Leach M (2011) Reinterpreting Industrial Ecology, Journal of Industrial Ecology 15 (5) pp. 680-692
This article argues that industrial ecology has, to date, largely
engaged with the ecological sciences at a superficial level,
which has both attracted criticism of the field and limited
its practical application for sustainable industrial development.
On the basis of an analysis of the principle of succession, the
role of waste, and the concept of diversity, the article highlights
some of the key misconceptions that have resulted from
the superficial engagement with the science of ecology. It is argued
that industrial ecology should not be seen as a metaphor
for industrial development; industrial ecology is the ecology of
industry and should be studied as such. There are manifold
general principles of ecology that underpin our understanding
of the world; however, the physical manifestation and causal
effects of these principles are particular to the system and its
constituent elements under analysis. It is thus proposed that
context-specific observation and analysis of industry are required
before theoretical and practical advancement of the
field can be achieved.
Knight O, Leach MA (2005) The development of concentrating PV-thermal technologies and their potential to reduce the cost of solar power, Solar Energy (April)
Leach MA, Bauen A, Lucas NJD (1997) A Systems Approach to Materials Flow in Sustainable Cities. Case study of paper, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 40 pp. 705-723
Johannes Veldhuis Anton, Glover Jane, Bradley David, Behzadian Kourosh, Lopez-Aviles Alma, Cottee Julian, Downing Clare, Ingram John, Leach Matthew, Farmani Raziyeh, Butler David, Pike Andy, De Propris Lisa, Purvis Laura, Robinson Pamela, Yang Aidong Re-distributed manufacturing and the food-water-energy nexus: Opportunities and challenges,Production Planning & Control
Taylor & Francis
Addressing the intersection of two important emerging research areas, re-distributed manufacturing (RDM) and the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus, this work combines insights from engineering, business and policy perspectives and explores opportunities and challenges towards a more localised and sustainable food system. Analysis centred on two specific food products, namely bread and tomato paste reveals that the feasibility and potential of RDM vary with the type of food product and the supply chain (SC) components. Physically, energy efficiency, water consumption and reduction of waste and carbon footprint may be affected by scale and location of production activities and potentials of industrial symbiosis. From the business perspective, novel products, new markets and new business models are expected in order for food RDM to penetrate within the established food industry. Studies on policies, through the lens of public procurement, call for solid evidence of envisioned environmental, social and economic benefits of a more localised food system. An initial integrated framework is proposed for understanding and assessing food RDM and the FEW nexus
Society currently relies heavily on centralized production and large scale distribution infrastructures to meet growing demands for goods and services, which causes socioeconomic and environmental issues, particularly unsustainable resource supply. Considering local production systems as a more sustainable alternative, this paper presents an insight-based approach to the integrated design of local systems providing food, energy, and water to meet local demands. The approach offers a new hierarchical and iterative decision and analysis procedure incorporating design principles and ability to examine design decisions, in both synthesis of individual yet interconnected subsystems and integrated design of resource reuse across the entire system. The approach was applied to a case study on design of food-energy-water system for a locale in the U.K.; resulting in a design which significantly reduced resource consumption compared to importing goods from centralized production. The design process produced insights into the impact of one decision on other parts of the problem, either within or across different subsystems. The result was also compared to the mathematical programming approach for whole system optimization from previous work. It was demonstrated that the new approach could produce a comparable design while offering more valuable insights for decision makers.
At the local scale, interconnected production, consumption, waste management, and other man-made technological components interact with local ecosystem components to form a local production system. The purpose of this work is to develop a framework for the conceptual characterization and mathematical modeling of a local production system to support the assessment of process and component options that potentially create symbiosis between industry and ecosystem. This framework has been applied to a case study to assess options for the establishment of a local energy production system that involves a heathland ecosystem, bioenergy production, and wastewater treatment. We found that the framework is useful to analyze the two-way interactions between these components in order to obtain insight into the behavior and performance of the bioenergy production system. In particular, the framework enables exploring the levels of the ecosystem states that allow continuous provisioning of resources in order to establish a sustainable techno-ecological system.
Innovation is critical to business. Sustainability is a global challenge requiring innovation. Many organizations have publicly committed to innovate towards environmental, social and economic sustainability, but a behaviour gap remains. In order to promote the effectiveness of these endeavours, there is a pressing need to understand the conditions for successful innovation towards sustainability, backed by empirical evidence. This paper complements prior work by developing a definition of sustainability-oriented innovation (building upon definitions of eco-innovation), and by discussing observations of this activity in practice. The paper presents an account of sustainability-oriented innovation at Interface, a global manufacturing company with radical sustainability goals. It expounds the contexts in which these innovations arose, focusing in particular on Net-Works, a radical, socially-minded fishing-net recycling programme. It was found that several unique factors contributed to success: adopting an existing route to market, partnering with an NGO, and learning from mistakes in a ?safe failure space?.
Energy system transition research has been experimenting with the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis due to the increased articulation it provides. Current approaches tend to be heavily biased by qualitative or quantitative methodologies, and more often are aimed toward a single academic discipline. This paper proposes an interdisciplinary methodology for the elaboration of energy system socio-technical scenarios, applied here to the low carbon transition of the UK. An iterative approach was used to produce quantitative descriptions of the UK's energy transition out to 2050, building on qualitative storylines or narratives that had been developed through the formal application of a transition pathways approach. The combination of the qualitative and quantitative analysis in this way subsequently formed the cornerstone of wider interdisciplinary research, helping to harmonise assumptions, and facilitating ?whole systems? thinking. The methodology pulls on niche expertise of contributors to map and investigate the governance and technological landscape of a system change. Initial inconsistencies were found between energy supply and demand and addressed, the treatment of gas generation, capacity factors, total installed generating capacity and installation rates of renewables employed. Knowledge gaps relating to the operation of combined heat and power, sources of waste heat and future fuel sources were also investigated. Adopting the methodological approach to integrate qualitative and quantitative analysis resulted in a far more comprehensive elaboration than previously, providing a stronger basis for wider research, and for deducing more robust insights for decision-making. It is asserted that this formal process helps build robust future scenarios not only for socio political storylines but also for the quantification of any qualitative storyline.
Road transport accounts for 90% of UK transport emissions; by 2027 this is targeted to be reduced by 50% (OLEV, 2011). Electric vehicles offer a substantial opportunity to reduce road emissions, particularly to decarbonise the fleet market due to the sheer number of new registrations for business applications. However the diffusion of electric vehicles requires a transition across a large spectrum of societal and economic dimensions. The relationship between transition pathways and technological lock-in in the transport sector is underresearched, particularly in the field of e-mobility. This paper explores the pathway for electric vehicles, identifying the development blocks and technological lock-in of existing vehicle types, in order to understand the opportunities for technology diffusion within commercial fleet applications. This study takes a small sample of cases to achieve an in depth exploration of the motivations and barriers to this technological change. Three UK commercial-urban fleets in differing sectors are examined to understand their individual contexts and the level of correlation with the challenges experienced by the fleet market as whole, and how these have or have not been overcome. The multi-level perspective was used to determine the dynamics of change for fleets towards electric vehicles, and the roles of different stakeholder types were explored through the ?action space? of government, civil society and market logics. It is evident from the cases that an ?innovator logic? is competing to unlock EVs through technology innovation that extends beyond the transitional role of hybrids.
Smart energy systems are those that incorporate the ability to collect data across the energy infrastructure and use that data to dynamically balance supply and demand and use system assets more efficiently. Making energy smarter is widely seen as a key enabler of the wider low-carbon energy transition in the UK and a major opportunity for innovation in the energy industry.
This research examines processes of innovation around smart energy in the UK by focusing on three case studies of self-contained smart energy trials, or niches. Using interviews and project documentation, the research uncovers a rich account of these case studies, their origins and their outcomes. These case studies allow a deeper understanding of the evolution of smart energy within these niches, and the novel technologies, contractual arrangements, governance structures, and business models that are emerging within them. The research also explores the influence of ICT concepts and technology, as well as regulation, and incumbent energy sector actors for innovation in this area.
I endeavoured to make the findings produced in this research relevant to policy makers or business strategists involved in promoting and supporting the transition to a low-carbon energy system by translating research findings into insights that can guide the management of innovation.
Chilvers J, Foxon T, Galloway S, Hammond G, Infield D, Leach M, Pearson P, Strachan N, Strbac G, Thomson M (2017) Realising transition pathways for a more electric, low-carbon energy system in the United Kingdom: Challenges, insights and opportunities,Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy 231 (6) pp. 440-477
The United Kingdom has placed itself on a transition towards a low-carbon economy and society, through the imposition of a legally-binding goal aimed at reducing its ?greenhouse gas? emissions by 80% by 2050 against a 1990 baseline. A set of three low-carbon, socio-technical transition pathways were developed and analysed via an innovative collaboration between engineers, social scientists and policy analysts. The pathways focus on the power sector, including the potential for increasing use of low-carbon electricity for heating and transport, within the context of critical European Union developments and policies. Their development started from narrative storylines regarding different governance framings, drawing on interviews and workshops with stakeholders and analysis of historical analogies. The quantified UK pathways were named Market Rules, Central Co-ordination and Thousand Flowers; each reflecting a dominant logic of governance arrangements. The aim of the present contribution was to use these pathways to explore what is needed to realise a transition that successfully addresses the so-called energy policy ?trilemma,? i.e. the simultaneous delivery of low carbon, secure and affordable energy services. Analytical tools were developed and applied to assess the technical feasibility, social acceptability, and environmental and economic impacts of the pathways. Technological and behavioural developments were examined, alongside appropriate governance structures and regulations for these low-carbon transition pathways, as well as the roles of key energy system ?actors? (both large and small). An assessment of the part that could possibly be played by future demand side response was also undertaken in order to understand the factors that drive energy demand and energy-using behaviour, and reflecting growing interest in demand side response for balancing a system with high proportions of renewable generation. A set of interacting and complementary engineering and techno-economic models or tools were then employed to analyse electricity network infrastructure investment and operational decisions to assist market design and option evaluation. This provided a basis for integrating the analysis within a whole systems framework of electricity system development, together with the evaluation of future economic benefits, costs and uncertainties. Finally, the energy and environmental performance of the different energy mixes were appraised on a ?life-cycle? basis to determine the greenhouse gas emissions and other ecological or health burdens associated with each of the three transition pathways. Here, the challenges, insights and opportunities that have been identified over the transition towards a low-carbon future in the United Kingdom are described with the purpose of providing a valuable evidence base for developers, policy makers and other stakeholders.
Sustainability requires urgent, radical innovation from the private sector. However, private sector-led sustainability which meaningfully advances social, environmental and economic goals remains a rare occurrence. Despite the potential role of balanced environmental strategies such as ecological modernisation, there remains a lack of understanding of how such theories can be translated to actions at the level of a single organisation.
This thesis explores the topics of ecological modernisation, employee engagement and sustainability-oriented innovation, grounded by a case study of Interface, a global manufacturing company. The work helps to build an understanding of the practicalities of organisation-level ecological modernisation, corporate sustainability and innovation in practice. It makes use of a case study research strategy combined with a grounded theory methodological approach. Three themes; ecological modernisation, employee engagement and sustainability-oriented innovation, are discussed and are applied to the analysis of the case material.
The following key findings emerge:
" Ecological modernisation, a theory typically applied and discussed at the macro-sociological level, is explored at the level of a single organisation, where it is used to contextualise the actions of Interface which contribute to wider, system-level sustainable disruptions. This is found to be a useful unit of analysis compared with typical explorations of EM, and reveals a number of interesting pathways by which EM organisations might impact upon the wider system in which they operate;
" Social dimensions of EM theory are discussed and explored. By considering Interface at the centre of a larger, interconnected network of actors, it is found that there are numerous dynamics at play, including the role of employees and their levels of engagement, the role of competitors and the wider industry, the role of customers and the role of suppliers;
" Temporal dimensions of EM are revealed and discussed, and several barriers are shown to emerge for Interface as it progresses further into a 20-year journey towards sustainability. Most strikingly, the low-hanging fruit is no longer available, and Interface finds itself in the ?tall canopy? in seeking further reductions in emissions and waste;
" Net-Works, a radical, innovative recycling project is presented and compared with other, less successful innovations from Interface. The contextual factors that gave rise to Net-Works are a combination of a radical goal, deliberate adoption of a social goal, and a safe failure space. Success is owed to developed capabilities, incorporation into an existing product, and partnering with an NGO and academia for accountability and credibility.
Whilst the rapid spread of solar photovoltaics (PV) across Africa has already transformed millions of lives, it has yet to have an impact on the main energy need of poor households: cooking. In the context of falling global PV prices, recent advancements in battery technology and rising charcoal/fuelwood prices in severely deforested regions, the door is opening for a potentially transformative alternative - solar electric cooking (PV-eCook). While initial investigations focused on solar home systems sized for cooking (cooking device, battery storage, charge controller and PV array), it has since been shown that battery-supported electric cooking (eCook) can also strengthen national, mini, micro and nano grids.
This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) based methodology, accounting for a wide variety of socio-cultural, political, technical and economic factors which are expected to affect the uptake and potential impact of eCook across a variety of African contexts. It shows the concept has considerable viability in many African countries, that there are significant sizeable markets (millions of potential users), and that within the next five years the anticipated costs of eCook are highly competitive against existing ?commercialised polluting fuels?.
This study evaluates the impact of decentralisation on the reliability of electricity networks, particularly under stressed conditions. By applying four strategies to add decentralised generators to the grid, the impact on network reliability has been assessed, where the blackout impact has been defined as the product of the relative blackout size and the relative blackout frequency. The general approach taken to decentralise the network is to replace the aggregated generation capacity at an existing node with three new nodes representing the total generation capacity of multiple decentralised generators. Two different networks have been used: a reduced and aggregated version of the electricity network of Great Britain (GB) and the IEEE 39 network, and each of them has been assessed for decentralisation based on conventional energy sources and for decentralisation based on intermittent renewable energy sources. The results suggest that adding significant amounts of DGs, especially if it is intermittent, can seriously reduce network reliability; however, various approaches regarding the decentralisation strategy and management of the resulting network can mitigate the negative effects.
Around the world there is strong interest in the use of energy feedback via smart metering technology as an option for businesses to reduce their energy use and mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs). In order to bring about such energy reductions in this way, the feedback provided needs to motivate changes in energy behaviours and practices within organisations. The chapter explores the impact of a real-life smart metering intervention and its impact on the emergence and diffusion of energy-related social norms and the link between these and energy use. The chapter begins by looking at early organisation and energy conservation studies (mainly feedback-based), before moving on to organisational and social norms studies, and concluding with those most relevant to the current chapter. We first briefly define what we mean by social norms. Cialdini et al. (1991) argue that social norms can be defined as either injunctive (characterised by perception of what most people approve or disapprove of) or descriptive (characterised by what most people do). According to this argument, injunctive norms incentivise action by promising social rewards and punishments (informal sanctions) for it (and therefore enjoin behaviour). According to Cialdini et al. (1991) these constitute the moral rules of a group. Descriptive norms on the other hand, inform behaviour, and incentivise action, by providing evidence of what are likely to be effective and adaptive steps to take based on what others do (Cialdini et al. 1991). The ?focus theory? of Cialdini et al. (1991) stipulates that this differentiation of social norms is critical to a full understanding of their influence on human behaviour.
Agro-industries have the potential to catalyse energy access and promote development. Mauritius is one of the most advanced countries in the use of waste from sugar processing (bagasse) to simultaneously generate heat and electricity (cogeneration) to feed into the grid, but developments have evolved over several decades with complex dynamics between different actors. A multi-level perspective is used in this paper to examine this process and to extract policy lessons for other countries. The analysis shows how policies influenced the development of the bagasse cogeneration niche and changes in the sugar and energy regimes over time. The formation of independent power producers, centralisation of sugar mills, the use of a complementary fuel (coal) in the off-crop season, and targeted financial incentives were important for the development of bagasse cogeneration in Mauritius. Mauritian sugar mills are at the forefront of niche technological and organisational innovations in response to recent reduction in sugar prices. The country has been able to respond to changes and manage niche innovations strategically due to the deployment of finance, technical expertise and strong governance structures which enabled the government to coordinate with industry. Therefore, local capacity and institutional context are important for managing transitions towards sustainable energy.
The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus concept highlights the importance of integrative solutions that secure resource supplies and meet demands sustainably. There is a need for translating the nexus concept into clear frameworks and tools that can be applied to decision making. A simulation and analytics framework, and a concomitant Nexus Simulation System (NexSym) is presented here. NexSym advances the state-of-the-art in nexus tools by explicit dynamic modelling of local techno-ecological interactions relevant to WEF operations. The modular tool integrates models for ecosystems, WEF production and consumption components and allows the user to build, simulate and analyse a ?flowsheet? of a local system. This enables elucidation of critical interactions and gaining knowledge and understanding that supports innovative solutions by balancing resource supply and demand and increasing synergies between components, while maintaining ecosystems. NexSym allowed assessment of the synergistic design of a local nexus system in a UK eco-town. The design improved local nutrient balance and meets 100% of electricity demand, while achieving higher carbon capture and biomass provisioning, higher water reuse and food production, however with a remarkable impact on land use.
This paper presents an exploratory analysis of microgeneration installer businesses in the UK during a period of intense change in policies supporting microgeneration from 2010 to 2012. The research examines the influence of installer businesses on rates of uptake and standards of installation, and the interplay between business practices and the policy environment. The research developed new detailed datasets through a nationwide survey, to which 388 installers responded, and follow-up interviews with 22 installers. Focusing on solar photovoltaics and air source heat pumps installed in households, the results show the fundamental dependence of installer businesses on government financial incentives and on the quality assurance scheme in operation. Market confidence was compromised by the sharp reduction in the Feed-In Tariff (FIT) for residential solar PV in 2012 and long delays to the equivalent Renewable Heat Incentive for residential installations. Nevertheless, more modest FIT levels have reduced the risk of sub-optimal installations and inappropriate specification of microgeneration systems. The findings underline the need for consistent policy to allow installer businesses and their supply chains to develop and mature, and thus facilitate commercial deployment of microgeneration of high quality, raise its competiveness with incumbent forms of energy supply and contribute to decarbonisation goals.
Electric vehicles have been identified as a key technology to decarbonise road transport which accounts for approximately a quarter of the UK?s greenhouse gas end-user emissions (DECC, 2014). The diffusion of electric vehicles requires a transformation across a large spectrum of societal and economic dimensions. Using research and data over the study period from 2011 to late 2015, this research examines the pathways for transition from today?s personal transport mix to one focused on electric vehicles, the research identifies path dependencies and lock-in of the internal combustion engine that results in sustained usage patterns. The relationship between transition pathways, path dependencies, technology lock-in and e-mobility has been under-researched.
Commercial urban fleets and car clubs were identified as key market opportunities for electric vehicles. Total Cost of Ownership studies and in-depth interviews with industry experts were conducted to identify existing transition barriers for the adoption of electric vehicles within these applications. Established path dependencies of the internal combustion engine and consequent technology lock-in were found to stem from an inter-dependant and reinforcing technology system of roads, service stations, parking facilities and societal status. In order to achieve integrated transport services ?and EVs as part of it - alternative business models are to redefine humankind?s relationship with the car through systemic innovation and competitive finance models.
The multi-level perspective was used to determine the dynamics of change for fleets towards electric vehicles, and the roles of different stakeholder types were explored through the ?action space? of government, civil society, market and governance logics. The results indicate that the diffusion of niche technologies and business models are establishing individual pathways within the two markets. It is evident within the fleet and car club markets that an ?innovator logic? is competing within the action space to unlock EVs through technology innovation that extends beyond the transitional role of hybrids. However, fundamental to each market is the parallel role of government to invest in R&D and motivation crowding to remove lock-in and destabilise the existing regime.
There are narratives based on qualitative and quantitative data that describe the West African Power Sector as very inefficient. In the context of electricity distribution, companies are usually tagged inefficient with various stakeholders justifying that with various analyses, statistics and narratives. Empirical studies establishing such assertions are rather absent or lack a holistic measuring approach. In this work, the acknowledgement of the importance of bench-marking in electricity market regulation is made with the need to further estimate a baseline cost efficiency of the electricity distribution sector of West Africa demonstrated. The aim of this research is to do efficiency studies on the electricity distribution sector of West Africa to comprehend the current state of electricity distribution as well as to understand the underlying causes of inefficiency. Three themes are covered in this thesis. The first theme investigates the theoretical concepts of measuring efficiency and contributes to a longstanding debate regarding the preferred choice of statistical distribution underlying the inefficiency term in the stochastic frontier approach. In this regard, the Burr Type X stochastic frontier model is constructed and tested against other existing models including Normal-Half Normal, Normal- Exponential and Normal-Rayleigh stochastic models. The investigation presents the newly constructed Burr X stochastic frontier model as one that competes with the other models when using cross-sectional data.
In the second theme, cost efficiencies are estimated from an unbalanced panel of 14 electricity distribution companies over the period of 2007-2014 using several panel data models including the pooled model, Pitt & Lee model, true random effects model and true fixed effects model. The results suggest that the EDCs in the West African region operate at an average efficiency level of 52% (pooled normal-Half normal estimate) which appears to validate the perception of many stakeholders. The Nigerian EDCs have a mean inefficiency level of 51% which is the worst among the sub groups considered. The East African comparator (KPEDC in Kenya) recorded an efficiency level of 63% and was outperformed by some West African EDCs. The results demanded an investigation into the underlying reasons for such high inefficiencies in the West African sub-region considering that the sector has experienced significant reform and investment efforts.
In the third theme, using the Electricity Company of Ghana as a case, a Political Economy Analysis (PEA) framework which has the capability of discovering reform opposition and the associated political and economic incentives that unearths informal rules in the industry was employed. Our findings suggest a plethora of possibilities that are encompassed in political and cultural characteristics of consumers, management and political stakeholders who assume overwhelming powers to further influence the governance of the power industry. Perceived inefficiency drivers seem to emanate from financial mismanagement, cultural and attitudinal forces, unsatisfactory regulation, mismanagement of third party contractors, procurements lapses and others. Privatisation seems to be the way forward according to the views of many stakeholders but there are issues surrounding the fear of high cost of electricity as well as downsizing of the utility that could bring hardship to the staff who will be included in such a programme.
Re-distributed manufacturing (RDM) is of high economic and political interest and is associated with rapid technological, environmental, political, regulatory and social changes in the UK. RDM of food raises opportunities and questions around the local nexus of food, energy and water. Considering these together can provide opportunities for rationalising resource utilisation, production, and consumption while contributing to shared prosperity between business, society and natural ecosystems. This paper concentrates on the energy?food aspects of the nexus for RDM by focusing on the case study of bread manufacturing and transportation in the UK. A detailed analysis of the energy requirements and environmental impacts of centralised bread production and transportation compared with localised options for re-distributed bread manufacturing is undertaken. This is achieved by building on existing literature and developing a series of bread-energy system configurations to model energy usage and green-house gas (GHG) emissions at the large (centralised), medium and small scales.
Results from the analysis indicate that energy use and emissions can in some instances increase as a result of losing economies of scale through downscaling bread manufacturing. However, the analysis shows that overall energy use and emissions along the bread supply chain are dominated by transportation stages. Thus, RDM opens up new opportunities for reductions in overall energy consumption and emissions, for example by using low carbon vehicles for the transportation of bread and flour at the medium and small scales. Major energy use and emission reductions could also be achieved by reducing car usage if more consumers buy in local bakeries.
The configurations also consider energy use for various bread wastage conditions. Assuming that buying more frequently in local bakeries only the bread that is consumed helps avoiding bread wastage, this would lead to reduced bread purchasing and bread manufacturing, which translates to reductions in energy use and emissions in the modelled configurations.
Existing data demonstrate that there is a wide diversity across different manufacturing sites in the energy use and associated emissions per loaf of bread produced. The study highlights the opportunities for improvement in the sector if plant move towards the best available manufacturing technologies and practices, and this may be more practical for smaller scale operations. Two hypothetical bread production scenarios show that a greater share of the UK?s bread being produced locally could result in a reduction in overall energy consumption and emissions.
In the last ten years, electrification in Kenya has proceeded at an astonishing rate. Notwithstanding this feat, household electricity consumption, particularly in rural areas, remains significantly low. Thus, stimulating demand and sustainable consumption are the next critical challenges policymakers face. In this paper, we present a case study of an electrification project that targets workers? housing inside a commercial tea estate. We use Energy Cultures framework to analyse what motivates and constrains household electricity consumption in rural Kenya. Our findings show that although people give significant consideration to cost, money is not the only determinant. Electricity is desired to the extent that it enables families to carry out socially desirable activities, while service is measured against expectations and aspirations. Although access to the grid influences households? perceptions of wellbeing, their status as migrant workers has a constraining effect on how they consume electricity. Empowered by technology, households are also increasingly taking charge in shaping their own distinct energy cultures. However, for the most part, this involves finding new ways to reproduce and sustain a way of life that is consistent with their belief systems. Seeing households as embodiments of lifestyles whose energy culture is shaped by their on-going interactions with their physical and social environments, the paper argues for an integrated approach to policy and programmatic interventions.
Evidence demonstrates that tackling indoor overheating is a key priority within the context of climate change adaptation, particularly for residential buildings, whose occupants are more likely to be highly exposed and vulnerable to it.
The overarching aim of the research is to provide guidance for building designers on how to minimise the overheating risk of new residential buildings in the UK, to ensure these can be capable of maintaining thermal comfort in a changing climate.
The first part of the research involved using two case studies to explore different aspects of the problem. A climate change adaptation study explored and assessed measures for future-proofing an extra-care scheme in the north of England, highlighting the importance of early-stage analysis and client?s engagement through effective communication. A post-occupancy study on a new social housing development helped to gain an understanding of the role of building occupants in perceiving and acting upon overheating, and emphasised discrepancies between design predictions and actual in-use performance.
In the second part of the research, the development a Rapid Overheating ASSessment Tool is presented, seeking to encourage practitioners to appropriately consider thermal comfort in a changing climate, by providing rapid feedback on the overheating risk associated with the early-stage design decisions. The focus is on flats in multi-storey buildings located in London.
An overheating risk database was populated with the results of a large number of parametric dynamic thermal simulations, which included iterative variations of design aspects corresponding to known over-heating risk factors. Statistical meta-models were developed by means of alternative regression techniques, allowing to quantify the relative importance of each risk factor and make ?good-enough? predictions with input available at the early-design stages.
Finally, the work to develop two types of user interface is presented, with the goal of allowing relevant and meaningful information to be extracted from the engine of the tool by its prospective users.
As the UK moves towards a low carbon electrified economy, household level generation of renewable energy will play a key part in reducing peak demand. A knowledge gap remains concerning manual demand shifts that are made as a response to household level microgeneration. This thesis looks at household practices that are manually shifted by the householder to align with the production of self-generated energy and employs a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews carried out on a sample of 34 households.
This thesis argues that a moment of material change occurs when households supplement their grid energy supply with self-generated renewable energy and pursues an approach informed by social practice theory to explore the resulting changes in household practices. It takes a stance that recognises that household energy consumption practices are interwoven: rather than considering distinct individual practices, a wider approach is taken looking at clusters or bundles of practices to enable a more effective exploration of the flexibility within the timing of practices. Whilst this in itself is not a new concept and aligns with the approach of the majority of contemporary practice thought, the novel element of this research is that it uses this approach to consider changes in practice catalysed by the introduction of renewable energy in the household.
Results are presented in terms of how differing levels and patterns of occupancy interact with household practices and energy use. Collective practices and high numbers of fundamental anchor points add to the perception of householders feeling that they are time-squeezed. In contrast, high levels of occupancy increase the time available to the householder to perform energy related practices and thus the feeling of time-squeeze is reduced. In terms of flexibility of clusters of practices, results align with contemporary research: domestic cleaning practices have higher levels of flexibility. The most frequent adaptation seen was the time shifting of laundry practices to coordinate with times of abundant renewable energy supply. Population heterogeneity means that conclusions cannot be drawn too widely beyond the sample population, however results are explored in a more generalised context of policy and possible implications against the background of the move towards an electrified economy.
This thesis investigates factors affecting demand for heat pumps in the residential sector in England and Wales. There are three objectives: to identify the macroeconomic and sociodemographic factors, environmental aspects, climatic conditions and policies that led to the mass deployment of heat pumps in other European countries; to assess the optimal level of heat pump adoption from a societal perspective taking account of environmental externalities; and to identify policies that could result in the mass-market deployment of heat pumps in the UK. Following reviews of studies on consumer preferences for heating systems, and markets and policies to promote heat pumps in eight European countries, two quantitative approaches are followed. The first is an econometric model based on panel data which estimates the impact of macroeconomic, sociodemographic and environmental factors on the demand for heat pumps in Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. The role played by three types of policies, financial/fiscal, informative and legislative, is investigated. These are found to have been significant factors in promoting heat pump take-up. A bottom-up techno-economic model simulating the choice of heating systems in the existing housing stock in England and Wales is then developed and is used to assess optimal heat pump take-up and policies that might promote their adoption. Capital cost subsidies, used in most European countries, are considered alongside the Renewable Heat Incentive approach adopted in the UK. The implications of adding the policy costs of support for renewable energy and energy efficiency to electricity prices, tilting the market against electric technologies, are also considered. The thesis concludes that financial incentives are needed to build heat pump markets, but they are not enough in themselves. Building supply chains, driving down costs and improving the performance of heat pumps are also essential.