Face recognition (FR) using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) has seen remarkable success in recent years. One key ingredient of DCNN-based FR is the design of a loss function that ensures discrimination between various identities. The state-of-the-art (SOTA) solutions utilise normalised Softmax loss with additive and/or multiplicative margins. Despite being popular and effective, these losses are justified only intuitively with little theoretical explanations. In this work, we show that under the LogSumExp (LSE) approximation, the SOTA Softmax losses become equivalent to a proxy-triplet loss that focuses on nearest-neighbour negative proxies only. This motivates us to propose a variant of the proxy-triplet loss, entitled Nearest Proxies Triplet (NPT) loss, which unlike SOTA solutions, converges for a wider range of hyper-parameters and offers flexibility in proxy selection and thus outperforms SOTA techniques. We generalise many SOTA losses into a single framework and give theoretical justifications for the assertion that minimising the proposed loss ensures a minimum separability between all identities. We also show that the proposed loss has an implicit mechanism of hard-sample mining. We conduct extensive experiments using various DCNN architectures on a number of FR benchmarks to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme over SOTA methods.
To counteract spoofing attacks, the majority of recent approaches to face spoofing attack detection formulate the problem as a binary classification task in which real data and attack-accesses are both used to train spoofing detectors. Although the classical training framework has been demonstrated to deliver satisfactory results, its robustness to unseen attacks is debatable. Inspired by the recent success of anomaly detection models in face spoofing detection, we propose an ensemble of one-class classifiers fused by a Stacking ensemble method to reduce the generalisation error in the more realistic unseen attack scenario. To be consistent with this scenario, anomalous samples are considered neither for training the component anomaly classifiers nor for the design of the Stacking ensemble. To achieve better face-anti spoofing results, we adopt client-specific information to build both constituent classifiers as well as the Stacking combiner. Besides, we propose a novel 2-stage Genetic Algorithm to further improve the generalisation performance of Stacking ensemble. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed systems on publicly available face anti-spoofing databases including Replay-Attack, Replay-Mobile and Rose-Youtu. The experimental results following the unseen attack evaluation protocol confirm the merits of the proposed model.
Recently, impressively growing efforts have been devoted to the challenging task of facial age estimation. The improvements in performance achieved by new algorithms are measured on several benchmarking test databases with different characteristics to check on consistency. While this is a valuable methodology in itself, a significant issue in the most age estimation related studies is that the reported results lack an assessment of intrinsic system uncertainty. Hence, a more in-depth view is required to examine the robustness of age estimation systems in different scenarios. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an evaluative and comparative analysis of different age estimation systems to identify trends, as well as the points of their critical vulnerability. In particular, we investigate four age estimation systems, including the online Microsoft service, two best state-of-the-art approaches advocated in the literature, as well as a novel age estimation algorithm. We analyse the effect of different internal and external factors, including gender, ethnicity, expression, makeup, illumination conditions, quality and resolution of the face images, on the performance of these age estimation systems. The goal of this sensitivity analysis is to provide the biometrics community with the insight and understanding of the critical subject-, camera- and environmental-based factors that affect the overall performance of the age estimation system under study.
—Label distribution Learning (LDL) is the state-of-the-art approach to deal with a number of real-world applications , such as chronological age estimation from a face image, where there is an inherent similarity among adjacent age labels. LDL takes into account the semantic similarity by assigning a label distribution to each instance. The well-known Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence is the widely used loss function for the LDL framework. However, the KL divergence does not fully and effectively capture the semantic similarity among age labels, thus leading to the sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we propose a novel loss function based on optimal transport theory for the LDL-based age estimation. A ground metric function plays an important role in the optimal transport formulation. It should be carefully determined based on underlying geometric structure of the label space of the application in-hand. The label space in the age estimation problem has a specific geometric structure, i.e. closer ages have more inherent semantic relationship. Inspired by this, we devise a novel ground metric function, which enables the loss function to increase the influence of highly correlated ages; thus exploiting the semantic similarity among ages more effectively than the existing loss functions. We then use the proposed loss function, namely γ–Wasserstein loss, for training a deep neural network (DNN). This leads to a notoriously computationally expensive and non-convex optimisa-tion problem. Following the standard methodology, we formulate the optimisation function as a convex problem and then use an efficient iterative algorithm to update the parameters of the DNN. Extensive experiments in age estimation on different benchmark datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, which consistently outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.