Professor Robert Dorey

Head of School of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, Professor of Nanomaterials
PhD, CSci, CEng, FIMMM
+44 (0)1483 689608
30A AB 03


University roles and responsibilities

  • Head of School: Mechanical Engineering Sciences
  • Director of EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Micro and Nanomaterials and Technology
  • Director of Sustainable Printing Applied Research Knowledge laboratory
  • Head of the Functional NanoMaterials research group


    Research interests

    Research projects

    Research collaborations


    Postgraduate research supervision


    Xiaodong Liu, Demie Kepaptsoglou, Ewa Jakubczyk, Jincheng Yu, Andrew Thomas, Bing Wang, Feridoon Azough, Zhaohe Gao, Xiangli Zhong, Robert Dorey, Quentin M. Ramasse, Robert Freer (2023)High Power Factor Nb-Doped TiO2 Thermoelectric Thick Films: Toward Atomic Scale Defect Engineering of Crystallographic Shear Structures, In: ACS applied materials & interfaces15(4)pp. 5071-5085 Amer Chemical Soc

    Donor-doped TiO2-based materials are promising thermoelectrics (TEs) due to their low cost and high stability at elevated temperatures. Herein, high-performance Nb-doped TiO2 thick films are fabricated by facile and scalable screen-printing techniques. Enhanced TE performance has been achieved by forming high-density crystallographic shear (CS) structures. All films exhibit the same matrix rutile structure but contain different nano-sized defect structures. Typically, in films with low Nb content, high concentrations of oxygen-deficient {121} CS planes are formed, while in films with high Nb content, a high density of twin boundaries are found. Through the use of strongly reducing atmospheres, a novel Al-segregated {210} CS structure is formed in films with higher Nb content. By advanced aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques, we reveal the nature of the {210} CS structure at the nano-scale. These CS structures contain abundant oxygen vacancies and are believed to enable energy-filtering effects, leading to simultaneous enhancement of both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients. The optimized films exhibit a maximum power factor of 4.3 x 10-4 W m-1 K-2 at 673 K, the highest value for TiO2-based TE films at elevated temperatures. Our modulation strategy based on microstructure modification provides a novel route for atomic-level defect engineering which should guide the development of other TE materials.

    Parham Mostofizadeh, Robert Dorey, Iman Mohagheghian (2024)Elastic Properties Prediction of Two- and Three-Dimensional Multi-Material Lattices, In: Thin-walled structures [e-journal]201112015 Elsevier Ltd

    Advances in multi-material additive manufacturing have opened unprecedented new opportunities for the design and manufacture of lightweight multifunctional structures. The ability to create complex topologies, at a relatively fine resolution, in addition to controlling the material composition on a voxel basis have significantly expanded the design space. To explore this large design space efficiently, accurate and cost-effective modeling tools are essential. In this paper, mechanics-based models for predicting the elastic properties of multi-material 2D and 3D lattice structures are developed or extended. The outcomes are compared with the predictions obtained from finite element models and experimental data. The results reveal that the adapted analytical models demonstrate good accuracy in predicting the elastic modulus of multi-material lattices for relative densities up to approximately 25% while have considerably less computational cost compared to finite element using solid elements (providing the most accurate results in comparison with experiment). Careful consideration of the accuracy of the predictions is necessary for the use of these models for lattices with high relative density values. Besides, several homogenization-based models were studied to investigate their applicability to multi-material lattice structures when the assumption of scale-separation is considered valid. The capability of these models in predicting the whole elasticity tensor and the potential of multi-material lattices in manipulating the anisotropy are demonstrated. Finally, the introduced prediction frameworks are compared in order to provide an overview of their respective advantages and disadvantages in the case of multi-material lattice structures.

    Jasmine Bone, Antony Maxwell, Graham Sims, CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH FOREMAN, Robert Andrew Dorey, Stephen Louis Ogin (2022)ACCELERATED AGEING AND MOISTURE ABSORPTION IN POLYMER COMPOSITES, In: EngD data of PhD 'On the Effect of Accelerated Ageing and Moisture Absorption in Polymer Composites'

    There has been extensive development in the offshore and marine industries of the use of polymer composite materials and understanding the durability of these materials is a significant challenge. Numerous test methods exist for the accelerated ageing of polymeric materials at the laboratory scale, but tests employing a combination of exposure conditions (e.g. at elevated temperature, under pressure, under a mechanical load) are lacking. In this work elevated temperatures are used to accelerate the ageing of polymer composite specimens when exposed to different combinations of immersion in water, pressure and mechanical loading. The results show that the behaviour of the material exposed to different combinations of exposure conditions, produces changes in residual properties (i.e. flexural modulus flexural strength and Tg) which are complex. Of immediate significance to understanding the behaviour of composites in a marine environment is the observation of a very significant decrease in the rate of moisture absorption for specimens tested under a pressure of 300 bar.

    Parham Mostofizadeh, Robert Dorey, Iman Mohagheghian (2024)Active Stiffness Tuning of Lattice Metamaterials, In: Smart materials and structures IOP

    In this paper, surface conductive heating was utilized to actively control the stiffness of lattice metamaterials manufactured employing multi-material 3D printing. To create an electrical surface conduction, additively manufactured samples in single and dual material configurations were dip coated in a solution of carbon black in water. Electro-thermo-mechanical tests conducted successfully demonstrated that the low-cost conductive coating can be used to actively alter the stiffness of the structure through surface joule heating. The process was found to result in repeatable and reproduceable stiffness tuning. Stiffness reductions of 56% and 94% were demonstrated for single and dual material configurations under the same electrical loading. The proposed methodology can be implemented to actively control the properties of polymeric lattice materials/structures where the change in the composition of polymers (introduce bulk electrical conductivity) is difficult and can have a wide range of applications in soft robotics, shape-changing, and deployable structures. 

    Joydip Ghosh, Joseph O'Neill, Mateus G Masteghin, Isabel Braddock, Carol Crean, Robert Dorey, Hayden Salway, Miguel Anaya, Justin Reiss, Douglas Wolfe, Paul Sellin (2023)Surfactant-Dependent Bulk Scale Mechanochemical Synthesis of CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals for Plastic Scintillator-Based X-ray Imaging, In: ACS applied nano materials6(16)pp. 14980-14990 American Chemical Society (ACS)

    We report a facile, solvent-free surfactant-dependent mechanochemical synthesis of highly luminescent CsPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs) and study their scintillation properties. A small amount of surfactant oleylamine (OAM) plays an important role in the two-step ball milling method to control the size and emission properties of the NCs. The solid-state synthesized perovskite NCs exhibit a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of up to 88% with excellent stability. CsPbBr3 NCs capped with different amounts of surfactant were dispersed in toluene and mixed with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer and cast into scintillator discs. With increasing concentration of OAM during synthesis, the PL yield of CsPbBr3/PMMA nanocomposite was increased, which is attributed to reduced NC aggregation and PL quenching. We also varied the perovskite loading concentration in the nanocomposite and studied the resulting emission properties. The most intense PL emission was observed from the 2% perovskite-loaded disc, while the 10% loaded disc exhibited the highest radioluminescence (RL) emission from 50 kV X-rays. The strong RL yield may be attributed to the deep penetration of X-rays into the composite, combined with the large interaction cross-section of the X-rays with the high-Z atoms within the NCs. The nanocomposite disc shows an intense RL emission peak centered at 536 nm and a fast RL decay time of 29.4 ns. Further, we have demonstrated the X-ray imaging performance of a 10% CsPbBr3 NC-loaded nanocomposite disc.

    Iman Mohagheghian, Dimitrios Charaklias, Dayuan Qiang, Robert Andrew Dorey (2023)Rapid de-stiffening of multilayer transparent structures using controlled thermoplastic softening, In: Smart materials and structures32(11)115020 IOP Publishing

    Thermoplastic softening is one of the most desirable de-stiffening methods because of its reversibility, scalability, and applicability in many of current multi-layered structures without compromising structural performance. Despite the advantages, long activation times and high activation power requirements are generally considered as the main drawbacks for this method which can potentially limit its application in scenarios where fast de-stiffening is required. The aim of this study is to identify the key design requirements of heating element to minimise the de-stiffening response time using thermoplastic softening while maximising transparency. The focus of this study is on multilayer transparent structures, with low heating element content. A systematic investigation, including experimental and numerical investigation, is performed to study the effect of the fill factor and the heating element’s length scale on the response time of de-stiffening. Melting of the polymer and melting or electrical breakdown of the heating element are observed as practical limitations and are introduced as constraints to the design maps. The fill factor is found to have considerable influence on improving the response time, especially at low fill factors (i.e. below 10%). For the material combinations investigated here, the design maps show that heating elements with wire diameters up to 7 μm, at maximum transparency of 2% fill factor and up to 12 μm at 20% fill factor can achieve sub-second response times for temperature increase of 30⁰C. This new understanding will accelerate the technology readiness level of active structural control technology to be used in the future multi-functional and smart structures with a wide range of application in robotics, shape morphing, active damping, and active impact protection.

    Joseph O'Neill, Joydip Ghosh, Suad Alghamdi, Isabel Braddock, Carol Crean, Robert Dorey, Roma Mulholland, Sion Richards, Matthew Wilson, Hayden Salway, Miguel Anaya, Justin Reiss, Douglas Wolfe, Paul Sellin (2024)Hydrothermal and Mechanosynthesis of Mixed‐Cation Double Perovskite Scintillators for Radiation Detection, In: Advanced Optical Materials12(2)2301335 Wiley

    This article details work performed on the synthesis and characterization of an inorganic mixed‐cation double halide perovskite, Cs 2 Ag .6 Na .4 In .85 Bi .15 Cl 6 (CANIBIC). Single crystals have been created via a hydrothermal reaction, milled into a powder, and pressed into pellets, while nanocrystals have been directly synthesized via mechanosynthesis. A computational model is constructed to predict the X‐ray diffraction pattern of CANIBIC; this model aligns very well with the X‐ray diffraction pattern measured for CANIBIC crystal powder. This model can therefore be developed in the future as a tool to predict lattice parameters and crystal structures of other novel double‐halide perovskites. Photoluminescence spectra obtained from each format show broad emission centered at 630 nm, as is typical for self‐trapped exciton emission; self‐trapped exciton emission is also confirmed by investigating photoluminescence intensity as a function of laser power. Nanocomposites are produced via the loading of nanocrystals of CANIBIC into PMMA. Although nanocomposite disks consisting of a small proportion of CANIBIC nanocrystals in PMMA have a smaller mass attenuation coefficient than a pressed pellet of CANIBIC, these disks have comparatively bright radioluminescence due to their optical transparency. These nanocomposite disks are therefore a particularly useful format for the practical use of the CANIBIC scintillator.

    Dayuan Qiang, Dimitrios Charaklias, Robert A Dorey, Iman Mohagheghian (2024)The role of network topology on electro-thermal and optical characteristics of transparent thermal heaters based on embedded random metallic mesh, In: Advanced theory and simulations Wiley

    Transparent thermal heaters based on metallic networks have gained considerable attention in the last few years as a result of their superior response time, low sheet resistance and low cost of manufacturing. To increase the mechanical stability and reliability of the thermal heater, it is desirable to embed the metallic network in some form of matrix. Embedding the network however, changes the nature of thermal conduction making both in-plane and out-of-plane thermal conduction important for ensuring reliability and uniform thermal distribution. The performance of embedded thermal heaters is also significantly influenced by the geometry of metallic network, both in terms of optical transparency and thermal performance. In this paper, we have developed a coupled electro-thermal model and an electromagnetic model to investigate the properties of an embedded metallic mesh in a polymer matrix. IR thermal imaging and UV spectrophotometer have been used to quantify thermal transport and transparency in the system and to verify the performance of FE models. A systematic study is then performed to assess the role of network topology both on in-plane and out-of-plane thermal distribution and optical performance. According to numerical analysis, a structure-property relationship has been established which could provide desirable network configurations to optimize performance.

    MICHAEL PYCRAFT HUGHES, EMILY JANE KRUCHEK, Andrew D. Beale, Stephen J. Kitcatt, Sara Qureshi, Zachary P. Trott, Oriane Charbonnel, Paul A. Agbaje, Erin A. Henslee, ROBERT ANDREW DOREY, REBECCA LEWIS, FATIMA LABEED (2021)Vm-related extracellular potentials observed in red blood cells, In: Scientific Reports Nature Research

    Even in nonexcitable cells, the membrane potential Vm is fundamental to cell function, with roles from ion channel regulation, development, to cancer metastasis. Vm arises from transmembrane ion concentration gradients; standard models assume homogeneous extracellular and intracellular ion concentrations, and that Vm only exists across the cell membrane and has no significance beyond it. Using red blood cells, we show that this is incorrect, or at least incomplete; Vm is detectable in the extracellular ion concentration beyond the cell surface, and that modulating Vm produces quantifiable and consistent changes in extracellular potential. Evidence strongly suggests this is due to capacitive coupling between Vm and the electrical double layer, rather than molecular transporters. We show that modulating Vm changing the extracellular ion composition mimics the behaviour of voltage-activated ion channel in non-excitable channels. We also observe Vm-synchronised circadian rhythms in extracellular potential, with significant implications for cell-cell interactions and cardiovascular disease.

    ITSASO ECHEVERRIA, David T. Fishpool, Virtudes Rubio Diaz, ROBERT ANDREW DOREY, JULIE ANNE YEOMANS (2022)Evaluation of polymer matrix composite manufacturing routes for production of an oxide/oxide ceramic matrix composite, In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society [e-journal].42(5) Elsevier

    The use of manufacturing methods commonly used for polymer matrix composites (PMCs) in the production of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), as opposed to more traditional ceramic manufacturing methods, has the potential to reduce the cost of components. This work focuses on three typical PMC manufacturing methods and assesses their suitability for the production of an oxide-oxide porous matrix ceramic composite, starting from a commercially available pre-impregnated Nextel 610®/aluminium oxide material. While all the techniques can be used to produce CMCs, results showed that compared with vacuum bagging and warm pressing, autoclave processing produced the best outcome. It resulted in the most uniform thickness laminates and the lowest macro-porosity, as well as the highest flexural strength. 

    FILIPE MASUCH RIBEIRO RICHHEIMER, David Toth, Bekele Hailegnaw, MARK ALAN BAKER, ROBERT ANDREW DOREY, Ferry Kienberger, Fernando A. Castro, Martin Kaltenbrunner, Markus C. Scharber, Georg Gramse, Sebastian Wood (2022)Ion-driven nanograin formation in early-stage degradation of tri-cation perovskite films, In: Nanoscale Royal Society of Chemistry

    The operational stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite based solar cells is a challenge for widespread commercial adoption. The mobility of ionic species is a key contributor to perovskite instability since ion migration can lead to unfavourable changes in the crystal lattice and ultimately destabilisation of the perovskite phase. Here we study the nanoscale early-stage degradation of mixed-halide mixed-cation perovskite films under operation-like conditions using electrical scanning probe microscopy to investigate the formation of surface nanograin defects. We identify the nanograins as lead iodide and study their formation in ambient and inert environments with various optical, thermal, and electrical stress conditions in order to elucidate the different underlying degradation mechanisms. We find that the intrinsic instability is related to the polycrystalline morphology, where electrical bias stress leads to the build-up of charge at grain boundaries and lateral space charge gradients that destabilise the local perovskite lattice facilitating escape of the organic cation. This mechanism is accelerated by enhanced ionic mobility under optical excitation. Our findings highlight the importance of inhibiting the formation of local charge imbalance, either through compositions preventing ionic redistribution or local grain boundary passivation, in order to extend operational stability in perovskite photovoltaics.

    Dayuan Qiang, Dimitrios Charaklias, Robert A. Dorey, Iman Mohagheghian (2024)Transparent Structures with a Fast De-Stiffening Functionality, In: Advanced engineering materials2301691 Wiley

    The majority of natural organisms interact with their environments with a degree of mechanical adaptability that allows them to carry out a variety of tasks and adapt to changing circumstances. Human-made structures, however, lack this versatility and are normally designed to fulfill a certain load-carrying requirement. This causes limitations in performance, efficiency, and safety. The aim of this article is to present rapid de-stiffening in the response of conventional structures, without compromising the load-bearing capacity. This has been achieved by developing an active interface using an interconnected nanostructured metallic network. A very fast heating rate with an average of approximate to 45 degrees C s-1 under 4.8 V excitation while retaining transparency of 67% is demonstrated. The embedded metallic network in a thermoplastic matrix has been deployed as an active interface, in a conventional transparent multilayered structure. Upon activation, it provides a rapid (i.e., 2 s after activation) mechanical de-stiffening capability. The results from finite element modeling have been found to be in good agreements with those from experiments. The rapid reversible stiffness tuning demonstrated here can be implemented in variety of multilayered structures with a wide range of applications in robotics, morphing and deployable structures, active damping, and active impact safety systems. Herein, a transparent active interface is presented, which is manufactured using a template-based technique and is capable of very fast heating rates (approximate to 45 degrees C s-1 under 4.8 V excitation). The proposed interface can be utilized in many conventional multilayer structures and have great potentials for improving impact safety in pedestrian crashing or in human-robot interaction by fast de-stiffening of structures.image (c) 2024 WILEY-VCH GmbH

    R Dorey, S Roy, A Sharma, C Ghanty, SB Majumder (2014)Composite film processing, In: T Schneller, R Waser, M Kosec, D Payne (eds.), Chemical Solution Deposition of Functional Oxide Thin Films978321(19)pp. 445-482 Springer

    Under the broad umbrella of chemical solution depositions (CSD), synthesis of thick films (>1 μm) using a combination of sol and particles (consisting of particles >100 nm size) has first been reviewed. Here the sol is used to both enhance the sintering and performance of conventional powder films as well as being integral to the formation of true powder-sol composite films where the sol forms in integral part of the deposited ink. Advantages and limitation of these composite sol-gel processing techniques are considered and deposition routes explored. The subsequent sections are devoted to outline the novel concept of composite thin film synthesis using molecular precursors. Based on the authors' own experience and existing literature, the perspective, potential and possibilities of the electro-ceramic thin films synthesized using sub 100 nm particulate precursor sols has been outlined.

    RA Dorey, GJT Leighton (2012)Printed actuatorspp. 410-428

    An actuator can be defined as a mechanical device that creates a physical movement within a system. While this definition can encompass many different devices, the focus of this chapter is on printed films that are able to impart an actuation action by virtue of being composed of an active material (piezoelectric, magnetostrictive and shape memory alloy) that deforms mechanically when subjected to an external stimulus. For film-based actuators, actuation is most commonly achieved by coupling the active material with an inactive support structure that induces a bending moment when the active material is made to contract or expand parallel to the film plane. The approaches used to integrate thick active films with a variety of substrates are examined, along with the limitations and microstructural effects that arise as a consequence of co-processing materials. © 2012 Woodhead Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

    Randunu Devage Ishara Gihan Dharmasena, Imalka Jayawardena, Christopher Mills, Jonathan Deane, Jose Anguita, Robert Dorey, S Silva (2017)Triboelectric Nanogenerators: Providing a Fundamental Framework, In: Energy & Environmental Science10(8)pp. 1801-1811 Royal Society of Chemistry

    A new model which comprehensively explains the working principles of contact-mode Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENGs) based on Maxwell’s equations is presented. Unlike previous models which are restricted to known simple geometries and derived using the parallel plate capacitor model, this model is generic and can be modified to a wide range of geometries and surface topographies. We introduce the concept of a distance-dependent electric field, a factor not taken in to account in previous models, to calculate the current, voltage, charge, and power output under different experimental conditions. The versatality of the model is demonstrated for non-planar geometry consisting of a covex-conave surface. The theoretical results show excellent agreement with experimental TENGs. Our model provides a complete understanding of the working principles of TENGs, and accurately predicts the output trends, which enables the design of more efficient TENG structures.

    RA Dorey, F Dauchy, D Wang, R Berriet (2007)Fabrication and characterisation of annular thickness mode piezoelectric micro ultrasonic transducers, In: IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectricspp. 732-733

    Micromachining techniques, in combination with low temperature ceramic composite sol gel processing, have been used to fabricate annular array thickness-mode piezoelectric micro ultrasonic transducers (Tm-pMUT). The processing techniques of low temperature (720°C) composite sol gel ceramic (sol + ceramic powder) deposition and wet etching will be described and device architectures demonstrated. Using these techniques, high quality PZT materials with near bulk permittivity have been obtained. The Tm-pMUT device resonated in the range of 50-100MHz with a kt of between 0.3 and 0.4 depending on processing conditions. Examples of devices will be presented along with results of electrical and resonance measurements.

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films, a few tens of micrometres thick, are of technological interest for integration with microsystems to create micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) with high sensitivity and power output. This paper examines the challenges faced in integrating thick film PZT with other materials to create functional micro devices. Thermal, chemical and mechanical challenges associated with integration will be examined and potential solutions explored. © (2009) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

    SA Rocks, SJ Pollard, RA Dorey, PTC Harrison, LS Levy, RD Handy, JF Garrod, R Owen (2009)Risk Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterialspp. 389-421
    F Duval, AC Hladky-Hennion, E Cattan, Q Zhang, R Dorey (2006)Design, fabrication and characterisation of high frequency piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers, In: Proceedings - IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium1pp. 1959-1962

    High frequency bending mode membranes are fabricated using a 1μm PZT thick film deposited by sol-gel. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used to tailor the membrane radius to a resonant frequency in the 5-10MHz frequency range. Using a radius of 16 and 24μm, devices are produced as individual cells as well as 3x3 and 5x5 arrays. The arrays are designed so that the bottom electrode is common to all cells whereas the top electrode is only common to a column of 5 or 3 cells depending on the type of arrays. Within a column each cell was separated by a wall of silicon (having the length of the substrate of silicon) in order to sustain the array, reduce parasitic vibrations, hence cross-talk. A 16μm radius membrane shows a resonant frequency of 9MHz and a coupling coefficient of 11%. Suspended cells are also investigated to increase frequency further. Two arms-suspended cells resonate at 8.1MHz for a 24μm radius membrane. © 2006 IEEE.

    C Moldovan, S Sosin, O Nedelcu, U Kaufmann, HJ Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, S Dimov, P Petkov, R Dorey, K Persson, D Gomez, P Johander (2005)Chemoresistive gas sensor manufacturing using mixed technologies, In: Proceedings of the International Semiconductor Conference, CAS1pp. 201-204

    The paper presents the development of a novel suspended membrane resistive gas sensor on a ceramic substrate. The sensor is designed and simulated to be fabricated by combining laser milling techniques, conductive ceramic technology, thin film technology, and semiconductor metal oxides. Trenches are created in the alumina substrate in order to define the geometry of the heater using laser processing of the substrate. The heater is completed by filling the trenches with conductive ceramic paste and then baking to remove the solvent from the paste. The next step consists of polishing the surface to obtain a surface roughness small enough for thin film technology. A dielectric (SiO 2 or ceramic) material is then deposited, acting as hot plate and also as electrical isolation between the heater and sensing electrode. The sensing electrode consists of an interdigitated resistor made of Au or Pt with thickness in the range of 2000 -3000 Å. The gas sensitive layer (SnO 2) is deposited by screen printing or spinning. When heated it react with gas molecules and changes its resistivity, thereby acting as a sensor. The final step involves releasing the sensor, enabling it to be suspended on four bridges, to minimise the dissipation of the heat in the substrate. © 2005 IEEE.

    Marie R. G. Attard, James Bowen, René Corado, Linnea S. Hall, Robert A. Dorey, Steven J. Portugal (2021)Ecological drivers of eggshell wettability in birds, In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface18(183)20210488pp. 20210488-20210488 The Royal Society

    Complex and at times extreme environments have pushed many bird species to develop unique eggshell surface properties to protect the embryo from external threats. Because microbes are usually transmitted into eggs by moisture, some species have evolved hydrophobic shell surfaces that resist water absorption, while also regulating heat loss and the exchange of gases. Here, we investigate the relationship between the wettability of eggshells from 441 bird species and their life-history traits. We measured the initial contact angle between sessile water droplets and the shell surface, and how far the droplet spread. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we show that body mass, annual temperature and eggshell maculation primarily explained variance in water contact angle across eggshells. Species nesting in warm climates were more likely to exhibit highly hydrophobic eggshells than those nesting in cold climates, potentially to reduce microbial colonization. In non-passerines, immaculate eggs were found to have more hydrophobic surfaces than maculate eggshells. Droplets spread more quickly on eggshells incubated in open nests compared to domed nests, likely to decrease heat transfer from the egg. Here, we identify clear adaptations of eggshell wettability across a diverse range of nesting environments, driven by the need to retain heat and prevent microbial adhesion.

    Jincheng Yu, Yabin Chang, Ewa Jakubczyk, Bing Wang, Feridoon Azough, Robert Dorey, Robert Freer (2021)Modulation of electrical transport in calcium cobaltite ceramics and thick films through microstructure control and doping, In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society41(9)4859pp. 4859-4869 Elsevier Ltd

    •The effects of cobalt deficiency on thermoelectric performance of solid state synthesized Ca2.7Bi0.3CoyO9+δ (y = 3.92, 3.96 and 4.0) bulk ceramics were investigated.•The thermoelectric response of the textured screen-printed Ca2.7Bi0.3Co3.92O9+δ thick films were efficiently tailored by controlling sintering conditions.•The mechanism of the order-disorder transition in the structural grain arrangements near the interface was analyzed. Ca3Co4O9 is a promising p-type thermoelectric oxide material having intrinsically low thermal conductivity. With low cost and opportunities for automatic large scale production, thick film technologies offer considerable potential for a new generation of micro-sized thermoelectric coolers or generators. Here, based on the chemical composition optimized by traditional solid state reaction for bulk samples, we present a viable approach to modulating the electrical transport properties of screen-printed calcium cobaltite thick films through control of the microstructural evolution by optimized heat-treatment. XRD and TEM analysis confirmed the formation of high-quality calcium cobaltite grains. By creating 2.0 at% cobalt deficiency in Ca2.7Bi0.3Co4O9+δ, the pressureless sintered ceramics reached the highest power factor of 98.0 μWm−1 K-2 at 823 K, through enhancement of electrical conductivity by reduction of poorly conducting secondary phases. Subsequently, textured thick films of Ca2.7Bi0.3Co3.92O9+δ were efficiently tailored by controlling the sintering temperature and holding time. Optimized Ca2.7Bi0.3Co3.92O9+δ thick films sintered at 1203 K for 8 h exhibited the maximum power factor of 55.5 μWm−1 K-2 at 673 K through microstructure control.

    RA Dorey (2014)Integrated Powder-Based Thick Films for Thermoelectric, Pyroelectric, and Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices, In: IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL14(7)pp. 2177-2184 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC

    Energy harvesting devices based on piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and thermoelectric materials offer an attractive solution for batteryless and wireless sensor nodes for a range of sensor applications. Current devices are typically fabricated using semimanual approaches leading to higher costs and reduced yields as well as significant material wastage. Powder-based thick film devices have been shown to be capable of harvesting milliwatt levels of power while the associated printing technologies offer commercially attractive fabrication solutions. This paper provides a review of examples of recent piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and thermoelectric powder-based thick film energy harvester devices and outlines potential fabrication techniques, ink compositions, and ways to reduce processing temperatures that can be used to create integrated thick film energy harvesting devices. The key to the creation of such devices is the management of thermal budgets and processing environments to ensure the functional properties of the thick films are maximized.

    E.M. Jakubczyk, A. Mapp, C.C. Chung, C.L. Sansom, J.L. Jones, R.A. Dorey (2019)Enhancing thermoelectric properties of NaCo2O4 ceramics through Na pre-treatment induced nano-decoration, In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds788pp. 91-101 Elsevier

    High quality NaCo2O4 thermoelectrics are challenging to process due to the volatile nature of Na, the slow densification kinetics, and degradation of NaCo2O4 above 900–950 °C leading to the formation of Na-poor second phases. Fine grained sol-gel derived powders have been used to enhance the densification kinetics while pre-treatment of the NaCo2O4 powder with NaOH, to provide a Na rich environment, has been shown to mitigate Na loss at elevated temperatures. While insufficient to compensate for Na loss at processing temperatures of 1000 °C and above, at lower temperatures it is able to enhance densification and facilitate the formation of complex crystal structures yielding low thermal conductivity (0.66 Wm−1K−1) coupled with high electrical conductivity (3.8 × 103 Sm−1) and a Seebeck coefficient of 34.9. The resultant room temperature power factor and ZT were 6.19 × 10−6 Wm−1K−2 and 0.0026, respectively.

    M Tillman, JA Yeomans, RA Dorey (2014)The effect of a constraint on the sintering and stress development in alumina thick films, In: Ceramics International4(7)pp. 9715-9721 Elsevier

    The microstructural and stress evolution of thick (25 μm) alumina films on dense alumina substrates sintered at temperatures from 1300 °C to 1600 °C has been investigated. In this study the constraint on sintering was monitored in the absence of significant differences in thermal expansion between the film and the substrate. For comparison purposes unconstrained alumina pellets sintered at 1300 °C-1600 °C were also examined. Overall, the constrained alumina densified less than the free alumina, as expected, although at intermediate temperatures densification rates were comparable. Sintering in the direction perpendicular to the substrate was enhanced with respect to that parallel to the substrate as a means of stress relaxation. Using fluorescence spectroscopy the residual stresses of the films parallel to the substrates were measured; residual tensile stresses as high as 450±40 MPa were exhibited by the films. The considerable stress development resulted in cracking and delamination of the film from the substrate, subsequently film constraint was reduced and densification was not impeded. © 2014 The Authors.

    Dazhi Wang, Peng Shi, Xuemu Li, Peng Zhou, Kuipeng Zhao, Yunlong Wei, Chongyang Jiang, Junsheng Liang, R.A. Dorey (2018)Fabrication and characterisation of substrate-free PZT thick films, In: Ceramics International44(12)pp. 14258-14263 Elsevier

    This paper reports the preparation of dense and substrate-free PZT thick films. Electrohydrodynamic jet deposition and sol infiltration were utilized to produce dense PZT thick film, then wet chemical etching was employed to successfully remove the silicon substrate. Subsequently, a pure PZT thick film having a thickness of 14 µm without substrate was produced. The piezoresponse force microscopy technique was used to examine the piezoelectric constant (d33, f), it was found that the d33 was increased from 71 pm V−1 to 140 pm V−1, having a double increase. It was also observed that the remnant polarization (Pr) and relative permittivity (εr) of PZT film were distinctly improved after the removal of silicon substrate. The experimental result shows that the substrate clamping had great effects on the electrical properties of PZT films and its effect value was evaluated. In addition, the systematic theoretical analysis of the substrate clamping on film was deeply studied. The theoretical analysis agrees well with the experiment results, which can be used to estimate the effect value caused by the substrate clamping.

    D Wang, E Filoux, F Levassort, M Lethiecq, SA Rocks, RA Dorey (2014)Fabrication and characterization of annular-array, high-frequency, ultrasonic transducers based on PZT thick film, In: SENSORS AND ACTUATORS A-PHYSICAL216pp. 207-213 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA

    In this work, low temperature deposition of ceramics, in combination with micromachining techniques have been used to fabricate a kerfed, annular-array, high-frequency, micro ultrasonic transducer (with seven elements). This transducer was based on PZT thick film and operated in thickness mode. The 27 μm thick PZT film was fabricated using a low temperature (720 °C) composite sol-gel ceramic (sol + ceramic powder) deposition technique. Chemical wet etching was used to pattern the PZT thick film to produce the annular array ultrasonic transducer with a kerf of 90 μm between rings. A 67 MHz parallel resonant frequency in air was obtained. Pulse-echo responses were measured in water, showing that this device was able to operate in water medium. The resonance frequency and pulse-echo response have shown the frequency response presented additional resonance mode, which were due to the lateral modes induced by the small width-to-height ratios, especially for peripheral rings. A hybrid finite-difference (FD) and pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method (FD-PSTD) was used to simulate the acoustic field characteristics of two types of annular devices. One has no physical separation of the rings while the other has 90 μm kerf between each ring. The results show that the kerfed annular-array device has higher sensitivity than the kerfless one.

    D Wang, D Wang, X Zhu, J Liang, J Liang, T Ren, T Ren, W Zha, W Dong, SA Rocks, RA Dorey, Z Xu, Z Xu, X Wang, X Wang (2015)Electrohydrodynamic jet printing of PZT thick film micro-scale structures, In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society35(13)pp. 3475-3483 Elsevier

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. This paper reports the use of a printing technique, called electrohydrodynamic jet printing, for producing PZT thick film micro-scale structures without additional material removing processes. The PZT powder was ball-milled and the effect of milling time on the particle size was examined. This ball-milling process can significantly reduce the PZT particle size and help to prepare stable composite slurry suitable for the E-Jet printing. The PZT micro-scale structures with different features were produced. The PZT lines with different widths and separations were fabricated through the control of the E-Jet printing parameters. The widths of the PZT lines were varied from 80μm to 200μm and the separations were changed from 5μm to 200μm. In addition, PZT walled structures were obtained by multi-layer E-Jet printing. The E-Jet printed PZT thick films exhibited a relative permittivity (er) of ~233 and a piezoelectric constant (d33, f) of ~66pCN-1.

    FFC Duval, RA Dorey, RH Haigh, RW Whatmore (2003)Stable TiO2/Pt electrode structure for lead containing ferroelectric thick films on silicon MEMS structures, In: THIN SOLID FILMS444(1-2)pp. 235-240 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
    R. D. I. G. Dharmasena, H.M Cronin, R. Dorey, S. R. P. Silva (2020)Direct Current Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerators via Systematic Phase Shifting, In: Nano Energy Elsevier

    The intermittency and discontinuous nature of power generation in Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENGs) are arguably their most significant drawback, despite the promise demonstrated in low-power electronics. Herein, we introduce a novel technology to overcome this issue, in which, built-in systematic phase shifting of multiple poles is used to design a pseudo direct-current TENG. Unlike previous attempts of constructing near direct-current TENGs that base on the segmentation of electrodes of a sliding mode TENG, this technology introduces a new method that depends on planned excitation of constituent TENG units at different time intervals to obtain the necessary phase shifts, achieved by their structural design that contains an asymmetric spatial arrangement. Therefore, the direct current generation for TENG, which was previously limited to the sliding mode TENG units, are expanded to contact-mode TENGs. The technology allows for continuous and smooth operation of the driven loads and paves the way for a new dawn in energy scavenging from mechanical sources. We use the distance-dependent electric field (DDEF) platform to design the systematic phase shifting technology, which is experimentally demonstrated via a free-standing mode TENG (FSTENG) based design, to power a number of prototype devices. The resultant power output of the TENG indicates a crest factor close to 1.1 at relatively low frequencies, the best reported values for TENGs with contact-mode basic units, to date. This work provides a highly awaited solution to overcome the intermittency and sporadic nature of TENG outputs, thus, promoting the field towards powering next generation autonomous and mobile electronics.

    C Bell, M Farnsworth, A Tiwari, R Dorey (2013)Theoretical design of a self-rectifying 4-bar linkage mechanism, In: R Roy, A Tiwari, A Shaw, C Bell, P Phillips (eds.), 2ND INTERNATIONAL THROUGH-LIFE ENGINEERING SERVICES CONFERENCE11pp. 385-389 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
    SA Rocks, Q Tredez, HJ Almond, CP Shaw, RA Dorey (2009)Bottom up fabrication of a nickel-lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric microcantilevers, In: MATERIALS LETTERS63(1)pp. 88-90 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
    C Munasinghe, J Heikenfeld, R Dorey, R Whatmore, JP Bender, JF Wager, AJ Steckl (2005)High brightness ZnS and GaN electroluminescent devices using PZT thick dielectric layers, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES52(2)pp. 194-203 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
    FFC Duval, RA Dorey, Q Zhang, RW Whatmore (2003)Lead germanium oxide sinter-assisted PZT composite thick films, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY23(11)PII S0955-pp. 1935-1941 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    AJ Pickwell, RA Dorey, D Mba (2011)Thick-Film Acoustic Emission Sensors for Use in Structurally Integrated Condition-Monitoring Applications, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL58(9)pp. 1994-2000 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
    M Pawlett, K Ritz, RA Dorey, S Rocks, J Ramsden, JA Harris (2013)The impact of zero-valent iron nanoparticles upon soil microbial communities is context dependent, In: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH20(2)pp. 1041-1049 SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
    R.D.I.G. Dharmasena, K.D.G.I. Jayawardena, C.A. Mills, R.A. Dorey, Ravi Silva (2018)A unified theoretical model for Triboelectric Nanogenerators, In: Nano Energy48pp. 391-400 Elsevier

    A unified theoretical model applicable to different types of Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENGs) is presented based on Maxwell’s equations, which fully explains the working principles of a majority of TENG types. This new model utilizes the distance-dependent electric field (DDEF) concept to derive a universal theoretical platform for all vertical charge polarization TENG types which overcomes the inaccuracies of the classical theoretical models as well as the limitations of the existing electric field-based model. The theoretical results show excellent agreement with experimental TENGs for all working modes, providing an improved capability of predicting the influence of different device parameters on the output behaviour. Finally, the output performances of different TENG types are compared. This work, for the first time, presents a unified framework of analytical equations for different TENG working modes, leading to an in-depth understanding of their working principles, which in turn enables more precise design and construction of efficient energy harvesters.

    G Leighton, P Jones, Q Lonne, Robert Dorey, F Giuliano (2018)Innovative method to produce large-area freestanding functional ceramic foils, In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society38(10)pp. 3483-3488 Elsevier

    Using thick and thin films instead of bulk functional materials presents tremendous advantages in the field of flexible electronics and component miniaturization. Here, a low-cost method to grow and release large-area, microscale thickness, freestanding, functional, ceramic foils is reported. It uses evaporation of sodium chloride to silicon wafer substrates as sacrificial layers, upon which functional lead titanate zirconate ceramic films are grown at 710 °C maximum temperature to validate the method. The freestanding, functional foils are then released by dissolution of the sacrificial sodium chloride in water and have the potential to be integrated into low-thermal stability printed circuits and flexible substrates. The optimization of the sodium chloride layer surface quality and bonding strength with the underlying wafer is achieved thanks to pre-annealing treatment.

    D Wang, SA Rocks, RA Dorey (2009)Micromoulding of PZT film structures using electrohydrodynamic atomization mould filling, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY29(6)pp. 1147-1155 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    AJ Pickwell, RA Dorey, D Mba (2013)Development of a Thick Film PZT Foil Sensor for Use in Structural Health Monitoring Applications, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL60(2)pp. 373-379 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
    RA Dorey, RW Whatmore (2004)Pyroelectric properties of PZT/PMNZTU composite thick films, In: JOURNAL OF ELECTROCERAMICS12(3)pp. 191-196 KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL
    D Wang, X Li, P Shi, X Zhao, J Liang, T Ren, W Dong, R Yang, Y Wang, RA Dorey (2016)Electrohydrodynamic atomization deposition and mechanical polishing of PZT thick films, In: CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL42(11)pp. 12623-12629 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    RA Dorey, RW Whatmore (2004)Electroceramic thick film fabrication for MEMS, In: JOURNAL OF ELECTROCERAMICS12(1-2)pp. 19-32 KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL
    RA Dorey, JA Yeomans, PA Smith, J Pan (2001)In situ optical dilatometric measurements of the initial stages of sintering of alumina, In: ACTA MATERIALIA49(3)pp. 519-527 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
    Piers Turner, Mark Hodnett, Robert Dorey, J. David Carey (2019)Controlled Sonication as a Route to in-situ Graphene Flake Size Control, In: Scientific Reports98710pp. 1-8 Nature Research

    Ultrasonication is widely used to exfoliate two dimensional (2D) van der Waals layered materials such as graphene. Its fundamental mechanism, inertial cavitation, is poorly understood and often ignored in ultrasonication strategies resulting in low exfoliation rates, low material yields and wide flake size distributions, making the graphene dispersions produced by ultrasonication less economically viable. Here we report that few-layer graphene yields of up to 18% in three hours can be achieved by optimising inertial cavitation dose during ultrasonication. We demonstrate that inertial cavitation preferentially exfoliates larger flakes and that the graphene exfoliation rate and flake dimensions are strongly correlated with, and therefore can be controlled by, inertial cavitation dose. Furthermore, inertial cavitation is shown to preferentially exfoliate larger graphene flakes which causes the exfoliation rate to decrease as a function of sonication time. This study demonstrates that measurement and control of inertial cavitation is critical in optimising the high yield sonication-assisted aqueous liquid phase exfoliation of size-selected nanomaterials. Future development of this method should lead to the development of high volume flow cell production of 2D van der Waals layered nanomaterials.

    C James, T Chakraborty, A Brown, T Comyn, R Dorey, J Harrington, AJ Laister, RE Miles, C Puchmark, B Xu, W Xiong, Q Zhang, SJ Milne (2009)Laser transfer processing for the integration of thin and thick film ferroelectrics, In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE44(19)pp. 5325-5331 SPRINGER
    Z Huang, Q Zhang, S Corkovic, R Dorey, RW Whatmore (2006)Comparative measurements of piezoelectric coefficient of PZT films by Berlincourt, interferometer, and vibrometer methods, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL53(12)pp. 2287-2293 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
    FFC Duval, RA Dorey, RW Wright, ZR Huang, RW Whatmore (2004)Fabrication and modeling of high-frequency PZT composite thick film membrane resonators, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL51(10)pp. 1255-1261 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
    RA Dorey, JA Yeomans, PA Smith (2002)Effect of pore clustering on the mechanical properties of ceramics, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY22(4)pp. 403-409 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    D Wang, SA Rocks, RA Dorey (2012)Electrohydrodynamic atomization deposition of PZT sol-gel slurry and sol infiltration on the films, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY32(8)pp. 1651-1658 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    Dimitrios Fantanas, A Brunton, Simon Henley, Robert Dorey (2018)Investigation of the mechanism for current induced network failure for spray deposited silver nanowires, In: Nanotechnology29(46)465705pp. 1-8 IOP Publishing

    Silver nanowires are one of the prominent candidates for the replacement of the incumbent indium tin oxide in thin and flexible electronics applications. Their main drawback is their inferior electrical robustness. Here, the mechanism of the short duration direct current induced failure in large networks is investigated by current stress tests and by examining the morphology of failures. It is found that the failures are due to the heating of the film and they initiate at the nanowire junctions, indicating that the main failure mechanism is based on the Joule heating of the junctions. This failure mechanism is different than what has been seen in literature for single nanowires and sparse networks. In addition, finite element heating simulations are performed to support the findings. Finally, we suggest ways of improving these films, in order to make them more suitable for device applications.

    RA Dorey, F Dauchy, D Wang, R Berriet (2007)Fabrication and characterization of annular thickness mode piezoelectric micro ultrasonic transducers, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL54(12)pp. 2462-2468 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
    SN Jayasinghe, RA Dorey, MJ Edirisinghe, ZB Luklinska (2005)Preparation of lead zirconate titanate nano-powder by electrohydrodynamic atomization, In: APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING80(4)pp. 723-725 SPRINGER
    S Dunn, R Dorey (2011)Guest Editorial: Ferroelectrics, In: FERROELECTRICS420pp. V-V TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
    D Sun, SA Rocks, D Wang, MJ Edirisinghe, RA Dorey (2008)Novel forming of columnar lead zirconate titanate structures, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY28(16)pp. 3131-3139 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    SA Wilson, RPJ Jourdain, Q Zhang, RA Dorey, CR Bowen, M Willander, QU Wahab, M Willander, MA-H Safaa, O Nur, E Quandt, C Johansson, E Pagounis, M Kohl, J Matovic, B Samel, W van der Wijngaart, EWH Jager, D Carlsson, Z Djinovic, M Wegener, C Moldovan, R Iosub, E Abad, M Wendlandt, C Rusu, K Persson (2007)New materials for micro-scale sensors and actuators An engineering review, In: MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING R-REPORTS56(1-6)pp. 1-129 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
    D Sun, SA Rocks, MJ Edirisinghe, RA Dorey, Y Wang (2005)Electrohydrodynamic deposition of nanostructured lead zirconate titanate, In: JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY5(11)pp. 1846-1851 AMER SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHERS
    F Bortolani, RA Dorey (2009)Synthesis of spherical lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanoparticles by electrohydrodynamic atomisation, In: ADVANCES IN APPLIED CERAMICS108(6)pp. 332-337 MANEY PUBLISHING
    T Lusiola, N Chelwani, F Bortolani, Q Zhang, RA Dorey (2011)Low Temperature Production of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Thick Films, In: FERROELECTRICS422pp. 50-54 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
    D Wang, SA Rocks, RA Dorey (2010)Formation of PZT micro-scale structures using electrohydrodynamic atomization filling of metallic moulds, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY30(8)pp. 1821-1826 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    F Dauchy, RA Dorey (2007)Patterned crack-free PZT thick films for micro-electromechanical system applications, In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY33(1-2)pp. 86-94 SPRINGER LONDON LTD
    D Wang, MJ Edirisinghe, RA Dorey (2008)Formation of PZT crack-free thick films by electrohydrodynamic atomization deposition, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY28(14)pp. 2739-2745 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    RA Dorey, SA Rocks, F Dauchy, D Wang, F Bortolani, E Hugo (2008)Integrating functional ceramics into microsystems, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY28(7)pp. 1397-1403 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    RA Dorey, RW Whatmore (2002)Apparent reduction in the value of the d33 piezoelectric coefficient in PZT thick films, In: Integrated Ferroelectrics50pp. 111-119

    Thick PZT films (1 - 20 m) have been prepared using a composite sol gel technique whereby PZT powder and a PZT producing sol are formed into a slurry and spin coated onto silicon wafers. The maximum relative permittivity obtained was approximately 80% of that exhibited by bulk PZT of comparable composition. However, the d33, f and e31, f[1] piezoelectric coefficients were shown to be significantly lower than that of bulk PZT. It has been proposed that the measured value of d33, f is affected appreciably by particle-particle rotation and substrate clamping leading to reduced poling efficiency which may also greatly reduce the value of e 31, f observed. Samples with high levels of porosity have been shown to exhibit a reduced value of d33. This was attributed to 31 and 51 mode piezoelectrically generated charges caused by the bending and shearing of particle-particle bridges. The effect of substrate clamping, on d 33, f and poling, has been studied by monitoring the changes in position and intensity of the (200)/(002) X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of composite films. The presence of the substrate was found to introduce tensile stresses parallel to the film plane which distorted the unit cell. Subsequent permanent polarisation following poling was found to be reduced due to the presence of these stresses. The discrepancies between the values of d 33 measured on thick films and bulk ceramics were highlighted as being of particular importance if thick film materials are to be modelled for device applications. Thick film piezoelectric coefficients (i.e. those of the combined film-substrate structure) should not be used in place of material piezoelectric coefficients when attempting to model the behaviour of devices. Such actions would inevitably lead to erroneous results. © 2002 Taylor & Francis.

    RA Dorey (2010)Piezo2009: Piezoelectric for end users V, In: ADVANCES IN APPLIED CERAMICS109(3)pp. 129-129 MANEY PUBLISHING
    T Lusiola, F Bortolani, Q Zhang, R Dorey (2012)Molten hydroxide synthesis as an alternative to molten salt synthesis for producing K0.5Na0.5NbO3 lead free ceramics, In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE47(4)pp. 1938-1942 SPRINGER
    P Xiao, R Dorey (2008)Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings, In: JOURNAL OF NANOMATERIALSARTN 93138 HINDAWI PUBLISHING CORPORATION
    S Stoyanov, C Bailey, R Leach, B Hughes, A Wilson, W O'Neill, RA Dorey, C Shaw, D Underhill, HJ Almond (2008)Modelling and prototyping the conceptual design of 3D CMM micro-probe, In: Proceedings - 2008 2nd Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference, ESTCpp. 193-198

    This paper details the prototyping of a novel three axial micro probe based on utilisation of piezoelectric sensors and actuators for true three dimensional metrology and measurements at micro- and nanometre scale. Computational mechanics is used first to model and simulate the performance of the conceptual design of the micro-probe. Piezoelectric analysis is conducted to understand performance of three different materials silicon, glassy carbon, and nickel - and the effect of load parameters (amplitude, frequency, phase angle) on the magnitude of vibrations. Simulations are also used to compare several design options for layout of the lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sensors and to identify the most feasible from fabrication point of view design. The material options for the realisation of the device have been also tested. Direct laser machining was selected as the primary means of production. It is found that a Yb MaPA based fiber laser was capable of providing the necessary precision on glassy carbon (GC), although machining trials on Si and Ni were less successful due to residual thermal effects.To provide the active and sensing elements on the flexures of the probe, PZT thick films are developed and deposited at low temperatures (

    PD Woolliams, PM Weaver, TM Correia, MG Cain, A Pickwell, RA Dorey (2013)Lead zirconate titanate coating of tungsten carbide-cobalt to enable smart coatings, In: SENSORS AND ACTUATORS A-PHYSICAL194pp. 47-51 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
    RA Dorey, SB Stringfellow, RW Whatmore (2002)Effect of sintering aid and repeated sot infiltrations on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of a PZT composite thick film, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY22(16)PII S0955-pp. 2921-2926 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    F Bortolani, RA Dorey (2010)Molten salt synthesis of PZT powder for direct write inks, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY30(10)pp. 2073-2079 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    DZ Wang, RA Dorey (2009)Formation of PZT thick film single elements using EHDA deposition, In: Materials Science Forum628 62pp. 405-410

    In this paper, electrohydrodynamic atomization combined with a polymeric micromoulding technique was used to form PZT single element devices using a PZT sol-gel slurry without an etching process. The PZT single element device was initially designed to work as a piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer consisting of a circular or a square of various sizes, which was produced and used to evaluate the process. The resulting PZT device had a homogenous microstructure. It was observed that the relative permittivity of the circular and square single element devices was especially high at small size due to the fringe effect. The results show that the radius and width of the PZT single circular and square element devices with a thickness of 15μm should be bigger than 400μm in order to reduce the fringe effect. © (2009) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

    Till Buchacher, M Rokosz, Robert Dorey, Jeremy Allam, A Gregory (2017)Electrocaloric induced retarded ferroelectric switching, In: Applied Physics Letters110(2) AIP Publishing

    Ferroelectric switching in bulk materials, at modest electric fields, is a relatively fast process, occurring on time scales of microseconds and less. A secondary retarded switching phenomenon also occurs on time scales of seconds and has previously been attributed to defect induced elevated energy barriers between polarisation states. As ferroelectric switching is a thermally activated process the barrier heights are also affected by temperature which is not constant in ferroelectric materials due to the electrocaloric effect. Here an additional EC induced retardation mechanism is proposed whereby EC induced temperature changes repeatedly temporarily prevent further FE switching during cooling cycles.

    R Dorey (2013)Piezoelectrics: pressing the point home, In: ADVANCES IN APPLIED CERAMICS112(2)pp. 67-68 MANEY PUBLISHING
    AJ Pickwell, A Smith, PM Jones, D Mba, RA Dorey (2013)ZnO surface modified PZT for enhanced ceramic composite thick film sensors, In: ADVANCES IN APPLIED CERAMICS112(5)pp. 283-287 MANEY PUBLISHING
    CL Sansom, P Jones, RA Dorey, C Beck, A Stanhope-Bosumpim, J Peterson (2013)Synthesis and characterization of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanoparticle ferrofluids for thermo-electric conversion, In: JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS335pp. 159-162 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
    V.K. Manisa, M Porter, M. J. Whiting, R. A. Dorey (2022)Effect of processing on the stability and electrical properties of pressureless sintered graphene oxide–alumina composites, In: Ceramics international48(11)pp. 15839-15847 Elsevier Ltd

    This paper explores the processing of an alumina matrix composite with a percolating network of graphene oxide (GPO), which exhibits a moderate electric resistivity and a near zero temperature coefficient of resistance. Different formulations of GPO–alumina composites were processed using a water–base blending, and, the pellets were densified by pressureless sintering under Argon flow. Electrical conduction at room temperature was achieved in the 2 wt % GPO–alumina composite sintered at 1400 °C, and, the 3 wt % GPO–alumina composites sintered at 1400, 1550 and 1700 °C. An investigation of the degradation of electrical conductivity was used to identify potential stable operating regimes in which these materials could be used as heaters. Thermogravimetric analysis using the Ozawa–Flynn–Wall method, was used to determine the kinetic parameters of a 3 wt % GPO composite sintered at 1400 °C which, had an activation energy for GPO degradation of 195 ± 68 kJ/mol and, an estimated thermal lifetime of 8.7 ± 0.8 years for a conversion of 0.5 wt % (failure criterion) at an application temperature of 340 °C.

    ATHANASIOS NIKOLAOU, MONICA FELIPE-SOTELO, ROBERT ANDREW DOREY, Jorge Gutierrez-Merino, DANIELA CARTA (2022)Silver-doped phosphate coacervates to inhibit pathogenic bacteria associated with wound infections: an in vitro study, In: Scientific reports1210778 Nature

    There is a great demand from patients requiring skin repair, as a result of poorly healed acute wounds or chronic wounds. These patients are at high risk of constant inflammation that often leads to life-threatening infections. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new materials that could rapidly stimulate the healing process and simultaneously prevent infections. Phosphate-based coacervates (PC) have been the subject of increased interest due to their great potential in tissue regeneration and as controlled delivery systems. Being bioresorbable, they dissolve over time and simultaneously release therapeutic species in a continuous manner. Of particular interest is the controlled release of metallic antibacterial ions (e.g. Ag+), a promising alternative to conventional treatments based on antibiotics, often associated with antibacterial resistance (AMR). This study investigates a series of PC gels containing a range of concentrations of the antibacterial ion Ag+ (0.1, 0.3 and 0.75 mol%). Dissolution tests have demonstrated controlled release of Ag+ over time, resulting in a significant bacterial reduction (up to 7 log), against both non-AMR and AMR strains of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Dissolution tests have also shown controlled release of phosphates, Ca2+, Na+ and Ag+ with most of the release occurring in the first 24 h. Biocompatibility studies, assessed using dissolution products in contact with human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) and bacterial strains, have shown a significant increase in cell viability (p ≤ 0.001) when gels are dissolved in cell medium compared to the control. These results suggest that gel-like silver doped PCs are promising multifunctional materials for smart wound dressings, being capable of simultaneously inhibit pathogenic bacteria and maintain good cell viability.

    J E Bone, A S Maxwell, S Frenz, S L Ogin, C Foreman, R A Dorey (2022)On the relationship between moisture uptake and mechanical property changes in a carbon fibre/epoxy composite, In: EngD data of PhD 'On the Effect of Accelerated Ageing and Moisture Absorption in Polymer Composites'

    Polymer composite materials are widely used in marine applications where an understanding of the long-term performance is essential for economic, safety and durability requirements. Although moisture absorption in composites has been studied for many years, the relationship between the mechanisms of moisture absorption and consequent changes in material behaviour has received much less attention. Understanding degradation is necessary for developing lifetime assessments. In this work, long-term exposure of a unidirectional carbon fibre epoxy composite material in water has been investigated in relation to mechanical property changes and moisture uptake. Using diffusion modelling and microscopy of the fracture surfaces, it is possible to correlate water absorption to experimental data showing how the position of water in the material causes changes to flexural properties (modulus decreased by 14% and strength by 20%) and in the glass transition temperature, T g reduced by 18%. Flexural modulus has been shown to be most affected by water interaction with the fibre interface; T g by water interaction within the resin; and flexural strength equally by water interaction with both fibre interface and resin.

    F Duval, R Dorey, S Stringfellow, Q Zhang, R Whatmore (2002)Comparison of piezoelectric properties of a MOD and a sol-gel doped PZT thin film, In: IM Reaney, DC Sinclair (eds.), Ferroelectrics UK 2001pp. 37-44
    SA Rocks, D Wang, D Sun, SN Jayasinghe, MJ Edirisinghe, RA Dorey (2007)Direct writing of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric structures by electrohydrodynamic atomisation, In: JOURNAL OF ELECTROCERAMICS19(4)pp. 287-293
    RA Dorey, RW Whatmore, SP Beeby, RN Torah, NM White (2004)Screen printed PZT composite thick films, In: INTEGRATED FERROELECTRICS63pp. 89-92
    S Marson, RA Dorey, Q Zhang, RW Whatmore, A Hardy, J Mullens (2004)Direct patterning of photosensitive chemical solution deposition PZT layers, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY24(6)pp. 1925-1928
    F Tyholdt, RA Dorey, H Raeder (2007)Novel patterning of composite thick film PZT, In: JOURNAL OF ELECTROCERAMICS19(4)pp. 315-319
    RA Dorey, RW Whatmore, SP Beeby, RN Torah, NM White (2003)Screen printed PZT thick films using composite film technology, In: INTEGRATED FERROELECTRICS54pp. 651-658
    C Sansom, X Tonnellier, R Read, J Nicholls, R Dorey (2014)Design and fabrication of a coating research machine to explore the nanometer scale coating of glass tubes for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems, In: Conference Proceedings - 14th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 20141pp. 59-62

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a precision designed CSP receiver tube coating machine for research purposes, designed to deposit and examine the properties of novel anti-reflection (AR) coatings possessing a thickness in the nanometre range. The manufacturing process chain and in line thickness control technique are also described.

    RA Dorey, RW Whatmore (2004)Electrical properties of high density PZT and PMN-PT/PZT thick films produced using ComFi technology, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY24(6)pp. 1091-1094
    RA Dorey, RD Haigh, SB Stringfellow, RW Whatmore (2002)Effect of sol infiltrations on the electrical properties of PZT, In: IM Reaney, DC Sinclair (eds.), Ferroelectrics UK 2001pp. 29-35
    FM Dauchy, RA Dorey (2007)Patterned high frequency thick film MEMS transducer, In: INTEGRATED FERROELECTRICS90pp. 42-52
    FFC Duval, RA Dorey, RW Wright, Z Huang, RW Whatmore (2004)Fabrication of PZT composite thick films for high frequency membrane resonators, In: JOURNAL OF ELECTROCERAMICS13(1-3)pp. 267-270
    RA Dorey, RD Haigh, SB Stringfellow, RW Whatmore (2002)Effect of sol infiltrations on electrical properties of PZT, In: BRITISH CERAMIC TRANSACTIONS101(4)pp. 146-148
    RA Dorey, F Dauchy, D Wang, R Berriet (2007)Fabrication and characterisation of annular thickness mode piezoelectric micro ultrasonic transducers, In: 2007 SIXTEENTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE APPLICATIONS OF FERROELECTRICS, VOLS 1 AND 2pp. 729-730
    A Navarro, SA Rocks, RA Dorey (2007)Micromoulding of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) structures for MEMS, In: JOURNAL OF ELECTROCERAMICS19(4)pp. 321-326
    T Chakraborty, B Xu, J Harrington, S Chakraborty, Q Zhang, RE Miles, R Dorey, SJ Milne (2006)Focussed ion beam etching of the interfacial region of lead zirconate titanate thin film after laser-release from sapphire fabrication substrate, In: 2006 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show - NSTI Nanotech 2006 Technical Proceedings3pp. 162-165

    Although many lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based MEMS have been demonstrated, the thermal incompatibility problems associated with in-situ fabrication of PZT films on the device substrate remain a major challenge. Process temperatures of 600-700 °C are common for PZT on silicon, however these temperatures can degrade silicon microelectronics and metal interconnects. By depositing the film on a separate fabrication substrate, such as sapphire, and then using a pulsed UV laser to aid its transfer to the device substrate the problems of thermal incompatibility are avoided [1]. In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of the laser radiation on the interfacial region of the film originally adjacent to the sapphire substrate, we are examining the merits of dual-beam SEM focussed-ion- beam etching (FIBSEM, Nova 200 Nanolab, FEI UK Ltd). Microstructural information from SEM, together with preliminary results using FIBSEM are presented.

    CW James, T Comyn, RA Dorey, D Underhill, SJ Milne (2010)Laser-transfer processing of functional ceramic films, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY30(2)pp. 419-422
    RW Whatmore, Q Zhang, CP Shaw, RA Dorey, JR Alcock (2007)Pyroelectric ceramics and thin films for applications in uncooled infra-red sensor arrays, In: PHYSICA SCRIPTAT129pp. 6-11
    S Marson, RA Dorey, Q Zhang, RW Whatmore (2003)Thick PZT micro-features obtained by direct patterning of photosensitive precursor solution, In: INTEGRATED FERROELECTRICS54pp. 585-593
    Z Huang, Q Zhang, S Corkovic, RA Dorey, F Duval, G Leighton, R Wright, P Kirby, RW Whatmore (2006)Piezoelectric PZT films for MEMS and their characterization by interferometry, In: JOURNAL OF ELECTROCERAMICS17(2-4)pp. 549-556
    AJ Pickwell, RA Dorey, D Mba (2010)Thick film, Acoustic Emission sensors for embedded structural health monitoring systems, In: COMADEM 2010 - Advances in Maintenance and Condition Diagnosis Technologies Towards Sustainable Society, Proc. 23rd Int. Congr. Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Managementpp. 677-684

    Structural heath monitoring of engineering structures is of growing interest due to increased complexity of such structures and the ability to schedule maintenance when it is needed thus preventing unnecessary work or preventing failure. One such method for monitoring the structural health of large scale structures is through the detection of Acoustic Emissions (AE). A novel thick film Acoustic Emission sensor is presented. Piezoelectric thick film AE sensors were fabricated by creating and pattering lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films using a powder/sol composite ink deposition technique in conjunction with mechanical patterning of the subsequent films. The resultant AE sensors exhibit a response comparable to commercially available AE sensors. Comparative results between the thick film and commercial sensors will be reviewed and discussed.

    M Farnsworth, A Tiwari, R Dorey (2014)Modelling, simulation and optimisation of a piezoelectric energy harvester, In: R Roy, T Tomiyama, A Tiwari, K Tracht, E Shahab, A Shaw (eds.), PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE IN THROUGH-LIFE ENGINEERING SERVICES22pp. 142-147
    FFC Duval, RA Dorey, RW Wright, Z Huang, RW Whatmore (2004)High frequency PZT composite thick film resonators, In: INTEGRATED FERROELECTRICS63pp. 27-33
    RL Townsend, RA Dorey, SA Rocks, S Tearle (2014)The use of interdigitated microelectrode structures for the detection of exposure to simulated airborne environmental dust, In: Technical Proceedings of the 2014 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 20142pp. 57-60

    Particulate matter is ubiquitous in the environment, however industrial processes have increased the amount released into the air. Here, the authors demonstrate the initial development of a novel sensor capable of detecting airborne particulate matter in real time. Interdigitated microelectrodes (IDT) were printed on a silicon wafer substrate and exposed to Arizona Road Dust in a wind tunnel for periods of 2, 5, and 10 minutes with an air sample mass loading of 9.07mg/m3 at a velocity of 1.7m/s. Impedance measurements were taken every 30 seconds during exposure. The average loading efficiency was calculated to be 31%. Impedance measurements were recorded from the IDT samples showing that the impedance decreased in real time over the 10 minute exposure. The observed capturing coefficient was possibly due to surface-particle interaction phenomena, such as particle bounce, impaction and re-entrainment. IDTs have previously been used to detect nanoparticles within aqueous environments however this is the first report of such electrodes being used to successfully detect airborne particles.

    F Dauchy, RA Dorey (2007)Thickness mode high frequency MEMS piezoelectric micro ultrasound transducers, In: JOURNAL OF ELECTROCERAMICS19(4)pp. 383-386
    RW Whatmore, Q Zhang, Z Huang, RA Dorey (2002)Ferroelectric thin and thick films for microsystems, In: MATERIALS SCIENCE IN SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING5(2-3)pp. 65-76

    The MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) market returned to growth in 2010. The total MEMS market is worth about $6.5 billion, up more than 11 percent from last year and nearly as high as its historic peak in 2007. MEMS devices are used across sectors as diverse as automotive, aerospace, medical, industrial process control, instrumentation and telecommunications forming the nerve center of products including airbag crash sensors, pressure sensors, biosensors and ink jet printer heads. Part of the MEMS cluster within the Micro & Nano Technologies Series, this book covers the fabrication techniques and applications of thick film piezoelectric micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). It includes examples of applications where the piezoelectric thick films have been used, illustrating how the fabrication process relates to the properties and performance of the resulting device. Other topics include: top-down and bottom-up fabrication of thick film MEMS, integration of thick films with other materials, effect of microstructure on properties, device performance, etc.

    C Moldovan, O Nedelcu, P Johander, I Goenaga, D Gomez, P Petkov, U Kaufmann, H-J Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, R Dorey, K Persson (2007)Ceramic micro heater technology for gas sensors, In: ROMANIAN JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY10(1)pp. 43-52 EDITURA ACAD ROMANE
    RA Dorey, RW Whatmore (2005)Pyroelectric PZT/PMNZTU composite thick films, In: JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY25(12)pp. 2379-2382
    R Dorey (2010)Bottoms up, In: MATERIALS WORLD18(12)pp. 26-28 I O M COMMUNICATIONS LTD INST MATERIALS