Siya Lodhia

Surgical Registrar / Research Fellow

Academic and research departments



My research project


Siya Lodhia, Victoria Pegna, Ruth Abrams, Daniel Jackson, Timothy A Rockall, Chantelle Rizan (2024)Improving environmental sustainability of operating theatres: a systematic review of staff attitudes, barriers, and enablers

Objective To understand views of staff in relation to attitudes, enablers, and barriers to implementation of environmentally sustainable surgery in operating theatres. This will ultimately help in the goal of successfully implementing more sustainable theatres. Summary Background Global healthcare sectors are responsible for 4.4% of greenhouse gas emissions. Surgical operating theatres are resource intensive areas and improvements will be important to meet Net-Zero carbon emissions within healthcare. Methods Three databases were searched (Web of Science, Ovid and PubMed), last check January 2024. We included original manuscripts evaluating staff views regarding sustainable operating theatres. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used for quality appraisal and data analysed using thematic synthesis. Results 2933 articles were screened and 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria, using qualitative (1), quantitative (2), and mixed methods (11). Studies were undertaken in a variety of clinical (Department of Anaesthesia, Surgery, Otolaryngology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Ophthalmology) and geographical settings (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, New Zealand, USA, UK & Ireland,). Across studies there was a lack of evidence exploring enablers to implementation, but barriers mainly related to the following themes: education and awareness, leadership, resistance to change, facilities and equipment, time, and incentive. Conclusion This systematic review identified attitudes and barriers perceived by clinicians towards improving environmental sustainability within operating theatres, which may inform future strategy towards sustainable surgery. Most studies used a survey-design, whereas use of interviews may provide deeper insights. Future work should be extended to wider stakeholders influencing operating theatres. Additionally, implementation studies should be carried out to examine whether barriers do change in practice.