Dr Sophie Russell

Lecturer in Social Psychology
Tuesdays 16:00-17:00 in person or Teams, Wednesdays 16:00-17:00 via Teams (term time)


University roles and responsibilities

  • Final Year Tutor

    My qualifications

    PhD Social Psychology
    University of Kent


    Research interests


    Postgraduate research supervision

    Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised




    Peer-reviewed journal publications

    Frackowiak, M., Russell, P. S., Rusconi, P., Fasoli, F., & Cohen‐Chen, S. (2023). Political orientation, trust and discriminatory beliefs during the COVID‐19 pandemic: Longitudinal evidence from the United Kingdom. British Journal of Social Psychology.

    Karppinen, H., King, O., & Russell, P. S. (2023). Hostile emotions and close relationships: Anger can be related to constructive responses. Personality and Individual Differences, 212, 112258.

    Russell, P.S., Frackowiak, M., Cohen-Chen, S., Rusconi, P, & Fasoli, F. (2023). Induced gratitude and hope, and experienced fear, but not experienced disgust, facilitate COVID-19 prevention. Cognition & Emotion.

    Frackowiak, M., Hilpert, P. & Russell, P.S. (2022). Partner’s Perception of Phubbing is More Relevant Than the Behavior Itself: A Daily Diary Study. Computers in Human Behavior. 10.1016/j.chb.2022.107323.

    Aznar, A.,Tenenbaum, H. & Russell, P.S. (2021). Is moral disgust socially learned?. Emotion. 10.1037/emo0001066.

    Russell, P. S., Birtel, M. D., Smith, D. M., Hart, K., & Newman, R. (2021). Infant feeding and internalized stigma: The role of guilt and shame. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 51, 906– 919. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12810

    Russell, P.S., Smith, D.M. Birtel, M.D., Hart, K. A & Golding, S. (2021). The Role of Emotions and Injunctive Norms in Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Health Psychology Review. 1-53. 10.1080/17437199.2021.1893783.

    Russell, P.S, & Knott, G. (2021). Encouraging Sustainable Insect-based Diets: The role of disgust, social influence, and moral concern in insect consumption. Food Quality and Preference. 92. 10.1016/j.foodqual.2021.104187.

    AlSheddi, M., Russell, P.S., & Hegarty, P. (2021). Between cultural relativism and liberal ethnocentrism: What does Saudi Arabia tell us about cultural variation in moral identity and prejudice?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 51, 10.1111/jasp.12742.

    Bartos, S.E., Russell, P.S., & Hegarty, P. (2020). Heroes against homophobia: does elevation uniquely block homophobia by inhibiting disgust?. Cognition and Emotion. 34. 1-20. 10.1080/02699931.2020.1726292.

    Giner-Sorolla, R, & Russell, P.S. (2019). Not just disgust: Fear and anger attitudes also relate to intergroup dehumanization. Collabra. 5, 56. doi: http://doi.org/10.1525/collabra.211

    AlSheddi, M., Russell, P.S. and Hegarty, P. (2019), How Does Culture Shape Our Moral Identity? Moral Foundations in Saudi Arabia and Britain. European Journal of Social Psychology. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2619

    Chakroff, A., Russell, P.S., Piazza, J., & Young, L. (2017). From impure to harmful: Asymmetric expectations about immoral agents. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 201-209. doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2016.08.001

    Russell P.S., & Piazza J. (2015). Consenting to counter-normative sexual acts: Differential effects of consent on anger and disgust as a function of transgressor or consenter. Cognition and Emotion, 29, 634-653. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2014.930420

    Russell, P.S., & Giner-Sorolla, R. (2013). Bodily-Moral Disgust: What It Is, How It Is Different from Anger and Why It Is an Unreasoned Emotion. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 328-351. doi: 10.1037/a0029319

    Piazza, J., Russell, P. S., & Sousa, P. (2013). Moral emotions and the envisaging of mitigating circumstances for wrongdoing. Cognition & Emotion, 27, 707-722. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2012.736859

    Russell, P.S., Piazza, J., & Giner-Sorolla, R. (2013). CAD revisited: Effects of the Word “Moral” on the Moral Relevance of Disgust (and Other Emotions). Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 62-68. doi: 10.1177/1948550612442913

    Russell, P.S., & Giner-Sorolla, R. (2011). Moral anger, but not moral disgust, responds to intentionality. Emotion, 11, 233-240.  doi:10.1037/a0022598

    Russell, P.S., & Giner-Sorolla, R. (2011). Social justifications for moral emotions: When reasons for disgust are less elaborated than for anger. Emotion, 11, 637-646. doi:10.1037/a0022600

    Russell, P.S., & Giner-Sorolla, R. (2011).  Moral anger is more flexible than moral disgust. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 360-364. doi:10.1177/1948550610391678

    Other publications

    McDowall, A., Carr, I., Russell, S., Glorney, E., Bharj, N., Coyle, A., & Nash, R. (2014). What works to prevent wrongdoing in police and other organisations? A rapid evidence assessment: A rapid evidence assessment (TBC). College of Policing.

    Russell, P.S., & Giner-Sorolla, R. (July 2011). The dangers of disgust in the courtroom. The Jury Expert.

    Abrams, D., Russell, P.S, Vauclair, M., Swift, H. (2011).  Ageism in Europe: Findings from the European Social Survey. London: AgeUK.

    Giner-Sorolla, R, & Russell, P.S. (2009). Anger, disgust and sexual crimes. In Horvath, M.A.H. & Brown, J.M. (Eds.), Rape: Challenging contemporary thinking (Chapter 3). Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

    Madeleine Pownall, Charlotte R Pennington, Emma Norris, Marie Juanchich, David Smailes, Sophie Russell, Deborah Gooch, Thomas Rhys Evans, Sofia Persson, Matthew H.C. Mak, Loukia Tzavella, Rebecca Monk, Thomas Gough, Christopher S. Y. Benwell, Mahmoud Elsherif, Emily Farran, Thomas Gallagher-Mitchell, Luke T. Kendrick, Julia Bahnmueller, Emily Nordmann, Mirela Zaneva, Katie Gilligan-Lee, Marina Bazhydai, Andrew Jones, Jemma Sedgmond, Iris Holzleitner, James Reynolds, Jo Moss, Daniel Farrelly, Adam J. Parker, Kait Clark (2023)Evaluating the Pedagogical Effectiveness of Study Preregistration in the Undergraduate Dissertation, In: Advances in methods and practices in psychological science6(4) SAGE

    Research shows that questionable research practices (QRPs) are present in undergraduate final-year dissertation projects. One entry-level Open Science practice proposed to mitigate QRPs is “study preregistration,” through which researchers outline their research questions, design, method, and analysis plans before data collection and/or analysis. In this study, we aimed to empirically test the effectiveness of preregistration as a pedagogic tool in undergraduate dissertations using a quasi-experimental design. A total of 89 UK psychology students were recruited, including students who preregistered their empirical quantitative dissertation (n = 52; experimental group) and students who did not (n = 37; control group). Attitudes toward statistics, acceptance of QRPs, and perceived understanding of Open Science were measured both before and after dissertation completion. Exploratory measures included capability, opportunity, and motivation to engage with preregistration, measured at Time 1 only. This study was conducted as a Registered Report; Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/9hjbw (date of in-principle acceptance: September 21, 2021). Study preregistration did not significantly affect attitudes toward statistics or acceptance of QRPs. However, students who preregistered reported greater perceived understanding of Open Science concepts from Time 1 to Time 2 compared with students who did not preregister. Exploratory analyses indicated that students who preregistered reported significantly greater capability, opportunity, and motivation to preregister. Qualitative responses revealed that preregistration was perceived to improve clarity and organization of the dissertation, prevent QRPs, and promote rigor. Disadvantages and barriers included time, perceived rigidity, and need for training. These results contribute to discussions surrounding embedding Open Science principles into research training.

    Michal Frackowiak, Pascale Sophie Russell, Patrice Rusconi, Fabio Fasoli, Smadar Cohen-Chen (2023)Political orientation, trust and discriminatory beliefs during the COVID-19 pandemic: Longitudinal evidence from the United Kingdom, In: British journal of social psychology62(4)pp. 1897-1924 Wiley

    The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the world in many ways; for example, evidence from the United Kingdom indicates that higher rates of discriminatory behaviours against immigrants have been recorded during this period. Prior research suggests that political orientation and trust are instrumental in discriminatory beliefs against immigrants. A longitudinal study (six waves and a follow-up) was conducted in the United Kingdom during the COVID-19 pandemic (September 2020-August 2021) using convenience sampling (N = 383). The hypotheses enquired about whether political orientation predicts trust in government, trust in science and discriminatory beliefs. Multilevel regression and mediation analyses were conducted, using repeated measures nested within individuals. It was found that conservative views are associated with higher discriminatory beliefs, lower trust in science and higher trust in government. Furthermore, trust in science promotes reduction of discrimination, whereas trust in government, increases discriminatory beliefs. However, a nuance revealed by an interaction effect, shows that a positive alignment between political and scientific authorities may be required to reduce prejudice against immigrants. Exploratory multilevel mediation showed that trust is a mediator between political orientation and discriminatory beliefs.

    Helena Karppinen, Olivia King, Pascale Sophie Russell (2023)Hostile emotions and close relationships: Anger can be related to constructive responses, In: Personality and individual differences212112258 Elsevier Ltd

    Anger is typically thought to be an emotion that is associated with negative outcomes, such as aggression; however, evidence shows that anger can be related to positive outcomes as well, such as making amends and reparations. Two studies examined the role of anger, contempt, and disgust on behavioural tendencies (i.e., reparative action, avoidance versus aggression) in two contexts: romantic relationships (Study 1) and friendships (Study 2). We also tested whether various individual differences may impact these relationships. It was found that anger was associated with reparative action in both contexts and disgust was related to less reparative action in friendships. All three emotions were positively connected to aggression in romantic relationships (Study 1), but only disgust was related to aggression in friendships (Study 2). Disgust was positively related to avoidance in both studies. The results suggest that anger is an approach emotion, being consistently associated with the positive outcome of reparative action, and disgust is more consistently related to behavioural tendencies in close relationships than contempt. Future research should endeavour to examine when and how the positive behavioural effects of anger can be fostered in close relationships. •Anger predicted reparative action and aggression in close relationships.•Disgust predicted avoidance and aggression in close relationships.•Disgust is a more consistent predictor of behaviour than contempt.•Trait emotions showed different relationships with behaviour than state emotions.

    Nana-Fatima T. Ozeto, Pascale Sophie Russell, Martyn Barrett, Sonia Ingoglia, Nora Wiium, Alida La Coco, Cristiano Inguglia, Francesca Liga, Maria Grazia Lo Cricchio, Nicolò Maria Iannello, Harriet Tenenbaum (2024)The Role of Valuing Cultural Diversity in Children’s Endorsements of Rights, In: European Journal of Social Psychology Wiley

    Support for children’s rights is greater among children raised in democratic environments. The present two studies examined children’s endorsements and predictors of children’s rights. Five democratic competences taken from the Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture served as predictors. We tested the models in a sample of children raised in five European countries and a sample raised in an African country, seeking to extend our model beyond the Global North. In Study 1, we found four of these five competences, namely, higher valuing of cultural diversity, civic-mindedness, cultural openness, and empathy significantly predicted higher endorsements of rights in children from Bulgaria, Italy, Norway, Romania, and Spain (7 – 11-year-olds, N = 292). In Study 2, we found higher valuing of cultural diversity significantly predicted higher endorsements of rights in Nigerian children (7 – 14-year-olds, N = 84). Supporting social cognitive domain theory, children in both studies endorsed nurturance rights more than self-determination rights. Inclusion of children from the Global North and South enabled us to determine whether patterns of rights endorsements were similar for children from both samples. Overall, this research presents novel findings on the salience of valuing cultural diversity in support for children’s rights.

    Michal Frackowiak, Peter Hilpert, Pascale Sophie Russell (2023)Impact of partner phubbing on negative emotions: a daily diary study of mitigating factors, In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) Springer Nature

    Interactions between romantic partners may be disturbed by a co-present mobile phone use when a partner ignores their interaction partner in favor of a smartphone. This common practice, called phubbing, promotes social rejection and exclusion, hence the partner who gets phubbed may report negative emotional experiences. However, these experiences may be buffered by a cognitive perception mechanism, when the partner's behavior is still perceived as responsive (i.e., understanding or validating). Thus, we hypothesize that feeling understood or validated moderate the link between phubbing intensity and negative emotions. To test our hypotheses, we conducted a daily diary study over seven days, using a sample of N = 133 participants living with their partner. Multilevel modeling was applied, to examine between- and within-person processes. The findings indicate that perception of the partner as understanding and validating, despite the co-present mobile phone use, reduces the negative emotional experiences during phubbing, and the interaction effects indicate nuances between phubbing and understanding and validation by partner, which extend our theoretical comprehension and distinguish between the two as separate relationship-related constructs. Our research provides a unique insight into how mechanisms related to couple interactions may reduce negative experiences, a finding that may be useful in future interventions and couples' therapy.

    Peter J Kelly, Joe Coyte, Laura D Robinson, Frank P Deane, Sophie Russell, Kathleen Clapham, Elizabeth Dale, Marlene Longbottom, Ryan Solley, Amanda L Baker (2022)Evaluating an Aboriginal community controlled residential alcohol and other drug services: Use of benchmarking to examine within treatment changes in wellbeing, In: Drug and alcohol review41(4)pp. 953-962

    Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCO) have an important role in the Australian health-care sector. However, there has been a lack of research evaluating ACCOs in the treatment of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Using a benchmarking approach, the present study examined within treatment changes on measures of wellbeing for people attending a residential AOD ACCO. The study focused on The Glen, an AOD residential treatment service that is managed by the Ngaimpe Aboriginal Corporation (n = 775). The Glen is a male-only service and provides treatment to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous men. The evaluation focused on measures of wellbeing (i.e. symptom distress and quality of life) collected at intake, 30 and 60 days during the person's stay. Comparative benchmarking was conducted with a cohort of men who were attending non-ACCO residential AOD treatment services (n = 4457). The Glen participants demonstrated statistically significant improvements on measures of wellbeing. The Glen participants were more likely to complete treatment than participants attending non-ACCO services. Likewise, Indigenous people attending The Glen were more likely to complete treatment (compared to Indigenous people attending non-ACCO services). Rates of reliable and clinically significant change suggested that changes in quality of life were largely equivalent between The Glen and non-ACCO services, while participants attending The Glen tended to demonstrate larger reductions in symptom distress compared to the non-ACCO services. The study provides further support for the important role that ACCOs play in supporting Indigenous people in their recovery.

    Sebastian E. Bartos, Pascale Sophie Russell, Peter Hegarty, Pascale Sophie Russell (2020)Heroes against homophobia: does elevation uniquely block homophobia by inhibiting disgust?, In: Cognition and emotion34(6)pp. 1123-1142 Taylor & Francis

    Homophobia has decreased in past decades, but gut-level disgust towards gay men lingers. It has been suggested that disgust can be reduced by inducing its proposed opposite emotion, elevation. Research suggests elevation might reduce homophobia, but only general elevation (not elevation evoked by gay people) and general attitudes (rather than disgust) have been studied. Nor has elevation's effect on homophobia been differentiated from effects of related emotions, such as admiration or surprise. We pretested a series of news stories featuring either a gay man or a man of unspecified sexuality that were intended to distinctly elicit elevation, admiration, or surprise. We pre-registered the prediction that an elevation-inducing story would reduce negative attitudes by reducing disgust. In Study 1 (N = 593), participants who read elevation-inducing stories did not express more positive attitudes or less disgust towards gay men than those who read stories inducing admiration or surprise. The admiration stories elicited similar or lower levels of disgust than the elevation stories. Study 2 (N = 588), replicated the findings of Study 1 with improved stimuli and measures. Both studies suggest that elevation may not uniquely reduce homophobia, as elevation and admiration have similar effects on this prejudice.

    Mona AlSheddi, Sophie Russell, Peter Hegarty (2020)How does culture shape our moral identity? Moral foundations in Saudi Arabia and Britain, In: European journal of social psychology50(1)97pp. 97-110

    North American measures of moral identity (MI) assume that caring and fairness are the most prototypical features of morality. Moral foundations theory describes such individualising foundations of morality as dominant in individualist cultures and binding foundations of morality as more particular to collectivist cultures. We weighed the criticism that moral identity scales are guilty of “liberal ethnocentrism” in two studies drawing on participants in the UK and Saudi Arabia. Only individualising traits were prototypical of concepts of moral people in Britain, while individualising and binding traits were both prototypical of such concepts in Saudi Arabia (Study 1, N = 160). In Study 2 (N = 539), participants completed the moral identity scale following typical instructions that referred to the prototypical traits of one of five moral foundations. Overall MI scores were lower in Britain than in Saudi Arabia, particularly when instructions described binding traits as characteristics of a moral person. Cross‐cultural differences were mediated by the perceived cultural importance attributed to these traits, particularly binding traits. These results justify concerns that existing moral identity scales underestimate important cultural variation in conceptualising moral identity, but justice and caring concerns remain the best single candidates for a universal foundation of human morality.

    Amy L. Bird, Sophie Russell, Judy A. Pickard, Mark Donovan, Melanie Madsen, Jane S. Herbert (2021)Parents' Dispositional Mindfulness, Child Conflict Discussion, and Childhood Internalizing Difficulties: A Preliminary Study, In: Mindfulness12(7)pp. 1624-1638 Springer Nature

    Objectives Parental mindfulness predicts more positive and supportive parent-child interactions. However, very few studies have tested this association using independent observations of interactions or considered a link with child outcomes. The aims of the current study were to understand (1) how parental mindfulness relates to independent observation of parent-child conflict resolution discussions and (2) how parental mindfulness and conflict resolution relate to children's symptoms of anxiety and depression. Methods Fifty-seven parents and their 8-12-year-old children were recruited from both clinical and community settings. Dyads engaged in a conflict discussion task from which content and resolution quality were coded. Parents self-reported on their dispositional mindfulness, and children self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results Parents who rated themselves as higher in the acting with awareness facet of dispositional mindfulness were more likely to refer to their child's positive emotions, make more positive (e.g. "you were great") and less negative (e.g., "it was awful") evaluations, and made fewer oppositional statements when resolving conflict. Parents who rated themselves as higher in the non-judging facet of mindfulness used more validation during conflict discussions. Mediation bootstrapping models showed support for an indirect path of acting with awareness and observing mindfulness relating to children's symptoms of anxiety and depression, through positive evaluations. There was also support for an indirect path of observing and describing mindfulness relating to internalizing symptoms through reduced use of oppositional strategies. Conclusions Parent dispositional mindfulness was associated with more positive and supportive conflict resolution discussions. The current findings also provide preliminary support for conflict resolution mediating a relationship between parent dispositional mindfulness and child symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Josephine McNamara, Annaleise S. Mitchell, Sophie Russell, Michelle L. Townsend, Jane S. Herbert (2023)Antenatal mind-mindedness and its relationship to maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant women, In: Health care for women international44(10-11)pp. 1400-1422 Taylor & Francis

    In this study, researchers aimed to investigate whether a relationship exists between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) and antenatal mind-mindedness in a sample of Australian pregnant women (n = 43). Participants completed the Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) in their second and third trimester, and a modified 'describe your baby' interview with the inclusion of general prompts as a measure of antenatal mind-mindedness in their third trimester. Positive correlations were observed between mental comments, but not total predictions, made by women during the modified antenatal mind-mindedness task and MFAS scores at the second and third trimesters. An average of 6.07 total predictions and 1.30 mental predictions were made before prompts, increasing to 17.65 total comments and 6.58 mental comments after prompts. Prompts within the mind-mindedness task resulted in 42 participants making at least one mental prediction (M = 6.58). Our findings provide the first evidence for a relationship between MFA and antenatal mind-mindedness, and highlight the importance of considering mind-mindedness during pregnancy in the developing bond from mother to baby.

    A Chakroff, Pascale Russell, J Piazza, L Young (2016)From impure to harmful: Asymmetric expectations about immoral agents, In: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology69pp. 201-209 Elsevier

    How does information about agents' past violations influence people's expectations about their future actions? We examined this question, with a focus on the contrast between past harmful and past impure actions. Participants' judgments reflected two independent influences: action consistency and expectation asymmetry. An expectation asymmetry was observed across seven studies, including two pilot studies and two supplemental studies: impure agents were judged as more likely to be harmful than harmful agents were judged likely to be impure. This expectation asymmetry is not due to an expectation that impure agents will be globally deviant, i.e., likely to commit all kinds of violations (Study 1), nor is it due to differences in the perceived wrongness or weirdness of harmful versus impure acts (Study 2). Study 3 demonstrated that this asymmetry is not attributable to the perceived harmfulness of impure actions; only impure agents, and not harmful agents, were expected to be more harmful than they were previously. These findings highlight an important asymmetry in the way people make predictions about future wrongdoing: immoral agents are expected to behave consistently, and are also expected to be harmful, regardless of their prior violation.

    PS Russell, R Giner-Sorolla (2011)Moral anger is more flexible than moral disgust, In: Social Psychological and Personality Science2pp. 360-364

    The research examines whether anger rather than disgust is more likely to be responsible for changes in moral judgment, after individuals consider potential circumstances. Participants first read a scenario that described a moral violation (harm or fairness vs. purity) and then gave their initial moral judgment and emotions toward the act. They were then asked to list things that could change their opinion and were provided with an opportunity to fill out the measures again, re-evaluating the scenario with these changes in mind. It was found that ratings of disgust did not change after generating potential circumstances; however, anger changed in differential ways for the two violation types. It was also found that anger but not disgust predicted change in moral judgment. These findings suggest that moral anger is a more flexible emotion than moral disgust because anger is more likely to respond to changes in circumstances.

    Anger and disgust may have distinct roles in sexual morality; here, we tested hypotheses regarding the distinct foci, appraisals, and motivations of anger and disgust within the context of sexual offenses. We conducted four experiments in which we manipulated whether mutual consent (Studies 1-3) or desire (Study 4) was present or absent within a counter-normative sexual act. We found that anger is focused on the injustice of non-consensual sexual acts, and the transgressor of the injustice (Studies 1 and 3). Furthermore, the sexual nature of the act was not critical for the elicitation of anger-as anger also responded to unjust acts of violence (Study 3). By contrast, we hypothesised and found that disgust is focused on whether or not a person voluntarily engaged in, desired or consented to a counter-normative sexual act (Studies 2-4). Appraisals of abnormality and degradation were the primary appraisals of disgust, and the sexual nature of the act was a critical elicitor of disgust (Study 3). A final study ruled out victimisation as the mechanism of the effect of consent on disgust and indicated that the consenter's sexual desire was the mechanism (Study 4). Our results reveal that anger and disgust have differential roles in consent-related sexual offenses due to the distinct appraisals and foci of these emotions.

    Pascale Sophie Russell, Michele D. Birtel, Debbie M. Smith, Kathryn Hart, Rebecca Newman (2021)Infant feeding and internalized stigma: The role of guilt and shame, In: Journal of applied social psychology51(9)pp. 906-919 Wiley

    Globally the rates of breastfeeding duration are extremely low and postnatal mental health issues are common. As a result, it is important to examine the emotions that underlie these matters. Across two studies (one correlational study N = 160 and one experimental study N = 118), we examined participants' experiences of shame and guilt when feeding their baby, and the relationship between these emotions with breastfeeding behaviors and internalized stigma. We also examined the psychosocial factors that predict internalized stigma, and whether shame and guilt mediate these relationships. We focused on three factors that have been shown to be associated with internalized stigma in other domains: self-esteem and social support (Study 1), as well as self-efficacy (Study 2). Multiple regression revealed that experienced guilt uniquely predicted a shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (Study 1). Higher self-efficacy (Study 2), self-esteem, and perceived social support (Study 1) predicted lower internalized stigma of feeding choice. We found that shame was a mediator for the self-esteem and internalized stigma relationship (Study 1), while guilt was a mediator for the self-efficacy and internalized stigma relationship (Study 2). Our findings highlight the importance of experienced shame and guilt in mothers' infant feeding experiences. The current results can inform future research and the design of interventions to improve breastfeeding rates and reduce feelings of stigma.

    Mona AlSheddi, Pascale Sophie Russell, Peter Hegarty (2021)Between cultural relativism and liberal ethnocentrism: What does Saudi Arabia tell us about cultural variation in moral identity and prejudice?, In: Journal of applied social psychology51(4)pp. 384-398

    Cultural conceptions of morality are grounded in diverse moral foundations, but moral identity research often assumes that individualizing concerns are the universal basis for morality. Moral identity scales grounded only in individualizing foundations risk liberal ethnocentrism, to the extent that binding foundations emphasized in collectivist cultures are overlooked. Three hundred and ninety‐five Saudi Arabian and UK participants completed prejudice and moral identity measures, which either narrowly measured only individualizing foundations or broadly measured both binding and individualizing foundations. The broader measure had greater power to predict prejudice scores in both countries, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Generally, moral identities grounded in individualizing foundations predicted less prejudice, while moral identities grounded in binding foundations predicted higher prejudice in both countries. Individualizing measures of moral identity may assess ethnocentric concepts, but recognizing morality grounded in binding considerations may taint the category of moral identity with self‐concepts that are associated with greater—not less—ethnocentrism.

    Michal Frackowiak, Peter Hilpert, Pascale Sophie Russell (2022)Partner's perception of phubbing is more relevant than the behavior itself: A daily diary study, In: Computers in human behavior134 Elsevier Ltd

    Interactions between intimate partners are important for the maintenance of a healthy relationship. However, the practice of snubbing one partner in favor of a mobile phone (phubbing), may undermine interactions. Thus far, research has mainly investigated between-person differences, i.e., people experiencing more partner phubbing report lower relationship satisfaction. However, phubbing is linked to processes which unfold within-person and might trigger different appraising mechanisms across different phubbing situations. This study examined participants in intimate relationships (N = 133) over seven days. Results based on multilevel modelling demonstrate that participants did not report lower relationship satisfaction on days when phubbing occurred compared to days without phubbing. However, on days when people experienced partner phubbing, higher phubbing intensity was associated with stronger appraisals reactions: participants reported lower perceived partner responsiveness, more negative and less positive moral judgment of partner's phubbing behavior. These appraisal mechanisms were significantly associated with end-of-day relationship quality. This evidence highlights the importance of appraisal mechanisms in phubbing situations, in other words how the phubbing is perceived is important. •A daily diary study examined the impact of phubbing in 133 participants in intimate relationships.•Multilevel modelling analysis indicates no impact of phubbing on daily relationship quality.•Results indicated the importance of appraisal mechanisms in face-to-face interactions, over the phubbing behavior itself.•This study grounds phubbing as morally relevant in intimate relationships, which constitutes a new theoretical addition.

    Pascale Sophie Russell, Michal Frackowiak, Smadar Cohen-Chen, Patrice Rusconi, Fabio Fasoli (2023)Induced gratitude and hope, and experienced fear, but not experienced disgust, facilitate COVID-19 prevention, In: Cognition and emotion37(2)pp. 196-219 Routledge

    Hope, gratitude, fear, and disgust may all be key to encouraging preventative action in the context of COVID-19. We pre-registered a longitudinal experiment, which involved monthly data collections from September 2020 to September 2021 and a six-month follow-up. We predicted that a hope recall task would reduce negative emotions and elicit higher intentions to engage in COVID-19 preventative behaviours. At the first time point, participants were randomly allocated to a recall task condition (gratitude, hope, or control). At each time point, we measured willingness to engage in COVID-19 preventative behaviours, as well as experienced hope, gratitude, fear, and disgust. We then conducted a separate, follow-up study in February 2022, to see if the effects replicated when COVID-19 restrictions were relaxed in the UK. In the main study, contrary to our pre-registered hypothesis, we found that a gratitude recall task elicited more willingness to engage in COVID-19 preventative behaviours in comparison to the neutral recall task. We also found that experienced gratitude, hope, and fear were positively related to preventative action, while disgust was negatively related. These results present advancement of knowledge of the role of specific emotions in the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Ana Aznar, Harriet R. Tenenbaum, P. Sophie Russell (2021)Is moral disgust socially learned?, In: Emotion American Psychological Association

    The present study examined mother-child talk about disgust. A total of 68 mothers and their 4-, (Mage = 55.72 months, SD = 4.13), 6- (Mage = 77.70 months, SD = 5.45), and 8- (Mage = 100.90 months, SD = 4.61) year-old children discussed four tasks relating to moral and pathogen disgust. Tasks comprised labelling facial expressions of emotions, generating items that would make participants disgusted or angry, identifying moral and pathogen transgressions as either causing anger or disgust, and finally rating the degree to which moral and pathogen transgressions were disgusting and justifying their responses. Mother-child dyads recognized the facial expression of happiness more accurately than that of disgust, but disgust was recognized equally well as expressions of sadness and anger across all age groups. Dyads associated moral transgressions with anger, whereas they associated pathogen transgressions with disgust. Finally, mothers and children and mothers individually rated pathogen transgressions as more disgusting than moral transgressions. Taken together, findings show that moral disgust is understood at a later age and is only used metaphorically, if at all, in children as old as 8 years old.

    Pascale Sophie Russell, Geoffrey Knott (2021)Encouraging sustainable insect-based diets: The role of disgust, social influence, and moral concern in insect consumption, In: Food Quality and Preference92104187 Elsevier

    Disgust, social influence, and moral concern seem to play a pivotal role in insect consumption. Research examining these factors, particularly in the UK, is currently lacking. As a result, two studies were conducted to examine the perceived barriers and benefits of insect consumption, and how disgust can be counteracted. First, a cross-sectional study (N = 600) showed that disgust and moral concerns were unique predictors of individual's willingness to consume insect products. Second, we conducted an experiment (N = 519) to examine whether knowledge that someone else consumes an insect-based product impacts one's own willingness to consume insects. In this study we replicated Hartmann, Ruby, Schmidt, and Siegrist (2018) methodology of giving information about an insect consumer but added details about the individuals' occupation and what type of product they consumed, examining how these factors impacted individual's willingness to consume insect-based products. We found that this information did not impact willingness to consume; however, it did influence feelings of disgust and perceived acceptability. This study also replicated the first study by demonstrating that disgust and moral concern are barriers to insect consumption. We hope the current findings trigger future research to examine how disgust can be counteracted, and to better understand the role of moral concern in insect consumption.

    Pascale Sophie Russell, Debbie M. Smith, Michele D. Birtel, Kathryn Hayley Hart, Sarah Elizabeth Golding (2022)The role of emotions and injunctive norms in breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis, In: Health psychology review16(2)pp. 257-279 Taylor & Francis

    Breastfeeding has many known benefits, but rates vary globally. We propose two main reasons why psychological theory and interventions have not been successful to date in explaining breastfeeding behaviours. Specifically, prior research underestimates the importance of (1) specific emotions and (2) wider injunctive influences (i.e., societal and moral norms about what women feel they ought to be doing) in the breastfeeding experience. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies that explored whether injunctive norms and/ or specific emotions are associated with breastfeeding behaviours (i.e., intentions, initiation and duration). Seventy-two papers were included in this review; data were extracted and quality appraisals conducted for all included studies. A meta-analysis of effect sizes was performed with the quantitative data. A convergent qualitative synthesis of the data was conducted, resulting in the following line of argument: Breastfeeding is a social behaviour and not a personal/individual behaviour. From this line of argument, three themes with associated sub-themes were developed, highlighting the importance of both specific emotions and injunctive norms on breastfeeding behaviours. These influences are discussed in relation to both theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research.

    J Piazza, PS Russell, P Sousa (2013)Moral emotions and the envisaging of mitigating circumstances for wrongdoing., In: Cognition and Emotion27pp. 707-722

    Anger may be more responsive than disgust to mitigating circumstances in judgements of wrongdoing. We tested this hypothesis in two studies where we had participants envision circumstances that could serve to mitigate an otherwise wrongful act. In Study 1, participants provided moral judgements, and ratings of anger and disgust, to a number of transgressions involving either harm or bodily purity. They were then asked to imagine and report whether there might be any circumstances that would make it all right to perform the act. Across transgression type, and controlling for covariance between anger and disgust, levels of anger were found to negatively predict the envisioning of mitigating circumstances for wrongdoing, while disgust was unrelated. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings to less serious transgressions, using a continuous measure of mitigating circumstances, and demonstrated the impact of anger independent of deontological commitments. These findings highlight the differential relationship that anger and disgust have with the ability to envision mitigating factors.

    PS Russell, Giner-Sorolla, R. (2011)Moral anger, but not moral disgust, responds to intentionality, In: Emotion11pp. 233-240

    We propose that, when people judge moral situations, anger responds to the contextual cues of harm and intentionality. On the other hand, disgust responds uniquely to whether or not a bodily norm violation has occurred; its apparent response to harm and intent is entirely explained by the coactivation of anger. We manipulated intent, harm, and bodily norm violation (eating human flesh) within a vignette describing a scientific experiment. Participants then rated their anger, disgust, and moral judgment, as well as various appraisals. Anger responded independently of disgust to harm and intentionality, whereas disgust responded independently of anger only to whether or not the act violated the bodily norm of cannibalism. Theoretically relevant appraisals accounted for the effects of harm and intent on anger; however, appraisals of abnormality did not fully account for the effects of the manipulations on disgust. Our results show that anger and disgust are separately elicited by different cues in a moral situation.

    PS Russell, R Giner-Sorolla (2013)Bodily-Moral Disgust: What It Is, How It Is Different from Anger and Why It Is an Unreasoned Emotion., In: Psychological Bulletin139pp. 328-351

    With the recent upswing in research interest on the moral implications of disgust, there has been uncertainty about what kind of situations elicit moral disgust and whether disgust is a rational or irrational player in moral decision making. We first outline the benefits of distinguishing between bodily violations (e.g., sexual taboos, such as pedophilia and incest) and nonbodily violations (e.g., deception or betrayal) when examining moral disgust. We review findings from our lab and others’ showing that, although many existing studies do not control for anger when studying disgust, disgust at nonbodily violations is often associated with anger and hard to separate from it, while bodily violations more consistently predict disgust independently of anger. Building on this distinction, we present further empirical evidence that moral disgust, in the context of bodily violations, is a relatively primitively appraised moral emotion compared to others such as anger, and also that it is less flexible and less prone to external justifications. Our review and results underscore the need to distinguish between the different consequences of moral emotions.

    PS Russell (2013)Anger, disgust and sexual crimes, In: M Horvath, J Brown (eds.), Rape(3) Willan

    Chapter. 3. Anger,. disgust. and. sexual. crimes. Roger GinerSorolla and Pascale S. Russell ... of tabloid newspapers that emotions such as anger, disgust or shock often arise when people disapprove of other people's sexual behaviours.

    In the present research, we tested the unreasoning disgust hypothesis: moral disgust, in particular in response to a violation of a bodily norm, is less likely than moral anger to be justified with cognitively elaborated reasons. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to explain why they felt anger and disgust toward pedophiles. Participants were more likely to invoke elaborated reasons, versus merely evaluative responses, when explaining their anger, versus disgust. Experiment 2 used a between-participants design; participants explained why they felt either anger or disgust toward seven groups that either violated a sexual or nonsexual norm. Again, elaborated reasons were less prevalent when explaining their disgust versus anger and, in particular, when explaining disgust toward a group that violated a sexual norm. Experiment 3 further established that these findings are due to a lower accessibility of elaborated reasons for bodily disgust, rather than inhibition in using them when provided. From these findings, it can be concluded that communicating external reasons for moral disgust at bodily violations is made more difficult due to the unavailability of those reasons to people.

    PS Russell, J Piazza, R Giner-Sorolla (2013)CAD revisited: Effects of the Word “Moral” on the Moral Relevance of Disgust (and Other Emotions)., In: Social Psychological and Personality Science4pp. 62-68

    The CAD model posits a mapping of contempt, anger, and disgust onto the moral codes of community, autonomy, and divinity, respectively. A recent study by Hutcherson and Gross posited moral disgust as the dominant other-condemning emotion across all three moral codes. However, the methodology used may have incidentally increased the relevance of disgust. In the current experiment, one condition repeated Hutcherson and Gross’s procedure, while in another condition, the authors added the word moral to three other emotions. Consistent with CAD, anger had the highest intensity ratings in response to autonomy violations, whereas ‘‘grossed out’’ was the dominant response to divinity violations. Furthermore, the adjective ‘‘moral’’ increased the relevance of anger, contempt, and fear in irrelevant domains, which suggests that the adjective moral increases any emotion’s moral relevance.