Zheng Chu received the Ph.D. degree from Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K., in 2016. He was with the Faculty of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London, U.K., from 2016 to 2017. He is currently with the Institute for Communication Systems, University of Surrey, Guildford, U.K. His current research interests include physical layer security, wireless cooperative networks, cognitive radio networks, convex optimization techniques, and game theory.
—In this paper, we investigate an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted wireless powered Internet of Things (WP-IoT) network that operates in multiple resource blocks (RBs). Particularly, the IRS helps in both downlink wireless energy transfer (WET) and uplink wireless information transfer (WIT), in a way that it improves energy reflection in WET from a power station (PS) to various IoT devices and boosts information delivery in WIT from the IoT devices to an access point (AP). Those IoT devices are capable of utilizing the collected energy, and adopting the time-division multiple access (TDMA) or non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheme in the uplink WIT. Aiming to maximize the average throughput as the overall performance indicator of the considered network, we jointly optimize the transmit power allocation of the PS, the time scheduling, and the IRS phase shifts. These coupled variables lead to the non-convexity of this optimization problem, which cannot be solved directly. To address this problem, we first design the optimal PS's transmit power allocation for each RB. For the TDMA-based scheme, we design the closed-form IRS beam pattern of the uplink WIT. Then, the closed-form downlink and uplink time allocations are derived by the Lagrange dual method and the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions. In addition, the quadratic transformation (QT)-based Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) approach is proposed to iteratively derive the sub-optimal IRS beam pattern of the downlink WET in an alternated fashion. For the NOMA-based scheme, we propose to apply an alternating optimization (AO) algorithm to iteratively optimize the IRS phase shifts, where the uplink IRS beam pattern is iteratively designed by the Riemannian Manifold Optimization (RMO) approach, and the QT-based ADMM method is adopted to alternately derive the sub-optimal downlink IRS phase shifts. Finally, numerical results demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed solution approaches compared to the benchmark schemes, also highlight advantages of the application of IRS in multiple RB scenarios.
This letter proposes a hybrid beamforming design for an intelligent transmissive surface (ITS)-assisted transmitter wireless network. We aim to suppress the sidelobes and optimize the mainlobes of the transmit beams by minimizing the proposed cost function based on the least squares (LS) for the digital beamforming vector of the base station (BS) and the phase shifts of the ITS. To solve the minimization problem, we adopt an efficient algorithm based on the alternating optimization (AO) method to design the digital beamforming vector and the phase shifts of the ITS in an alternating manner. In particular, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm is utilized to obtain the optimal phase shifts of the ITS. Finally, we verify the improvement achieved by the proposed algorithm in terms of the beam response compared to the benchmark schemes by the simulation results.
This paper proposes a multi-cluster wireless powered Internet of Things (WP-IoT) network assisted by multiple intelligent reflecting surfaces (multi-IRS). In this network, a power station (PS) first broadcasts wireless energy to the distributed IoT devices grouped into multiple clusters. The IoT devices then use the harvested energy to convey their information to an access point (AP), based on a hybrid time- and frequency-division multiple access (TDMA-FDMA) protocol. Furthermore, multiple IRSs are deployed to perform anomalous reflection for energy and information transfer, to improve energy harvesting and data transmission capabilities. Under the constraints of the unit-modulus phase shifts, the transmission time shared among clusters and the bandwidth shared by the devices in each cluster, the considered system is optimized by maximizing its sum throughput. The optimization problem is non-convex and with complicatedly coupled variables. To solve this problem, we propose to first apply the Lagrange dual method and the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to derive closed-form solutions for transmission scheduling and bandwidth allocation, then the quadratic transformation (QT) and the alternating optimization (AO) algorithm are introduced to solve the downlink and uplink IRS phase shifts, whilst the Majorization-Minimization (MM) and Riemannian Manifold Optimization (RMO) methods are applied to iteratively derive their closed-form solutions. Additionally, we provide a benchmark scheme to facilitate the system design, where each IRS can control its “on/off” state to aid the downlink and uplink transmissions in the condition of at most one activated IRS during one certain time duration. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the optimality of our proposed scheme and highlight the beneficial role of the IRS.
—This paper exploits an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted wireless powered mobile edge computing and caching (WP-MECC) network. In particular, an IRS is utilized to reflect energy signals from a power station (PS) to various IoT devices for energy harvesting during uplink wireless energy transfer (WET). These devices collect energy to support their own partially local computing for computational tasks and their offloading capabilities to an access point (AP), with the help of IRS via time or frequency division multiple access (TDMA or FDMA). The AP is equipped with a local cache connected with a MEC server via a backhaul link, which prefetches the data to facilitate edge computing capabilities. The maximization of a utility function is formulated to evaluate the overall network performance, which is defined as the difference between the sum of computational bits (offloading bits and local computing bits) and total backhaul cost. Due to multiple coupled variables, we first design the optimal caching strategy. Then, an auxiliary vector is introduced to coordinate the energy consumption of local computing and offloading, where its optimal solution can be achieved by an exhaustive search. Moreover, we utilize the Lagrange dual method and the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to derive the optimal time scheduling for the TDMA scheme or the optimal bandwidth allocation for the FDMA counterpart in closed form. The IRS phase shifts are iteratively designed by employing the quadratic transformation (QT) and the Riemannian Manifold Optimization (RMO). Finally, simulation results are demonstrated to validate the network utility performance and confirm the advantage of the employment of IRS, the optimal IRS phase shift design and caching strategy, in comparison to the benchmark schemes. Index Terms—Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS), wireless powered mobile edge computing and caching (WP-MECC), utility
—By introducing nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) based millimeter wave (mmW) communication, it can significantly improve the transmission efficiency of mobile edge computing (MEC) offloading. In this paper, we are motivated to investigate the resource allocation (RA) problem of the NOMA-mmW scheme based MEC offloading system, by jointly optimizing the beamwidth, user equipment (UE) scheduling and transmit power. To tackle the mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem of delay minimization, we develop the alternative optimization (AO) approach based RA scheme, namely AO-RA, to obtain the close-optimum solutions. In the AO-RA scheme, we propose the matrix control many-to-one with externality (MC-M2OE) algorithm, to find the best UE scheduling for the NOMA groupings of different types of UEs. Up on the above, we further design the joint beamwidth and transmit power (JBTP) algorithm, which determines the optimal beamwidth and transmit power for the MEC offloading transmissions. Our simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed AO-RA scheme in minimizing the offloading delay, where our MC-M2OE and JBTP algorithms can significantly outperform the existing approaches. From the simulation results, we may conclude that, it needs to carefully address the trade-off between beam alignment overhead and transmission gain, while properly balancing the loading among different NOMA groups, for the practical consideration of NOMA-mmW MEC technology.
This paper investigates a wireless powered sensor network (WPSN), where multiple sensor nodes are deployed to monitor a certain external environment. A multi-antenna power station (PS) provides the power to these sensor nodes during wireless energy transfer (WET) phase, and consequently the sensor nodes employ the harvested energy to transmit their own monitoring information to a fusion center (FC) during wireless information transfer (WIT) phase. The goal is to maximize the system sum throughput of the sensor network, where two different scenarios are considered, i.e., PS and the sensor nodes belong to the same or different service operator(s). For the first scenario, we propose a global optimal solution to jointly design the energy beamforming and time allocation. We further develop a closed-form solution for the proposed sum throughput maximization. For the second scenario in which the PS and the sensor nodes belong to different service operators, energy incentives are required for the PS to assist the sensor network. Specifically, the sensor network needs to pay in order to purchase the energy services released from the PS to support WIT. In this case, the paper exploits this hierarchical energy interaction, which is known as energy trading. We propose a quadratic energy trading based Stackelberg game, linear energy trading based Stackelberg game, and social welfare scheme, in which we derive the Stackelberg equilibrium for the formulated games, and the optimal solution for the social welfare scheme. Finally, numerical results are provided to validate the performance of our proposed schemes.
—In this paper, we propose an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) enabled wireless powered caching system. In the proposed IRS model, a power station (PS) provides wireless energy to multiple Internet of Things (IoT) devices, delivering their information to an access point (AP) by utilizing the harvested power. The AP, equipped with a local cache, stores the IoT data to avoid waking up the IoT devices frequently. Meanwhile, we deploy the IRS involving in the wireless energy and information transfer process for performance enhancements. In this practical system, the PS and the AP could belong to different service providers. Also, the AP requires to incentivize the PS to offer a provisional energy service. We model the interaction between the PS and the AP as a Stackelberg game that jointly optimizes the transmit power of the PS, the energy price, the phase shifts of the wireless energy transfer (WET) and wireless information transfer (WIT) phases, as well as wireless caching strategies of the AP. In this way, we first derive the optimal solutions of the phase shifts and the transmit power of the PS in closed-form. We propose an alternating optimization (AO) algorithm to optimize the wireless caching strategies and the energy price iteratively. Finally, we present various numerical evaluations to validate the beneficial role of the IRS and the wireless caching strategies and the performance of the proposed scheme compared with the existing benchmark schemes.
In this article, we investigate a resource allocation problem for multicarrier multiuser MISO (multiple-input-Single-output) downlink systems, where multiple co-channel multicast groups are served simultaneously. We consider a rate-splitting transmission scheme to address the inevitable inter-group interference under an overloaded multigroup multicast scenario, where the insufficient number of transmit antennas prevents the conventional schemes from neutralizing the interference. We first formulate an optimization problem for maximizing the minimum multicast group rate among all groups on all available subcarriers. This problem involves a joint power and subcarrier allocation optimization, and is non-convex. We apply an iterative scheme based on successive convex approximation (SCA) to find the locally optimal solution. Simulation results demonstrate the performance gain of the proposed scheme compared to the state-of-the-art transmission schemes.
In this letter, we study the beamforming design in a lens-antenna array-based joint multicast-unicast millimeter wave massive MIMO system, where the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer at users is considered. First, we develop a beam selection scheme based on the structure of the lens-antenna array and then, the zero forcing precoding is adopted to cancel the inter-unicast interference among users. Next, we formulate a sum rate maximization problem by jointly optimizing the unicast power, multicast beamforming and power splitting ratio. Meanwhile, the maximum transmit power constraint for the base station and the minimum harvested energy for each user are imposed. By employing the successive convex approximation technique, we transform the original optimization problem into a convex one, and propose an iterative algorithm to solve it. Finally, simulation results are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.
Low latency and energy efficiency are two important performance requirements in various fifth-generation (5G) wire-less networks. In order to jointly design the two performance requirements, in this paper a new performance metric called effective energy efficiency (EEE) is defined as the ratio of the effective capacity (EC) to the total power consumption in a cellular network with underlaid device to device (D2D) communications. We aim to maximize the EEE of the D2D network subject to the D2D device power constraints and the minimum rate constraint of the cellular network. Due to the non-convexity of the problem, we propose a two-stage difference-of-two-concave (DC) function approach to solve this problem. Towards that end, we first introduce an auxiliary variable to transfer the fractional objective function into a subtractive form. We then propose a successive convex approximation (SCA) algorithm to iteratively solve the resulting non-convex problem. The convergence and the global optimality of the proposed SCA algorithm are both analyzed. The numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Non-orthogonal multiple-access (NOMA) and simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) are promising techniques to improve spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. However, the security of NOMA SWIPT systems has not received much attention in the literature. In this paper, an artificial noise-aided beamforming design problem is studied to enhance the security of a multiple-input single-output NOMA SWIPT system where a practical non-linear energy harvesting model is adopted. The problem is non-convex and challenging to solve. Two algorithms are proposed to tackle this problem based on semidefinite relaxation (SDR) and successive convex approximation. Simulation results show that a performance gain can be obtained by using NOMA compared to the conventional orthogonal multiple access. It is also shown that the performance of the algorithm using a cost function is better than the algorithm using SDR at the cost of a higher computation complexity.
—This article discusses the self-sustainability of recon-figurable intelligent surface (RIS) in wireless powered Internet of Things (IoT) networks. Our vision is that RIS helps improve energy harvesting and data transmission capabilities simultaneously , without the extra utilization of radio frequency (RF) spectrum and energy consumption. The inherent properties of RIS are first discussed to unveil its distinctive features, followed by a broader range of use cases motivated by the RIS as their enabling technology. The focus is on the application of RIS in the wireless powered IoT networks, and its potential to interconnect and support these practical use cases. Such an application is then thoroughly evaluated in a case study of a RIS-assisted wireless powered sensor network (WPSN), with system throughput, energy transmission time consumption, and energy harvesting as the key performance metrics. The comprehensive performance evaluation showcases the self-sustainable property of the RIS being unlocked in the considered scenario, identifying a clear pathway towards the future wireless powered IoT networks. We further pave that pathway by exploring research challenges and open issues related to emerging technological development.
—This paper investigates a wireless powered intelligent radio environment, where a fractional non-linear energy harvesting (NLEH) is proposed to enable an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted wireless powered Internet of Things (WP IoT) network. The IRS engages in downlink wireless energy transfer (WET) and uplink wireless information transfer (WIT). We aim to improve the overall performance of the considered network, and the approach is to maximize its sum throughput subject to constraints of two different types of IRS beam patterns and time durations. To solve the formulated problem, we first consider the Lagrange dual method and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to optimally design the time durations in closed-form. Then, a quadratic transformation (QT) is proposed to iteratively transform the fractional NLEH model into the subtractive form, where the IRS phase shifts are optimally derived by the Complex Circle Manifold (CCM) method in each iteration. Finally, numerical results are demonstrated to promote the proposed scheme in comparison to the benchmark schemes, where the benefits are induced by the IRS compared with the benchmark schemes.
Considering a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) aided wireless powered Internet of Things (WP IoT) network. To address the energy-limitation issue, IoT devices in such a network can be wirelessly powered by a power station (PS) first and then connect with an access point (AP) using their own harvested energy. The RIS helps enhance energy and information receptions in the downlink wireless energy transfer (WET) and uplink wireless information transfer (WIT), respectively. This work unveils the impact of phase shift error (PSE) and transceiver hardware impairment (THI) on the considered network. Our investigation starts with a scenario where only the impact of the PSE on system under study is considered, then moves toward a scenario with the compound effect of both PSE and THI. A maximization problem of the system sum throughput is formulated to evaluate the overall performance for these two scenarios, subject to the constraints of the adjustable RIS phase shifts, the statistical PSE and the transmission time scheduling. To handle the non-convexity of the formulated problem due to those coupled variables, we first adopt the Lagrange dual method and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to derive the optimal time scheduling in closed-form. Next, we recast the stochastic PSE into the deterministic counterpart for its tractability. Then, we adopt a successive convex approximation (SCA) to iteratively derive the optimal WIT’s phase shifts, and element-wise block coordinate decent (EBCD) and complex circle manifold (CCM) methods to iteratively derive the optimal WET’s phase shifts. Finally, we complete our solution approach for the scenario with both PSE and THI. Simulation results highlight the performance of the proposed scheme and the benefits induced by the RIS in comparison to benchmark schemes.
This paper investigates a two-tier heterogeneous networks (HetNets) with wireless backhaul, where millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency is adopted at the macro base station (MBS), and the cellular frequency is considered at small cell BS (SBS) with orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). Subarray structure based hybrid analog/digital precoding scheme is investigated to reduce the hardware cost and energy consumption. Our goal is to maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the HetNets with limited wireless backhaul capacity and all users’ quality of service (QoS) constraints. The formulated problem is non-convex mixed integer nonlinear fraction programming (MINLFP), which is non-trivial to solve directly. In order to circumvent this issue, we propose a two-loop iterative resource allocation algorithm. Specifically, we transform the outer-loop problem into a difference of convex programming (DCP) by employing integer relaxation and Dinkelback method. In addition, the first-order approximation is considered to linearize this inner-loop DCP problem into a convex optimization framework. Lagrange dual method is adapted to achieve the optimal closed-form power allocation. Furthermore, we analyze the convergence of the proposed iterative algorithm. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate our proposed schemes.
In this paper, we investigate an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted millimeter-wave multiple-input single-output downlink wireless communication system. By jointly calculating the active beamforming at the base station and the passive beamforming at the IRS, we aim to minimize the transmit power under the constraint of each user' signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. To solve this problem, we propose a low-complexity machine learning-based cross-entropy (CE) algorithm to alternately optimize the active beamforming and the passive beamforming. Specifically, in the alternative iteration process, the zero-forcing (ZF) method and CE algorithm are applied to acquire the active beamforming and the passive beamforming, respectively. The CE algorithm starts with random sampling, by the idea of distribution focusing, namely shifting the distribution towards a desired one by minimizing CE, and a near optimal reflection coefficients with adequately high probability can be obtained. In addition, we extend the original one-bit phase shift at the IRS to the common case with high-resolution phase shift to enhance the effectiveness of the algorithms. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm can obtain a near optimal solution with lower computational complexity.
—In this work, we study a simultaneous transmitting and reflecting reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-assisted multiple-input multiple-output network. For the system under consideration, we maximize the weighted sum rate, mainly based on the energy splitting (ES) scheme. To tackle this optimization problem, a sub-optimal block coordinate descent (BCD) algorithm is proposed to design the precoding matrices and the transmitting and reflecting coefficients (TRCs) in an alternate manner. Specifically, the precoding matrices are solved using the Lagrange dual method, while the TRCs are obtained using the constrained concave-convex procedure (CCCP). The simulation results reveal that: 1) Simultaneous transmitting and reflecting RIS (STAR-RIS) can achieve better performance than conventional reflecting/transmiting-only RIS; 2) In unicast communication , time switching (TS) scheme outperforms the ES and mode selection (MS) schemes, while in broadcast communication, ES scheme outperforms the TS and MS schemes.
In this paper, we consider multigroup multicast transmissions with different types of service messages in an overloaded multicarrier system, where the number of transmitter antennas is insufficient to mitigate all inter-group interference. We show that employing a rate-splitting based multiuser beamforming approach enables a simultaneous delivery of the multiple service messages over the same time-frequency resources in a non-orthogonal fashion. Such an approach, taking into account transmission power constraints which are inevitable in practice, outperforms classic beamforming methods as well as current standardized multicast technologies, in terms of both spectrum efficiency and the flexibility of radio resource allocation.
Terahertz (THz) communication has been regarded as one promising technology to enhance the transmission capacity of future internet-of-things (IoT) users due to its ultra-wide bandwidth. Nonetheless, one major obstacle that prevents the actual deployment of THz lies in its inherent huge attenuation. Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) and multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) represent two effective solutions for compensating the large pathloss in THz systems. In this paper, we consider an IRS-aided multi-user THz MIMO system with orthogonal frequency division multiple access, where the sparse radio frequency chain antenna structure is adopted for reducing the power consumption. The objective is to maximize the weighted sum rate via jointly optimizing the hybrid analog/digital beamforming at the base station and reflection matrix at the IRS. Since the analog beamforming and reflection matrix need to cater all users and subcarriers, it is difficult to directly solve the formulated problem, and thus, an alternatively iterative optimization algorithm is proposed. Specifically, the analog beamforming is designed by solving a MIMO capacity maximization problem, while the digital beamforming and reflection matrix optimization are both tackled using semidefinite relaxation technique. Considering that obtaining perfect channel state information (CSI) is a challenging task in IRS-based systems, we further explore the case with the imperfect CSI for the channels from the IRS to users. Under this setup, we propose a robust beamforming and reflection matrix design scheme for the originally formulated non-convex optimization problem. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Employing multi-antenna rate-splitting (RS) at the transmitter and successive interference cancellation (SIC) at the receivers, has emerged as a powerful transceiver strategy for multi-antenna networks. In this paper, we design RS precoders for an overloaded multicarrier multigroup multicast downlink system, and analyse the error performance. RS splits each group message into degraded and designated parts. The degraded parts are combined and encoded into a degraded stream, while the designated parts are encoded in designated streams. All streams are precoded and superimposed in a non-orthogonal fashion before being transmitted over the same time-frequency resource. We first derive the optimized RS-based precoder, where the design philosophy is to achieve a fair user group rate for the considered scenario by solving a joint max-min fairness and sum subcarrier rate optimization problem. Comparing with other precoding schemes including the state-of-the-art multicast transmission scheme, we show that the RS precoder outperforms its counterparts in terms of the fairness rate, with Gaussian signalling, i.e., idealistic assumptions. Then we integrate the optimized RS precoder into a practical transceiver design for link-level simulations (LLS), with realistic assumptions such as finite alphabet inputs and finite code block length. The performance metric becomes the coded bit error rate (BER). In the system under study, low-density parity-check (LDPC) encoding is applied at the transmitter, and iterative soft-input soft-output detection and decoding are employed at the successive interference cancellation based receiver, which completes the LLS processing chain and helps to generate the coded error performance results which validate the effectiveness of the proposed RS precoding scheme compared with benchmark schemes, in terms of the error performance. More importantly, we unveil the corresponding relations between the achievable rate in the idealistic case and coded BER in the realistic case, e.g., with finite alphabet input, for the RS precoded multicarrier multigroup multicast scenario. Index Terms—Downlink multiuser MISO, multicarrier multi-group multicast, rate-splitting, optimization, coded bit error rate BER.
This paper investigates the impact of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) enabled wireless secure transmission. Specifically, an IRS is deployed to assist multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) secure system to enhance the secrecy performance, and artificial noise (AN) is employed to introduce interference to degrade the reception of the eavesdropper. To improve the secrecy performance, we aim to maximize the achievable secrecy rate, subject to the transmit power constraint, by jointly designing the precoding of the secure transmission, the AN jamming, and the reflecting phase shift of the IRS. We first propose an alternative optimization algorithm (i.e., block coordinate descent (BCD) algorithm) to tackle the non-convexity of the formulated problem. This is made by deriving the transmit precoding and AN matrices via the Lagrange dual method and the phase shifts by the Majorization-Minimization (MM) algorithm. Our analysis reveals that the proposed BCD algorithm converges in a monotonically non-decreasing manner which leads to guaranteed optimal solution. Finally, we provide numerical results to validate the secrecy performance enhancement of the proposed scheme in comparison to the benchmark schemes.
Physical layer security (PLS) technologies have attracted much attention in recent years for their potential to provide information-theoretically secure communications. Artificial Noise (AN)-aided transmission is considered as one of the most practicable PLS technologies, as it can realize secure transmission independent of the eavesdropper’s channel status. In this paper, we reveal that AN transmission has the dependency of eavesdropper’s channel condition by introducing our proposed attack method based on a supervised-learning algorithm which utilizes the modulation scheme, available from known packet preamble and/or header information, as supervisory signals of training data. Numerical simulation results with the comparison to conventional clustering methods show that our proposed method improves the success probability of attack from 4.8% to at most 95.8% for the QPSK modulation. It implies that the transmission to the receiver in the cell-edge with low order modulation will be cracked if the eavesdropper’s channel is good enough by employing more antennas than the transmitter. This work brings new insights into the effectiveness of AN schemes and provides useful guidance for the design of robust PLS techniques for practical wireless systems.
Cognitive satellite-terrestrial networks (CSTNs) have been recognized as a promising network architecture for addressing spectrum scarcity problem in next-generation communication networks. In this paper, we investigate the secure transmission for CSTNs where the terrestrial base station (BS) serving as a green interference resource is introduced to enhance the security of the satellite link. Adopting a stochastic model for the channel state information (CSI) uncertainty, we propose a secure and robust beamforming framework to minimize the transmit power, while satisfying a range of outage (probabilistic) constraints concerning the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) recorded at the satellite user and the terrestrial user, the leakage-SINR recorded at the eavesdropper, as well as the interference power recorded at the satellite user. The resulting robust optimization problem is highly intractable and the key observation is that the highly intractable probability constraints can be equivalently reformulated as the deterministic versions with Gaussian statistics. In this regard, we develop two robust reformulation methods, namely S-Procedure and Bernstein-type inequality restriction techniques, to obtain a safe approximate solution. In the meantime, the computational complexities of the proposed schemes are analyzed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed schemes are demonstrated by numerical results with different system parameters.
This paper exploits a generic downlink symbiotic radio (SR) system, where a Base Station (BS) establishes a direct (primary) link with a receiver having an integrated backscatter device (BD). In order to accurately measure the backscatter link, the backscattered signal packets are designed to have ﬁnite block length. As such, the backscatter link in this SR system employs the ﬁnite block-length channel codes. According to different types of the backscatter symbol period and transmission rate, we investigate the non-cooperative and cooperative SR (i.e., NSR and CSR) systems, and derive their average achievable rate of the direct and backscatter links, respectively. We formulate two optimization problems, i.e., transmit power minimization and energy efﬁciency maximization. Due to the non-convex property of these formulated optimization problems, the semideﬁnite programming (SDP) relaxation and the successive convex approximation (SCA) are considered to design the transmit beamforming vector. Moreover, a low-complexity transmit beamforming structure is constructed to reduce the computational complexity of the SDP relaxed solution. Finally, the simulation results are demonstrated to validate the proposed schemes.
In this paper, we investigate the hybrid precoding design for joint multicast-unicast millimeter wave (mmWave) system, where the simultaneous wireless information and power transform is considered at receivers. The subarray-based sparse radio frequency chain structure is considered at base station (BS). Then, we formulate a joint hybrid analog/digital precoding and power splitting ratio optimization problem to maximize the energy efficiency of the system, while the maximum transmit power at BS and minimum harvested energy at receivers are considered. Due to the difficulty in solving the formulated problem, we first design the codebook-based analog precoding approach and then, we only need to jointly optimize the digital precoding and power splitting ratio. Next, we equivalently transform the fractional objective function of the optimization problem into a subtractive form one and propose a two-loop iterative algorithm to solve it. For the outer loop, the classic Bi-section iterative algorithm is applied. For the inner loop, we transform the formulated problem into a convex one by successive convex approximation techniques, which is solved by a proposed iterative algorithm. Finally, simulation results are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm.
This paper investigates a secure wireless powered integrated service system with full duplex self-energy recycling. Specifically, an energy-constrained information transmitter (IT), powered by a power station (PS) in a wireless fashion, broadcasts two types of services to all users: a multicast service intended for all users, and a confidential unicast service subscribed to by only one user while protecting it from any other unsubscribed users and an eavesdropper. Our goal is to jointly design the optimal input covariance matrices for the energy beamforming, the multicast service, the confidential unicast service, and the artificial noises from the PS and the IT, such that the secrecy-multicast rate region (SMRR) is maximized subject to the transmit power constraints. Due to the non-convexity of the SMRR maximization (SMRRM) problem, we employ a semidefinite programmingbased two-level approach to solve this problem and find all of its Pareto optimal points. In addition, we extend the SMRRM problem to the imperfect channel state information case where a worst-case SMRRM formulation is investigated. Moreover, we exploit the optimized transmission strategies for the confidential service and energy transfer by analyzing their own rank-one profile. Finally, numerical results are provided to validate our proposed schemes.
A device-to-device (D2D) ultra reliable low latency communications (URLLC) network is investigated in this paper. Specifically, a D2D transmitter opportunistically accesses the radio resource provided by a cellular network and directly transmits short packets to its destination. A novel performance metric is adopted for finite block-length code. We quantify the maximum achievable rate for the D2D network, subject to a probabilistic interference power constraint based on imperfect channel state information (CSI). First, we perform a convexity analysis which reveals that the finite block-length rate for the D2D pair in short-packet transmission is not always concave. To address this issue, we propose two effective resource allocation schemes using the successive convex approximation (SCA)-based iterative algorithm. To gain more insights, we exploit the mono- tonicity of the average finite block-length rate. By capitalizing on this property, an optimal power control policy is proposed, followed by closed-form expressions and approximations for the optimal average power and the maximum achievable average rate in the finite block-length regime. Numerical results are provided to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed resource allocation schemes and validate the accuracy of the derived theoretical results.
Abstract—Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is a promising technology in future wireless networks because of its wide bandwidths that can achieve high data rates. However, high beam directionality at the transceiver is needed due to the large path loss at mmWave. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the beam alignment and power allocation problem in a nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) mmWave system. Dierent from the traditional beam alignment problem, we consider the NOMA scheme during the beam alignment phase when two users are at the same or close angle direction from the base station. Next, we formulate an optimization problem of joint beamwidth selection and power allocation to maximize the sum rate, where the quality of service (QoS) of the users and total power constraints are imposed. Since it is dicult to directly solve the formulated problem, we start by fixing the beamwidth. Next, we transform the power allocation optimization problem into a convex one, and a closed-form solution is derived. In addition, a one-dimensional search algorithm is used to find the optimal beamwidth. Finally, simulation results are conducted to compare the performance of the proposed NOMA-based beam alignment and power allocation scheme with that of the conventional OMA scheme.
In this paper, we propose intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) aided multi-antenna physical layer security. We present a power efficient scheme to design the secure transmit power allocation and the surface reflecting phase shift. It aims to minimize the transmit power subject to the secrecy rate constraint at the legitimate user. Due to the non-convex nature of the formulated problem, we propose an alternative optimization algorithm and the semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation to deal with this issue. Also, the closed-form expression of the optimal secure beamformer is derived. Finally, simulation results are presented to validate the proposed algorithm, which highlights the performance gains of the IRS to improve the secure transmission.
—This paper proposes an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) system operating at the millimeter-wave (mmWave) band. Specifically , the ISAC system combines communication and radar operations and performs on the same hardware platform, detecting and communicating simultaneously with multiple targets and users. The IRS dynamically controls the amplitude or phase of the radio signal via the reflecting elements to reconfigure the radio propagation environment and enhance the transmission rate of the ISAC system in the mmWave band. By jointly designing the radar signal covariance (RSC) matrix, the beamforming vector of the communication system, and the IRS phase shift, the ISAC system transmission rate can be improved while matching the desired waveform for radar. The problem is non-convex due to multivariate coupling, and thus we decompose it into two separate subproblems. First, a closed-form solution of the RSC matrix is derived from the radar desired waveform. Next, the quadratic transformation (QT) technique is applied to the subproblem, and then alternating optimization (AO) is applied to determine the communication beamforming vector and the IRS phase shift. Also, we derive a closed-form solution for the formulated problem, effectively decreasing computational complexity. Finally, the simulations verify the effectiveness of the algorithm and demonstrate that the IRS can improve the performance of the ISAC system. Index Terms—Integrated sensing and communications, intelligent reflecting surface, waveform design.
This paper proposes a novel transmission policy for an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted wireless powered sensor network (WPSN). An IRS is deployed to enhance the performance of wireless energy transfer (WET) and wireless information transfer (WIT) by intelligently adjusting phase shifts of each reflecting elements. To achieve its self-sustainability, the IRS needs to collect energy from the ES to support its control circuit operation. Our proposed policy for the considered system is called IRS assisted harvest-then-transmit time switching (IRS-HTT-TS) which schedules the transmission time slots by switching between energy collection and energy reflection modes. We study the performance of the proposed transmission policy in terms of the achievable sum throughput, and investigate a joint design of the transmission time slots, the power allocation, as well as the discrete phase shifts of the WET and WIT. This formulates the problem as a mixed-integer non-linear program (MINLP), which is NP-hard and non-convex. To deal with this problem, we first relax it to the one with continuous phase shifts. Consequently, we propose a two-step approach and decompose the original problem into two sub-problem, each being solved separately. Specifically, we independently solve the first sub-problem with respect to the phase shifts of the WIT in terms of closed-form expression. Then, we consider two cases to solve the second sub- problem. For the special case without the circuit power of each sensor node, the Lagrange dual method and the Karush-Kuhn- Tucker (KKT) conditions are applied to derive the optimal closed- form transmission time slots, power allocation, and phase shift of the WET. Moreover, we exploit the second sub-problem for the general case with the circuit power of each sensor node, which can be solved via employing a semi-definite programming (SDP) relaxation.
This paper studies the impact of an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) on computational performance in a mobile edge computing (MEC) system. Specifically, an access point (AP) equipped with an edge server provides MEC services to multiple internet of thing (IoT) devices that choose to offload a portion of their own computational tasks to the AP with the remaining portion being locally computed. We deploy an IRS to enhance the computational performance of the MEC system by intelligently adjusting the phase shift of each reflecting element. A joint design problem is formulated for the considered IRS assisted MEC system, aiming to optimize its sum computational bits and taking into account the CPU frequency, the offloading time allocation, transmit power of each device as well as the phase shifts of the IRS. To deal with the non-convexity of the formulated problem, we conduct our algorithm design by finding the optimized phase shifts first and then achieving the jointly optimal solution of the CPU frequency, the transmit power and the offloading time allocation by considering the Lagrange dual method and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions. Numerical evaluations highlight the advantage of the IRS-assisted MEC system in comparison with the benchmark schemes.
In this paper, we aim to unlock the potential of intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) in cognitive internet of things (IoT). Considering that the secondary IoT devices send messages to the secondary access point (SAP) by sharing the spectrum with the primary network, the interference is introduced by the IoT devices to the primary access point (PAP) which profits from the IoT devices by pricing the interference power charged by them. A practical path loss model is adopted such that the IRSs deployed between the IoT devices and SAP serve as diffuse scatterers, but each reflected signal can be aligned with its own desired direction. Moreover, two transmission policies of the secondary network are investigated without/with a successive interference cancellation (SIC) technique. The signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) balancing is considered to overcome the near-far effect of the IoT devices so as to allocate the resource fairly among them. We propose a Stackelberg game strategy to characterize the interaction between primary and secondary networks. For the proposed game, the Stackelberg equilibrium is analytically derived to optimally obtain the closed-form solution of the power allocation and interference pricing. Numerical results are demonstrated to validate the performance of the theoretical derivations.
—Multi-numerology multi-carrier (MN-MC) techniques are considered as essential enablers for RAN slicing in fifth-generation (5G) communication systems and beyond. However, utilization of mixed numerologies breaks the or-thogonality principle defined for single-numerology orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (SN-OFDM) systems with a unified subcarrier spacing. This leads to interference between different numerologies, i.e., inter-numerology interference (INI). This paper develops metrics to quantify the level of the INI using a continuous-time approach. The derived analytical expressions of INI in terms of mean square error (MSE) and error vector magnitude (EVM) directly reveal the main contributing factors to INI, which can not be shown explicitly in a matrix form INI based on discrete-time calculations. Moreover, the study of power offset between different numerologies shows a significant impact on INI, especially for high order modulation schemes. The finding in this paper provides analytical guidance in designing multi-numerology (MN) systems, for instance, developing resource allocation schemes and interference mitigation techniques.