Dr Dan Bompa

Lecturer in Civil and Structural Engineering
PhD CEng MIStructE EurIng
+44 (0)1483 683390
25 AA 02
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Academic and research departments

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.


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Courses I teach on


Postgraduate taught

My publications


This work examines the environmental and geochemical impact of recycled aggregate concrete production with properties representative for structural applications. The environmental influence of cement content, aggregate production, transportation, and waste landfilling is analysed by undertaking a life cycle assessment and considering a life cycle inventory largely specific for the region. To obtain a detailed insight into the optimum life cycle parameters, a sensitivity study is carried out in which supplementary cementitious materials, different values of natural-to-recycled aggregate content ratio and case-specific transportation distances were considered. The results show that carbon emissions were between 323 and 332 kgCO2e per cubic metre of cement only natural aggregate concrete. These values can be reduced by up to 17% by replacing 25% of the cement with fly ash. By contrast, carbon emissions can increase when natural coarse aggregates are replaced by recycled aggregates in proportions of 50% and 100%, and transportation is not included in analysis. However, the concrete with 50% recycled aggregate presented lower increase, only 0.3% and 3.4% for normal and high strength concrete, respectively. In some cases, the relative contribution of transportation to the total carbon emissions increased when cement was replaced by fly ash in proportions of 25%, and case-specific transportation distances were considered. In absolute values, the concrete mixes with 100% recycled aggregates and 25% fly ash had lower carbon emissions than concrete with cement and natural aggregates only. Higher environmental benefits can be obtained when the transportation distances of fly ash are relatively short (15–25 km) and the cement replacement by fly ash is equal or higher than 25%, considering that the mechanical properties are adequate for practical application. The observations from this paper show that recycled aggregate concrete with strength characteristics representative for structural members can have lower carbon emissions than conventional concrete, recommending them as an alternative to achieving global sustainability standards in construction.

This paper investigates the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties as well as the environmental performance of polymer cementitious composites (PCCs) as sustainable coating materials for underground power cables and as high-voltage insulators. Particular focus is placed on the optimised mix design and the effect of the manufacturing method on the performance of PCCs, incorporating liquid styrene and acrylic (SA) monomers, wollastonite and muscovite. Microstructural investigations, together with results from strength tests, indicate that the manufacturing method is a key performance parameter. Experimental results show that PCC mixes containing 25% SA emulsion, 12.5% wollastonite and no muscovite provide the most favourable dielectric properties from the mixes investigated. The PCC material has a dielectric strength up to 16.5 kV/mm and a dielectric loss factor lower than 0.12. Additional experiments also show that PCC has good thermal stability and thermal conductivity. The mechanical strength tests indicate that PCC specimens possess reliable strengths which are applicable in structural design. Environmental assessments also show that PCCs possess significantly lower embodied energy and embodied carbon than conventional plastic insulating materials.

D.V Bompa, A.Y Elghazouli (2021)Mechanical properties of hydraulic lime mortars and fired clay bricks subjected to dry-wet cycles, In: Construction and Building Materials303124458 Elsevier

This paper examines the influence of moisture and chlorides on the mechanical properties of natural hydraulic lime mortars, fired clay brick materials and masonry components. Besides assessing three types of mortars incorporating limes with different hydraulicity levels, a cement-only mortar was also investigated for comparison purposes. The test results indicate that all the hydraulic lime mortars had mass accumulation in the range of 11–14% after being subjected to wet-dry cycles in a sodium chloride solution, whilst the mass uptake was in the range of 3–8% for those made of cement. Salt accumulation produced a denser material leading to compressive cube and flexural strength enhancements by factors ranging between 1.6 and 4.7 in comparison to those in ambient-dry conditions, with even higher factors obtained for compressive cylinder strengths and elastic moduli. In contrast, lime mortar subjected to water-only wet-dry cycles showed constant mass or mass loss, due to cracking. Uniaxial compressive strengths of cylindrical brick cores were about 8.5% higher due to wet-dry cycles in chloride solution, and by about 14.9% lower due to wet-dry cycles in water, compared to the ambient-dry case. Complementary compressive tests on masonry cylinders in ambient-dry conditions were also used to assess the adequacy of existing compressive strength assessment expressions. After modifying the expressions by a set of proposed calibration factors, these are employed to undertake a sensitivity study using the mechanical properties of mortars and bricks subjected to wet-dry cycling. The results of the sensitivity study, combined with strength ranges available in the literature, lead to an identification of a suitable range of materials that can be considered for rehabilitation of some forms of historic masonry.

A Y Elghazouli, D V Bompa, S A Mourad, A Elyamani (2021)In-plane lateral cyclic behaviour of lime-mortar and clay-brick masonry walls in dry and wet conditions, In: Bulletin of earthquake engineering SPRINGER

This paper presents an experimental investigation into the structural and material response of ambient-dry and wet clay-brick/lime-mortar masonry elements. In addition to cyclic tests on four large-scale masonry walls subjected to lateral in-plane displacement and co-existing compressive gravity load, the study also includes complementary tests on square masonry panels under diagonal compression and cylindrical masonry cores in compression. After describing the specimen details, wetting method and testing arrangements, the main results and observations are provided and discussed. The results obtained from full-field digital image correlation measurements enable a detailed assessment of the material shear-compression strength envelope, and permit a direct comparison with the strength characteristics of structural walls. The full load-deformation behaviour of the large-scale walls is also evaluated, including their ductility and failure modes, and compared with the predictions of available assessment models. It is shown that moisture has a notable effect on the main material properties, including the shear and compression strengths, brick–mortar interaction parameters, and the elastic and shear moduli. The extent of the moisture effects is a function of the governing behaviour and material characteristics as well as the interaction between shear and precompression stresses, and can lead to a loss of more than a third of the stiffness and strength. For the large scale wall specimens subjected to lateral loading and co-existing compression, the wet-to-dry reduction was found to be up to 20% and 11% in terms of stiffness and lateral strength, respectively, whilst the ductility ratio diminished by up to 12%. Overall, provided that the key moisture-dependent material properties are appropriately evaluated, it is shown that analytical assessment methods can be reliably adapted for predicting the response, in terms of the lateral stiffness, strength and overall load-deformation, for both dry and wet masonry walls.

C. Ţibea, Dan V. Bompa (2020)Ultimate shear response of ultra-high-performance steel fibre-reinforced concrete elements, In: Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering20(2) Elsevier

This paper examines the experimental performance of ultra-high-performance steel fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPSFRC) beams subjected to loads at relatively low shear span-to-depth ratios. The results and observations from six tests provide a detailed insight into the ultimate response including shear strength and failure mode of structural elements incorporating various fibre contents. The test results showed that a higher fibre content results in an increase in ultimate capacity and some enhancement in terms of ductility. Detailed nonlinear numerical validations and sensitivity studies were also undertaken in order to obtain further insights into the response of UHPSFRC beams, with particular focus on the influence of the shear span-to-depth ratio, fibre content and flexural reinforcement ratio. The parametric investigations showed that a reduction in shear span-to-depth ratio results in an increase in the member capacity, whilst a reduction in the flexural reinforcement ratio produces a lower ultimate capacity and a relatively more flexible response. The test results combined with those from numerical simulations enabled the development of a series of design expressions to estimate the shear strength of such members. Validations were performed against the results in this paper, as well as against a collated database from previous experimental studies.

B. Xu, D.V Bompa, A.Y. Elghazouli, A.M. Ruiz-Teran, P.J. Stafford (2019)Numerical assessment of reinforced concrete members incorporating recycled rubber materials, In: Engineering Structures204110017 Elsevier

This paper is concerned with the inelastic behaviour of reinforced concrete beam-column members incorporating rubber from recycled tyres. Detailed three-dimensional nonlinear numerical simulations and parametric assessments are carried out using finite element analysis in conjunction with concrete damage plasticity models. Validations of the adopted nonlinear finite element procedures are carried out against experimental results from a series of tests involving conventional and rubberised concrete flexural members and varying levels of axial load. The influence of key parameters, such as the concrete strength, rubber content, reinforcement ratio and level of axial load, on the performance of such members, is then examined in detail. Based on the results, analytical models are proposed for predicting the strength interaction as well as the ductility characteristics of rubberised reinforced concrete members. The findings permit the development of design expressions for determining the ultimate rotation capacity of members, using a rotation ductility parameter, or through a suggested plastic hinge assessment procedure. The proposed expressions are shown to offer reliable estimates of strength and ductility of reinforced rubberised concrete members, which are suitable for practical application and implementation in codified guidance.

B. Xu, D.V Bompa, A.Y. Elghazouli (2020)Cyclic stress–strain rate-dependent response of rubberised concrete, In: Construction and Building Materials254119253 Elsevier

This paper presents an experimental investigation into the constitutive response of rubberised concrete materials under monotonic and cyclic compression. After describing the test specimens and experimental arrangement, a detailed account of the stress–strain response of rubberised concrete materials, as well as their reference high strength conventional concrete, is given. The volumetric rubber content is varied between 0 and 40% of both fine and coarse aggregates. Both monotonic and cyclic loading conditions are considered for comparison, and three strain rate levels, simulating static, moderate and severe seismic action, are examined. The increase in rubber content is shown to have a detrimental effect on the stiffness and strength, as expected. However, with the increase in rubber content, rubberised concrete materials are shown to exhibit improved compressive recovery under cyclic loading, coupled with a higher energy accumulation rate, enhanced inter-cycle stability and lower inter-cycle degradation. It is also shown that the increase in strain rate, from static to severe seismic, leads to a notable increase in the stiffness and strength, with these enhancements becoming less significant with the increase in rubber content. Based on the results and observations, expressions for determining the unloading stiffness and residual strain, as a function of rubber content and strain rate, are proposed within the ranges considered. The suggested relationships enable the characterisation of rubberised concrete materials within widely used cyclic constitutive models.

D.V Bompa, A.Y. Elghazouli (2019)Stress–strain response and practical design expressions for FRP-confined recycled tyre rubber concrete, In: Construction and Building Materials237117633 Elsevier

This paper presents an experimental programme on the response of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) confined circular rubberised concrete (RuC) members in compression. After describing the constituent materials and testing arrangement, a detailed account of the complete stress–strain response of FRP-confined high strength conventional concrete materials (CCM) and RuC in uniaxial compression is provided. The parameters directly investigated through experimental assessment are the rubber content, namely 30% and 60% by volume of both fine and coarse aggregates, and the number of confinement layers which varies from 0 to 4. Experimental observations indicate that the confined compressive strength typically increases in a largely proportional manner with the unconfined compressive strength, whilst the confined axial strain at ultimate tends to increase with the rubber content. Confined-to-unconfined strength ratios above 9 and confined ultimate strain-to-unconfined crushing strain ratios above 40, are obtained for concrete with 60% rubber and four layers of confinement. These values are higher by factors of about 3.2 and 4.5 in comparison to the conventional reference concrete, respectively. The test results and observations enable the development of a series of design expressions to estimate the stress–strain response of circular RuC specimens passively confined with FRP sheets, with due account for the influence of rubber content. Validations performed against the material tests carried out in this paper, as well as those from previous studies on RuC and CCM with FRP confinement, indicate that the proposed expressions offer reliable predictions of the mechanical properties of FRP-confined members.

D.V Bompa, A. Y. Elghazouli (2020)Compressive behaviour of fired-clay brick and lime mortar masonry components in dry and wet conditions, In: Materials and Structures53(3) Springer

This paper examines the fundamentalmechanical properties of masonry elements incorpo-rating fired-clay bricks and hydraulic lime mortarsunder ambient-dry and wet conditions, correspondingto 48 h submersion in water. In addition to comple-mentary material characterisation assessments, twotypes of specimens are tested: cylindrical cores incompression, and wall elements in compression.Overall, a detailed account of more than 50 tests isgiven. Apart from conventional measurements, the useof digital image correlation techniques enables adetailed assessment of the influence of moisture on theconstitutive response, confinement effects andmechanical properties of masonry components. Theuniaxial compressive strengths of wet brick elementsand brick–mortar components, resulting from tests oncylindrical cores with height-to-depth ratios of aroundtwo, are shown to be 13–18% lower than those inambient-dry conditions. The tests also show thatenhanced confinement levels in brick units mobilise67–92% higher strengths than in the correspondingunconfined cylinders. Moreover, experimental obser-vations indicate that the presence of significantconfinement reduces the influence of moisture on themechanical properties as a function of the brick andmortar joint thickness and their relative stiffness. As aresult, the failure of wet masonry walls in compressionis found to be only marginally lower than those inambient-dry conditions. Based on the test results, theinfluence of moisture on the constitutive response andmechanical properties of masonry components isdiscussed, and considerations for practical applicationare highlighted

Dan Bompa, A.Y. Elghazouli (2019)Behaviour of confined rubberised concrete members under combined loading conditions, In: Magazine of Concrete Researchpp. 1-55 ICE Publishing

This paper presents an experimental study into the fundamental response of reinforced concrete members, which incorporate rubber particles obtained from recycled tyres, subjected to combined axial–bending loading conditions. Tests on confined circular members with and without internal hoops or external fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets are described. The results show that the rubber particles enhance the confinement level activated, with confined/unconfined strength and deformation capacity ratios at least twice those of conventional concrete members. The hoop-confined members provided with 30% rubber developed a typical reinforced concrete behaviour, with relatively limited deformation capacity in comparison with FRP-confined members. The external confinement substantially enhanced the ultimate rotation of members incorporating 30% rubber, with ductility factors reaching up to ten for relatively small eccentricity levels. An increase in rubber content to 60% had a detrimental effect on the axial capacity, but increased the ultimate rotation up to twice in comparison with members with 30% rubber. Based on the test results, a design-oriented constitutive model for FRP-confined concrete and a variable confinement procedure for assessing the strength interaction of circular sections are proposed. The suggested procedures capture, in a realistic manner, the influence of rubber content on the strength and deformation characteristics of confined members.

Ofelia Corbu, Dan V Bompa, Henriette Szilagyi (2021)Eco-efficient cementitious composites with large amounts of waste glass and plastic, In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Engineering sustainability174(2)pp. 1-11 ICE Publishing

This paper presents an experimental study, which has been lacking to date, into the properties and applications of Waste Glass-Plastic Cementitious (WGPC) composites incorporating recycled aggregates as a full replacement of natural aggregates, with direct application in highly eco-efficient construction components. Detailed experimental assessments on the fresh properties, strength, and durability characteristics of such composites are undertaken. Particular focus is given to the mix rationale and optimisation process as well as possible routes of exploitation of such materials in construction elements. Experimental assessments showed that such composite materials meet the strength and durability criteria for direct application in practice. The best balance in terms of strength and workability was achieved for a waste glass-to-plastic aggregate ratio of 92/8. The presence of relatively large amounts of recycled waste glass particles with small sizes acted as secondary hydration products and contributed to achieving an adequate strength of the material. Besides lower unit weight and superior thermal properties compared to conventional concrete, WGPC components have shown a reliable behaviour under vehicle impact loading and potential wider application in sustainable non-structural construction applications.

D.V Bompa, B Xu, A.Y Elghazouli (2021)Constitutive modelling and mechanical properties of cementitious composites incorporating recycled vinyl banner plastics, In: Construction & Building Materials275122159 Elsevier Ltd

This paper describes an experimental study, which has been lacking to date, into the mechanical properties of cementitious composites incorporating granules and fibres from recycled Reinforced PVC (RPVC) banners. A detailed account of over 140 tests on cylindrical, cubic and prismatic samples tested in compression and flexure, with up to 20% replacement of mineral aggregates, is given. Based on the test results, the uniaxial properties of selected recycled materials are examined in conjunction with a detailed characterisation of the RPVC granule size and geometry. Experimental measurements using digital image correlation techniques enable a detailed interpretation of the full constitutive response in terms of compression stress-strain behaviour and flexural stress-crack opening curves, as well as key mechanical parameters such as strength, elastic modulus and fracture energy. It is shown that the mechanical properties decrease proportionally with the amount of RPVC. For each 10% increment of volumetric replacement of mineral aggregates, the compressive strength is halved whilst the flexural strength is reduced by about 30% compared to their conventional counterparts. The reduction in strength is counterbalanced by an improved ductility represented by a favourable post-peak response in compression and an enhanced flexural softening and post-cracking performance. Smaller particles, with a relatively long acicular or triangular geometry, exhibited better behaviour as these acted as fibres with improved bond properties in comparison with intermediate and large size granules. The test results and observations enable the definition of a series of expressions to determine the mechanical properties of cementitious materials incorporating RPVC and other waste plastics. These expressions are then used as a basis for an analytical model for assessing the compressive and tensile stress-strain response of such materials. Validations carried out against the tests undertaken in this study, as well as from previous investigations, indicate that the proposed expressions and the developed constitutive model offer reliable representations for practical application.

Additional publications