Elizabeth is a Registered Nurse, qualifying in 1990, she practiced women’s health, community and occupational health nursing and completed a BSc (Hons) Psychology in 1994. She was awarded her doctorate in 2004 from the University of London and also qualified as a Health psychologist with practitioner status (HCPC registered). She has since trained, and currently practices, as an Acceptance and Commitment Therapist.
Elizabeth has held numerous research, teaching and leadership roles at St George’s, University of London, King’s College London (IOPPN, FNFNM) and the University of West London (UWL). She was appointed Professor in Health and Wellbeing at UWL in 2018, where she also led the public health team and was an Interim Head of the School of Human and Social Sciences. She was appointed Professor of Mental Health Sciences at the University of Surrey in 2019. Elizabeth has been awarded a number of research grants and has over 50 publications in peer reviewed journals.
Areas of specialism
University roles and responsibilities
- Co-lead Maternal, Child and Family Health Research Cluster
My work is focused on the mental-physical health interface and on the well-being of people experiencing long term conditions, including serious mental illness. Themes include public health interventions for people diagnosed with a mental illness, improving mental health care (including the reduction of aggression and violence, training for non-mental health professionals and the reduction of stigma) and using acceptance and commitment therapy to improve quality of life. Service user involvement is central to all my work.
The FAB study is funded by an NIHR grant of £227,000 under the Research for Patient Benefit Stream. In collaboration with West London NHS trust, we are conducting a feasibility randomised controlled trial of acceptance and commitment therapy for post-bariatric surgery patients. The ultimate aim is to prevent the weight regain which occurs in 20% of this population and to improve their quality of life.
The EDITION project is funded by an NIHR grant of £520,000. In collaboration with the University of Manchester, we are developing evidence-based and implementable de-escalation training for mental health staff. The aim is to reduce incidences of aggression and violence and the associated harm to patients and staff.
Initially funded by Public Health England, a series of projects is being conducted to improve uptake of and access to cancer screening for people with severe mental illness.
Delivering safe, effective nutrition and hydration care to residents with dysphagia: a theory-based approach to developing a link dysphagia practitioner CI Prof Jennie Wilson https://fundingawards.nihr.ac.uk/award/NIHR200091 £137,000 funding from NIHR RfPB to support swallowing-related safety in care home residents.
West London NHS Trust
Dorset Healthcare University NHS Foundation Trust
University of Manchester
University of West London
Postgraduate research supervision
Frederique Lamontagne-Godwin: Developing and Testing an informed-choice tool for cervical cancer screening in people who find screening difficult.
Nicki Moone: A Well-being at work service improvement project; Working with community mental health practitioners to develop team-working, job satisfaction and personal resilience using Action Research.
Postgraduate research supervision
Victoria Harmer: Women's perspectives of radiotherapy combined with deep inferior epigastric perforator flap and transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous free flap breast reconstructions post mastectomy for breast cancer. (2015)
Background: It is important to seek cost-effective methods of improving the care and outcome of those with serious mental illnesses. User-held records, where the person with the illness holds all or some personal information relating to the course and care of their illness, are now the norm in some clinical settings. Their value for those with severe mental illnesses is unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of personalised, accessible, user-held clinical information for people with a severe mental illness (defined as psychotic illnesses). Search methods: We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register in August 2011. This register is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, and handsearches of journals and conference proceedings. Selection criteria: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that:i. have recruited adult participants with a diagnosis of a severe mental illness (specifically psychotic illnesses and severe mood disorders such as bipolar and depression with psychotic features); andii. compared any personalised and accessible clinical information held by the user beyond standard care to standard information routinely held such as appointment cards and generic information on diagnosis, treatment or services available. Data collection and analysis: Study selection and data extraction were undertaken independently by two authors and confirmed and checked by a third. We contacted authors of trials for additional and missing data. Where possible, we calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used a random-effects model. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. Main results: Four RCTs (n = 607) of user-held records versus treatment as usual met the inclusion criteria. When the effect of user-held records on psychiatric hospital admissions was compared with treatment as usual in four studies, the pooled treatment effect showed no significant impact of the intervention and was of very low magnitude (n = 597, 4 RCTs, RR 0.99 CI 0.71 to 1.38, moderate quality evidence). Similarly, there was no significant effect of the intervention in three studies which investigated compulsory psychiatric hospital admissions (n = 507, 4 RCTs, RR 0.64 CI 0.37 to 1.10, moderate quality evidence). Other outcomes including satisfaction and mental state were investigated but pooled estimates were not obtainable due to skewed or poorly reported data, or only being investigated by one study. Two outcomes (violence and death) were not investigated by the included studies. Two important randomised studies are ongoing. Authors' conclusions: The evidence gap remains regarding user-held, personalised, accessible clinical information for people with psychotic illnesses for many of the outcomes of interest. However, based on moderate quality evidence, this review suggests that there is no effect of the intervention on hospital or outpatient appointment use for individuals with psychotic disorders. The number of studies is low, however, and further evidence is required to ascertain whether these results are mediated by the type of intervention, such as involvement of a clinical team or the type of information included. Â© 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Background: Adults with severe mental illness (i.e. schizophrenia or other related psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder) can be at greater risk of cancer than those without severe mental illness (SMI). Early detection of cancer through screening is effective in improving patient outcomes including death. However, people with SMI are less likely than others to take up available cancer screening. Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of interventions targeted at adults with SMI, or their carers or health professionals, and aimed at increasing the uptake of cancer screening tests for which the adults with SMI are eligible. Search methods: We searched electronically the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (25th October 2012). Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions, targeted towards adults with SMI or their carers or health professionals, to encourage uptake of cancer screening tests for which the adults with SMI were eligible. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts and assessed these against the inclusion criteria. Main results: We did not find any trials that met the inclusion criteria. Authors' conclusions: A comprehensive search showed that currently there is no RCT evidence for any method of encouraging cancer screening uptake in people with SMI. No specific approach can therefore be recommended. High-quality, large-scale RCTs are needed urgently to help address the disparity between people with SMI and others in cancer screening uptake. Â© 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration.
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of psychoeducation compared with usual care or any other intervention in promoting wellbeing and reducing distress of siblings of people affected by SMI. The secondary objective is, if possible, to determine which type of psychoeducation is most effective. Â© 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Background: Patients can report positive effects of myocardial infarction. It is unknown whether these effects are sustained or what factors influence adaptation. Objectives: To explore primary care patients' perceptions of the effect of coronary heart disease and to identify possible modifiable predictors of adaptation. Design and setting: Cross-sectional, sub-study of UPBEAT cohort participants. Patients were recruited from coronary heart disease Registers in South London General Practices. Method: 548 participants were asked "Has having heart disease changed your life? If so, was that change for the better, worse, both or neither?" Participants were asked to explain their response; explanations were subjected to content analysis. Associations between response and lifestyle, demographic, mood and coronary heart disease variables were tested. Results: Respondents (394 male, 72%) were aged 27-98 years and had had heart disease for a mean of 12.4 SD Â± 8.4 years. 120 (22%) reported that life was better and 200 (37%) said it was worse. The explanations of those who said 'better' were categorised as 'Healthier Living', 'Recognised Mortality' and 'Stress Reduction'. For those saying 'worse', categories were 'Restricted Lifestyle', 'Recognised Mortality', 'Loss and Burden'. More anxiety symptoms (RRR 1.56, 95% CI 1.12, 2.17), lower functional status (RRR 2.46, 95% CI 1.21, 4.98) and self-reported chest pain (RRR 2.24, 95% CI 1.34, 3.77) were associated with saying 'worse'. Conclusions: Many primary care patients are ambivalent to the effects of coronary heart disease, but some report positive effects. Negative perceptions are associated with reported functional impairment, chest pain and anxiety, but not illness severity or patient characteristics. Future work will track the implications of these perceptions, but nurses managing patients with coronary heart disease should consider these effects as they may be modifiable predictors of adaptation. Â© 2014.
Background: Depression is common in people with coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated with worse outcome. This study explored the acceptability and feasibility of procedures for a trial and for an intervention, including its potential costs, to inform a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a nurse-led personalised care intervention for primary care CHD patients with current chest pain and probable depression. Methods: Multi-centre, outcome assessor-blinded, randomized parallel group study. CHD patients reporting chest pain and scoring 8 or more on the HADS were randomized to personalized care (PC) or treatment as usual (TAU) for 6 months and followed for 1 year. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of procedures; secondary outcomes included mood, chest pain, functional status, well being and psychological process variables. Result: 1001 people from 17 General Practice CHD registers in South London consented to be contacted; out of 126 who were potentially eligible, 81 (35% female, mean age = 65 SD11 years) were randomized. PC participants (n = 41) identified wide ranging problems to work on with nurse-case managers. Good acceptability and feasibility was indicated by low attrition (9%), high engagement and minimal nurse time used (mean/SD = 78/19 mins assessment, 125/91 mins telephone follow up). Both groups improved on all outcomes. The largest between group difference was in the proportion no longer reporting chest pain (PC 37% vs TAU 18%; mixed effects model OR 2.21 95% CI 0.69, 7.03). Some evidence was seen that self efficacy (mean scale increase of 2.5 vs 0.9) and illness perceptions (mean scale increase of 7.8 vs 2.5) had improved in PC vs TAU participants at 1 year. PC appeared to be more cost effective up to a QALY threshold of approximately Â£3,000. Conclusions: Trial and intervention procedures appeared to be feasible and acceptable. PC allowed patients to work on unaddressed problems and appears cheaper than TAU. Trial Registration: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN21615909. Â© 2014 barley et al.
Background: An association between depression and coronary heart disease is now accepted but there has been little primary care research on this topic. The UPBEAT-UK studies are centred on a cohort of primary patients with coronary heart disease assessed every six months for up to four years. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence and associations of depression in this cohort at baseline. Method: Participants with coronary heart disease were recruited from general practice registers and assessed for cardiac symptoms, depression, quality of life and social problems. Results: 803 people participated. 42% had a documented history of myocardial infarction, 54% a diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or angina. 44% still experienced chest pain. 7% had an ICD-10 defined depressive disorder. Factors independently associated with this diagnosis were problems living alone (OR 5.49, 95% CI 2.11-13.30), problems carrying out usual activities (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.93-7.14), experiencing chest pain (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.58-6.76), other pains or discomfort (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.42-8.10), younger age (OR 0.95 per year 95% CI 0.92-0.98). Conclusion: Problems living alone, chest pain and disability are important predictors of depression in this population. Â© 2014 Walters et al.
Despite the need to improve the quantity and quality of psychiatry training in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), very little is known about the experiences of psychiatric trainees in the region. This is the first study examining psychiatric trainees in a low-income country in SSA. It was carried out as part of the needs assessment for a unique Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) programme to find African solutions for medical shortages in Africa. We approached all doctors who had trained in post-graduate psychiatry in Zimbabwe in 2010 and conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with all except one (n = 6). We analysed the data using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Trainees described the apprenticeship model as the programme's primary strength, through providing clinical exposure and role models. Programme weaknesses included shortages in information sources, trainee salaries, trainers, public health education, and in the mental health service. Most respondents were, however, eager to continue practising psychiatry in Zimbabwe, motivated by family ties, national commitment and helping vulnerable, stigmatized individuals. Respondents called for sub-speciality training and for infrastructure and training to do research. Resources need to be made available for psychiatric trainees in more SSA settings to develop public health competencies. However, investment in psychiatry training programmes must balance service provision with trainees' educational needs. Directing investment towards needs identified by trainees may be a cost-effective, context-sensitive way to increase retention and learning outcomes. Â© 2014 Institute of Psychiatry.
Background: Mental health-related stigma is widespread and has major adverse effects on the lives of people with mental health problems. Its two major components are discrimination (being treated unfairly) and prejudice (stigmatising attitudes). Anti-stigma initiatives often include mass media interventions, and such interventions can be expensive. It is important to know if mass media interventions are effective. Objectives: To assess the effects of mass media interventions on reducing stigma (discrimination and prejudice) related to mental ill health compared to inactive controls, and to make comparisons of effectiveness based on the nature of the intervention (e.g. number of mass media components), the content of the intervention (e.g. type of primary message), and the type of media (e.g. print, internet). Search methods: We searched eleven databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2011); MEDLINE (OvidSP),1966 to 15 August 2011; EMBASE (OvidSP),1947 to 15 August 2011; PsycINFO (OvidSP), 1806 to 15 August 2011; CINAHL (EBSCOhost) 1981 to 16 August 2011; ERIC (CSA), 1966 to 16 August 2011; Social Science Citation Index (ISI), 1956 to 16 August 2011; OpenSIGLE (http://www.opengrey.eu/), 1980 to 18 August 2012; Worldcat Dissertations and Theses (OCLC), 1978 to 18 August 2011; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/mrct_about.asp), 1973 to 18 August 2011; and Ichushi (OCLC), 1903 to 11 November 2011. We checked references from articles and reviews, and citations from included studies. We also searched conference abstracts and websites, and contacted researchers. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or interrupted time series studies of mass media interventions compared to inactive controls in members of the general public or any of its constituent groups (excluding studies in which all participants were people with mental health problems), with mental health as a subject of the intervention and discrimination or prejudice outcome measures. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We contacted study authors for missing information. Information about adverse effects was collected from study reports. Primary outcomes were discrimination and prejudice, and secondary outcomes were knowledge, cost, reach, recall, and awareness of interventions, duration/sustainability of media effects, audience reactions to media content, and unforeseen adverse effects. We calculated standardised mean differences and odds ratios. We conducted a primarily narrative synthesis due to the heterogeneity of included studies. Subgroup analyses were undertaken to examine the effects of the nature, content and type of mass media intervention. Main results: We included 22 studies involving 4490 participants. All were randomised trials (3 were cluster RCTs), and 19 of the 22 studies had analysable outcome data. Seventeen of the studies had student populations. Most of the studies were at unclear or high risk of bias for all forms of bias except detection bias. Findings from the five trials with discrimination outcomes (n = 1196) were mixed, with effects showing a reduction, increase or consistent with no evidence of effect. The median standardised mean difference (SMD) for the three trials (n = 394) with continuous outcomes was -0.25, with SMDs ranging from -0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.39 to -0.31) to -0.17 (95% CI -0.53 to 0.20). Odds ratios (OR) for the two studies (n = 802) with dichotomous discrimination outcomes showed no evidence of effect: results were 1.30 (95% CI 0.53 to 3.19) and 1.19 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.65). The 19 trials (n = 3176) with prejudice outcomes had median SMDs favouring the intervention, at the three following time periods: -0.38 (immediate), -0.38 (1 week to 2 months) and -0.49 (6 to 9 months). SMDs for prejudice outcomes across all studies ranged from -2.94 (95% CI -3.52 to -2.37) to 2.40 (95% CI 0.62 to 4.18). The median SMDs indicate that mass media interventions may have a small to medium effect in decreasing prejudice, and are equivalent to reducing the level of prejudice from that associated with schizophrenia to that associated with major depression. The studies were very heterogeneous, statistically, in their populations, interventions and outcomes, and only two meta-analyses within two subgroups were warranted. Data on secondary outcomes were sparse. Cost data were provided on request for three studies (n = 416), were highly variable, and did not address cost-effectiveness. Two studies (n = 455) contained statements about adverse effects and neither reported finding any. Authors' conclusions: Mass media interventions may reduce prejudice, but there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on discrimination. Very little is known about costs, adverse effects or other outcomes. Our review found few studies in middle- and low-income countries, or with employers or health professionals as the target group, and none targeted at children or adolescents. The findings are limited by the quality of the evidence, which was low for the primary outcomes for discrimination and prejudice, low for adverse effects and very low for costs. More research is required to establish the effects of mass media interventions on discrimination, to better understand which types of mass media intervention work best, to provide evidence about cost-effectiveness, and to fill evidence gaps about types of mass media not covered in this review. Such research should use robust methods, report data more consistently with reporting guidelines and be less reliant on student populations. Â© 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration.
Although there are many interventions to reduce mental health-related stigma in university or college students, their overall effect is unknown. This article systematically reviews intervention studies and aims to identify the effective approaches. We searched 11 bibliographic databases, Google, Web sites of relevant associations, and reference lists and contacted specialists. A total of 35 studies (N = 4257) of a wide range of interventions met the inclusion criteria. Social contact or video-based social contact interventions seemed to be the most effective in improving attitudes and reducing desire for social distance. Evidence from one study suggests that a lecture that provided treatment information may enhance students' attitudes toward the use of services. However, methodological weaknesses in many studies were also found. There was a lack of evidence for interventions in medical students, for long-term effects of interventions, or for having a positive impact on actual behaviors. Further research having more rigorous methods is needed to confirm this. Copyright Â© 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
This article considers how knowledge of health psychology can help nurses support patients in managing their long-term conditions. The concept of 'self-management' is defined and the need for self-efficacy-the patient's confidence in their ability to manage-and social support is highlighted. Patients' 'illness perceptions', or beliefs about the nature of their condition, also have an impact on their self-management. This is discussed in particular relation to adherence to treatment. A distinction is made between intentional and non-intentional non-adherence. Understanding of the many factors, other than lack of knowledge, that influence self-management success will help nurses and patients work together to develop an effective self-management plan. Â© 2016 MA Healthcare Ltd.
Background/objectives: Many people with schizophrenia face stigmatisation. Several methods have been produced to simulate the auditory and visual hallucinations experienced by people with schizophrenia in order to increase empathy and understanding about the condition. However, there has been no review of such methods. This systematic review aims to determine whether and how simulated hallucinations are effective in reducing stigma, and if simulated hallucinations are safe and acceptable. Methods: Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Worldcat Dissertations and Theses were searched from 1980 to September 2010. Reference checking, hand-searching, and contacting of experts in the field were also performed. A narrative synthesis of quantitative studies was conducted, and qualitative studies were synthesised using meta-ethnography. Results: Ten studies were included. Simulation tools varied in context, but consistently increased both empathy towards, and desire for social distance from, people with schizophrenia whilst findings for other attitudes were inconsistent. Participants reported physical, cognitive and emotional discomfort. Qualitative data suggest that these discomforts give participants an 'insider's perspective' which produced empathy and respect. Simulated hallucinations sometimes produced concurrent negative affect, and physical and emotional distress, but were considered a highly acceptable learning tool. Discussion/conclusions: Simulated hallucinations have contradictory effects on stigma, increasing empathy but also the desire for social distance. They should therefore be used with caution. Further research is required to discover if there is a way of using simulated hallucination interventions that increases empathy without increasing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness. Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Background Substantial numbers of students in Higher Education (HE) are reporting mental health difficulties, such as mild to moderate symptoms of depression and anxiety. Coupled with academic skills challenges, these difficulties can lead to decreased academic performance, low levels of study satisfaction, and eventually drop out. Student support services are facing budget cuts and can only attend to limited numbers of students, usually the ones who present with more severe mental health problems. Moreover, face-to-face contact may not appeal to those students who feel embarrassed by their problems or are afraid of being stigmatised. To address this important problem, an online psychological wellbeing and study skills support system called MePlusMe, has been developed to provide personalised support to its users. In the present study we investigated the feasibility and acceptability of the contents, design, and functionalities of the system. Methods An offline version of the system was introduced to 13 postgraduate and undergraduate students (mean age = 31.3 years, SD = 10.25 years; 4 males) in a UK HE Institution, who presented with mild or moderate mental health difficulties. The participants evaluated the design of the system, its functionalities, and contents at Baseline and at Weeks 2, 4, and 8. Results Participants found the system easy to use, professional, and efficient and its contents non-judgemental and informative. Participants stated that engaging with and practicing the techniques targeted at mental health difficulties led to improvements in positive thinking and self-confidence, while the study skills techniques were practical. Suggestions for further improvement included the development of an app and an option for direct engagement with professionals. Conclusions The findings confirmed the acceptability of the contents, design and functionalities of the system, while providing useful information to inform its further development. Next steps include a feasibility study, which will test and quantify the effects on everyday functioning, mood, mental wellbeing, and academic self-efficacy after using the system, and subsequently a randomized controlled trial, which will evaluate its effectiveness. The life of a Higher Education (HE) student can come with a wealth of exciting experiences, invaluable memories, and new challenges. However, during such a critical period of personal, social, and academic development, some of these new challenges may result in initiating or exacerbating existing mental health issues or in making study skills challenges more prominent . A worrying number of students have indeed been found to experience mild to moderate symptoms of depression or anxiety, with the number of students who experience mental health difficulties whilst at university increasing . An online system for psychological, as well as academic, support has been designed to specifically address the growing needs of HE students, MePlusMe. Here we present evidence for the feasibility and acceptability of the system’s contents, design, and functionalities.
Background: Community studies reveal people with coronary heart disease (CHD) are twice as likely to be depressed as the general population and that this co-morbidity negatively affects the course and outcome of both conditions. There is evidence for the efficacy of collaborative care and case management for depression treatment, and whilst NICE guidelines recommend these approaches only where depression has not responded to psychological, pharmacological, or combined treatments, these care approaches may be particularly relevant to the needs of people with CHD and depression in the earlier stages of stepped care in primary care settings.Methods: This pilot randomised controlled trial will evaluate whether a simple intervention involving a personalised care plan, elements of case management and regular telephone review is a feasible and acceptable intervention that leads to better mental and physical health outcomes for these patients. The comparator group will be usual general practitioner (GP) care.81 participants have been recruited from CHD registers of 15 South London general practices. Eligible participants have probable major depression identified by a score of â¥8 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression subscale (HADS-D) together with symptomatic CHD identified using the Modified Rose Angina Questionnaire.Consenting participants are randomly allocated to usual care or the personalised care intervention which involves a comprehensive assessment of each participant's physical and mental health needs which are documented in a care plan, followed by regular telephone reviews by the case manager over a 6-month period. At each review, the intervention participant's mood, function and identified problems are reviewed and the case manager uses evidence based behaviour change techniques to facilitate achievement of goals specified by the patient with the aim of increasing the patient's self efficacy to solve their problems.Depressive symptoms measured by HADS score will be collected at baseline and 1, 6- and 12 months post randomisation. Other outcomes include CHD symptoms, quality of life, wellbeing and health service utilisation.Discussion: This practical and patient-focused intervention is potentially an effective and accessible approach to the health and social care needs of people with depression and CHD in primary care.Trial registration: ISRCTN21615909. Â© 2012 Tylee et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Background: Participation in horticulture and artsmay improve wellbeing in those withmental and physical illness. Aim: To conduct an in-depth exploration of the views and experience of participants of a primary-care- based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project (Sydenham Garden). Design and setting: Qualitative interview study of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project in South London. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (referred to as 'coworkers') of Sydenham Garden. Seven were female. Participants were aged between 38 and 91 years and had a range of severemental and physical health problems;most had depression. The interviews were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results: Data were overwhelmingly positive concerning participation. Coworkers considered participation in the project to promote wellbeing by providing purposeful and enjoyable activity and interest, improvingmood and selfperceptions, and providing an escape fromlife's pressures. Being outdoors was considered therapeutic. Themost-valued aspect of participation was the social contact derived as a result of it. Many of the coworkers who were interviewed developed transferable skills, including nationally recognised qualifications, which they valued highly. Conclusion: Delivery of horticultural therapy and participatory arts is a feasiblemodel for improving wellbeing in patients in primary care who have serious illness. Longer-termstudies are needed to address what happens to people after leaving such projects. Â©British Journal of General Practice.
Background: Depression is common in coronary heart disease (CHD) and increases the incidence of coronary symptoms and death in CHD patients. Interventions feasible for use in primary care are needed to improve both mood and cardiac outcomes. The UPBEAT-UK programme of research has been funded by the NHS National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) to explore the relationship between CHD and depression and to develop a new intervention for use in primary care. Methods. Using the Medical Research Council (MRC) guidelines for developing and evaluating complex interventions, we conducted a systematic review and qualitative research to develop a primary care-based nurse-led intervention to improve mood and cardiac outcomes in patients with CHD and depression. Iterative literature review was used to synthesise our empirical work and to identify evidence and theory to inform the intervention. Results: We developed a primary care-based nurse-led personalised care intervention which utilises elements of case management to promote self management. Following biopsychosocial assessment, a personalised care plan is devised. Nurses trained in behaviour change techniques facilitate patients to address the problems important to them. Identification and utilisation of existing resources is promoted. Nurse time is conserved through telephone follow up. Conclusions: Application of the MRC framework for complex interventions has allowed us to develop an evidence based intervention informed by patient and clinician preferences and established theory. The feasibility and acceptability of this intervention is now being tested further in an exploratory trial. Â© 2012 Barley et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Background: Stigma and discrimination present an important barrier to finding and keeping work for individuals with a mental health problem. This paper reviews evidence on: 1) employment-related disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem; 2) factors associated with the disclosure of a mental health problem in the employment setting; 3) whether employers are less likely to hire applicants who disclose a mental health problem; and 4) factors influencing employers' hiring beliefs and behaviours towards job applicants with a mental health problem.Methods: A systematic review was conducted for the period 1990-2010, using eight bibliographic databases. Meta-ethnography was used to provide a thematic understanding of the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of individuals with mental health problem.Results: The searches yielded 8,971 items which was systematically reduced to 48 included studies. Sixteen qualitative, one mixed methods and seven quantitative studies were located containing evidence on the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem, and the factors associated with these beliefs and behaviours. In the meta-ethnography four super-ordinate themes were generated: 1) expectations and experiences of discrimination; 2) other reasons for non-disclosure; 3) reasons for disclosure; and 4) disclosure dimensions. Two qualitative, one mixed methods and 22 quantitative studies provided data to address the remaining two questions on the employers perspective.Conclusions: By presenting evidence from the perspective of individuals on both sides of the employment interaction, this review provides integrated perspective on the impact of disclosure of a mental health problem on employment outcomes. Â© 2012 Brohan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Background: Coronary heart disease and depression are both common health problems and by 2020 will be the two leading causes of disability worldwide. Depression has been found to be more common in patients with coronary heart disease but the nature of this relationship is uncertain. In the United Kingdom general practitioners are now being remunerated for case-finding for depression in patients with coronary heart disease, however it is unclear how general practitioners should manage these patients. We aim to explore the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression in a primary care population and to develop an intervention for patients with coronary heart disease and depression. Methods/design. This programme of research will consist of 4 inter-related studies. A 4 year prospective cohort study of primary care patients with coronary heart disease will be conducted to explore the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression. Within this, a nested case-control biological study will investigate genetic and blood-biomarkers as predictors of depression in this sample. Two qualitative studies, one of patients' perspectives of treatments for coronary heart disease and co-morbid depression and one of primary care professionals' views on the management of patients with coronary heart disease and depression will inform the development of an intervention for this patient group. A feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial will then be conducted. Discussion. This study will provide information on the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression that will allow health services to determine the efficiency of case-finding for depression in this patient group. The results of the cohort study will also provide information on risk factors for depression. The study will provide evidence on the efficacy and feasibility of a joint patient and professional led intervention and data necessary to plan a definitive randomised controlled trial of the intervention. Â© 2011 Tylee et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Background: Depression is common in coronary heart disease (CHD). Affected patients have an increased incidence of coronary symptoms and death. Little is known about how best to manage primary care patients with both CHD and depression. This study is part of the UPBEAT-UK programme of research and was designed to understand general practitioners' (GPs) and practice nurses' (PNs) views and experience of managing depression in CHD. Methods. Individual in-depth interviews with 10 GPs and 12 PNs in South East London. Data were analysed using constant comparison. Results: GPs and PNs had similar views. Distress following diagnosis or a cardiac event was considered to resolve spontaneously; if it endured or became severe it was treated as depression. GPs and PNs felt that psychosocial problems contributed to depression in patients with CHD. However, uncertainty was expressed as to their perceived role and responsibility in addressing these. In this respect, depression in patients with CHD was considered similar to depression in other patients and no coherent management approach specific for depression in CHD was identified. An individualised approach was favoured, but clinicians were unsure how to achieve this in the face of conflicting patient preferences and the treatment options they considered available. Conclusions: GPs and PNs view depression in CHD similarly to depression uncomplicated by physical illness. However, uncertainty exists as to how best to manage depression associated psychosocial issues. Personalised interventions are needed which account for individual need and which enable and encourage clinicians and patients to make use of existing resources to address the psychosocial factors which contribute to depression. Â© 2012 Barley et al.
This paper summarizes the findings for the European Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Implementation of Community Mental Health Care. The article presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies and legislation, a summary of relevant research in the region, a precis of community mental health services, a discussion of the key lessons learned, and some recommendations for the future.
There has been increasing recognition of the high physical morbidity in patients with severe mental illness, but little has been written about cancer in these patients. Therefore, we review the published work on risk of cancer in patients with severe mental illness, treatment challenges, and ethical issues. Severe mental illness is associated with behaviours that predispose an individual to an increased risk of some cancers, including lung and breast cancer, although lower rates of other cancers are reported in this population. Severe mental illness is also associated with disparities in screening for cancer and with higher case-fatality rates. This higher rate is partly due to the specific challenges of treating these patients, including medical comorbidity, drug interactions, lack of capacity, and difficulties in coping with the treatment regimen as a result of psychiatric symptoms. To ensure that patients with severe mental illness receive effective treatment, inequalities in care need to be addressed by all health-care professionals involved, including those from mental health services and the surgical and oncology teams. Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
An increasing number of higher education students face mental health difficulties, but the universities’ student support services (SSS) struggle to meet demand with limited resources. Web-based alternatives hold promise as a novel medium through which students could access support. Online interventions appear to be effective and may therefore provide a cost-effective alternative, relieving some of the burden on struggling SSS. This paper presents results from an explorative survey of 61 students questioned about their opinion of online support systems. The majority of students indicated that they would use such a system and that it should be interactive and personalized, focusing on time and money management, relaxation exercises, and building social skills. Future directions towards the development of such a system are discussed.
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: There is a drive to use positive and proactive approaches to mental health care to reduce the use of restrictive practices such as seclusion and restraint. Positive behaviour support plans have been used successfully to do this in learning disability services, and in England, it is now a regulatory requirement that anyone with challenging behaviour should have an individualized behaviour support plan. However, positive behaviour support plans specifically have not been evaluated as part of routine mental health care and mental health nurses' and relatives' attitudes towards them are unknown. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This evaluation of positive behaviour support plans in routine mental health inpatient care found that they had not been widely implemented or completed as intended. Barriers to the use of the plans included confusion among nurses and relatives around the principles of positive behaviour support, including how, when and for whom the plans should be used, difficulties in being able to describe the function of a patient's behaviour and lack of engagement with relatives and patients. Nevertheless, nurses and relatives valued the plans, in particular for their potential to facilitate holistic care. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: To use the plans successfully, mental health nurses will need training to understand fully the rationale behind the positive behaviour support approach and will need to engage more with relatives and patients. Commitment to the approach from the whole care team and organization will be needed to implement the plans consistently for all patients. Abstract Introduction An international drive is to minimize restrictive practices in mental health care. Positive behaviour support plans (PBSPs) help staff prevent behaviour which would require restrictive intervention. Originating in learning disability services, data within mental health care are limited. Aims To evaluate PBSPs within a mental health inpatient service; understand mental health nurses' and relatives' attitudes to them; and understand the barriers and facilitators for their use in routine mental health care. Methods Mixed methods-quality ratings and interviews with relatives and nurses. Results Positive behaviour support plans were poorly implemented. Relatives and nurses valued the potential of PBSPs to facilitate holistic care, though no relative had contributed to one and not every eligible patient had one. Barriers to their use included confusion around positive behaviour support, including how, when and for whom PBSPs should be used, and difficulties describing the function of a behaviour. Discussion The potential of PBSPs to improve mental health care is recognized. However, there are barriers to their use which should be addressed to ensure that PBSPs have been properly implemented before their impact on patient care can be assessed. Implications for practice Mental health professionals implementing PBSPs should engage with relatives and patients, gain organizational commitment and ensure that those involved understand fully the positive behaviour support approach.
Background: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity. However, around one in five people experience significant weight regain. In the months following surgery, loss of food as a hedonic reward, increased sensitivity to food-related cues, alcohol use and depression may translate into new obesogenic behaviours which can be targeted in therapy. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) teaches acceptance of and defusion from thoughts and feelings which influence behaviour, and commitment to act in line with personal values. We will test whether people who have had bariatric surgery over one year ago find 10 weeks of ACT group therapy an acceptable treatment and whether a larger trial to test whether ACT can improve long-term post-operative outcomes would be feasible. Methods: This will be a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) with participants randomised to either ACT or a Usual Care Support Group control. Participants will be recruited at 15-18 months post-surgery and compared at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The trial will provide information about recruitment and characteristics of the proposed outcome measures to inform a definitive RCT. Conclusions: Trials big enough to determine whether a treatment approach works are costly, so this small study will help determine whether the methods used, such as how people are recruited, allocated to groups, and how data are collected, are likely to work on a bigger scale. This project is the first step in testing whether ACT can help people who have had bariatric surgery. Trial Registration: Researchregistry.com, UIN: 3959 (date registered: 10 April 2018); ISRCTN registry ID: ISRCTN52074801.
People with severe mental illness (SMI) report difficulty in making health-related decisions. Informed choice tools are designed to guide individuals through a decision-making process. To determine the effectiveness of these tools for people with SMI and to identify what methods and processes may contribute to effectiveness. A systematic electronic search was conducted for studies published between 1996 and January 2018. The search was updated in March 2020. Studies of any design reporting the development or evaluation of any informed choice tool for people with SMI were considered. A structured, narrative synthesis was conducted. Ten articles describing four tools were identified. Tools were designed to assist with decision-making around bipolar treatment, smoking cessation and disclosure of mental illness in employment situations. Positive changes in decisional conflict, stage of change, knowledge and self-efficacy were reported for two tools, though insufficient data exists for definitive conclusions of effectiveness. Feedback from service users and attention to readability appeared key. The evidence base for informed choice tools for people with SMI is limited. Such tools should be developed in stages and include the views of people with SMI at each phase; readability should be considered, and a theoretical framework should be used to facilitate process evaluation.
Background: Breast and cancer screening uptake has been found to be lower among women with serious mental illness (SMI). This study aims to corroborate these findings in the UK and to identify variation in screening uptake by illness/treatment factors, and primary care consultation frequency. Methods: Linked population-based primary and secondary care data from the London borough of Lambeth (UK) were used to compare breast and cervical screening receipt among linked eligible SMI patients (n = 625 and n = 1393), to those without SMI known only to primary care (n = 106,554 and n = 25,385) using logistic regression models adjusted first for socio-demographic factors and second, additionally for primary care consultation frequency. Results: Eligible SMI patients were less likely to have received breast (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.57 - 0.84, p < 0.001) or cervical screening (adjusted OR 0.72, CI: 0.60 - 0.85, p < 0.001). Schizophrenia diagnosis, depot injectable antipsychotic prescription, and illness severity and risk were associated with the lowest odds of uptake of breast (adjusted ORs 0.46 to 0.59, all p < 0.001) and cervical screening (adjusted ORs 0.48 - 0.65, all p < 0.001). Adjustments for consultation frequency further reduced effect sizes for all subgroups of SMI patient, in particular for cervical screening. Conclusions: Women with SMI are less likely to receive breast and cervical cancer screening than comparable women without SMI. Higher primary care consultation rates among SMI patients is likely a mediating factor between SMI status and uptake, particularly for cervical screening - a service organised in primary care. To tackle health disparities linked to SMI, efforts at increasing screening uptake are key and should be targeted at women with other markers of illness severity or risk, beyond SMI status alone. Â© 2016 The Author(s).
BACKGROUND: Caffeine has a variety of pharmacological effects; it is a weak bronchodilator and it also reduces respiratory muscle fatigue. It is chemically related to the drug theophylline which is used to treat asthma. It has been suggested that caffeine may reduce asthma symptoms and interest has been expressed in its potential role as an asthma treatment. A number of studies have explored the effects of caffeine in asthma, this is the first review to systematically examine and summarise the evidence. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of caffeine on lung function and identify whether there is a need to control for caffeine consumption prior to either lung function or exhaled nitric oxide testing. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and the reference lists of articles (August 2009). We also contacted study authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials of oral caffeine compared to placebo or coffee compared to decaffeinated coffee in adults with asthma. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Trial selection, quality assessment and data extraction were done independently by two reviewers. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials involving a total of 75 people with mild to moderate asthma were included. The studies were all of cross-over design .Six trials involving 55 people showed that in comparison with placebo, caffeine, even at a 'low dose' (< 5mg/kg body weight), appears to improve lung function for up to two hours after consumption. Forced expiratory volume in one minute showed a small improvement up to two hours after caffeine ingestion (SMD 0.72; 95% CI 0.25 to 1.20), which translates into a 5% mean difference in FEV1. However in two studies the mean differences in FEV1 were 12% and 18% after caffeine. Mid-expiratory flow rates also showed a small improvement with caffeine and this was sustained up to four hours.One trial involving 20 people examined the effect of drinking coffee versus a decaffeinated variety on the exhaled nitric oxide levels in patients with asthma and concluded that there was no significant effect on this outcome. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine appears to improve airways function modestly, for up to four hours, in people with asthma . People may need to avoid caffeine for at least four hours prior to lung function testing, as caffeine ingestion could cause misinterpretation of the results. Drinking caffeinated coffee before taking exhaled nitric oxide measurements does not appear to affect the results of the test, but more studies are needed to confirm this.
Background: Psychological and study skill difficulties faced by students in higher education can lead to poor academic performance, sub-optimal mental health, reduced study satisfaction, and drop out from study. At the same time, higher education institutions' support services are costly, oversubscribed, and struggle to meet demand whilst facing budget reductions. The purpose of the proposed study is to evaluate the acceptability of a new online intervention, MePlusMe, aimed at students in higher education facing mild to moderate psychological and/or study skill difficulties. The study will also assess the feasibility of proposed recruitment and outcome assessment protocols for a future trial of effectiveness. The system supports self-management strategies alongside ongoing monitoring facilitated by a messaging service, as well as featuring a built-in community of student users. It is based on current clinical guidelines for the management of common mental health problems, together with best practice from the educational field. Methods/design: Two hundred and forty two students will be recruited to a within-subjects, repeated measures study conducted over 8 weeks. Self-report measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, mental wellbeing, academic self-efficacy, and everyday functioning will be collected at baseline, and then at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. During this period, students will have access to the intervention system. UK higher education institutions Bournemouth University and University of Warwick will participate in the study. Data on student satisfaction and engagement will also be collected. Study findings will help to determine the most appropriate primary outcome and the required sample size for a future trial. Discussion: This study will evaluate the acceptability of an online intervention system for students facing psychological and/or study skill difficulties and will test recruitment procedures and outcome measures for a future trial of effectiveness. The system is designed to be implemented as a stand-alone service or a service complementary to student support services, which is accessible to the majority of students and effective in improving student experience at higher education institutions. Â© 2015 Papadatou-Pastou et al.
Background Most research on interventions to counter stigma and discrimination has focused on shortterm outcomes and has been conducted in highincome settings. Aims To synthesise what is known globally about effective interventions to reduce mental illnessbased stigma and discrimination, in relation first to effectiveness in the medium and long term (minimum 4 weeks), and second to interventions in lowand middleincome countries (LMICs). Method We searched six databases from 1980 to 2013 and conducted a multilanguage Google search for quantitative studies addressing the research questions. Effect sizes were calculated from eligible studies where possible, and narrative syntheses conducted. Subgroup analysis compared interventions with and without social contact. Results Eighty studies (n = 422 653) were included in the review. For studies with medium or longterm followup (72, of which 21 had calculable effect sizes) median standardised mean differences were 0.54 for knowledge and-0.26 for stigmatising attitudes. Those containing social contact (direct or indirect) were not more effective than those without. The 11 LMIC studies were all from middleincome countries. Effect sizes were rarely calculable for behavioural outcomes or in LMIC studies. Conclusions There is modest evidence for the effectiveness of antistigma interventions beyond 4 weeks followup in terms of increasing knowledge and reducing stigmatising attitudes. Evidence does not support the view that social contact is the more effective type of intervention for improving attitudes in the medium to long term. Methodologically strong research is needed on which to base decisions on investment in stigmareducing interventions. Copyright Â© 2015 The Royal College of Psychiatrists, unless otherwise stated.
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial and emotional factors are important in childhood asthma. Nevertheless, drug therapy alone continues to be the main treatment. Treatment programmes that include behavioural or psychological interventions have been developed to improve disturbed family relations in the families of children with severe asthma. These approaches have been extended to examine the efficacy of family therapy to treat childhood asthma in a wider group of patients. This review systematically examines these studies. OBJECTIVES: Recognition that asthma can be associated with emotional disturbances has led to the investigation of the role of family therapy in reducing the symptoms and impact of asthma in children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of family therapy as an adjunct to medication for the treatment of asthma in children. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register, Psychlit and Psychinfo. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing children undergoing systematic therapy focusing on the family in conjunction with asthma medication, with children taking asthma medication only. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One reviewer applied the study inclusion criteria. MAIN RESULTS: Two trials with a total of 55 children were included. It was not possible to combine the findings of these two studies because of differences in outcome measures used. In one study, gas volume, peak expiratory flow rate and daytime wheeze showed improvement in family therapy patients compared to controls. In the other study, there was an improvement in overall clinical assessment and number of functionally impaired days in the patients receiving family therapy. There was no difference in forced expiratory volume or medication use in both studies. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: There is some indication that family therapy may be a useful adjunct to medication for children with asthma. This conclusion is limited by small study sizes and lack of standardisation in the choice of outcome measures.
Background: Cancers are a leading cause of death worldwide. People with mental illness are 30 % more likely to die from cancer than the general population. One reason for this may be low uptake of nationally offered cancer screening tests by people with mental illness. We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for breast, cervical and bowel cancer screening uptake by people with mental illness in order to inform interventions to promote equal access. Methods: The interview study was conducted in both urban and rural settings. The study was informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework, using framework analysis and triangulation across participant groups. Participants included 45 mental health service users (service users) eligible for cancer screening, 29 mental health professionals and 11 professionals involved in cancer screening. Results: Themes emerging from the data that affected uptake included knowledge of screening programmes by both service users and healthcare providers; knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mental illness; health service-delivery factors; service users' beliefs and concerns about cancer screening, and practical issues. These are relevant to different stages of the screening process. Service users do not receive invitations to screening or cancer testing kits if they are admitted to hospital. They are not routinely invited for screening if they are not registered with a general practitioner (GP). Lack of integrated care means that mental health staff do not know if someone is overdue for a test and cancer screening is often not considered during health promotion. Barriers including information processing problems, the extent to which the screening process aggravates symptoms, poor staff client relationships and travel difficulties vary between individuals. Screening professionals are motivated to help, but may lack time or training to manage mental health needs. Reactive measures are available, but service users must request help which they may find difficult. Conclusions: There are specific barriers to cancer screening uptake for mental health service users that prevent equality of care. Interventions that can be personalised are needed at individual, policy and service-delivery levels. Primary and secondary care staff and policy-makers should work together to develop an integrated approach to cancer screening in this population. Â© 2016 The Author(s).
Background: Adults with severe mental illness (i.e. schizophrenia or other related psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder) can be at greater risk of cancer than those without severe mental illness (SMI). Early detection of cancer through screening is effective in improving patient outcomes including death. However, people with SMI are less likely than others to take up available cancer screening. Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of interventions targeted at adults with SMI, or their carers or health professionals, and aimed at increasing the uptake of cancer screening tests for which the adults with SMI are eligible. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (October 25, 2012; December 19, 2014; April 07, 2015; July 04, 2016). Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions, targeted towards adults with SMI or their carers or health professionals, to encourage uptake of cancer screening tests for which the adults with SMI were eligible. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts and assessed these against the inclusion criteria. Main results: We did not find any trials that met the inclusion criteria. Authors' conclusions: A comprehensive search showed that currently there is no RCT evidence for any method of encouraging cancer screening uptake in people with SMI. No specific approach can therefore be recommended. High-quality, large-scale RCTs are needed urgently to help address the disparity between people with SMI and others in cancer screening uptake. Â© 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration.
This paper provides guidance on the steps, obstacles and mistakes to avoid in the implementation of community mental health care. The document is intended to be of practical use and interest to psychiatrists worldwide regarding the development of community mental health care for adults with mental illness. The main recommendations are presented in relation to: the need for coordinated policies, plans and programmes, the requirement to scale up services for whole populations, the importance of promoting community awareness about mental illness to increase levels of help-seeking, the need to establish effective financial and budgetary provisions to directly support services provided in the community. The paper concludes by setting out a series of lessons learned from the accumulated practice of community mental health care to date worldwide, with a particular focus on the social and governmental measures that are required at the national level, the key steps to take in the organization of the local mental health system, lessons learned by professionals and practitioners, and how to most effectively harness the experience of users, families, and other advocates.
This article explores the construct of wellbeing. Research concerning the relationship between subjective wellbeing and health is discussed. Key components of wellbeing that are important to health include 'sense of coherence', 'optimism' and 'benefit finding and post-traumatic growth'. A range of positive psychology interventions that aim to increase positive thoughts, feelings and emotions in order to improve wellbeing have been developed. Mindfulness-based approaches to improving wellbeing are especially popular and are evidence based. These focus on helping the individual to develop an awareness of the present with acceptance and attention. Instead of trying to change uncomfortable thoughts or feelings, the individual practices accepting these, without judgement. Nurses can draw on the information in this article to provide evidence-based advice and guidance to help improve their patients' and their own wellbeing.
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients. Consideration of a patient's psychological health is therefore important for all nurses providing holistic care. Awareness of the symptoms of psychological distress, good communication skills and simple screening instruments can be used by nurses to assess patients' mental health. The cognitive and behavioural risk factors associated with depression and anxiety are also explored, as an understanding of these can help nurses to provide appropriate care. Â© MA Healthcare Ltd.
Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change. Â© 2016 MA Healthcare Ltd.
Chest pain and palpitations, non-malignant pain, breathlessness and fatigue often endure despite the receipt of appropriate nursing and medical care. This is distressing for patients, impacts on their quality of life and ability to function and is associated with high healthcare usage and costs. The cognitive behavioural approach offers nurses a model to understand how people's perceptions and beliefs and their emotional, behavioural and physiological reactions are linked. Common 'thinking errors' which can exacerbate symptom severity and impact are highlighted. Understanding of this model may help nurses to help patients cope better with their symptoms by helping them to come up with alternative more helpful beliefs and practices. Many Improving Access to Psychological Therapy services offer support to people with chronic physical symptoms and nurses are encouraged to sign post patients to them. Â© 2016 MA Healthcare Ltd.
Background and objectives: Clinicians report difficulties using research in their practices. The aim of the study was to describe needs and preferences for a mental health clinical question-answering service designed to assist this process. Method: Multi-disciplinary clinicians participated in a focus group; users of the service supplied feedback. Results: Fifty-four clinicians received answers to 84 questions about mental health treatments. User ratings showed that the answers had multiple uses: informing health care (43), education (22), staff development (28) and research (12), and were considered useful, clear, relevant and helpful. Focus group participants appreciated critically appraised summaries of evidence and stressed the time-saving benefit of the service. Clinicians without a medical training were least confident in applying evidence. Attitudes to research were positive, but concern was expressed about its potential misuse for political purposes. This appeared to arise from an ambiguity around the term 'insufficient evidence', which participants felt is widely misinterpreted as 'evidence of no effect'. Conclusions: A highly valued, responsive service has been developed. A range of clinicians find critically appraised summaries of research useful. Education about the use of research may help clinicians to be more evidence based. Â© 2009 Health Libraries Group.
Background: Many people with severe mental illness (SMI) have siblings. Siblings are often both natural agents to promote service user's recovery and vulnerable to mental ill health due to the negative impact of psychosis within the family. Despite a wealth of research evidence supporting the effectiveness of psychoeducation for service users with SMI and their family members, in reducing relapse and promoting compliance with treatment, siblings remain relatively invisible in clinical service settings as well as in research studies. If psychoeducational interventions target siblings and improve siblings' knowledge, coping with caring and overall wellbeing, they could potentially provide a cost-effective option for supporting siblings with resulting benefits for service users' outcomes. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of psychoeducation compared with usual care or any other intervention in promoting wellbeing and reducing distress of siblings of people affected by SMI. The secondary objective was, if possible, to determine which type of psychoeducation is most effective. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register and screened the reference lists of relevant reports and reviews (12th November 2013). We contacted trial authors for unpublished and specific data on siblings' outcomes. Selection criteria: All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducational interventions targeting siblings of all ages (on their own or amongst other family members including service users) of individuals with SMI, using any means and formats of delivery, i.e. individual (family), groups, computer-based. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened the abstracts and extracted data and two other authors independently checked the screening and extraction process. We contacted authors of trials to ascertain siblings' participation in the trials and seek sibling-specific data in those studies where siblings' data were grouped together with other participants' (most commonly other family members'/carers') outcomes. We calculated the risk difference (RD), its 95% confidence interval (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. We presented continuous data using the mean difference statistic (MD) and 95% CIs. We assessed risk of bias for the included study and rated quality of evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Main results: We found 14 studies that included siblings amongst other family members in receipt of psychoeducational interventions. However, we were only able to include one small trial with relevant and available data (n = 9 siblings out of n = 84 family member/carer-participants) comparing psychoeducational intervention with standard care in a community care setting, over a duration of 21 months. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effects of psychoeducational interventions compared with standard care on 'siblings' quality of life' (n = 9, MD score 3.80 95% CI -0.26 to 7.86, low quality of evidence), coping with (family) burden (n = 9, MD -8.80 95% CI -15.22 to -2.34, low quality of evidence). No sibling left the study early by one year (n = 9, RD 0.00 CI -0.34 to 0.34, low quality of evidence). Low quality and insufficient evidence meant we were unable to determine the effects of psychoeducational interventions compared with standard care on service users' global mental state (n = 9, MD -0.60 CI -3.54 to 2.38, low quality of evidence), their frequency of re-hospitalisation (n = 9, MD -0.70 CI -2.46 to 1.06, low quality of evidence) or duration of inpatient stay (n = 9, MD -2.60 CI -6.34 to 1.14, low quality of evidence), whether their siblings received psychoeducation or not. No study data were available to address the other primary outcomes: 'siblings' psychosocial wellbeing', 'siblings' distress' and adverse effects. Authors' conclusions: Most studies evaluating psychoeducational interventions recruited siblings along with other family members. However, the proportion of siblings in these studies was low and outcomes for siblings were not reported independently from those of other types of family members. Indeed, only data from one study with nine siblings were available for the review. The limited study data we obtained provides no clear good quality evidence to indicate psychoeducation is beneficial for siblings' wellbeing or for clinical outcomes of people affected by SMI. More randomised studies are justified and needed to understand the role of psychoeducation in addressing siblings' needs for information and support.
This study evaluates a training in Mental Health Crisis Support for Non-Mental Health Professionals who work in urgent care settings. The training consists of an e- learning module, a one-day face to face (F2F) interactive study day and simulation training. Design This mixed multi-methods study collected data pre- and post training and at three to six months post training. Validated questionnaires, rating scales and open-ended questions were used to measure self-efficacy in healthcare skills, attitudes towards mental illness, and knowledge and confidence in working in mental health. A sub-sample of participants was interviewed post training about how they had used the knowledge and skills learned. Findings 706 Seven hundred and six staff completed the e-learning, 88 attended the F2F training and 203 attended simulation training. Overall satisfaction with the training was high, with F2F and simulation training preferred. Statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy for healthcare skills, positive attitudes towards mental illness, and mental health-related knowledge and confidence were found post training. Qualitative analyses of interview and survey data indicated that participants had translated learning to practice through improved attitudes and behavioural changes when working with patients experiencing a mental health crisis. Value This training improved mental health-related knowledge, confidence and self-efficacy and reduced mental health-related stigma in professionals who provide urgent care to people in mental health crisis. Participants reported changes to their practice following training; this is important as care has been inadequate for this group. Workforce planners and leaders should consider implementing this or similar training widely.
Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including mental health comorbidity, which is associated with poor outcomes. Self-management is key, but there is limited access to self-management support. Internet-delivered interventions may increase access. Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to (1) determine the effectiveness of Internet-delivered CHD self-management support for improving CHD, mood, and self-management related outcomes and (2) identify and describe essential components for effectiveness. Method: Randomized controlled trials that met prespecified eligibility criteria were identified using a systematic search of 3 healthcare databases (Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase). Results: Seven trials, which included 1321 CHD patients, were eligible for inclusion. There was considerable heterogeneity between studies in terms of the intervention content, outcomes measured, and study quality. All 7 of the studies reported significant positive between-group effects, in particular for lifestyle-related outcomes. Personalization of interventions and provision of support to promote engagement may be associated with improved outcomes, although more data are required to confirm this. The theoretical basis of interventions was poorly developed though evidence-based behavior change interventions were used. Conclusion: More well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed. These should also explore how interventions work and how to improve participant retention and satisfaction and examine the role of personalization and support within interventions. Copyright Â© 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
Objectives To identify and evaluate interventions aimed at increasing uptake of, or access to, physical health screening by adults with severe mental illness; to examine why interventions might work. Design Realist review. Setting Primary, secondary and tertiary care. Results A systematic search identified 1448 studies, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were from Australia (n=3), Canada (n=1), Hong Kong (n=1), UK (n=11) and USA (n=6). The studies focused on breast cancer screening, infection preventive services and metabolic syndrome (MS) screening by targeting MS-related risk factors. The interventions could be divided into those focusing on (1) health service delivery changes (12 studies), using quality improvement, randomised controlled trial, cluster randomised feasibility trial, retrospective audit, cross-sectional study and satisfaction survey designs and (2) tests of tools designed to facilitate screening (10 studies) using consecutive case series, quality improvement, retrospective evaluation and pre-post audit study designs. All studies reported improved uptake of screening, or that patients had received screening they would not have had without the intervention. No estimation of overall effect size was possible due to heterogeneity in study design and quality. The following factors may contribute to intervention success: staff and stakeholder involvement in screening, staff flexibility when taking physical measurements (eg, using adapted equipment), strong links with primary care and having a pharmacist on the ward. Conclusions A range of interventions may be effective, but better quality research is needed to determine any effect size. Researchers should consider how interventions may work when designing and testing them in order to target better the specific needs of this population in the most appropriate setting. Behaviour-change interventions to reduce identified barriers of patient and health professional resistance to screening this population are required. Resource constraints, clarity over professional roles and better coordination with primary care need to be addressed. Â© 2018 Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved.
Introduction Fifteen million people are affected by one or more long-term conditions in England. The cost of caring for this patient group increases every year. Several studies have been conducted to find out why people with those conditions choose to access Accident and Emergency (A&E) frequently. To our knowledge, there is no study that compares the three groups (patients, family members and hospital clinicians), and this approach may enhance understanding of A&E admissions in England. Therefore, an exploratory study was undertaken to identify key factors that contribute to A&E admissions as perceived by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF), their family members (or carers) and hospital clinicians. Methods A mixed methods approach was undertaken: (1) semistructured interviews with patients and their family members (or carers) and (2) a self-developed survey with hospital clinicians. A purposive sample of 15 patients (9 COPD, 6 HF), 6 family members and carers (2 COPD, 4 HF) and 13 hospital clinicians (5 doctors, 8 nurses) participated in the study. Results The patients' main reason for A&E admission was severe exacerbation of their symptoms and all three parties (patients, family members or carers, hospital clinicians) agreed with this decision. Three key factors were highlighted in relation to A&E attendance: (1) patients' health-seeking behaviour, (2) perceptions about general practitioner (GP) and A&E services by patients and (3) patients' attitudes towards managing their own conditions. Conclusions Improving patients' perceptions of GP services in the management of exacerbations of HF and COPD will be important to increase patients' trust in GP services so that patients will access primary care in a timely manner to prevent exacerbations of symptoms that require A&E admission. This may be achieved by developing a close collaboration between the patients, family members (carers) and hospital clinicians over time. Â© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved.
This article describes behaviour change techniques that nurses can use to help individual patients to make and stick to healthy choices. These include helping patients to set goals that are specific, measureable, achievable, relevant and timely (SMART), promoting self-monitoring and providing feedback and motivational interviewing. The process for delivering these techniques is described and the evidence for them discussed. Simply providing brief advice and follow up can lead to behaviour change, even in people who have not expressed a desire to change. The techniques are designed to be brief and feasible to use in routine practice. Using them can help nurses to apply the NHS policy of Making Every Contact Count so that their patients achieve long-term benefit. Â© 2016 MA Healthcare Ltd.
Following publication of the original article , the authors notified us of an error in the reported percentages in Table 3.
Background: Psychological interventions are an important but often overlooked adjunctive treatment option for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Findings from systematic reviews of psychological interventions for this patient group are conflicting. A systematic review of reviews can explain inconsistencies between studies and provide a clearer understanding of the effects of interventions. Objectives: To: 1) determine the effectiveness of psychological interventions in improving biopsychosocial out- comes for adults with rheumatoid arthritis, 2) determine the relationship between the intensity of the psycho- logical interventions (number of sessions, duration of sessions, duration of intervention) on outcomes, and 3) assess the impact of comparator group (usual care, education only) on outcomes. Design: We conducted a systematic review of reviews using the following inclusion criteria: 1) randomised controlled trials of psychological interventions (including cognitive behavioural therapy, supportive counselling, psychotherapy, self-regulatory techniques, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and disclosure therapy) pro- vided as an adjunct to medication, 2) included rheumatoid arthritis patients aged ≥18 years, 3) reported findings for at least 1 of the primary outcomes: pain, fatigue, psychological status, functional disability and disease activity and 4) were published in English between January 2000 and March 2015 (updated January 2018). Data sources: We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Reference lists were searched for additional re-views. Review methods: Study selection and 50% of the quality assessments were performed by two independent re-viewers. Methodological quality was measured using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews checklist. Data extraction was conducted by one reviewer using a predesigned data extraction form. Results: Eight systematic reviews met inclusion criteria (one review was excluded due to its low-quality score). Small post intervention improvements in patient global assessment, functional disability, pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression were observed. The effect on coping, self-efficacy and physical activity was greater. Improvements in depression, coping and physical activity were maintained (8.5–14 months). Interventionsdelivered over a longer period with a maintenance component appeared more effective. Attention, education, and placebo control groups produced some improvements but not as large as those produced by the psychological interventions. Conclusions: Psychological interventions result in small to moderate improvements in biopsychosocial outcomes for patients with rheumatoid arthritis in addition to those achieved by standard care. Several priorities for future research were identified, including determining the cost effectiveness of non-psychologically trained health professionals delivering psychological interventions.