Gerry Parke

Professor Gerry Parke


Professor of Structural Engineering, BSc MSc PhD CEng FICE FIStructE EurIng
+44 (0)1483 689544
20 AA 03

My publications

Publications

Olamigoke OA, Parke GAR, Imam M (2015) Effect of cable corrosion on the structural response of cable-stayed bridges, Multi-Span Large Bridges - Proceedings of the International Conference on Multi-Span Large Bridges, 2015 pp. 927-936
© 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, London.The cables on cable-stayed bridges can fail due to vehicle collision, explosion, and excessive corrosion of the strands which may enhance the vulnerability of this structure, leading to progressive collapse. The structural response of cable-stayed bridges will differwhen a combination of factors such as corrosion and extreme events leads to the loss of the cable(s) as will opposure to extreme events occurring with no corrosion present. In existing cable-stayed bridges, corrosion may affect the stays which will decrease bridge performance compared to that of the new structure. Varying the extent of corrosion critical locations, the response of a cable-stayed traffic bridge is analyzed, for different loading combinations, using three dimensional non-linear dynamic analysis. The results show that a cable subjected to 30% or more corrosion before blast will have a significant effect on other cables with no corrosion. The presence of corrosion in a lost cable causes the cables close to it and the nearest backstay to exceed the design limiting stress.
Abedi K, Parke GAR (2007) Investigation into the behaviour of a ductile multi-tubular force limiting device, IRANIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSACTION B-ENGINEERING 31 (B2) pp. 249-255 SHIRAZ UNIV
Hoxey R, Robertson A, Toy N, Parke GAR, Disney P (2003) Design of an experimental arrangement to study the wind loads on transmission towers due to downbursts, FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION II 36 pp. 395-404 WIT PRESS
Savory E, Parke GAR, Zeinoddini M, Toy N, Disney P (2001) Modelling of tornado and microburst-induced wind loading and failure of a lattice transmission tower, ENGINEERING STRUCTURES 23 (4) pp. 365-375 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
PARKE GAR (1993) A NOVEL SOFT MEMBER FOR SPACE-TRUSSES, SPACE STRUCTURES 4, VOL 1 pp. 116-126 THOMAS TELFORD SERVICES LTD
Zeinoddini M, Harding JE, Parke GAR (1999) Dynamic behaviour of axially pre-loaded tubular steel members of offshore structures subjected to impact damage, OCEAN ENGINEERING 26 (10) pp. 963-978 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Fan F, Shen SZ, Parke GAR (2004) Theoretical and experimental study of vibration reduction in braced domes using a viscous damper system, International Journal of Space Structures 19 (4) pp. 195-202
A vibration reducing system with viscous dampers is introduced for braced domes. A finite element analysis algorithm of the vibration reducing system with viscous dampers has been developed and a number of numerical calculations on vibration reduction have been undertaken. Viscous dampers, which are suitable for braced domes, have been designed and manufactured and the performance testing of them has also been completed. On this basis, one K6, braced dome model, has been designed and constructed. This braced dome model, incorporating the viscous dampers, was then tested using a shaking table. All of the experiments undertaken show that the vibration reducing system using viscous dampers, can be applied to full size braced domes structures.
Mansor H, Disney P, Parke G (2011) Evaluation of Progressive Collapse Analysis Using Beam and Shell Elements, Proceedings of IABSE-IASS Symposium 2011 International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS)
The paper presents a progressive collapse analysis of a selected two-bay steel frame structure using
the general purpose finite element package ABAQUS. The collapse behaviour of the steel frame
structure subject to sudden column removal using different modelling approaches and different time
variations is investigated. The structure is modelled using beam elements and combination of beam
and shell elements. The modelling technique is identified to get a better understanding of the
influence of using different types of elements when assessing the dynamic and collapse behaviour
of structures.
YARZA A, CAVIA P, PARKE GAR (1993) AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRE ANALYSIS OF DOUBLE-LAYER GRIDS, SPACE STRUCTURES 4, VOL 1 pp. 683-692 THOMAS TELFORD SERVICES LTD
Nooshin H, Mohammadi N, Parke GAR Regularity of Geodesic Domes,
Hoxey R, Robertson A, Toy N, Parke GAR, Disney P (2003) Design of an experimental arrangement to study the wind loads on transmission towers due to downbursts, WIT Transactions on the Built Environment 71 pp. 393-404
High intensity winds (HIW) are associated with severe wind loading patterns on transmission lines and tower failures. These HIWs namely tornadoes and downbursts, are often short-lived, highly energetic, flow fields that are difficult to reproduce for investigative procedures. However, this work outlines an experimental facility for studying the behaviour and characteristics of a downburst in both still air and a cross flow. It is shown that the downburst model produces the three stages of a typical downburst, that is, the contact, an outburst and a cushion stage. The growth of the ensuing ring vortex is captured and initial measurements shows that it expands faster in the radial sense than vertically. In addition to the experimental studies, a finite element analysis has been performed on two geometrically different towers. Although the work is still in progress, early results show that a heavier pylon type of tower is less likely to be affected by non-linearity, whereas a lighter weight, guyed, type of tower may be subjected to buckling modes of failure. © 2004 WIT Press.
Zeinoddini M, Harding JE, Parke GAR (1998) Effect of impact damage on the capacity of tubular steel members of offshore structures, Marine Structures 11 (4-5) pp. 141-157
The effect of axial pre-loading on the behaviour and instability of a cylindrical member of an offshore structure struck by a supply vessel has been investigated. Numerical models have been used to analyse a tubular member with and without axial pre-loading. It has been found that axial pre-loading has a marked effect on the lateral collapse load of the member and more dramatically on the level of energy that the member can absorb prior to its collapse. The effect of different end conditions on the behaviour of the tubular members has been examined and four distinct modes of deformation for a cylindrical member under quasi-static concentrated lateral loads have been defined. The finite element model was validated using available test results from the literature. These were mostly static tests, carried out on cylindrical members with no axial loading. Good agreement was obtained between the finite element model and the test results. Significant differences have been found between the results presented in this study and previous results by the other workers who represented the impact damage as an imperfection effect.
HANAOR A, MARSH C, PARKE GAR (1989) MODIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR OF DOUBLE-LAYER GRIDS - OVERVIEW, JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE 115 (5) pp. 1021-1037 ASCE-AMER SOC CIVIL ENGINEERS
DOYLE WS, PARKE GAR (1993) USING CYCLIC SYMMETRY TO ANALYZE SPACE STRUCTURES, SPACE STRUCTURES 4, VOL 1 pp. 674-682 THOMAS TELFORD SERVICES LTD
Makowski ZS, Maranzano D, Parke GAR (1987) INFLUENCE OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS UPON STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN SINGLE-LAYER DIAGONAL GRIDS., Lecture Notes in Engineering pp. 159-172
A diagonal grid configuration is considered consisting of beams arranged in two parallel sets, equally spaced and usually interconnected at 90 degree and placed obliquely (usually at 45 degree with respect to the boundary lines. The diagonal grid has been used by one of the authors in a number of practical applications including steel flat roofs over petrol stations. During a feasibility study for structures of this type several different boundary conditions have been considered during the design and the detailed resulting stresses and deflections compared. The paper contains a comparison of 12 different boundaries of a diagonal grid.
Zeinoddini M, Sadrossadat SM, Parke GAR (2008) NONLINEAR SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF FREE SPANNING SUBMARINE PIPELINES: EFFECTS OF PIPE-WATER INTERACTION, PROCEEDINGS OF THE 27TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING - 2008, VOL 3 pp. 573-582 AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
Baverel O, Nooshin H, Kuroiwa Y, Parke GAR (2000) Nexorades, International Journal of Space Structures 15 (2) pp. 155-159
The objective of this paper is to discuss the characteristics of a family of space structures that are referred to as 'nexorades'. Typically, a nexorade is constructed from scaffolding tubes, connected together with swivel couplers. An important application of nexorades is for shelters of various sizes and shapes for temporary or permanent purposes. In such a shelter, the structural skeleton is provided by a nexorade and the cover is provided by a membrane material.
Parke GAR, Harding JEH (2000) Steel Bridges, In: Ryall MJ, Parke GAR, Harding JE (eds.), The manual of bridge engineering pp. 315-406
- Bridge type, behaviour and appearance David Bennett, David Bennett Associates · History of bridge development · Bridge form · Behaviour - Loads and load ...
Bridge C, Howells H, Toy N, Parke GAR, Woods R (2003) Full-scale model tests of a steel catenary riser, WIT Transactions on the Built Environment 71 pp. 107-116
Steel catenary risers (SCRs) are an enabling technology for deepwater oil and gas production. Tools to analyse and design SCRs are available which show that the point where the riser first touches the soil, termed the touchdown point (TDP) is critical. However our understanding of fluid/riserlsoil interaction is limited, hence the oil and gas industry has concerns regarding the levels of conservatism in SCR design, and margins of safety. The purpose of this study is to examine the interaction between a pipe (representing a section of the SCR), a clay seabed, and the surrounding seawater. This paper documents some of the results and observations from the full scale harbour test riser experiments which examined the 3D effect of fluid/riser/soil interaction around the TDP. The riser, a l lOm (3603) long 0.1683m (6-518 inch) diameter pipe, was draped from an actuator on the harbour wall to an anchor point on the seabed. The top end of the pipe string was actuated using a programmable logic controller (PLC) to simulate the wave and vessel drift motions of a spar platform in lOOOm (3,3003) water depth, both in-line and transverse to the SCR plane. The pipe was fully instrumented to provide tensions and bending moments along its length. Observations from the harbour tests show that a trench forms around the TDP. Evidence collected shows that the trench created was tear-drop shaped, with a maximum width of 2.5 riser diameters and a maximum depth of 1.2 diameters. The trench was thought to be created from a combination of the applied vessel motions and fluid flow across the riser and the seabed, however the exact benching mechanisms are unknown. The work was conducted as part of the successful STRIDE JIP (Steel Risers in Deepwater Environments Joint Industry Project). © 2004 WIT Press.
Sun J, Li H, Parke GAR, Nooshin H Dynamic Stability Behaviour of Lattice Domes with Substructures,
Steele K, Cole G, Parke G, Clarke B, Harding J (2003) Highway bridges and environment - sustainable perspectives, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-CIVIL ENGINEERING 156 (4) pp. 176-182 THOMAS TELFORD SERVICES LTD
Jin NH, Chryssanthopoulos MK, Parke GAR (2007) A probabilistic methodology for sustainable bridge management, LIFE-CYCLE COST AND PERFORMANCE OF CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS pp. 181-189 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Bhattacharya S, Alexander N, Lombardi D, Ghosh S (2015) Fundamentals of Engineering Mathematics, ICE Publishing
Lignos XA, Parke GAR, Harding JE, Kounadis AN (2002) A comprehensive catastrophe theory for non-linear buckling of simple systems exhibiting fold and cusp catastrophes, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING 54 (2) pp. 175-193 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Zeinoddini M, Ezzati M, Parke GAR (2015) Plastic buckling, wrinkling and collapse behaviour of dented X80 steel line pipes under axial compression, JOURNAL OF LOSS PREVENTION IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES 38 pp. 67-78 Elsevier
High strength steel pipes have found increasing applications in deep high pressure offshore oil/gas lines.
Damages in the form of dent are among common causes of pipeline failure. Indentation, plastic buckling
and residual strength of dented normal grade steel pipes under bending, axial and combined loading
have previously been addressed by a number of researchers. The plastic buckling and collapse of dented
high grades steel line pipes, however, have received less previous attentions.
In the current study an experimental model testing was used to evaluate the residual strength of
dented X80 steel pipes under monotonic axial compression. The tubular specimens were first laterally
dented by an indentor while resting on a saddle shape support. The specimens were then examined
under axial compression to study the dent effects on their collapse behaviour. Numerical simulations
were also used to analyse the effect of the indentor ratio, shape and alignment on the residual strength of
dented steel tubes under monotonic axial compression. The results from the current study on high
strength steels were also compared with semi-empirical equations available in the literature for low
strength steels. It was found that these equations provide reasonable predictions for the axial residual
capacity of the high strength steel pipes when the dent depths are small. With deep dents, however, they
considerably underestimate the axial residual capacity of the high strength steel pipes.
Parke GAR, Toy N, Savory E, Abedi K, Chenaghlou R (1998) Appraisal of deployable dome structures under wind loading, Wind and Structures, An International Journal 1 (4) pp. 317-336
In this paper the appraisal of a folding dome structure under the influence of wind loading is discussed. The foldable structure considered is constructed from an assembly of interconnected elements, together with a flexible membrane, all of which are initially stored in a compact form and on deployment expand, like an umbrella, into a dome structure. Loading on the dome was obtained from a wind tunnel analysis of the pressure distribution over the roof of a 1:10 scale model of the structure. The critical loading obtained from the wind tunnel investigation was used, together with individual member and material tests, to form a series of numerical non-linear finite element models which were, in turn, used to investigate the forces within the structure. The numerical analysis was used to determine the critical wind loading that the structure can sustain, as well as providing a method by which to investigate the failure modes of the structure. In order to enhance the load carrying capacity of the dome it was found that both the strength and stiffnesss of the structural nodes needed to be enhanced and in addition, changes were necessary to substantially increase the stiffness of the individual member end caps.
Sheidaii MR, Abedi K, Behravesh A, Parke GAR (2003) An investigation into the collapse behaviour of double-layer space trusses, IRANIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 27 (B1) pp. 7-20 SHIRAZ UNIV
Petrus C, Abdul Hamid H, Ibrahim A, Parke G (2010) Experimental behaviour of concrete filled thin walled steel tubes with tab stiffeners, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 66 (7) pp. 915-922
This paper presents an experimental investigation into the structural behaviour of concrete filled, thin walled, steel tubular stub column with tab stiffeners. The stiffening was attained by welding together four pieces of lipped angle, whereupon two parts of the lips were notched and folded vertically in order to form the tab stiffeners. The effects of the tab stiffeners on the bond and compressive strengths were investigated experimentally using 18 and 10 specimens respectively. It was observed that the tab stiffener does enhance both the bond strength and the axial load capacity of the concrete filled thin walled steel tubular stub column tested. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Parke GAR, Disney P (2005) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Bridge Management: Preface, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Bridge Management
Fan F, Shen SZ, Parke GAR (2005) Study of the dynamic strength of reticulated domes under severe earthquake loading, International Journal of Space Structures 20 (4) pp. 235-244
The behaviour of selected steel domes subject to severe earthquake loading has been investigated and reported. Particular attention has been given to assess the development and spread of plasticity throughout these structures. Several dome configurations have been considered, both perfect and imperfect, together with a range of varying rise to span ratios. Finite element analysis of these structures has been undertaken to determine the rate of spread of plasticity and the rate of increase in node displacement under seismic loading. The dynamic strength failure acceleration (DSFA) has been defined as the acceleration at which the rate of spread of plasticity and node displacement reaches a runaway level and the structure becomes dynamically unstable. For the dome structures under consideration DSFA occurred at an acceleration of approximately 8 m/s2. In addition, the DSFA decreased by 15%-50% for the imperfect structures when compared with the perfect domes and was lower for the multi-directional seismic input. Also, the DSFA decreased gradually with a corresponding increase in the rise to span ratio.
Zeinoddini M, Harding JE, Parke GAR (2000) Contribution of ring resistance in the behaviour of steel tubes subjected to a lateral impact, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES 42 (12) pp. 2303-2320 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Savory E, Parke GAR, Disney P, Toy N, Zeinoddini M (1998) Field measurements of wind-induced transmission tower foundation loads, Wind and Structures, An International Journal 1 (2) pp. 183-199
This paper discusses some of the findings arising from long-term monitoring of the wind effects on a transmission tower located on an exposed site in South-West England. Site wind speeds have been measured, together with the foundation loads at the base of each of the four legs. The results show good correlation between the wind speeds and leg strains (loads) for a given wind direction, as expected for wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s. Comparisons between the measured strains and those determined from the UK Code of Practice for lattice towers (BS8100), for the same wind speed and direction show that the Code over-estimates most of the measured foundation loads by a moderate amount of about 14% at the higher wind speeds. This tends to confirm the validity of the Code for assessing design foundation loads. A finite element analysis model has been used to examine the dynamic behaviour of the tower and conductor system. This shows that, in the absence of the conductors the tower alone has similar natural frequencies of approximately 2.2 Hz in the both the first (transversal) and second (longitudinal) modes, whilst for the complete system the conductor oscillations dominate, giving similar frequencies of approximately 0.1 Hz for both the first and second modes.
Abedi K, Parke GAR (2006) The Large Deformation and Cyclic Behaviour of a Ductile Multi-Tubular Force Limiting Device, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology
Steele K, Cole G, Parke G, Clarke B, Harding J (2003) Environmental impact of brick arch bridge management, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS 156 (3) pp. 273-281 THOMAS TELFORD SERVICES LTD
HANAOR A, MARSH C, PARKE GAR (1991) MODIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR OF DOUBLE-LAYER GRIDS - OVERVIEW - CLOSURE, JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE 117 (5) pp. 1571-1572 ASCE-AMER SOC CIVIL ENG
Savory E, Parke GAR, Disney P, Toy N (2008) Wind-induced transmission tower foundation loads: A field study-design code comparison, JOURNAL OF WIND ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL AERODYNAMICS 96 (6-7) pp. 1103-1110 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Zeinoddini M, Parke GAR, Harding JE (2002) Axially pro-loaded steel tubes subjected to lateral impacts: an experimental study, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMPACT ENGINEERING 27 (6) PII S0734-743X(01)00157-9 pp. 669-690 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Zeinoddini M, Parke GAR, Harding JE (2008) Interface forces in laterally impacted steel tubes, EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS 48 (3) pp. 265-280 SPRINGER
Parke GAR (1985) Comparison of the Structural Behaviour of Various Types of Braced Barrel Vaults, In: Makowski ZS (eds.), Analysis, design, and construction of braced barrel vaults pp. 90-120 Routledge
History of Development of Various Types of Braced Barrel Vaults and Review of
Recent Achievements all over the World ZSMAKOWSKI Space Structures Research ...
Zeinoddini M, Saeidi B, Parke GAR (2008) Feasibility of Suction Caisson Solutions for the Foundations of Offshore Jacket Platforms in the Persian Gulf, OMAE 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 27TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING - 2008, VOL 2 pp. 519-525 AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
Zeinoddini M, Parke GAR, Disney P (2004) The stability study of an innovative steel dome, International Journal of Space Structures 19 (2) pp. 109-125
Global stability and load carrying capacity of an innovative dome comprising of double layer space frame sections with curved flexural members was discussed. The non-linear FE program ABAQUS was used to study the global stability of the dome and to investigate its pre and post failure behavior. Failure modes such as overall torsional buckling, in-plane ring buckling and symmetrical and non-symmetrical verical snap in the dome responses were identified. It was observed that the presence of restraints placed between the flexural members could prevent the occurance of premature torsional and vertical snap through buckling in the dome.
Blackett G, Savory E, Toy N, Parke GAR, Clark M, Rabjohns B (2008) An evaluation of the environmental burdens of present and alternative materials used for electricity transmission, BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT 43 (7) pp. 1326-1338 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Behnejad SA, Parke GAR (2014) Half a century with the space structures research centre of the University of Surrey, International Journal of Space Structures 29 (4) pp. 205-214
The Space Structures Research Centre was founded by Professor Zygmunt Stanislaw Makowski in 1963. The Centre is a part of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. Many different activities have been organised by the Centre since its establishment in areas such as research, publication, teaching, organisation of conferences, as well as, consulting work. This paper outlines the activities of the Centre in the past 50 years and gives an overview of the role of the Centre in the development of spatial structures in the world.
Garden HN, Quantrill RJ, Hollaway LC, Thorne AM, Parke GAR (1998) An experimental study of the anchorage length of carbon fibre composite plates used to strengthen reinforced concrete beams, CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS 12 (4) pp. 203-219 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Bridge C, Howells H, Toy N, Parke GAR, Woods R (2003) Full-scale model tests of a steel catenary riser, FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION II 36 pp. 107-116 WIT PRESS
Parke GAR (1991) Collapse Analysis and Design of Double-Layer Grids, In: Nooshin H, Makowski ZS (eds.), Studies in space structures pp. 153-179
Khairussaleh NAM, Parke GAR, Imam M (2015) Fatigue analysis of cable anchorages on cable-stayed bridges, Multi-Span Large Bridges - Proceedings of the International Conference on Multi-Span Large Bridges, 2015 pp. 937-946
© 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, London.The cable anchorage blocks that transfer the deck loads to the cables have complex details which significantly influence the long ? term fatigue behaviour of cable ? stayed bridges in operation. Determination of the stress ranges at one of the most critical parts in the cable anchorage due to traffic loads passing over the bridge is determined by using the finite element (FE) method. This paper investigates three different approaches namely node stress concentration, average elements and the hot-spot method in order to identify the stress ranges that adversely affect the remaining fatigue life of a cable anchorage. Finally, by using the Fatigue Load Model 4 (FLM4) proposed in the Euro code, the proposed fatigue remaining life in cable anchorage is determined and discussed.
Parke G, Behnejad S (2013) Z S Makowski: A Pioneer,
Zeinoddini M, Arabzadeh H, Ezzati M, Parke GAR (2013) Response of submarine pipelines to impacts from dropped objects: Bed flexibility effects, International Journal of Impact Engineering 62 pp. 129-141
Effects of soil-pipe interaction on the response of continuously supported offshore pipelines subjected to transverse impacts caused by dropped objects are studied. For this, the impact on an internally pressurized pipeline resting on a flexible bed has been numerically simulated. The numerical model has first been validated against different sets of experimental data from the authors and a number of researches. A relatively extensive parametric study has then been carried out to examine effects from variations in the pipe geometry, internal pressure, boundary conditions, indentor shape and orientation, embedment depth of the pipe into the soil bed and subsoil mechanical properties on the pipeline response. It has been noticed that the presence of internal pressure results in substantial increase in the impact force. It, however, reduces the denting length, causing the deformation to become spatially more localized. It has also been shown that the flexibility of pipe bed plays an important role in the impact energy dissipation. This effect becomes more pronounced when the internal pressure is relatively low. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zeinoddini M, Parke GAR (2011) Elastic shakedown and adaptation of the response in laterally impacted steel tubes, International Journal of Damage Mechanics 20 (3) pp. 400-422
This article reports some interesting observations on the response of laterally impacted steel tubes, which in some respects have been considered to undergo an elastic shakedown. In an experimental study on the behavior of axially compressed tubes under lateral impacts, it has been noticed that after full development of plastic deformations in the impacted bodies, the structural system ceases to exhibit additional plastic responses. The impacted tubes then exhibit an elastic behavior. It has also been observed that the amplitude of the elastic excitations in the specimens becomes more restricted as the load configuration moves close to a dynamic failure state. With load conditions quite close to the dynamic failure limit, almost no elastic excitation has been perceived from the impacted specimens. Additional numerical and analytical investigations have been carried out on impacted tubes, frames, and nonlinear single-degree of freedom systems and similar results have been obtained. Despite the noncyclic nature of the external loads in these impact cases, a phenomenon similar to elastic shakedown has been observed. © The Author(s), 2011.
Zeinoddini M, Parke GAR, Sadrossadat SM (2012) Free-Spanning Submarine Pipeline Response to Severe Ground Excitations: Water-Pipeline Interactions, JOURNAL OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND PRACTICE 3 pp. 135-149 American Society of Civil Engineers
Submarine pipelines are usually laid unburied. Free spanning may be caused in the line by seabed unevenness, topology changes,
scouring, or sand waves. In seismically active areas, the free spannings are prone to severe ground excitations. This article deals with the
seismic performance of the submarine pipeline free spanning, and the water/pipeline interaction during the event is its focal point. For this, a
numerical finite-element model has been used. Results from a conventional added mass approach have been examined against those from a
more elaborate coupled acoustic-structural model. With the coupled system the surrounding seawater, pipe body, seabed, and free spanning
have all been incorporated into the model. Both random earthquake and harmonic excitations have been considered. A time domain
incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) method has been used to evaluate the pipeline performance. Effects from type, frequency, intensity,
and direction of excitation and the free-span length on the pipeline response have been investigated. In most cases, the added mass approach
has been found to provide more conservative predictions (in some cases up to 60%) for the free-spanning seismic response in comparison to
those obtained from the acoustic method. For the earthquake excitations, the predictions obtained from each of the two methods have
been more consistent as compared to the results obtained for harmonic excitations
BEHNEJAD S, ALIREZA , Parke G, NOOSHIN H Sphere Packing for Regularisation of Lattice Domes,
Abedi K, Parke GAR (2001) Experimental study of dynamic propagation of local snap-through in single-layer braced domes, International Journal of Space Structures 16 (2) pp. 125-136
Nodal snap-through has dynamic characteristics which if neglected may lead to an unrealistic estimation of behaviour. When a local nodal snap-through occurs in single-layer braced domes, kinetic energy is released in a local region of the dome. If the dome is capable of absorbing the kinetic energy released, the instability will not propagate and will remain contained. However, if the dome is unable to absorb the sudden release of kinetic energy, progressive collapse of the structure will occur. The authors have already proposed a procedure for modelling the propagation phenomenon. In the present study, two single-layer braced domes were fabricated and tested to collapse in order to evaluate the accuracy and validity of the proposed procedure. The main objectives of the experimental studies were to obtain reliable experimental data for these types of structures and to use this data to assess the validity of the assumptions made in the theoretical procedure. The experimental results show the reliability of the proposed procedure.
Abedi K, Parke GAR (1996) Progressive collapse of single-layer braced domes, International Journal of Space Structures 11 (3) pp. 291-306
Progressive collapse may be defined as the "widespread propagation of instability following damage to a portion of a structure". In this paper, the dynamic propagation of local snap-through in single-layer braced domes is discussed. Dynamic snap-through and simultaneous multi-snap-through are described. Loading conditions for the occurrence of local snap-through have also been presented and a procedure for modelling this phenomenon using finite element analysis is developed. The central point in the proposed procedure is that the effect of dynamic snap-through is represented by providing appropriate initial velocities at the nodes in which snap-through as occurred. Using this procedure, the likelihood of progressive collapse is evaluated. In addition, some numerical investigations have also been presented.
Quantrill RJ, Hollaway LC, Thorne AM, Parke GAR (1995) Preliminary Research on the Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams using GFRP, In: Taerwe L (eds.), Non-metallic (FRP) reinforcement for concrete structures pp. 541-550 Taylor & Francis
Dealing with a wide range of non-metallic materials, this book opens up possibilities of lighter, more durable structures.
Zeinoddini M, Parke GAR, Harding JE (2008) Interface forces in laterally impacted steel tubes, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 65 pp. 265-280
Jin NH, Chryssanthopoulos MK, Parke GAR (2005) Bridge management using principles of whole life costing and life cycle assessment subject to uncertainty, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Bridge Management pp. 426-432
A new methodology for bridge management is proposed which encompasses whole life costing and life cycle assessment objectives under conditions of uncertainty. Stochastic multi-criteria decision analysis is used in order to calculate the most preferable maintenance scenario in terms of a linear combination of whole life cost and environmental score defined through the decision-maker's preference. The proposed methodology, which could be of use at project or network level, is demonstrated through a simple example of a reinforced concrete bridge element.
Parke G, Hewson N (2008) ICE manual of bridge engineering, pp. 1-748 Thomas Telford
Duncan I, Green M, Hindhaugh E, Liddell I, Parke G, Tyrrell J, Lovell M (2008) Other Structural Applications of Steel, pp. 169-221
Parke GAR, Walker HB (1984) LIMIT STATE DESIGN OF DOUBLE-LAYER GRIDS., Space Structures, Third International Conference pp. 528-532
Sheidaii MR, Parke GAR, Abedi K, Behravesh A (2001) Dynamic snap-through buckling of truss-type structures, International Journal of Space Structures 16 (2) pp. 85-93
Space trusses under certain conditions may be prone to snap-through buckling. The sudden reduction of the load carrying capacity of a single critical compression member, or a group of compression members, may lead to the snap-through buckling of the compression chord of the structure. This temporary loss of equilibrium due to snap-through normally results in a dynamic force being applied to each node associated with the snap-through. In this paper a methodology based on energy methods is presented to determine the dynamic snap-through response of truss structures. Member failure is taken into consideration by carefully following the buckling load-displacement response of the member. It is assumed that the structure is subjected only to static gravitational loading. A one degree of freedom, simple three bar truss, is used to describe the approach. Finally, this method has been used to perform the snap-through buckling analysis of two double layer grid structure providing a load-displacement behaviour from each structure variation to that obtained from a conventional static analysis.
Overend M, Parke GAR, Buhagiar D (2007) Predicting failure in glass - A general crack growth model, JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE 133 (8) pp. 1146-1155 ASCE-AMER SOC CIVIL ENGINEERS
Zeinoddini M, Harding JE, Parke GAR (2008) Axially pre-loaded steel tubes subjected to lateral impacts (a numerical simulation), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMPACT ENGINEERING 35 (11) pp. 1267-1279 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Olamigoke OA, Parke GAR, Imam M (2015) Structural performance of cable-stayed footbridges to the loss of cable(s), Multi-Span Large Bridges - Proceedings of the International Conference on Multi-Span Large Bridges, 2015 pp. 967-973
© 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, London.Cable-stayed footbridges have now become a popular option for footbridges. The cables are exposed and sometimes accessible therefore the likelihood of an accidental or intentional event leading to the loss of a stay is very high. The loss of a cable on a cable-stayed bridge is either evaluated using a dynamic amplification factor of 1.5?2.0 or by undertaking a detailed dynamic analysis. However, the loading on a footbridge and modal response of a footbridge is different from that of a traffic bridge. This paper presents the results of a three dimensional nonlinear dynamic analysis of a cable-stayed footbridge to the loss of cable(s) to fire and blast, with varying loads and numbers of cables lost. The research shows the application of full live load when a cable is lost gives DAF values similar to when two cables are lost when accidental load is applied. The DAF values obtained for the remaining cables, deck and pylon are higher than 2.0 except for the displacement of the pylon.
Studies have shown that the connection details used for cable anchorage blocks on cable-stayed bridges have the potential for fatigue damage due to fluctuating stresses generated by the cyclic traffic loads passing over the bridge. To investigate the fatigue damage and determine the remaining fatigue life of a cable anchorage block used on a cable-stayed bridge, finite element (FE) analyses were undertaken by using the Fatigue Load Model 4 (FLM 4) proposed by the Eurocodes to identify the most fatigue-critical locations within the details.
One of the main objectives of this research was to identify the critical area prone to fatigue in the anchorage block due to the response in traffic loads. Therefore, two types of numerical models of a typical cable anchorage block were analysed as a three dimensional sub-model which was driven by global cable forces obtained from the global analysis of a three-span cable-stayed bridge. These models are of the cable anchorage block without the longitudinal girder modelled and the cable anchorage block with the longitudinal girder modelled. The cable anchorage blocks without the longitudinal girder model were classified into three categories of model types namely; model types 0, A and B. Similarly, the cable anchorage blocks with the longitudinal girder model were classified as model types A-G, B-G and C-G. These model classifications are based on several boundary conditions simulated in the analyses. In addition to this, the fatigue behaviour of the cable anchorage block was analysed by using three different approaches namely; by using the nodal stresses at the location of the stress concentration (node stress concentration), by using a stress averaged over an area in the vicinity of the stress concentration (average elements) and by using the hot-spot method, in order to identify the stress ranges that adversely affect the remaining fatigue life of cable anchorages. Each approach was analysed with three different mesh sizes; 5mm by 5mm, 10mm by 10mm and 20mm by 20mm in order to carry out a mesh sensitivity analysis of the resulting stresses and associated stress ranges. The 10mm by 10mm mesh size was found to be most appropriate for this fatigue appraisal. This finding is supported because the 10mm by 10mm mesh size is specified in several code of practices such as the International Institute of Welding (IIW) and BS 7608 as guidance for use when determining hot-spot stress when using the hot-spot method for
Xu Y, Han Q, Parke G, Liu Y (2017) Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of the Progressive Collapse Resistance of Single-Layer Latticed Domes, Journal of Structural Engineering 143 (9) 04017121 pp. 04017121-1 American Society of Civil Engineers
Progressive collapse accidents of single-layer latticed domes seriously threaten public safety and social security. Structural integrity and progressive collapse?resisting capacity are gradually becoming essential requirements in structural design. The Kiewitt Lamella and geodesic single-layer latticed domes are typical of domes used in large-scale public facilities. In this paper, an experimental study and a numerical simulation were carried out to understand the mechanism of internal force redistribution in the progressive collapse of domes. Three effective methods to evaluate progressive collapse resistance and critical displacement were determined and verified. The results indicate that both the Kiewitt Lamella dome and the geodesic dome exhibit undergo snap-through collapse. The collapse of the Kiewitt Lamella dome was induced by unexpected local instability around the initial failure members, whereas that of the geodesic dome was the result of a rapid change in nodal displacement and a sharp decline in structural stiffness.
This research addresses the use of thin steel C sections with large circular, hexagonal and diamond web openings in applications where service integration in beams is required or where thermal bridging of members crossing the building envelope has to be minimised. The effect of these openings in terms of combined bending and shear effects on stainless steel and thin steel C sections is evaluated. The behaviour of thin steel C sections with large web openings in shear is a new subject and the knowledge gap is mainly concerned with the local buckling around and between openings which affect the ability of the perforated section to resist shear. Simply supported beams were considered in this research. The main part of the research was divided into various parts as follows:
Simple theories were developed for the design of thin steel with circular web openings (Tangential Stress Method) and with hexagonal web openings. The Tangential Stress Method is a method in which the tangential stresses around the web openings are determined as a function of the applied shear force.

A total of 16 tests on pairs of C sections with web openings was carried out. Three groups of beams were tested as follows:
1- Stainless steel C sections of 210 mm depth and 70 mm width with 150 mm diameter openings at 50, 100 and 250 mm edge distances were tested. Two groups of stainless steel were tested; Austenitic and Lean Duplex (LDX) grades of 2 and 3 mm thickness. For beams with isolated and widely spaced web openings, Vierendeel bending associated with local buckling was the mode of failure. Beams with closely spaced web openings failed by web-post buckling.
2- Galvanized steel sections of 250 mm depth and 63mm flange width with 150 and 180 mm diameter web openings at 60 and 90 mm edge distances were tested in 1.5 and 1.8 mm steel thicknesses. The failure of the C sections with isolated web openings was due to Vierendeel bending associated with local buckling. For closely spaced web openings, the failure was due to web-post buckling and twisting of the top flange.
3- Galvanized C sections with diamond and hexagonal web openings were tested to investigate the shape of the web openings effect on the behaviour of the beams subject to shear. The diamond-shaped openings were 180 mm deep and hexagonal openings were 167 mm deep. The failure of beams with isolated diamond-shaped web openings was due to buckling of the un-supported web next to the openings. For the C sections with pairs of open

Cable-stayed bridges are highly redundant structures that are vulnerable to intentional and accidental extreme events that may lead to cable loss. The potential loss of a major element, which imposes dynamic effects to the structure, can subsequently lead to the collapse of the whole structure. Codes recommend the use of dynamic amplification factors to simulate the response of cable-supported structures to the loss of a cable. Recent research has identified that this method is conservative and there is little or no guidance for carrying out detailed dynamic analysis for cable loss. The loss of one or more cables due to blast and fire using dynamic analysis method is investigated and compared to the code recommended method to account for effect of time and the event leading to cable loss hereby recommending a simplified method of dynamic analysis for cable loss. Three cable-stayed bridge models namely Model A (road traffic bridge with three semi-fan cable arrangements), Model B (road and foot traffic bridge with one single harp cable arrangement) and Model C (footbridge with two symmetrical semi-fan cable arrangement) were modelled and non-linear dynamic analysis carried out for the loss of the backstay and the longest cable using Abaqus 6.13. The effect of the cable loss due to blast and fire on the remaining cables, cable-deck connection, cross beam, longitudinal girder, deck and pylon were examined and compared to the code recommended method. The relationship between cable loss time and the natural period of the bridge was also investigated in this research. A progressive collapse check was then carried out and Dynamic Amplification Factors (DAF) were obtained for the cable loss scenarios considered for the vehicular and pedestrian cable-stayed bridges.
It is therefore of importance to study whether these structures can withstand these accidental/intentional loads, fulfil their economic benefit to society and establish a guideline for carrying out the dynamic analysis not only for road traffic cable-stayed bridges but also cable-stayed footbridges.
Zhang M, Parke G, Chang Z (2018) The dynamic response and seismic damage of domes subjected to near-fault ground motions, Earthquakes and Structures, An International Journal Techno-Press
The dynamic response and seismic damage of single-layer reticulated shells in the near field of a rupturing fault can be different from those in the far field due to the different characteristics in the ground motions. To investigate the effect, the dynamic response and seismic damage of this spatial structures subjected to two different ground motions were numerically studied by nonlinear dynamic response analysis. Firstly, twelve seismic waves with an apparent velocity pulse, including horizontal and vertical seismic waves, were selected to represent the near-fault ground motion characteristics. In contrast, twelve seismic records recorded at the same site from other or same events where the epicenter was far away from the site were employed as the far-fault ground motions. Secondly, the parametric modeling process of Kiewitt single-layer reticulated domes using the finite-element package ANSYS was described carefully. Thirdly, a nonlinear time-history response analysis was carried out for typical domes subjected to different earthquakes, followed by analyzing the dynamic response and seismic damage of this spatial structures under two different ground motions based on the maximum nodal displacements and Park-Ang index as well as dissipated energy. The results showed that this spatial structures in the near field of a rupturing fault exhibit a larger dynamic response and seismic damage than those obtained from far-fault ground motions. In addition, the results also showed that the frequency overlap between structures and ground motions has a significant influence on the dynamic response of the single-layer reticulated shells, the duration of the ground motions has little effects.
Fu F, Parke G A R (2018) Assessment of the Progressive Collapse Resistance of Double-layer Grid Space Structures using implicit and explicit solvers, International Journal of Steel Structures 18 (3) pp. 831-842 Springer Verlag
A double-layer grid space structure is a conventional long span structure used where large column-free areas are required. Due to its large indeterminacy and the redundancy of its structural configuration, it is normally considered in design practice, that progressive collapse will not be triggered when the loss of an individual member occurs. However, research and several prior accidents have shown that progressive collapse could occur following the loss of some critical members when the structures are subject to abnormal loading such as heavy snow. To investigate the structural behavior of this type of structure, a 3D finite element model of a double-layer space structure grid was built by the authors, several collapse scenarios have been investigated using an implicit method which follows the Alternative Path Method defined in GSA. In addition, case studies have been made using the explicit method which is to simulate the whole process of the structural collapse. In the analysis, different members failure or support collapses were studied. The response of the structure was investigated and the correspondent potential of progressive collapse was discussed in detail. Methods to mitigate the progressive collapse of this type of space structure have also been recommended.
Behnejad S, Parke G, Nooshin H (2013) Sphere Packing for Regularisation of Lattice Domes, Beyond the Limits of Man. Proceedings of the IASS 2013 Symposium, 23-27 September 2013, Wroclaw, Poland.
Behnejad S, Parke G Half a Century with the Space Structures Research Centre of the University of Surrey, Proceedings of the IASS 2014 Symposium
The Space Structures Research Centre was founded by Professor Zygmunt Stanislaw Makowski in 1963. The Centre is a part of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. Many different activities have been organised by the Centre since its establishment in areas such as research, publication, teaching, organisation of conferences, as well as, consulting work. This paper outlines the activities of the Centre in the past 50 years and gives an overview of the role of the Centre in the development of spatial structures in the world.
Parke G, Behnejad S (2013) Z S Makowski: A Pioneer, Beyond the Limits of Man. Proceedings of the IASS 2013 Symposium, 23-27 September 2013, Wroclaw, Poland.
Behnejad S, Parke G (2014) Half a Century with the Space Structures Research Centre of the University of Surrey, International Journal of Space Structures 29 (4) pp. 205-214 MULTI-SCIENCE PUBLISHING CO. LTD.
The Space Structures Research Centre was founded by Professor Zygmunt Stanislaw Makowski in 1963. The Centre is a part of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. Many different activities have been organised by the Centre since its establishment in areas such as research, publication, teaching, organisation of conferences, as well as, consulting work. This paper outlines the activities of the Centre in the past 50 years and gives an overview of the role of the Centre in the development of spatial structures in the world.
Kamarudin Mohd Khairul, Yusoff Mustafasanie M., Disney Peter, Parke Gerard (2018) Experimental and numerical investigation of the buckling performance of tubular glass columns under compression, Structures 15 pp. 355-369 Elsevier
This study investigates the buckling performance of tubular glass columns under axial compression. A total of two cases are considered (i) single glass tubular column and (ii) bundled column constructed using structural silicone sealants. A series of compression test were carried out on different geometrical dimensions of these two cases to determine their failure mechanism, load carrying capacity and to evaluate the buckling performance. Prior to the load carrying capacity (LCC) that was measured at the ultimate, a distinctive remaining structural capacity (RSC) was characterized especially for bundled glass based on the first crack. The shear connection in the bundled system was justified in comparison to the monolithic glass. This study showed that the failure mechanisms depended strongly on the slenderness ratio of the columns and that the failure occurred either by crushing or by buckling depending on the lengths of the column. The scatter in the failure load for specimens that had a higher slenderness ratio was much lower than for those that had a lower slenderness ratio. In order to justify the variability of the glass strength, a Weibull statistical distribution was used. Finite element modelling (FE) based on the simplified Riks method was performed using ABAQUS v6.10 to compliment the test results and to provide methods of analysis which could be used as a guideline for structural engineers to predict structural behaviour of tubular glass columns in general. An overestimation was predicted in the FE models which suggested modification of the imperfection factor.
Dealing with geometrical information has been an important aspect of the knowledge required for construction of a structure. In particular, data generation techniques appropriate for complex geometries are crucial for the design and construction of spatial structures. This may be referred to as ?Configuration Processing? and has been the centre of attention for some researchers in the past few decades. A main focus of this thesis is the ?regularity? in structural forms and the present research shows that the ?metric properties? of structural forms, suggested by the Author, are fundamental for the study of regularity. Metric properties refer to the geometrical information necessary for design, and in particular, construction of lattice spatial structures. To elaborate, the research addresses the following questions:
" What are the metric properties for a lattice structure and how can these be evaluated?
" What is the definition of regularity for lattice structures and how can this be quantified?
" How could the regularity of a lattice structure be improved?
The Author is an architect and structural engineer who has been involved in the design and construction of lattice spatial structures for 20 years. The experience of the actual construction over the years has shown that there are advantages in keeping the number of different types of structural components small. In another front, the study of regularity of forms for lattice structures may involve the ?visual aspects?, ?arrangements of elements? or ?structural components?. The first two aspects are subjective matters and the latter one, that is the focus of the present work, is an objective matter. The present research shows that the metric properties of structural forms are fundamental for the study of component regularity. There are considerable benefits in terms of the construction of structures which have a high degree of regular components. The benefits include savings in time and cost of construction, as well as a reduction in probability of having a wrong arrangement during assembly. In this sense, the present work could be considered as a research of fundamental importance which provides a basis for the knowledge in this field. Most of the examples in the Thesis are single layer lattice structures with straight elements and further research on other types of lattice structures is recommended.
This thesis consists of six chapters, the first of which entitled ?Introduction? provides background information about the research and discusses the research aims. Chapter 2 on the ?Literature Review? concerns the few available publications relevant to the research. The third chapter entitled ?Metric Properties? defines a number of geometrical parameters which are being used to generate the geometrical information. Also, the mathematics involved for the necessary calculations are discussed. This chapter is a major contribution of the thesis and to the available knowledge in terms of introduction a set of well defined geometrical parameters for design and construction of lattice spatial structures. Chapter 4 is dedicated to discussion of different aspects of ?Regularity? of lattice structures. To begin with, the idea of regularity is elaborated upon and then the concept of ?regularity indicators? are discussed. These indicators help to quantify regularity of components. Here again, this chapter presents a novel idea in the field of lattice spatial structures. Another major contribution of this thesis to the general knowledge is Chapter 5 entitled ?Sphere Packing?. This is a particular technique for configuration processing developed by the Author to improve the member length regularity of lattice structures. An example of the application of the technique for configuration processing of spherical domes is also discussed in details. Moreover, a comparison on the variation of the member lengths of different dome configurations is discussed which shows that around 50% of the members
Architects are not fond of columns because they obscure views and interrupt space. Previous work has focus on columns made of glass as it creates an interesting visual feature because of its uniqueness i.e. its transparent characteristics. However, the brittleness of glass may make it unsuitable, if used for a load bearing structural member. Nevertheless, if in a correct environment, structural glass shows good stability and build-ability.
The aim of this study was to investigate the structural performance of the basic tubular single glass column and a combination of more than one tubular single glass column, bundled using structural silicone sealants. This study provides a factual basis of structural behaviour of tubular glass columns for different arrangements (single and bundled) and geometrical dimensions by the use of annealed borosilicate glass. A series of compression test was carried out on several different geometrical dimensions of tubular single and bundled glass columns to determine their failure mechanism, load carrying capacity and buckling performance and also to evaluate the strain measurements on the glass surface. Finite element analysis (FEA) using the simplified Riks method was performed using ABAQUS v6.10 to verify the test results and to provide method of analysis which can be used as a guideline for structural engineers to predict structural behaviour of tubular glass columns in general. The structural performance to evaluate the column failure behaviour i.e. crushing or buckling was carried out by looking at the effect of different geometrical dimensions and shear connections in the bundled system. In addition, this study proposed a novel glass column arrangement by combining the single and bundled glass into one layered tubular glass column, namely multiple glass columns. This was studied to investigate the structural behaviour of layered glass columns and its effectiveness compared to monolithic glass of similar geometrical dimensions.
Design methods for tubular single and bundled glass columns under compressive load were evaluated using second order differential equations and direct stress analysis. Column buckling curves were developed to simplify the design method by carrying out a parametric study on single glass columns of different thickness using finite element analysis.
Key words: Structural Behaviour, Tubular Glass Columns, Compressive Forces, Single Glass Columns, Bundled Glass Columns, Monolithic Glass, Layered Glass, Failure Mechanisms, Load Carrying Capacity, Buckling Strength, Design Method of Tubular Glass Columns, Column Buckling Curves.
This study deals with the progressive collapse of full scale square-on-square double-layer space truss (DLST) systems. The failure of certain space structures in recent years, ranging from a lattice dome in Romania, Burcharest 1963 to the DLST in Hartford USA, 1978 and the recent collapse of the Sultan Zainal Abidin Stadium, a double-layer space frame constructed in Malaysia, 2009, gives an insight into how sensitive some space structures are to progressive collapse. These tragic incidents have provided very valuable lessons for designers of the importance of understanding progressive collapse in these structural configurations. By understanding what caused such failures engineers may avoid any reoccurrence and in addition help to develop safer structures. Hence, a study of this particular problem has been conducted and the results obtained are presented in the thesis.
Evaluation on the consequences of progressive collapse leads to the determination of structural Vulnerability Index due to sudden loss of an individual member (Case 1) or losses of members progressively (Case 2). In order to trace the collapse behavior a nonlinear analysis subject to increasing applied load was used. However, it is difficult for engineers to perform this nonlinear analysis due to its complexity. Hence, a simple linear analysis as an alternative method was used whereby assessment of Vulnerability Index using linear analysis is carried out using two different approaches, i.e. Rate Factor and Probabilistic Approach. Since a DLST has large number of members which correspond to a large data set, hence, these two proposed approaches are suitable. A close statistical correlation between both approaches indicates that there is a high correlation between both approaches. To ensure reliability of the proposed approaches, their results are compared using nonlinear collapse analysis and the results are found to be in good agreement. The solution strategy used to analyse the full scale models was first tested using small scale models. The numerical results of the small scale models have been verified with pre-existing experimental results and good agreements between the results are obtained. Behavior of each DLST member and also the overall structural behavior can be obtained from the nonlinear analysis. There are three different boundary conditions of the DLSTs considered. Vulnerability of the DLSTs susceptible to progressive collapse are identified and then are compared for the identification of efficient structures. The Vulnerability Index of the DLST helps engineers to discover failures that may occur due to damage or loss of its members.
M.Yussof Mustafasanie (2015) Cable-net supported glass facade systems.,
Cable-net supported glass facade systems that comprise of pre-stressed cable-net, glass panes and glass support attachments; are commonly used in airport terminals, hotel lobbies, and trade centres. Glass used in building facade presents an aesthetic feature as well as contributes to the structural stiffness of the whole structural system of the building. In this research, the performance of cable-net supported glass facade systems was investigated via experiments and finite element analysis using the Abaqus v6.9 software. Two generic configurations of cable-net system were considered, namely flat and curved cable-net system, both with and without glass panes. For the curved cable-nets, two different curvatures were considered. Each system was subjected to three tests: static, impact and cable anchorage failure test. The results indicated that the glass panes made significant contributions to the stiffness of the whole structural system. The glass stiffness contribution for flat cable-net system was high at the early stage of loading (approximately 30%) but reduced when the load was increased. However, the glass stiffness contribution for curved cable-net increased gradually as the load was increased. For both configurations, the glass stiffness contribution remained steady at about 20% of the whole structural stiffness as the cables in the cable-net stiffened until the maximum load was applied to the system. Based on the static tests, the pre-stress force in the cables in the cable-net systems can possibly be reduced by approximately 50% of the initial pre-stress force; should the glass be considered in the analysis design of cable-net structure. Moreover, the curved cable-net could be designed to have lower pre-stress force in cables compared to that of flat cable-net to meet the deflection criterion of the cable-net structure. Consequently, in the impact test, the glass supported by cable-net structure was deflected at the same level as the cable-net when subjected to impact force. Although the deflection of cable-net is large, the deflection of individual glass was very shallow compared to the allowable deflection of glass pane. Despite the cable-net structure having the capability in reducing the impact force on the glass pane, it has no capability to prevent glass breakage when the impact hit the glass at its edge. Another effect of impact test was the corner node of the cable-net structure had almost the same deflection when the ball bearing hit the glass at the centre of glass facade; although it was found to be very stiff in the static test. The corner node was deflected excessively although the impact was farther from the node. The sudden failure of cable anchorage had no dramatic effects such as progressive collapse or glass breakage even though the cable forces in the curved cable-net oscillated about ±20% of the initial pre-stressed force. Finite element (FE) models were developed for flat cable-nets with and without glass panes using the Abaqus v6.9 software. The FE results were in good agreement with the experimental results with only 1% difference between the two sets of results.