Gerry Parke

Professor Gerry Parke

Emeritus Professor of Structural Engineering
BSc, MSc, PhD, CEng, FICE, FIStructE, EurIng
+44 (0)1483 689544
20 AA 03


Nur Ezzaryn Asnawi Subki, Hazrina Mansor, Yazmin Sahol Hamid, Gerard A. R. Parke (2022)Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of Double-Span Steel Beam Under an Instantaneous Loss of Support, In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materialspp. 593-610 Springer Nature Singapore

This paper aims to provide a unified approach of the finite element analysis (FEA) modelling technique in validating experimental work related to progressive collapse study using ABAQUS software version 6.14. The Finite Element Model (FEM) in simulating the experimental study on the dynamic response of a flush end-plate connection under the effect of sudden support (column) removal is shown herein. The double-span beam and the end plate were modelled using the first-order shell element with reduced integration (S4R). The plastic hinge meshing scheme was utilized on the double-span beam geometry with finer mesh modelled for part of the beam with higher bending behavior and vice versa. A simplified modelling approach for the modelling of the flush endplate connection was introduced. The endplate, which was welded to the cross-section of the beam, was idealized via tie-constraint interaction. A translator-type connector element was used to represent the bolt behavior and the Coulomb friction model was enforced for the surface interaction between the endplate and the column flange. The Holzier material model was used to define the nonlinear properties of the hot-rolled steel sections. The nonlinear Dynamic, Explicit analysis procedure was adapted in simulating the loading scheme given in the experiment and the Rayleigh model was enforced in the analysis to introduce the effect of damping. The analysis output was successfully verified against the experimental results from previous research. It was concluded that the simplified FEA modelling method proposed in this work can simulate actual dynamic response of the flush-end connection. The proposed alternative finite element model able to predict the maximum dynamic displacement of the double-span beam with 0.83% error.

Gerald A.R. Parke, Ng Kah Hoe, Roslina Omar, Nor Ashikin Muhammad Khairussaleh (2022)The Effect of Area Loading and Punching Shear on the Reinforced Concrete Slab Containing Spherical Plastic Bubble Balls, In: Key engineering materials912pp. 211-223 Trans Tech Publications Ltd

The reinforced bubble deck slab or BubbleDeck is a unique system that improves the building design and performance of structures. This slab structure is a reinforced concrete structure that contains high-density polyethene (HDPE) hollow spherical plastic bubble balls with less concrete volume compared to a normal reinforced concrete slab. The system can facilitate up to a 50% longer span compared to a conventional reinforced concrete solid slab. But, eliminating the deadweight concrete may affect the actual performance of the slab structure such as its flexural and shear capacity. Thus, this paper investigates the effect of area loading and punching shear loading on the reinforced bubble deck slab in terms of flexural performance. The square slabs with 1200mm by 1200mm for width and length with a thickness of 230mm were designed as a one-way supported slab. A total of 36 HDPE hollow spherical plastic bubble balls with a 180mm diameter were placed in each bubble deck slab specimen. The high yield steel DA6 BRC reinforcement steel bar meshes and Grade-30 concrete were used for the slabs. The experimental results of the flexural performance of the reinforced bubble deck slab that were subjected to the static area and punching shear loadings are presented. The effect of the load applied in the experiments on the slabs such as flexural strength, bending stiffness and load-deflection behaviour were discussed including the crack propagation and crack pattern.

Gerald A.R. Parke, Nor Ashikin Muhammad Khairussaleh, Ng Kah Hoe (2022)Effect of Area Loading on Flexural Performance of Bubble Deck Slab, In: Key engineering materials91241pp. 41-54 Trans Tech Publications Ltd

Reinforced bubble deck slab is a structural slab that contains high-density polyethene (HDPE) hollow spherical plastic bubble balls forming a slab with less concrete volume compared to the normal reinforced concrete slab. Reducing certain volumes of concrete from 30 to 50% will affect the performance of the slab structure in particular the flexural and shear capacity. Thus, in this research the effect of area loading on the flexural performance of bubble deck slabs is investigated by considering the slabs to be one-way supported slabs. The square deck slabs used were 1200mm by 1200mm for the width and length with a thickness of 230mm. A total of 36 HDPE hollow spherical plastic bubble balls with a 180mm diameter were placed in the bubble deck slab specimens which reduce significantly the structural self-weight. In this paper, the experimental results of the flexural performance of the reinforced bubble deck slab, (BD slab) compared with a conventional reinforced concrete slab, simply supported, subjected to static area loadings, are presented. The effect of the load applied in the experiments on the flexural strength, bending stiffness and load-deflection behaviour of both types of slabs have been discussed including the crack propagation and crack pattern. In general, the conventionally reinforced solid slab, simply supported (SS) has a 60.6% higher resistance against bending deformation than the reinforced bubble deck slab.

Zhang Ming, Kang Rui, Zhou Guangchun, Zhi Xudong, Gerard Parke, Gerard Andrew Roger Parke (2020)A new method to fabricate a single-layer reticulated shell model and its shaking table test, In: Journal of Building Engineering32101755 Elsevier Ltd

In this paper a novel method is proposed to fabricate small single-layer shell models with a high similarity between the models and prototype structures, particularly in their topological configuration. The reasons are because the new shell model contains more hoops, a higher number of nodes and members as well as longer effective member lengths compared to the models fabricated by the existing method. In addition, the cost including material and labour costs are very low when conducting shaking table tests based on the new shell model, these being less than 1/20 of the costs associated with testing a shell model fabricated by the existing method. Therefore, these new models can then be used to conduct a series of shaking table experiments with limited funds to investigate systematically their dynamic behavior and failure mechanisms. Based on the new method, a small single-layer shell model was fabricated and a shaking table test was conducted to study its dynamic behavior as well as its collapse mechanism. In the experiment the dynamic performance of the shell model and its dynamic instability were observed, and a conclusion can be drawn from the shaking table test which is that the single-layer reticulated dome exhibited exceptional seismic load carrying capacity. •We develop a new method, which can be used to make a number of small scale and high-similarity single-layer shell models.•A shaking table test is conducted to study the dynamic behavior of the shell model and as well as its collapse mechanism.•The shell was basically in elastic state, the bending deformations for most tubes were more severe during instability.•The shell has an excellent load carrying capacity by investigating the relationships between dynamic strains and PGA.

Nur Ezzaryn Asnawi Subki, Hazrina Mansor, Yazmin Sahol Hamid, Gerard A. R. Parke (2021)The development of a moment-rotation model for progressive collapse analysis under the influence of tensile catenary action, In: Journal of constructional steel research187106960 Elsevier

This paper presents a new empirical-based model for nonlinear modelling of a steel beam using the concentrated hinge approach for the progressive collapse assessment. The new empirical-based model defines the momentrotation response of a steel beam considering the development of tensile catenary action. In the ASCE41-17, the nonlinear behaviour defining the backbone curve was derived purely based on the flexural behaviour of the structural member under cyclic loading without integrating the effect of high tensile catenary action build-up. Therefore, the backbone curve can further be improved. A comprehensive parametric study was first carried out to investigate the effect of the tensile catenary action on the flexural resistance of the beam under various structural parameters using ABAQUS software. Four variables were examined, which includes the span length, section size, material strength and ductility. A new empirical moment-rotation model was then derived based on the data obtained from the parametric study. A detailed comparison was made between the generated output results of the moment-rotation response predicted by the ASCE41-17 backbone curve and the new empirical moment-rotation model proposed in this paper. The moment-rotation response results generated by the ASCE41-17 model illustrates that the model tends to overestimate the ultimate chord rotation (theta u) of the beam member as the beam slenderness ratio (L/D) approaches 20. Meanwhile, the new empirical model consistently predicts the flexural behaviour of the beam up to ultimate moment resistance.

Mohammed Abbas Mousa, Mustafasanie M. Yussof, Ufuoma Joseph Udi, Fadzli Mohamed Nazri, Mohd Khairul Kamarudin, Gerard A. R. Parke, Lateef N. Assi, Seyed Ali Ghahari (2021)Application of Digital Image Correlation in Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Infrastructures: A Review, In: Infrastructures (Basel)6(12)176 Mdpi

A vision-based approach has been employed in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridge infrastructure. The approach has many advantages: non-contact, non-destructive, long-distance, high precision, immunity from electromagnetic interference, and multiple-target monitoring. This review aims to summarise the vision- and Digital Image Correlation (DIC)-based SHM methods for bridge infrastructure because of their strategic significance and security concerns. Four different bridge types were studied: concrete, suspension, masonry, and steel bridge. DIC applications in SHM have recently garnered attention in aiding to assess the bridges' structural response mechanisms under loading. Different non-destructive diagnostics methods for SHM in civil infrastructure have been used; however, vision-based techniques like DIC were only developed over the last two decades, intending to facilitate damage detection in bridge systems with prompt and accurate data for efficient and sustainable operation of the bridge structure throughout its service life. Research works reviewed in this article demonstrated the DIC capability to detect damage such as cracks, spalling, and structural parameters such as deformation, strains, vibration, deflection, and rotation. In addition, the reviewed works indicated that the DIC as an efficient and reliable technique could provide sustainable monitoring solutions for different bridge infrastructures.

Mustafasanie M. Yussof, Jordan Halomoan Silalahi, Mohd Khairul Kamarudin, Pei-Shan Chen, Gerard A. R. Parke (2020)Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Responses of Steel Frame Structures with Different Types of Haunch Connection Under Blast Load, In: Applied sciences10(5)1815 Mdpi

This research is aimed at investigating the dynamic behaviour of, and to analyse the dynamic response and dynamic performance of steel frames strengthened with welded haunches subjected to a typical hydrocarbon blast loading. The structural dynamic analysis was carried out incorporating the selected blast load, the validated 3D model of the structures with different welded haunch configurations, steel dynamic material properties, and non-linear dynamic analysis of multiple degree of freedom (MDOF) structural systems. The dynamic responses and effectiveness of the reinforced connections were examined using ABAQUS finite element software. Results showed that the presence of the welded haunch reinforcement decreased the maximum frame ductility ratio. Based on the evaluation of the results, the haunch reinforcements strengthened the selected steel frame and improved the dynamic performance compared to the frame with unreinforced connections under blast loading, and the biggest haunch configuration is the "best" type.

Ming Zhang, Xin Xie, Xian Gao, Yi Pan, Gerry Parke, Gerard Andrew Roger Parke (2021)Study on failure criterion of thin-walled steel frame structures based on the ESED parameter, In: Thin-walled structures161107357 Elsevier Ltd

The aim of this paper is to propose a new failure criterion for thin-walled steel frame structures based on the sum of the structural exponential strain energy density (ESED) parameters, by analyzing the whole behavior of thin-walled steel frame structures under static and seismic loads. Firstly, the strain energy variation of the thin-walled steel member and structures before and after buckling failure is studied theoretically by introducing the thin-walled theory, after this the ESED failure criterion is proposed to estimate the seismic failure loads of thin-walled steel frame structures. Secondly, a one-story thin-walled steel framework, a five-story thin-walled steel framework and a single-layer spherical reticulated shell separately subjected to different waves were selected on which to carry out the nonlinear time-history response analysis to obtain the ESED model to verify the new failure criterion. Finally, some discussions, comparison between the numerical solution and the analytical solution, the distinction of the ESED between pre- and post-structural failure and failure modes corresponding to the failure load, on the new failure criterion are conducted to a certain extent to prove its rationality. The research on the new failure criterion will provide a new approach to carrying out the structure failure mechanism analysis and contribute to the structural design with more overall confidence. •We proposed a new failure criterion for thin-walled steel frame structures based on the sum of the structural exponential strain energy density (ESED) parameters, by analyzing the whole behavior of thin-walled steel frame structures under static and seismic loads.•When buckling occurs in the bending model, the membrane strain energy will be converted into strain energy of bending. In a thin-walled structure, membrane stiffness is typically orders of magnitude greater than bending stiffness. Accordingly, the strain energy of a thin-walled structure can increase sharply when buckling occurs with small membrane deformations.

Nur Ezzaryn Asnawi Subki, Hazrina Mansor, Yazmin Sahol Hamid, Gerard A. R. Parke (2023)Axial-Shear-Flexural Interaction Behavior of a Double-Span Steel Beam Under a Column-Loss State Using the Pushdown Method, In: International journal of steel structures23(3)pp. 675-691 Korean Soc Steel Construction-Kssc

The axial-shear-flexural interaction behavior of a double-span steel beam in a column-loss state is a complex phenomenon that demands more explanation. Nowadays, it is common practice to study the column loss scenario of a double-span steel beam using the pushdown method. Generally, two pushdown methods are commonly used: the Monotonic Pushdown Force (MPF) and the Distributed Pushdown Force (DPF) methods. Many current researchers adopted the MPF approach due to its practical and straightforward instrumentation for experimental testing compared to the DPF approach. However, the DPF approach would better approximate the actual collapse behavior of the structure in a column-loss event since it resembles the proper form of gravity loads. This paper aimed to demonstrate how these two approaches result in significantly different behavior in double-span steel beam collapse, particularly on the axial-shear-flexural interaction behavior. A finite element analysis using ABAQUS software was undertaken on a validated double-span steel beam model. In the MPF approach, the results have highlighted the importance of the tensile catenary action in the overall structural resistance of the double-span beam against collapse. The tensile catenary action dominated the load-resisting mechanism of the double-span beam at a large deformation state and interrupted the flexural resistance development. The stretching effect induced by the tensile catenary action has avoided the inelastic local buckling and allowed for greater rotation capacity on the beam assembly. However, under the DPF approach, the double-span beam has limited tensile catenary action build-up with high shear force development after the plastic hinge formation. The significant effects of the high shear force development on the double-span beam behavior were highlighted in this study.

SEYED ALIREZA BEHNEJAD, OMIDALI SAMAVATI, GERARD ANDREW ROGER PARKE (2021)International Conference on Spatial Structures 2020/21

The International Conference on Spatial Structures is an event that has taken place every nine years since 1966 and has been organised by the Spatial Structures Research Centre of the University of Surrey. The seventh conference of the series will be held in the summer of 2021 in Guildford, as a joint event with the Annual Symposium of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS). Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, and after very careful consideration, the conference will be an entirely virtual event. The IASS symposia have been successfully held for over 50 years in various countries such as Brazil, China, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, South Korea, Spain and the USA.

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