Glenn Parry

Professor Glenn Parry


Professor of Digital Transformation; Head, Department of Digital Economy Entrepreneurship and Innovation; CoDirector DECaDE: EPSRC Centre for the Decentralised Digital Economy
PhD (Cantab), MSc, BSc, Dipl. Psychotherapy, PGCertEd
+44 (0)1483 684307
59 MS 03
Student Feedback & Consultation: Please email me to arrange a meeting
Department Administrator: Emma Clear

About

University roles and responsibilities

  • CoDirector DECaDE: Centre for the Decentralised Digital Economy
  • Surrey Business School Impact Champion

    Publications

    Ellen Hughes, Don J. Webber, Glenn Parry (2024)Migration, Mobility and the Creative Class Edward Elgar

    Migration, Mobility and the Creative Class challenges contemporary conceptions of the mobility of the creative worker. Exploring the differences between a range of historical, political, and social contexts, this forward-thinking book contests the validity and logic of policymakers’ strategies to attract the creative class, and emphasises the need for a reassessment of the plans employed for local and regional development.Drawing on detailed biographical life-course information obtained through in-depth interviews with creative workers, this book refutes established ideas that creative workers are a unique, autonomous and highly mobile group. Documenting empirical findings, it highlights how the migration and occupation patterns of creative workers are intimately connected with their early family experiences and to their social class. Ultimately, this innovative book recommends that policy should redirect its focus away from migration and towards creating places with good schools, affordable housing, sustainable jobs and strong connections across communities.Pairing in-depth case studies with established theoretical grounding, this book will be a fascinating read for academics, researchers and students specialising in economic geography, regional economics, migration and human geography. Its unique insights and practical policy recommendations will also be of benefit to those working in town planning, regional policy development and the creative industries.

    OSCAR BUSTINZA SANCHEZ, Ferran Vendrell Herrero, Phil Davies, Glenn Charles Parry (2024)Testing Service Infusion in Manufacturing through Machine Learning Techniques: Looking Back and Forward, In: International journal of operations & production management Emerald

    Purpose – Responding to calls for deeper analysis of the conceptual foundations of service infusion in manufacturing, this paper examines the underlying assumptions that: (i) manufacturing firms incorporating services follow a pathway, moving from pure-product to pure-service offerings; and (ii) profits increase linearly with this process. We propose that these assumptions are inconsistent with the premises of behavioural and learning theories.Design/methodology/approach – Machine learning algorithms are applied to test whether a successive process, from a basic to more advanced offering, creates optimal performance. Data was gathered through two surveys administered to US manufacturing firms in 2021 and 2023. The first included a training sample comprising 225 firms, while the second encompassed a testing sample of 105 firms.Findings – Analysis shows that following the Base-Intermediate-Advanced services pathway is not the best predictor of optimal performance. Developing advanced services and then later adding less complex offerings supports better performance. Practical implications – Manufacturing firms follow heterogeneous pathways in their service development journey. Non-servitised firms need to carefully consider their contextual conditions when selecting their initial service offering. Starting with a single service offering appears to be a superior strategy over providing multiple services.Originality/value – The machine learning approach is novel to the field and captures the key conditions for manufacturers to successfully servitise. Insight is derived from adoption and implementation year dataset for 17 types of services described in previous qualitative studies. The methods proposed can be extended to assess other process-based models in related management fields (e.g., sand cone). 

    GLENN CHARLES PARRY, E. Hughes, P. Davies (2021)Digital Servitization and Modularity: Responding to Requirements in Use, In: The Palgrave Handbook of Servitizationpp. 457-469 Palgrave Macmillan

    When moving towards digitally enabled advanced services, firms are faced with the challenge of servicing heterogeneous customer requirements that emerge during product use. Whereas offers may have been designed with fixed functionality and a focus on stable outcomes, in the advanced service environment providers must respond to a variety of demands emergent from multiple contexts of use. Using a case example from healthcare, this chapter illustrates that adopting a modular systems approach to a firm's offer enhances its ability to meet customers' heterogeneous requirements in use. The chapter shows that through the application of modularity, in combination with digital and material technology, products can have the flexibility to absorb variety in use. Modularity and digitisation permit the binding of form and function to be postponed until requirements emerge in use, allowing the organisation to quickly tailor the offering to emergent demand.

    Alisha Tuladhar, Michael Rogerson, Juliette Engelhart, Glenn C. Parry, Birgit Altrichter (2024)Blockchain for compliance: An information processing case study of mandatory supply chain transparency in conflict minerals sourcing, In: Supply Chain Management Emerald

    Purpose – Firms are increasingly pressured to comply with mandatory supply chain transparency (SCT) regulations. Drawing on information processing theory (IPT), the authors show how blockchain technology can address information uncertainty and equivocality in assuring regulatory compliance in an interorganizational network (ION).Design/methodology/approach – IPT is applied in a single case study of an ION in the mining industry that aimed to implement blockchain to address mandatory SCT regulations. The authors build on a rich proprietary dataset consisting of interviews and substantial secondary material from actors along the supply chain.Findings – Our case shows that blockchain creates equality between actors, enables compliance, and enhances efficiency in an ION, reducing information uncertainty and equivocality arising from conflict minerals regulation. The system promotes engagement and data sharing between parties, whilst protecting commercial sensitive information. The lack of central authority prevents larger partners from taking control. The system provides mineral provenance and a regulation-compliant record. System cost analysis shows that the system is efficient as it is inexpensive relative to volumes and values of metals transacted. Issues were identified related to collecting richer human rights data for assurance and compliance with due diligence regulations.Originality/value – We provide some of the first evidence in the operations and supply chain management literature of the specific architecture, costs, and limitations of using blockchain for SCT. Using an information processing theory lens in an ION setting, we demonstrate how blockchain-based systems can address two key IPT challenges: environmental uncertainty and equivocality.Acknowledgements This paper is dedicated to Dr Alisha Tuladhar, who died in September 2022 as the research for this paper came to an end. Alisha’s desire to see her research have a positive impact on the world was a driving force behind the paper’s development and she contributed to its progress in the way that she contributed to everything she did: whole-heartedly and with intelligence and passion.  The authors would like to thank their respondents at Minespider for their participation and engagement in our research project.  The authors thank Andreas Wieland and Jens Roehrich for their helpful advice, who provided valuable and detailed feedback on drafts of the paper, and attendees of both the International Annual EurOMA Conference in Berlin in June 2022 and the Competitive Advantage in the Digital Economy (CADE) conference in Venice in July 2022, where several questions were asked which caused us to reflect on and improve the paper.  The authors would like to acknowledge the support from the EPSRC Centre for the Decentralised Digital Economy (DECADE) [EP/T022485/1], the European Regional Development Fund through the Interreg NWE project “Blockstart: Blockchain-based applications for SME competitiveness”, and the Bradshaw Research Institute for Minerals and Mining (BRIMM).

    Birgit Altrichter, Glenn Parry (2021)Exploring paradoxes of distributed ledger technologies

    This research aims to identify paradoxes in the context of distributed ledger technologies (DLTs). Paradoxes are phenomena that are contradictory, appearing rational in isolation, but illogical in combination [1]. Expert interviews and a Delphi study will be used to identify paradoxes that are emerging with DLTs. From this we aim to deduce managerial implications on how to resolve challenges associated with these paradoxes and develop a research agenda. The identified paradoxes will help organizations working with DLTs as research sheds light on emerging tensions (e.g., related to sustainability and inherent trust), and potentially how they may be resolved.

    Mandy Gardner, Don Webber, GLENN CHARLES PARRY, Peter Bradley (2021)COVID-19: How community businesses in England struggled to respond to their communities’ needs, In: Local economy SAGE Publications

    Economic policies tend to downplay social and community considerations in favour of market-led and business-focussed support. The Covid-19 pandemic underscored the need for greater and deeper social cohesion and local social support networks while highlighting that an overreliance on market forces can create social problems at times of need. Community businesses (CBs) are not for profit organisations that provide services and produce goods where the profit (or surplus) is reinvested back into that community. This article explores why CBs in England responded in a variety of ways to the Covid-19 pandemic, assesses what government policy did to help and hinder their place-based operations, and explores the observed socioeconomics of their age-related volunteer staff churn. Some CBs were ravaged by the consequences of the pandemic and associated government policies with many becoming unsustainable, while others evolved and augmented their support for and services to their communities, thereby enhancing their community’s resilience. We highlight how adjustments to government policies could enhance the sustainability of CBs, making them and the communities they serve more resilient.

    Pedro Lafargue, Michael Rogerson, Glenn C. Parry, Joel Allainguillaume (2022)Broken chocolate: biomarkers as a method for delivering cocoa supply chain visibility, In: Supply chain management27(6)pp. 728-741 Emerald Group Publishing

    Purpose This paper examines the potential of "biomarkers" to provide immutable identification for food products (chocolate), providing traceability and visibility in the supply chain from retail product back to farm. Design/methodology/approach This research uses qualitative data collection, including fieldwork at cocoa farms and chocolate manufacturers in Ecuador and the Netherlands and semi-structured interviews with industry professionals to identify challenges and create a supply chain map from cocoa plant to retailer, validated by area experts. A library of biomarkers is created using DNA collected from fieldwork and the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, holders of cocoa varieties from known locations around the world. Matching sample biomarkers with those in the library enables identification of origins of cocoa used in a product, even when it comes from multiple different sources and has been processed. Findings Supply chain mapping and interviews identify areas of the cocoa supply chain that lack the visibility required for management to guarantee sustainability and quality. A decoupling point, where smaller farms/traders' goods are combined to create larger economic units, obscures product origins and limits visibility. These factors underpin a potential boundary condition to institutional theory in the industry's fatalism to environmental and human abuses in the face of rising institutional pressures. Biomarkers reliably identify product origin, including specific farms and (fermentation) processing locations, providing visibility and facilitating control and trust when purchasing cocoa. Research limitations/implications The biomarker "meta-barcoding" of cocoa beans used in chocolate manufacturing accurately identifies the farm, production facility or cooperative, where a cocoa product came from. A controlled data set of biomarkers of registered locations is required for audit to link chocolate products to origin. Practical implications Where biomarkers can be produced from organic products, they offer a method for closing visibility gaps, enabling responsible sourcing. Labels (QR codes, barcodes, etc.) can be swapped and products tampered with, but biological markers reduce reliance on physical tags, diminishing the potential for fraud. Biomarkers identify product composition, pinpointing specific farm(s) of origin for cocoa in chocolate, allowing targeted audits of suppliers and identifying if cocoa of unknown origin is present. Labour and environmental abuses exist in many supply chains and enabling upstream visibility may help firms address these challenges. Social implications By describing a method for firms in cocoa supply chains to scientifically track their cocoa back to the farm level, the research shows that organizations can conduct social audits for child labour and environmental abuses at specific farms proven to be in their supply chains. This provides a method for delivering supply chain visibility (SCV) for firms serious about tackling such problems. Originality/value This paper provides one of the very first examples of biomarkers for agricultural SCV. An in-depth study of stakeholders from the cocoa and chocolate industry elucidates problematic areas in cocoa supply chains. Biomarkers provide a unique biological product identifier. Biomarkers can support efforts to address environmental and social sustainability issues such as child labour, modern slavery and deforestation by providing visibility into previously hidden areas of the supply chain.

    Peter Bradley, Glenn Parry, Nicholas O’Regan (2020)A framework to explore the functioning and sustainability of business models, In: Sustainable Production and Consumption21pp. 57-77 Elsevier

    This paper presents a framework to enable case study analysis of sustainable development from business models innovation. Increasing economic development can give rise to trade-offs between economic growth and environmental degradation. Business model innovation can help address such trade-offs by refocusing value creation and capture towards less environmentally damaging activities. Business models therefore provide a critical tool in the move towards sustainable development. In this paper a literature review of existing business model frameworks is conducted and gaps found in the definition and conceptualisation of value, alignment with sustainable development, and assessment of social and environmental impacts and goals. More generally, there is a lack of in depth case studies in the sustainable business model literature. A framework is developed to address these gaps and to allow in depth analysis and understanding of the functioning of business models for sustainable development. Development and piloting of the framework made use of literature and co-operative enquiry. The framework of the paper is applied in depth with a unique energy company case study. Application shows economies of scope to be critical to the delivery of sustainable development. The business model framework addresses equity and distributional issues that are key to sustainable development, but missed by current frameworks.

    Marco Del Vecchio, Alexander A. Kharlamov, Glenn Parry, Ganna Pogrebna (2019)Improving productivity in Hollywood with data science: Using emotional arcs of movies to drive product and service innovation in entertainment industries, In: Journal of the Operational Research Society Taylor & Francis

    Improving productivity in the entertainment industry is a very challenging task as it heavily depends on generating attractive content for the consumers. The consumer-centric design (putting the consumers at the centre of the content development and production) focuses on ways in which businesses can design customized services and products which accurately reflect consumer preferences. We propose a new framework which allows to use data science to optimize content-generation in entertainment and test this framework for the motion picture industry. We use the natural language processing methodology combined with econometric analysis to explore whether and to what extent emotions shape consumer preferences for media and entertainment content, which, in turn, affect revenue streams. By analyzing 6,174 movie scripts, we generate the emotional trajectory of each motion picture. We then combine the obtained mappings into clusters which represent groupings of consumer emotional journeys. These clusters are then plugged into an econometric model to predict overall success parameters of the movies including box office revenues, viewer satisfaction levels (captured by IMDb ratings), awards, as well as the number of viewers’ and critics’ reviews. We find that emotional arcs in movies can be partitioned into 6 basic shapes. The highest box offices are associated with the Man in a Hole shape which is characterized by an emotional fall followed by an emotional rise. This U-shaped emotional arc results in financially successful movies irrespective of genre and production budget. Implications of this analysis for generating on-demand content and improving productivity in entertainment industries are discussed.

    The target of this paper is to present a novel mathematical model to design a resilient and energy efficiency additive manufacturing supply chain. This model minimizes the total cost of designing SC by selecting the optimal location and type of 3D printers to meet customer demand through active facilities and penalizing lost demand if necessary. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, several experimental instances are solved and the results for a selected case is reported. The results obtained for the selected case demonstrate that the proposed model can effectively reduce energy costs, with only a slight increase in expected shipment costs while the fixed location costs and expected penalty costs remains unchanged.

    M. Jovanovic, O. Bustinza, P. Davies, G. Parry (2023)The interplay of product modularity, service types, and servitization depth on firm performance: a moderated mediation model, In: Production Planning & Control Taylor and Francis

    The servitization literature has explored the role that product modularity plays in supporting service design and delivery. Importantly, product modularity has the potential to aid manufacturers in providing customized solutions on a larger scale, thereby strengthening firm performance. However, despite the prospective benefits of product modularity, manufacturers also need considerable servitization depth, which comprises service orientation, resources, and delivery systems, to provide services in a cost-effective manner. Taking this into account, the study both theoretically articulates and empirically tests relationships among product modularity, servitization depth, service types, and firm performance, employing a moderated mediation model. Using survey data collected from 204 manufacturers in the UK and German, the findings indicate that product modularity exerts a positive influence on firm performance, with servitization depth acting as a mediating factor. The mediation effect of servitization depth on the correlation between product modularity and firm performance was found to fluctuate based on the service types offered by the manufacturer. This study adds to the existing literature on servitization and the role of product modularity and servitization depth in achieving superior firm performance.

    Michael Rogerson, Glenn Parry (2020)Blockchain: case studies in food supply chain visibility, In: Supply Chain Management25(5)pp. 601-614 Emerald

    Purpose:This paper investigates how blockchain has moved beyond cryptocurrencies and is being deployed to enhance visibility and trust in supply chains; its limitations, and potential impact. Approach: Qualitative analysis undertaken via case studies drawn from food companies using semi-structured interviews. Findings: Blockchain is demonstrated as an enabler of visibility in supply chains. Applications at scale are most likely for products where the end consumer is prepared to pay the premium currently required to fund the technology, e.g. baby food. Challenges remain in four areas: trust of the technology; human error and fraud at the boundaries; governance; consumer data access and willingness to pay. Research implications and limitations: The paper shows that blockchain can be utilised as part of a system generating visibility and trust in supply chains. Research directs academic attention to issues that remain to be addressed. The challenges pertaining to the technology itself we believe to be generalisable; those specific to the food industry may not hold elsewhere. Practical implications: From live case studies we provide empirical evidence that blockchain provides visibility of exchanges and reliable data in fully-digitised supply chains. This provides provenance and guards against counterfeit goods. However, firms will need to work to gain consumer buy-in for the technology following repeated past claims of trustworthiness. Originality: This paper provides primary evidence from blockchain use cases ‘in the wild’. The exploratory case studies examine application of blockchain for supply chain visibility.

    Don Webber, ELLEN HAWKSMOOR HUGHES, Gail Pacheco, GLENN CHARLES PARRY (2022)Investment in digital infrastructure: Why and for whom?, In: Region9(1)pp. 147-163 European Regional Science Association (ERSA)

    This study investigates the variation in attitudes across stakeholders towards investments in the digital economy. Using semi-structured interviews to identify attitudes about the spatially evolving socioeconomic importance of the digital economy in New Zealand, we identified seven distinct yet partially overlapping concerns that prioritise preferences for digital investment. A key finding is that there are important asymmetries in stakeholders’ narratives and epistemological foundations that currently align to collectively strengthen resolve to invest in digital infrastructure and training, but this alignment may splinter in future. Some stakeholders saw internet access as coalescing social economy, and there were concerns that some people and some places would get left behind if access is not rolled out uniformly and as a priority. There were disagreements about who will prosper, who will get left behind, who should pay for upgrading digital skills, the extent that investments were connected with wellbeing and identity, whether fake news was significant, and the longevity of the impact of digital economy investments. This study contributes to theory by demonstrating that practically-relevant, socially-informed policy decisions can be underpinned by collective efforts that draw on heterogeneous narratives and multidimensional understandings.

    Itziar Castelló, Marie Joachim, Glenn Parry (2022)Emotional Regulation and Institutional Maintenance: Debunking Fake News with Emotions, In: Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings2022(1)
    Michael Brookbanks, Glenn C. Parry (2024)The impact of Industry 4.0 Technologies on the resilience of established cross border supply chains, In: Supply chain management Emerald

    Purpose: To examine the effect of Industry 4.0 technology on resilience in established cross-border supply chain(s) (SC). Design/Methodology/Approach: A literature review provides insight into the resilience capabilities of cross-border SC. Research utilises a case study of operational international SC: the producers, importers, logistics companies, and UK Government (UKG) departments. Semi-structured interviews determine the resilience capabilities and approaches of participants within cross-border SC and how implementing an Industry 4.0 Internet of Things (IoT) and Distributed Ledger (blockchain) based technology platform changes SC resilience capabilities and approaches.Findings: A blockchain-based platform introduces common assured data, reducing data duplication. When combined with IoT technology, the platform improves end-to-end SC visibility and information sharing. Industry 4.0 technology builds collaboration, trust, improved agility, adaptability, and integration. It enables common resilience capabilities and approaches that reduce the de-coupling between government agencies and participants of cross-border SC.Research implications and limitations: The case study presents challenges specific to UKG’s customs border operations; research needs to be repeated in different contexts to confirm findings are generalisable.Practical Implications: Operational SC and UKG customs and excise departments must align their resilience strategies to gain full advantage of Industry 4.0 technologies. Originality/value: Case study research shows how Industry 4.0 technology reduces the de-coupling between the SC and UKG, enhancing common resilience capabilities within established cross-border operations. Improved information sharing and SC visibility provided by IoT and blockchain technologies support the development of resilience in established cross-border SC and enhance interactions with UKG at the customs border

    Glenn Charles Parry, Hannah Tina Reane Gooding, Philip Davies (2023)The specialization of generalization: is servitization inherently transdisciplinary?, In: Book of abstracts: proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Business Servitization (ICBS 2023) OmniaScience

    A variety of skill sets need to be developed during the transition from engineering product to customer service. Service may be defined as the application of competencies for the benefit of another. To facilitate the realisation of value (benefit), those working in servitizing firms must maintain the specialist competence of manufacturing, whilst developing new generalist competencies that involve understanding customer value, management, integrative abilities and openness. Transdisciplinary Engineering (TE) is the ability to transcend a single discipline to deliver value by drawing upon multiple competencies from across the disciplines. This study argues servitization is an intrinsically transdisciplinary process. Despite the need for broader service competencies, a lack of knowledge surrounding competencies needed for transdisciplinary servitization persists. Difficulties arise due to TE being a developing knowledge area. TE processes will already exist in servitization, but because the concept is poorly understood, formalisation has not yet taken place. The study seeks to open a new line of research into TE competencies required for servitization and their development. To frame the TE field in the servitization context, generalist lessons from TE working are used.

    Phil Davies, Albrecht Fritzsche, Glenn Parry, Zena Wood (2023)Data, resilience, and identity in the digital age, In: Strategic change
    Ellen Hughes, Glenn Charles Parry, Phil Davies, Veronica Martinez (2023)Redistributed manufacturing ecosystems for healthcare: an in-depth case study of on-body manufacturing using a micro-factory, In: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

    The shift from centralised to redistributed manufacturing (RDM) enables lower volume production closer to the site of use. The potential benefits of RDM are highlighted in the literature, but in this emerging field, understanding of how its adoption changes relationships within an ecosystem is limited. We provide a novel case study of an emerging portable, digitised micro-factory technology from healthcare that localises manufacture of therapeutics on the body of the patient. Taking a manufacturing ecosystems perspective, the paper contributes empirical evidence showing how the introduction of the micro-factory causes a change in the context of manufacture at the micro level and a change in inter-organisational and institutional relationships at the meso level. Our research shows how inanimate agents, such as digital micro-factories, can be actors within an ecosystem. We position the digitised micro-factory engaged in the service encounter as a resource integrating actor at the micro level of our ecosystem. The micro-factory's structure, components and architecture, are positioned at a new 'sub-micro level'. This paper contributes to RDM theory, showing that technical advances can push redistribution of manufacturing to the individual level, where components of the micro-factory enable simultaneous production and use. Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 2 Managerial Relevance Statement The study is of relevance to managers implementing RDM in healthcare. The shift to RDM is regarded as a key strategy in meeting the rising costs of caring for an aging population and in meeting demand for specialist personalised therapies. The findings demonstrate that whilst the move to RDM may act as an enabler for scalable solutions, the digitised device does not replace the service delivery by people. Instead, established relationships are changed, and new roles and relationships are formed. The inclusion of the patient and the patient's family as actors in the ecosystem highlights how the costs and responsibility for personal care (physical, social and emotional) are not removed from the system, but shifted to other actors. This finding is important as for a new digital device to be successfully adopted into a healthcare ecosystem, time and space is required for new trusting relationships to be developed. Managerial Relevance Statement —The study is of relevance to managers implementing RDM in healthcare. The shift to RDM is regarded as a key strategy in meeting the rising costs of caring for an aging population and in meeting demand for specialist personalised therapies. The findings demonstrate that whilst the move to RDM may act as an enabler for scalable solutions, the digitised device does not replace the service delivery by people. Instead, established relationships are changed, and new roles and relationships are formed. The inclusion of the patient and the patient’s family as actors in the ecosystem highlights how the costs and responsibility for personal care (physical, social and emotional) are not removed from the system, but shifted to other actors. This finding is important as for a new digital device to be successfully adopted into a healthcare ecosystem, time and space is required for new trusting relationships to be developed.

    Despite the significant attention given to blockchain technology, there needs to be more understanding of the related organizational challenges to adoption. This research provides a systematic literature review (SLR) to comprehensively explore the current literature and answer the following three research questions: 1) Which organizational theories are used to examine blockchain technology in supply chain management (SCM)? 2) What is the value of blockchain technology for SCM? 3)What are the organizational capabilities that influence the success of blockchain technology implementation in supply chains? Through the SLR, we identify the organizational theories applied to investigate the impact of blockchain technology on SCM and examine the main drivers of blockchain deployment. The study also investigates specific dimensions of blockchain technology capability, laying the groundwork for further research on this important emerging research area.

    Philip Davies, Oscar F. Bustinza, Glenn Charles Parry, Marin Jovanovic (2023)Unpacking the relationship between digital capabilities, services capabilities, and firm financial performance: a moderated mediation model, In: Industrial marketing management the international journal for industrial and high-tech firms115pp. 1-10

    Extant research exploring the relationship between servitization, digitalization, and firm financial and market performance provides valuable insights, but yields inconsistent and inconclusive results. This study argues that these inconsistencies arise from the ambiguous nature of servitization. Prior research have operationalized servitization as a business model (service type) or a set of service capabilities, treating these distinct constructs interchangeably. This study, therefore, advanced the proposition that both service capabilities and service type need to be incorporated into an integrated framework. To test this, the research develops and empirically validates a moderated-mediation model for the relationship between digitalization, service type (moderator), service capabilities (mediator) and firm financial and market performance using data from 204 manufacturing firms. The results indicate that service capabilities positively mediate the relationship between digitalization and firm financial and market performance. The moderating effect of the service type on service capabilities and firm financial and market performance are more pronounced for services supporting customers than services supporting products. The findings underline the imperative for manufacturers to develop their digital capabilities to enhance their service capabilities, irrespective of the type of services they offered. The findings contribute by enriching our understanding of the relationship between servitization, digitalization and firm performance.

    Glenn Parry, John Mills, Celine Turner (2010)Lean competence integration of theories in operations management practice, In: Supply chain management15(3)pp. 216-226 Emerald Group Publishing Limited

    Purpose This paper aims to develop a methodology for lean implementation that reduces the risk of damaging a company's key resources and abilities through the application of core competence theory. Designmethodologyapproach Academic literature provided background conceptual understanding of lean and core competence theory for an industrial working party of domain experts from 15 major aerospace companies in the UK to develop a methodology for lean implementation that would not damage firm's competences. The methodology was trailed through cooperative inquiry in a business unit of a leading global aerospace company using a case study approach. Findings An accessible definition of core competence that captures academic theory was proposed through an industrial working group. Further a methodology for lean implementation, drawing upon core competence theories was developed. The method comprised four tools market analysis, the visible value stream, customer value analysis, and financial modelling. Tools drew upon established practice and their joint application is intended to safeguard a company's key resources and capabilities from loss or impact during lean implementations. Application in a single case study company and the effects observed over a number of years indicated the methodology, though developmental, was capable of significant positive effects. Originalityvalue The paper provides a practical definition of core competence and application of theory within a lean implementation, trailed and validated in an industrial setting. Competence theory has previously been described as lacklustre due to the abstract nature of the ideas.

    Valerie Purchase, Glenn Parry, Ricardo Valerdi, Deborah Nightingale, John Mills (2011)Enterprise Transformation: Why Are We Interested, What Is It, and What Are the Challenges?, In: Journal of enterprise transformation1(1)pp. 14-33 Taylor & Francis Group

    The concept of enterprise transformation has become increasingly popular as companies recognize the need to achieve an integrated perspective within and across organizational boundaries to address complex challenges. Yet, there is little clarity concerning what constitutes an "enterprise" or indeed "enterprise transformation." This article is conceived as an initial step along the journey towards this clarity. There is considerable work to be done in delineating this area of interest and this article is offered as a stimulus for debate on what constitutes enterprise transformation. Drawing on themes from the management and systems engineering disciplines, the article will propose four characteristics of "enterprise" as a unit for transformation and look at why this holistic unit of analysis has become critical to businesses. The article will also ask what constitutes transformation, and offer characterizing criteria to distinguish this magnitude of change from more incremental changes. A recent empirical case study will be examined to further elucidate challenges faced in defining, leading, and transforming multi-organizational enterprises. Finally, a near-term research agenda is outlined for the evolving discipline of enterprise transformation.

    John Mills, Valerie C. Purchase, Glenn Parry (2013)Enterprise imaging: representing complex multi-organizational service enterprises, In: International journal of operations & production management33(1-2)pp. 159-180 Emerald Group Publishing

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a visualization method developed as a result of an observed need to capture the organizational arrangements of a complex engineering service enterprise. The focal case study is between a public sector client and private sector provider where multiple organizations contribute resource to create value. This visualization can assist client and provider stakeholders to take a holistic perspective of the purpose and management of their enterprise, highlighting the complexity of value co-creation in service enterprises and the interdependencies between organizational units. Design/methodology/approach - Development of the Enterprise Image has drawn on research within the service, organizational and individual cognition literatures. Data were obtained from an in-depth Defence sector case study representing diverse interactions within client and provider communities. The case focused on a fast-jet aircraft availability contract, where the public sector client outsourced through-life support activities to a set of private sector providers. Preliminary testing of the validity and utility of the image was conducted by presentations to single and mixed communities of clients and providers involved in value co-creation. Findings - The paper proposes a method of pictorially representing a complex alliance, called an "Enterprise Image". The work provides empirically based insight into the management processes of a complex, multi-organizational service enterprise, where little or no enterprise level management had been in evidence. The Enterprise Image appeared to have the effect of raising questions and conversations about how the overall enterprise might be managed and how ongoing service improvement might be achieved. Practical implications - In this research the Enterprise Image was drawn by researchers - ongoing research aims to design a method that helps clients and providers co-create their own Enterprise Image. From current findings the implication of this research will be to encourage enterprise management of ongoing improvement in multi-organisational service enterprises. Originality/value - Models and representations for understanding the delivery of value are mostly provider and product focused, despite the recognition in a servitised environment of the complex interactions with client organizations. This paper presents a methodology for visually representing value co-creation in complex service enterprises where the service includes significant client resource involvement.

    Glenn Parry, Valerie Purchase, John Mills (2011)Complexity Management, In: Ng, G Parry, P J Wild, D McFarlane, P Tasker (eds.), Complex Engineering Service Systemspp. 67-86 Springer Nature

    This chapter explores the nature of complexity that arises in high value contracts between large organisations. To develop a framework, a detailed case study was undertaken to identify the factors that create complexity. The case studied was the availability contract to provide depth maintenance and upgrade on Tornado aircraft between BAE Systems and the MOD. The contract, named ATTAC, is worth similar to 1.3bn pound and the MOD engaged with BAE Systems precisely to enable them to more cost effectively manage the complex enterprise of over 22 organisations or business units that deliver this service. The work explores the operation from a range of perspectives, interviewing managers from across the organisations involved. The factors contributing to complexity are described in context and a framework is presented which clusters them into six key areas. It is proposed that this framework may then be used as a tool for analysis and management of complexity.

    Valerie Purchase, John Mills, Glenn Parry (2011)A Multi-organisational Approach to Service Delivery, In: M Macintyre, G Parry, J Angelis (eds.), Service Design and Deliverypp. 119-134 Springer Nature

    Purpose This paper examines the impact of a blockchain platform on the role and importance of trust in established buyer-supplier relationships. Design/methodology/approach A literature review provides insight into trust development in supply chains. Research uses a case study of two wine supply chains: the producers, importers, logistics companies and UK Government agencies. Semi-structured interviews determine how trust and trustworthiness develop in buyer-supplier relationships and the impact of a blockchain-based technology proof of concept on supply chain trust. Findings A blockchain-based platform introduces common trusted data, reducing data duplication and improving supply chain visibility. The platform supports trust building between parties but does not replace the requirements for organisations to establish a position of trust. Contrary to literature claims for blockchain trustless disintermediation, new intermediaries are introduced who need to be trusted. Research limitations/implications The case study presents challenges specific to UK customs borders, and research needs to be repeated in different contexts to establish if findings are generalisable. Practical implications A blockchain-based platform can improve supply chain efficiency and trust development but does not remove the need for trust and trust-building processes. Blockchain platform providers need to build a position of trust with all participants. Originality/value Case study research shows how blockchain facilitates but does not remove trust, trustworthiness and trust relationships in established supply chains. The reduction in information asymmetry and improved supply chain visibility provided by blockchain does not change the importance of trust in established buyer-supplier relationships or the trust-based policy of the UK Government at the customs border.

    Marta Stelmaszak, Glenn Charles Parry (2023)Data are in the eye of the beholder: Co-creation for sustainable personal data value, In: Strategic change32(6)pp. 175-182 Wiley

    As the value of personal data is co-created in practice, conditions for sustainable data value are necessary for the continuing operation of products and services based on personalisation. The value of personal data is co-created during design, not only in use. Different perceptions of the value of personal data emerge from various stakeholder groups. These perceptions lead to different expectations of the characteristics of data. Personalized products and services rely on sustainable data value in their operation. Recent scholarship re-casts the value of data from financial to value in use, where value is a multi-faceted, dynamic, emergent construct, co-created by stakeholders. To date, the dynamics of the co-creation of value from the use of personal data have been investigated from the starting point of use. However, personal data do not have inherent value, rather their value emerges during design against projected future use. We conducted a case study of the development of a personalised e-book and captured the different perceptions of the value of personal data from firm, intermediary and customer perspectives, namely means to an end, medium of exchange and net benefit respectively. The diversity of perspectives highlights ontological differences in the perception of what data are, which in turn creates epistemological tensions and different expectations of the characteristics of data embedded in value co-creation. By detailing how the value of personal data is co-created in practice, we argue that co-creation during design creates conditions for sustainable data value necessary for the continuing operation of products and services based on personalisation.

    Alexander Kharlamov, Glenn Charles Parry, Roland Hohmann (2023)The data sharing decision: perception and intention in healthcare, In: Strategic change

    Purpose: Work contributes to capture and understanding of individual’s intentions to share data, focussing on data individuals perceive as most sensitive, healthcare data. Design/methodology/approach: The study reviews literature related to the decision-making process with regards sharing personal data. The context is the UK NHS and measures from literature are used to analyse individual’s intention to share healthcare data. Measurement constructs include intention to disclose, perceived protection, benefits, risk, subjective norms and perception of use. Analysis draws on data from 129 survey respondents. Findings: Though numerous measurements are reported in literature and used in this study, two predictors dominate intention to disclose healthcare data (INTENTION): perceived information risk (PIR) and perceived societal benefit (PSB) and both are significant. PIR contributes negatively while PSB contributes positively to predict intention. For personal healthcare the privacy paradox applies as though risk may outweigh benefit people rarely opt out of data sharingPractical implications: Individuals consciously or unconsciously consider their perception of the risk and broader benefits of data sharing. Both risk and benefit are both significant and important, perceived risk carries more weight than perceived benefits. Organisations need to develop campaigns to explain risks and benefits of personal data sharing very clearly to ensure individuals can make truly informed decisions. Originality/value: A scale is developed and applied to evaluate the decision to share healthcare data. The scale tests a number of measures of intention to disclose data and shows the significant predictors of likelihood are ‘perceived information risk’ and ‘perceived societal benefit’. 

    Yee Mey Goh, Linda Newnes, Ettore Settanni, Nils Thenent, Glenn Parry (2015)Addressing Uncertainty in Estimating the Cost for a Product-Service-System Delivering Availability: Epistemology and Ontology, In: Ontology Modeling in Physical Asset Integrity Managementpp. 199-219 Springer International Publishing

    Recently there has been increase in the number of manufacturing firms offering service packages in support of their products, through performance-based or availability contracts. The delivery of “advanced services” by product-service-systems (PSS) is a knowledge-intensive socio-technical system in nature. Nonetheless, the challenges associated with addressing uncertainty in the context of estimating the cost of a PSS delivering availability need to be overcome. We present a system-based approach and discuss the uncertainties in modelling cost for a PSS. The aim is to demonstrate the limitations of using only quantitative analysis for modelling the uncertainty in estimating the cost of providing an advance service. Building on the epistemological foundation, we then discuss uncertainty in the context of ontology modelling and conclude with final remarks and directions for future research.

    Jens K Roehrich, Glenn C Parry, Andrew P Graves (2011)Implementing build-to-order strategies: enablers and barriers in the European automotive industry, In: International journal of automotive technology and management11(3)pp. 221-235 Inderscience Publishers

    Vehicle manufacturers build the majority of vehicles to a sales forecast and links between production and final customer orders are tenuous. A greater percentage of Build-To-Order (BTO) vehicle production may offer the European automotive industry a competitive edge. The EU and industry funded Intelligent Logistics for Innovative Product Technologies (ILIPT) project developed and validated an approach for a five-day build-to-order process. However, there remain significant challenges to be overcome before this innovative model can be adopted. Empirical research was undertaken to capture the challenges faced. Findings illustrate that certain factors need to be considered in managing the transition to the ‘5 Day Car’ in Europe including building on existing good practice, training and re-educating managers in BTO principles and practices, clear planning and objective setting, and enhancing supply chain learning. The study concludes with a guiding framework to help practitioners realise the build-to-order transition.

    Paolo Gaiardelli, Glenn Charles Parry (2009)Build to order: the road of the 5-day car, edited by Glenn Parry and Andrew Graves, In: Production Planning & Control20(8)pp. 802-803 Taylor & Francis Group
    Glenn Parry (2005)Joined up lean, In: Manufacturing Engineer84(5)pp. 44-47 Institution of Engineering and Technology

    Author's views on a a lean process methodology for core competence understanding are highlighted. UK companies have been employing lean principles to great effect. They have been supported and guided in their efforts by programmes such as the UK Lean Aerospace Initiative with contribution between £60-240m per year. The lean approach to business is centered upon delivering customer value using the least resource. The resource-based view has four basic characteristics: a firm's goal is to achieve higher sustained returns than rivals; a firm has a set of resources that combine to form a unique competence; competence and capability lead to sustained superior returns, and new resource combinations can contribute to sustainable superior returns.

    Glenn Parry (2007)Blue sky thinking, In: Manufacturing86(4)pp. 40-43 Institution of Engineering and Technology

    Building cars to customer order could provide the key to releasing billions of euros currently tied up in stock. Glenn Parry outlines a scheme to move the industry in this direction.

    Xiaoxi Huang, Linda Newnes, Glenn Parry (2011)An Analysis of Industrial Practice for Estimating the In-Service Costs of a Product Service System, In: Volume 9: 23rd International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology; 16th Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference9pp. 605-615 ASMEDC

    An extensive range of companies have moved from providing a tangible product to offering long-term integrated product service solutions. The revenue from such offerings, in particular at the in-service stage of a product service system, has become a key area for profit generation within some companies. However, estimating the cost of providing such a service is one of the major challenges that companies encounter. The research in this paper presents a new framework for estimating the cost of in-service provision for a product service system. Within this framework the service cost factors are identified through a review of the literature and an analysis of industrial practice. Analysing seven years data of the service demanded by customers for a Chinese machine manufacturer and service provider, the key relationships are identified and described. The service provider in this study offers repair and maintenance services to ensure the machines are available for use at the customer’s sites. The results from the study found that there is not a strong correlation between the distance from the service provider to customer companies and the number of call outs for after-sales service. It was also found that there was no strong evidence to show that when there is convenient and economical transportation links between the service provider and the customer, the demand for after-sales service increases. However, there was a strong correlation between machine failure rate and the number of years in service. It was also found that preventative maintenance, which occurred after the second year of machine service, did not improve the reliability of the machine during the in-service phase. Based on the initial findings and outcomes of the study the next stage of the research is then discussed, describing how the framework will be used to estimate the cost of the in-service provision for a product service system.

    Glenn Parry, Andrew Graves (2008)The Road to the 5-Day Car, In: Build To Orderpp. 403-407 Springer London

    The automotive industry has continuously managed to rise to the challenges it has faced through increases in competitive pressures, increased productivity, quality, cost and the rapid development of technology. The industry has been led by those best able to develop and implement new process paradigms, from Ford’s mass production through to Toyota and Lean production. The next industry leader may be the first to implement a fully integrated Build to Order network and free the capital employed in the current process. As well as competitive pressures, external social and governmental pressures may also drive this transformation. Environmental pollution and climate change are coupled with governments legislating to reduce road traffic congestion and improve safety whilst maintaining individual mobility. The BTO paradigm maximises the efficiency of supply chains and removes unwanted vehicles and unnecessary transportation costs from the system, reducing their associated congestion and carbon emissions. It may well offer European producers the ability to deliver customer value and socially responsible mobility for the 21st century.

    Susan Lattanzio, Linda Newnes, GLENN CHARLES PARRY, Aydin Nassehi (2021)Concepts of Transdisciplinary Engineering: A Transdisciplinary Landscape, In: International Journal of Agile Systems and Management Inderscience

    The term ‘transdisciplinary’ is receiving increased attention within engineering academic and research funding communities. We survey authors of papers presented at the 27th ISTE International Transdisciplinary Engineering Conference (TE2020) to answer two research questions: 1) How do authors define transdisciplinary engineering? 2) What do authors perceive differentiates interdisciplinary engineering research from transdisciplinary engineering research? Responses from thirty-four participants (50%), are qualitatively analysed. Results show that for the three characteristics commonly used in characterisations of transdisciplinarity (goal, collaboration and integration), multiple concepts exist. These range from generic expressions which overlap with how interdisciplinarity is defined within the general literature, to stronger, more definitive expressions. Conclusions find that rather than a single definition a transdisciplinary landscape exists. To enable users to define where they sit in the transdisciplinary landscape, we create a framework enabling users to map their position under the three key characteristics of goal, collaboration and integration.

    Marta Stelmaszak, GLENN CHARLES PARRY (2021)Data are in the Eye of the Beholder: Co-creating the Value of Personal Data, In: Proceedings of the 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences

    The value of personal data has traditionally been understood in economic terms, but recent scholarship casts the value of data as multi-faceted, dynamic, emergent and co-created by stakeholders. The dynamics of the co-creation of value with personal data lacks empirical study. We conduct a case study of the development of a personalised e-book and find different perceptions of the value of personal data exist from the firm, intermediary and customer perspective: means to an end, medium of exchange and net benefit. The different data perspectives highlight ontological differences in the perception of what data are. This creates epistemological tension and different expectations of the data characteristics embedded in the process of value co-creation. The findings contribute to the growing data-in-practice literature, showing how different epistemological stances can create opposing expectations of what data should be, leading to ontological, policy and managerial tensions.

    OSCAR BUSTINZA SANCHEZ, Glenn Parry, Ferran Vendrell Herrero, Vasileios Myrthianos (2015)RECUPERANDO LA CADENA DE VALOR MEDIANTE LA CUSTOMERIZACIÓN Y LA VINCULACIÓN DE SERVICIOS, In: DYNA MANAGEMENT3(3)pp. 11 p-11 p
    Alexander A Kharlamov, Glenn Parry (2020)Limited evidence for servitisation in UK publishing: an empirical analysis, In: International journal of business environment11(3)pp. 336-346 Inderscience Publishers (IEL)

    Servitisation is a strategic transition of firms towards the creation of additional value through services. In this study, we adopt a data-driven approach and assume that company activity descriptions are representative of their activity and partly reflect the adopted strategy. We hypothesise that if there is a trend of traditional publishing firms adopting servitisation strategies, this should emerge from textual analysis of company descriptors. Relying on data-driven analysis of publicly available company information for UK and Ireland, we find no significant evidence of strategic diversity as a single group emerges from diverse clustering methods. Our results show either that the publicly available dataset is not representative of firm strategy in the publishing industry or that there is no real evidence of servitisation in the publishing sector. Implications for theory and for industry are discussed.

    Glenn Parry, Jens K Roehrich (2009)Towards the strategic outsourcing of core competencies in the automotive industry: threat or opportunity?, In: International journal of automotive technology and management9(1)pp. 40-53 Inderscience Publishers

    Faced with shorter product life cycles and increased cost of capital, companies can no longer afford the capital outlay for new facilities, which may become underutilised as processes improve over the first few years of operation. Outsourcing the production capacity can remove this uncertainty. However, fast-moving automotive environment companies, faced with increasingly demanding customers, have to deploy the resources and expertise of the best-in-class provider. To achieve this, they have further reduced their functions to a handful of core activities. Outsourcing core activities can bring about benefits under certain circumstances, but also possesses the risk that companies may become 'hollow', and lack a core deliverable. Within the next couple of years, companies in the automotive sector will further outsource activities in order to free up investment capital. The trends and areas of outsourcing have been explored and a guiding framework has been developed for practitioners.

    Ettore Settanni, Nils E. Thenent, Linda B. Newnes, Glenn Parry, Yee Mey Goh (2015)To Cost an Elephant: An Exploratory Survey on Cost Estimating Practice in the Light of Product-Service-Systems, In: Journal of cost analysis and parametrics8(1)pp. 1-22 Taylor & Francis

    Businesses now contracting for availability are regarded as part of a paradigm shift away from the familiar 'product and support' business model. The main difference being that such businesses eventually commit to provide a service outcome via product-service-system. The research presented in this article investigates how current cost estimating practice relates with the idea of having as the point of focus for the analysis a product-service-system delivering service outcomes, rather than a product. Since the topic is in its infancy, an exploratory survey was designed and circulated via the Internet among practitioners with the aim of looking for initial patterns, ideas, and hypotheses, rather than to confirm existing ones. The picture that seems to emerge is that respondents would not necessarily see the representation and modeling of a product-service-system as being a precondition to estimate the cost of the service it provides. In line with most academic literature, respondents would rather consider the cost of providing a service via product-service-system as conceptually equivalent to the cost of the in-service stage of a durable product. Although not allowing for generalization, this research reveals paths that may be worth exploring further.

    Hannah Gooding, Susan Lattanzio, Glenn Charles Parry, Linda Newnes (2022)Perceptions of Transdisciplinary Engineering: Characterisations of the Transdisciplinary Research Approach, In: Transdisciplinarity and the Future of Engineeringpp. 707-716 IOS Press

    Engineering disciplines are paying increasing attention to transdisciplinary (TD) working. The terminology of single, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary lacks clarity. Consequently, there is currently no consensus on what defines a TD research approach. This makes it difficult to implement and measure the impact of TD and TD working. Clear definition of the approach and understanding of where TD is most applicable is needed because the education of tomorrow's engineers can only be realised if researchers build upon coherent theoretical frameworks. This paper draws on theory to define TD and then aims to reduce confusion and instill clarity by identifying when TD as a research approach should or should not be used. This is achieved by answering the research question: when might it be beneficial to take a TD rather than single, multi or interdisciplinary research approach? Survey responses from twenty-eight authors (50%) who presented papers at the 28 th ISTE International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering (TE2021) were qualitatively analysed. Findings show institutional barriers to TD adoption may prevent the benefits of TD engineering research from being realised. Rather than the research approach itself, it is the environment in which we do our research, one which is decided long before our work begins, that will determine if any meaningful benefits from TD are realised.

    Hannah Tina Reanne Reane Gooding, Susan Lattanzio, Glenn Charles Parry, Linda Newnes, Esat Alpay (2022)Characterising the Transdisciplinary Research Approach, In: Product : management & development20(2) e20220012 Instituto de Inovação e Gestão de Desenvolvimento de Produto (IGDP)

    Despite increasing attention and calls for transdisciplinary (TD) working in engineering, a lack of clarity surrounding what constitutes a TD research approach persists. This paper aims to reduce ambiguity by characterising TD and identifying when the TD approach should or should not be used. Specifically, the research answers the question: when might it be beneficial to take a TD rather than a single, multi or interdisciplinary research approach? Survey responses from twenty-eight authors (50%) who presented papers at the 28 th ISTE International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering (TE2021) were qualitatively analysed. Findings show a TD approach to research is beneficial for complex problem-solving. New understanding reveals that TD could be used to evidence scientific and social impact, and that context determines the appropriateness of TD adoption. However, even where TD adoption is deemed appropriate, institutional barriers to adoption may exist. In other words, the work environment (culture) in which we do our research, may determine if any meaningful benefits from TD are, or are not realised. Lessons from engineering education are used to discuss how to institutionalise TD, future transdisciplinary engineers and researchers might be taught and socialised in the competencies needed for transdisciplinary research.

    Glenn Parry, Jens Roehrich (2013)Automotive Enterprise Transformation: Build to Order as a Sustainable and Innovative Strategy for the Automotive Industry?, In: Journal of enterprise transformation3(1)pp. 33-52 Taylor & Francis Group

    The global financial crisis has significantly impacted the automotive industry. The crisis has reduced the supply of credit to industry, exposed process inefficiencies, and reduced credit to consumers, which has reduced sales. Firms are restructuring, with some seeking government financial support, but the industry is not addressing the underlying business model failure. The transformation of the automotive enterprise is proposed as a potential solution; from the build-to-stock (BTS) approach currently employed to a build-to-order (BTO) enterprise in the future. The BTO approach outlined in this article is drawn from a 4-year study by a European research consortium. The approach developed delivers the triple bottom line of economic, environmental, and societal prosperity by addressing wastes, such as overproduction and unnecessary transportation, and inventory coupled with innovative modular vehicle design and integrated supply chains.

    Glenn Parry, Oscar F. Bustinza, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero (2014)Copyright and creation: repositioning the argument, In: Strategic direction (Bradford, England)30(3)pp. 32-35 Emerald Group Publishing Limited

    Purpose – This paper highlights the challenges and key arguments for digital copyright protection legislation for creative industries. Design/methodology/approach – This briefing is prepared by independent academics who place the arguments in context based upon literature and market data. Findings – Many of the arguments used against copyright protection laws draw upon flawed analysis. Artistic creators should be treated fairly and their work should be afforded the same protection as other property. Practical implications – Digital legislation warrants review, but not for the frequently cited reasons of “stifling innovation” or “restriction” of others using the work. Rather, artists need better protection for their work and fairer treatment with regards their property rights. Originality/value – The paper provides context and practical insights into the data used to influence policy decision makers, providing a stronger case for legislative review.

    Glenn Parry (2018)Enterprise imaging: Picturing the service-value system, In: Marko Kohtamäki, Tim Baines, Rodrigo Rabetino, Ali Z. Bigdeli (eds.), Practices and Tools for Servitization: Managing Service Transitionpp. 343-361 Springer International Publishing

    Service value is realized within the interaction of client and provider, and the Enterprise Image (EI) creates a picture of a moment in time of the working relationship. The EI focuses on a contractual relationship between two parties and identifies the resources used and who controls them. The resources included in the image are those that are required to achieve the outcome desired from a client/provider interaction. The approach has been applied to many different operations, for example, service maintenance, product provision, and consulting. EIs have proven useful in management decision making, service development, communication, and understanding complex enterprises.

    S. Lattanzio, E. Carey, A. Hultin, R. Imani Asrai, M. McManus, N. Mogles, G. Parry, L.B. Newnes (2020)Transdisciplinarity within the academic engineering literature, In: International Journal of Agile Systems and Management13(2)pp. 213-232 Inderscience

    Despite increased discourse around transdisciplinary (TD) research, there is a perception it has received less attention within engineering. This is significant if, as generally accepted, TD increases the societal value of research. This paper benchmarks TD engineering research against the broader TD literature, addressing the question: How do the characteristics of the academic engineering TD literature compare to the TD academic literature in general? We analyse the chronology, source journals, and text of papers referencing TD within their abstract and compare this to papers that fall within the engineering subject area. The conclusions find that TD research is limited generally, and within engineering specifically. Historically, TD research focuses on sustainability challenges, a persistent trend within the general literature. Within engineering research, the focus of TD is wider and addresses operational and ‘grand challenge’ problems. TD remains poorly defined and future work should focus on clarifying meaning within the engineering discipline.

    S. Lattanzio, E. Carey, A. Hultin, R. Imani Asrai, M. McManus, N. Mogles, L. Newnes, G. Parry (2020)Transdisciplinarity Within the Academic Engineering Literature, In: International Journal of Agile Systems and Management Inderscience

    Despite increased discourse around transdisciplinary (TD) research, there is a perception it has received less attention within engineering. This is significant if, as generally accepted, TD increases the societal value of research. This paper benchmarks TD engineering research against the broader TD literature, addressing the question: How do the characteristics of the academic engineering TD literature compare to the TD academic literature in general? We analyse the chronology, journals, and text of papers referencing TD within their abstract and compare this to papers that fall within the engineering subject area. The conclusions find that TD research is limited generally, and within engineering specifically. Historically, TD research focuses on sustainability challenges, a persistent trend within the general literature. Within engineering research, the focus of TD is wider and addresses operational and “grand challenge” problems. TD remains poorly defined and future work should focus on clarifying meaning within the engineering discipline.

    Ferran Vendrell Herrero, Glenn Parry, Marco Opazo Basáez, Francisco J. Sanchez Montesinos (2018)Does business model experimentation in dynamic contexts enhance value capture?, In: International Journal of Business Environment10(1)pp. 14-34 Inderscience Enterprises

    Established theory suggests that firms experiment with business models in dynamic contexts. However, the relationship between business model experimentation and organisational performance remains unclear. For this purpose, we propose an assessment of the economic value of business model experimentation in dynamic contexts by defining the unit of analysis at the industry level. Analysis draws upon a unique panel dataset from the recorded music industry composed of 414 observations from 32 countries for the period 1998-2010. The results show two optimal modes for maximising value capture in dynamic contexts. First, if a dominant format exists, a 'network' effect becomes prevalent which has a positive impact upon revenue. Second, when firms engage in experimentation leading to a highly diversified set of business models the industry sector becomes better able to capture value from diverse and changing consumer needs.

    A. Kharlamov, Glenn Parry (2018)Advanced supply chains: Visibility, blockchain and human behaviour, In: António Carrizo Moreira, Luís Miguel D. F. Ferreira, Ricardo A. Zimmermann (eds.), Innovation and Supply Chain Management - Relationship, Collaboration and Strategiespp. 321-343 Springer

    Technological advances over the last decade saw the rise of ICT and IoT, paving the way for the Supply Chain of Things. Blockchain technology was one of the most recent and potentially most significant developments. Blockchain technology are secure by design and can enable decentralization and visibility, with application in cryptocurrency transactions, historical records, identity management, traceability, authentication, and many others. However, successful adoption of such technology requires that the people, process and technology are ready. We propose a conceptual framework where the concept and technology can balance between positive and negative manifestations depending on human behavior, therefore determining the success of Blockchain technology application in supply chains. While both the concept and technology are relatively ready, human behavior is a challenge as it is known that people suffer from habits and perform poorly when exposed to large volumes of data. Therefore, the development of advanced supply chains with much greater visibility enabled by Blockchain technology must take into consideration people in order to succeed.

    Alexander A. Kharlamov, Glenn Parry (2020)Limited evidence for servitization in UK Publishing: an empirical analysis, In: International Journal of Business Environment Inderscience Enterprises

    Servitization is a strategic transition of firms towards the creation of additional value through services. In this study we adopt a data-driven approach and assume that company activity descriptions are representative of their activity and partly reflect the adopted strategy. We hypothesise that if there is a trend of traditional publishing firms adopting servitization strategies, this should emerge from textual analysis of company descriptors. Relying on data-driven analysis of publicly available company information for UK and Ireland, we find no significant evidence of strategic diversity as a single group emerges from diverse clustering methods. Our results show either that the publicly available dataset is not representative of the publishing strategy in industry or that there is no real evidence of servitization in the publishing sector. Implications for theory and for industry are discussed.

    F. Vendrell-Herrero, Glenn Parry, O.F. Bustinza, E. Gomes (2018)Digital business models: Taxonomy and future research avenues, In: Strategic Change27(2)pp. 87-90 Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia

    Digital technologies reshape the competitive landscape as firms develop new means of value creation, delivery, and capture. The implementation and suitability of digital business models depend largely on the resources of incumbent firms and new entrants and on the firm positioning in the supply chain. The effect of digital business models is context specific and hence insights from a wide range of industries are included here; among them retailing, manufacturing, Internet, health, and television broadcasting. The maximization of revenues through customer engagement and the reduction of costs are often the main drivers for digital business model adoption.

    J. Loonam, S. Eaves, V. Kumar, Glenn Parry (2018)Towards digital transformation: Lessons learned from traditional organizations, In: Strategic Change27(2)pp. 101-109 Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia

    Digitally enabled organizations are supported by new information and communication technologies, referred to as digital technologies, which increasingly promise enormous opportunities for growth. The study reviews 10 case studies from the literature and analysis the approaches these organizations have taken to successfully implement digital technologies. The findings reveal a conceptual framework that seeks to support management in understanding the actions required to implement digital transformation.

    Glenn Parry, G. Pogrebna, F. Vendrell-Herrero (2018)Windowing television content: Lessons for digital business models, In: Strategic Change27(2)pp. 151-160 Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia

    There is a market for successful distribution of television content using a Windowing strategy. This article investigates if a strategy where content is made available to consumers through different channels over time, a "Windowing" business models, is appropriate for releasing television programs. By initially exposing consumers to a controlled quantity of free content greater value can be captured at later stages as 55% of these consumers are 13-20% more likely to become paying subscribers.

    Bart Kamp, Glenn Parry (2017)Servitization and advanced business services as levers for competitiveness, In: Industrial Marketing Management60pp. 11-16 Elsevier Inc.
    Ettore Settanni, Nils Elias Thenent, Linda B. Newnes, Glenn Parry, Yee Mey Goh (2017)Mapping a product-service-system delivering defence avionics availability, In: International Journal of Production Economics186pp. 21-32 Elsevier B.V.

    Long-term support agreements such as availability-based contracts are often associated with the servitization of business models in such sectors as defence aerospace. In practice, there is no unambiguous way of linking availability and service outcomes from an operational perspective; rather, the focus tends to be placed almost exclusively on product-related metrics. To address this gap, this paper outlines a conceptual model of how advanced service outcomes should be delivered under an availability-based contract for defence avionics. The model is grounded on empirical evidence gathered through an in-depth case study in the UK defence sector. The research is one of the first attempts to shift the focus away from a notion of availability as a property designed into a piece of equipment, and to detect its emergence from the interactions between relevant socio-technical elements within the underpinning advanced service delivery system, or Product-Service-System (PSS), identified by analysis of empirical data. This research provides insights into where action should be taken within a PSS that would be difficult to obtain from the analysis of field reliability data alone. It also provides a conceptual model that can assist the formulation of scientific models based on quantitative data such as multi-echelon inventory systems for repairable items. While the transferability of the findings is limited by the specificity of the case, a detailed description is provided to facilitate comparison with other cases.

    Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Oscar F. Bustinza, Glenn Parry, Nikos Georgantzis (2017)Servitization, digitization and supply chain interdependency, In: Industrial Marketing Management60pp. 69-81 Elsevier Inc.

    This study draws on literature at the intersection of servitization, digital business models and supply chain management. Work empirically explores how digital disruption has affected Business-to-Business (B2B) interdependencies. Dematerialization of physical products is transforming the way firms are positioned in the supply chain due to a reduction in production and transport costs and the different ways business engage with customers. Specifically, we propose that these new market conditions can empower downstream firms. We further propose that upstream firms can still capture additional value through digital service if their servitized offer includes difficult to imitate elements. The context of the analysis is the publishing industry. The Payment Card method employed is used to test UK and US consumer's perceptions of digital formats (eBooks) and assess their willingness to pay in relation to printed formats. The method undertaken enables us to elicit aggregated consumer demand for eBooks which in turn identifies optimal pricing strategies for the digital services. Analysis demonstrates that during digital servitization upstream firms should seek to deploy unique resources to ensure their strategic position in the supply chain is not diminished.

    Christian Kowalkowski, Heiko Gebauer, Bart Kamp, Glenn Parry (2017)Servitization and deservitization: Overview, concepts, and definitions, In: Industrial Marketing Management60pp. 4-10 Elsevier Inc.

    The topic of servitization has generated a considerable body of research and many conferences, as well as industry engagement. Yet, despite the extensive literature associated with this now-mature discipline, there is no broad-based consensus on the core concepts and definitions deployed by servitization scholars, and both terminology and usage often seem ambiguous. This paper examines challenges related to service growth strategies, as well as strategies involving deservitization or a retreat from service offerings. Showing that these strategies have been pursued for more than fifty years, clarification is sought here by framing the corresponding processes and proposing definitions for four core terms: servitization, service infusion, deservitization and service dilution. It becomes clear that in focusing on the organizational change entailed by these processes, future research must elucidate 'softer' issues such as leadership and business logic.

    Philip Davies, Glenn Parry, Kyle Alves, Irene Ng (2020)How additive manufacturing allows products to absorb variety in use: empirical evidence from the defensive industry, In: Production Planning & Control Taylor and Francis

    The operations and supply chain management the normative assumption holds that a product’s structural and functional elements are fixed pre-production to support efficiency of operations. Firms moving from manufacturing to service are faced with delivering resource for customers in context and absorbing variety in use provides them with a number of challenges. This paper examines AM as a technology that efficiently provides high variety that meets emergent user demand. A single case study is undertaken, drawing upon design change data and in-depth interviews with industry experts. Findings show that in non-digitised environments, introducing design changes to modular products through life creates complexity, where complexity refers to increasing interdependencies between components in the product architecture that lead to increased coordination costs between internal and external supply chains. We find that advances in AM can act as a supply chain solution, managing complexity and allowing products and supply chains to efficiently and effectively adapt close to context of use. Findings suggest that existing theory must expand beyond the normative assumption that the physical product is fixed and the intangible service elements adapt to absorb variety, to include cases where the tangible product can absorb variety to meet emergent need.

    G Parry, S Brax, RS Maull, I Ng (2016)Operationalising IoT for reverse supply: the development of Use-Visibility Measures, In: Supply Chain Management: An International Journal21(2)pp. 228-244 Emerald

    Purpose – Improvement of Reverse Supply Chains requires accurate and timely information about the patterns of consumption. In the consumer context the ways to generate and access such Use-Visibility data are in their infancy. This study demonstrates how the Internet of Things [IoT] may be operationalised in the domestic setting to capture data on a consumer’s use of products and the implications for Reverse Supply Chains. Design/methodology/approach - This paper uses an explorative case approach drawing on data from studies of six UK households. ‘Horizontal’ data, which reveals patterns in consumers’ use processes, is generated by combining ‘vertical’ data from multiple sources. Use processes in the homes are mapped using IDEF0 and illustrated with the data. The quantitative data is generated using wireless sensors in the home and qualitative data is drawn from online calendars, social media, interviews and ethnography. Findings – The study proposes four generic measurement categories for operationalising the concept of use-visibility: experience; consumption; interaction and depletion, which together address the use of different household resources. The explorative case demonstrates how these measures can be operationalised to achieve visibility of the context of use in the home. The potential of such use-visibility for reverse supply chains is discussed. Research limitations/implications -The explorative case study is based on an in-depth study of the bathroom which illustrates the application of Use-Visibility Measures (UVM) but provides a limited use context. Further research is needed from a wider set of homes and a wider set of use processes and contexts. Practical implications – The case demonstrates the operationalisation of the combination of data from different sources and helps answer questions of ‘why?’, ‘how?’, ‘when?’ and ‘how much?’, which can inform reverse supply chains. The four UVMs can be operationalised in a way that can contribute to supply chain visibility, providing accurate and timely information of consumption, optimizing resource use and eliminating waste. Originality/value – IDEF0 framework and case analysis is used to identify and validate four UVMs available through IoT data – that of experience, consumption, interaction and depletion. The UVMs characterise IoT data generated from a given process and inform the primary reverse flow in the future supply chain. They provide the basis for future data collection and development of theory around their effect on reverse supply chain efficiency.

    Richard Adams, Glenn Parry, Phil Godsiff, Peter Ward (2017)The future of money and further applications of the blockchain, In: Strategic Change26(5)pp. 417-422 Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia

    Blockchain technology provides an exciting application space for innovation in diverse domains but threatens disintermediation for organizations providing a trusted and auditable account of ownership and transactions. It needs, however, an appropriate regulation to keep pace with technological developments. Technology remains very young, akin to the Internet in the early 1990s. Use cases, practical demonstrators, standards, and lexical consistency are urgently required.

    Elizabeth Kewell, Richard Adams, G Parry (2017)Blockchain for Good?, In: Strategic Change26(5)pp. 429-437 Wiley

    The blockchain innovation appears to represent viable catalysts for achieving global sustainable development targets. Projects and initiatives seeking to extend the reach of distributed ledger technologies (DLTs) seem mostly intended for the benefit of for-profit businesses, governments, and consumers. DLT projects devised for the public good could aim, in theory, to fulfill the United Nation’s current sustainable development goals. Blockchain technology is being applied in ways that could transform this ambition for good into a practical reality.

    R. Adams, B. Kewell, Glenn Parry (2018)Blockchain for Good? Digital Ledger Technology and Sustainable Development Goals, In: Walter Leal Filho, Robert W. Marans, John Callewaert (eds.), Handbook of Sustainability and Social Science Researchpp. 127-140 Springer

    Blockchain technology (aka Distributed Ledger Technology or DLT) is a novel configuration of Peer-to-Peer, cryptographic and distributed computing technologies that have the potential to shift the internet from an internet of information to an internet of value network, with significant disruptive potential. To date, the cryptocurrency 'bitcoin' is the application of DLT that has attracted most attention, not all of it favourable. However, DLTs are about much more than cryptocurrencies and, as Kranzberg's (1986) first law of technology, that 'Technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it neutral' reminds us, we can ethically frame applications of new technologies. To date, research has tended to focus on the technical characteristics of DLTs, and there has been little reflection on potential socially and environmentally beneficial use cases: Blockchain for Good (B4G). The aim of this this exploratory and descriptive paper is to reflect on innovative B4G applications that could help deliver socially and environmentally beneficial outcomes, framed in terms of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals, through challenging existing business models and providing new opportunities for value creation.

    Beth Kewell, Richard Adams, Glenn Parry (2017)Blockchain for good?, In: Strategic Change26(5)pp. 429-437 Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia

    The blockchain innovation appears to represent viable catalysts for achieving global sustainable development targets. Projects and initiatives seeking to extend the reach of distributed ledger technologies (DLTs) seem mostly intended for the benefit of for-profit businesses, governments, and consumers. DLT projects devised for the public good could aim, in theory, to fulfill the United Nation's current sustainable development goals. Blockchain technology is being applied in ways that could transform this ambition for good into a practical reality.

    Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Emanuel Gomes, Simon Collinson, Glenn Parry, Oscar.F. Bustinza (2018)Selling digital services abroad: How do extrinsic attributes influence foreign consumers' purchase intentions?, In: International Business Review27(1)pp. 173-185 Elsevier Ltd

    This article investigates, through the country-of-origin effect and value-in-use lenses, how the implementation of digital services creates opportunities for cultural industries to expand internationally. We argue that intrinsic attributes of cultural content such as the capacity to entertain are difficult to parameterize because they are somewhat experiential and subjective. This means that extrinsic cues are essential to foreign consumers when making a decision to purchase digital services. We specifically evaluate the influence of Britishness, cultural distance, exoticness, brand image, and flag-brand congruence on the purchase intentions of consumers in foreign markets. This study employs a unique consumer dataset with information on the internationalization of British cultural digital services. The depth and breadth of the survey data collected through collaboration with a UK media industry partner with a globally recognised brand is significantly richer than data used in previous studies. In particular, the study exploits a survey with 5,200 usable data points from consumers residing in fourteen geographically dispersed countries. Findings support theoretical predictions that Britishness, cultural distance, exoticness, brand image and flag-brand congruence are positively linked to the purchasing decisions. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

    Alexander Kharlamov, Glenn Parry (2020)The impact of servitization and digitization on productivity and profitability of the firm: a systematic approach, In: Production, Planning and Control Taylor and Francis

    We propose a new systematic method to answer the research question: ‘What is the financial and economic impact of servitizing the firm, digitising the firm, and combined servitization and digitization strategy?’ Our method quantifies servitization, digitization and their synergy by analysing their relationship with firm financial and economic outcomes. The method is applied to the British publishing industry. Using text-mining and econometric analysis of secondary data, 258 UK book publishers (93% of the market share) are analysed over a period of 10 years (1,508 observations). Firms are categorised as servitized (S-firms), digitized (D-firms), digitized and servitized (DS-firms) and pure (P-firms) that are neither servitized nor digitized (control group). We detect no significant difference in terms of productivity and profitability between P-firms and D-firms. Although we find evidence of a servitization paradox, both S-firms and DS-firms show greater productivity than P-firms. Profitability of DS-firms is greater than that of P-firms, but profitability of S-firms is lower than that of P-firms. The research improves on the existing methodology employed to examine the impact of servitizing or digitising the firm and provides a means to measure how servitization and digitization impact on the productivity and profitability of a firm within a specific context.

    Masha McConaghy, Greg McMullen, Glenn Parry, Trent McConaghy, David Holtzman (2017)Visibility and digital art: Blockchain as an ownership layer on the Internet, In: Strategic Change26(5)pp. 461-470 Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia

    Visibility of digital art and its ownership can be achieved using blockchain technology as part of a broader solution for the identification, attribution, and payment for digital work. A case study is provided of a firm using the Bitcoin blockchain as part of an integrated solution to identify and authenticate ownership of digital property. An integrated ownership ledger allows for secure attribution, transfer, and provenance of digital property. Blockchain technology enables limited-edition digital property, while Internet-scale web crawl and machine learning shows where and how works are being used on the Internet.

    Background: The evaluation of demonstration sites set up to provide improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) comprised the study of all people identified as having common mental health problems (CMHP), those referred to the IAPT service, and a sample of attenders studied in-depth. Information technology makes it feasible to link practice, hospital and IAPT clinic data to evaluate the representativeness of these samples. However, researchers do not have permission to browse and link these data without the patients’ consent. Objective: To demonstrate the use of a mixed deterministic-probabilistic method of secure and private record linkage (SAPREL) - to describe selection bias in subjects chosen for in-depth evaluation. Method: We extracted, pseudonymised and used fuzzy logic to link multiple health records without the researcher knowing the patient’s identity. The method can be characterised as a three party protocol mainly using deterministic algorithms with dynamic linking strategies; though incorporating some elements of probabilistic linkage. Within the data providers’ safe haven we extracted: Demographic data, hospital utilisation and IAPT clinic data; converted post code to index of multiple deprivation (IMD); and identified people with CMHP. We contrasted the age, gender, ethnicity and IMD for the in-depth evaluation sample with people referred to IAPT, use hospital services, and the population as a whole. Results: The in IAPT-in-depth group had a mean age of 43.1 years; CI: 41.0 - 45.2 (n = 166); the IAPT-referred 40.2 years; CI: 39.4 - 40.9 (n = 1118); and those with CMHP 43.6 years SEM 0.15. (n = 12210). Whilst around 67% of those with a CMHP were women, compared to 70% of those referred to IAPT, and 75% of those subject to indepth evaluation (Chi square p< 0.001). The mean IMD score for the in-depth evaluation group was 36.6; CI: 34.2 - 38.9; (n = 166); of those referred to IAPT 38.7; CI: 37.9 - 39.6; (n = 1117); and of people with CMHP 37.6; CI 37.3- 37.9; (n = 12143). Conclusions: The sample studied in-depth were older, more likely female, and less deprived than people with CMHP, and fewer had recorded ethnic minority status. Anonymous linkage using SAPREL provides insight into the representativeness of a study population and possible adjustment for selection bias.

    Irene Ng, Paul Tasker, Duncan McFarlane, Peter Wild, Glenn Parry (2011)Complex Engineering Service Systems : Concepts and Research Springer
    John Mills, Glenn Parry, Valerie Purchase (2011)Towards Understanding the Value of the Client's Aspirations and Fears in Complex, Long-term Service Contracts, In: Ng, G Parry, P J Wild, D McFarlane, P Tasker (eds.), Complex Engineering Service Systemspp. 87-103 Springer Nature

    This chapter focuses on the translation of public sector client aspirations and fears into a specification of the services necessary for a complex, long-term service availability contract. The contract is complex in many senses including that many independent organisations must work together to deliver contracted service outcomes and long-term being in excess of 10 years. These factors imply the need for enterprise level management processes in addition to stakeholder centric management. The alignment between the contracted services and the client's needs is investigated and the implications of partial mismatches are discussed. Particular issues raised are the effect on behaviours around contract operation; potentially missed opportunities to co-create value and build trust; and challenges to the achievement of enterprise-wide management processes. The research highlights the potential role of evolving and explicitly shared Client and Provider aspirations and fears as a basis for enterprise-wide management.

    Irene Ng, Glenn Parry, Duncan McFarlane, Paul Tasker (2011)Towards a Core Integrative Framework for Complex Engineering Service Systems, In: Ng, G Parry, P J Wild, D McFarlane, P Tasker (eds.), Complex Engineering Service Systemspp. 1-19 Springer Nature

    Complex Engineering Service provision is a developing area for both practitioners and academics. Delivery requires an integrated offering, drawing upon company, customer and supplier resources to deliver value that is an integration of complex engineered assets, people and technology. For a business to present a sustainable value proposition, managers are required to develop a diverse skill set, working dynamically across previously separated business areas with established company boundaries. In this chapter we will present a framework for complex engineering service system that is value-centric and that conceptually integrates the chapters of this book. The framework proposes that the provision of service requires companies to be capable of working together with their clients to create value through three integrated transformations: people, information and materials & equipment. Successful provision of complex engineering service solutions therefore requires the integration and mastery of many different disciplines that bring about these transformations as well as understanding the interactions and links between both the transformations and the disciplines. The challenge laid out in this chapter and developed throughout this book explores this new environment, providing guidance and identifying areas requiring future work.

    G. C. Parry, C. E. Turner (2006)Application of lean visual process management tools, In: Production planning & control17(1)pp. 77-86 Taylor & Francis Group

    Visual process management tools have been developed by lean practitioners as communication aids and are used to help drive operations and processes in real time. Three case studies from aerospace companies describe the physical visual tools that have been implemented to facilitate performance measurement and communication in different engineering processes. Rolls Royce presents an example of how ERP outputs are communicated and controlled in a lean manufacturing process. At Airbus UK (Filton) visual process boards are used to manage a complex knowledge and people based process bringing together multiple supplier inputs in the production of aircraft maintenance manuals. Senior management at Weston Aerospace are using visual process control to run and report on work packages, resources and processes throughout their organisation. These systems act as an extension to metrics, and in themselves may be considered as a dynamic measurement system as they provide instant feedback and can be used to predict a probable outcome if no action is taken. The learning and themes that have made these implementations successful is presented and collated into a set of guidelines for consideration when implementing visual process management tools.

    Kayvan Miri Lavassani, Bahar Movahedi, Glenn Parry (2014)Broadband Internet adoption challenge An investigation of broadband utilization in the United States, In: Transforming government8(4)pp. 620-644 Emerald Group Publishing

    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate empirically how broadband has been implemented at the business level and what are the potential adoption benchmarks. Several recent studies have called for the development of frameworks of broadband adoption, particularly at the business level, to help policy makers, communities and businesses with their strategic decision-making process. Design/methodology/approach - This paper opens the discussion by presenting concerns and challenges of Internet adoption. Internet adoption is viewed as the current challenge facing businesses, communities and governments. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) techniques are used to create, analyze and develop Internet adoption models. Findings - Based on the Internet usage data from a number of states across the USA, measurement models are developed using EFA and CFA. The findings indicate that for our sample, a three-factor model is the most appropriate for the representation of Internet adoption in the tourism sector, while a five-factor model can best describe Internet adoption in the sample of manufacturing organizations. Research limitations/implications - The availability of data on Internet usage at the business/organizational level is one of the main constraints. Industry/community-specific data can also provide valuable insights about the Internet adoption and support the development of industry/community-specific adoption models. Practical implications - The findings and the employed research method can be used by businesses, communities and government managers and policy makers as benchmarks to examine broadband adoption based on gap-opportunity criteria. Originality/value - This is the first study that provides Internet adoption models based on an empirical study at the business level. The benefits of broadband Internet have been investigated by many researchers in the past decade. There seems to be a consensus among practitioners and scholars about the role of broadband Internet in gaining competitive advantage. However, there have not been any previous studies that investigate how broadband has been implemented and what the potential adoption benchmarks at the business level are.

    Glenn Parry (2005)Counting the cost: ERP, In: Manufacturing Engineer84(1)pp. 22-25 Institution of Engineering and Technology
    Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Glenn Parry, Oscar F. Bustinza, Nicholas O'Regan (2014)Servitization as a Driver for Organizational Change, In: Strategic change23(5-6)pp. 279-285 Wiley

    Servitization is the move away from selling traditional product to selling a wide range of product/service bundle combinations, contributing to firm sustainability and profitability and hence the competitiveness of nations.

    Ettore Settanni, Linda B. Newnes, Nils E. Thenent, Glenn C. Parry, Daniel Bumblauskas, Peter Sandborn, Yee Mey Goh (2016)Applying Forgotten Lessons in Field Reliability Data Analysis to Performance-Based Support Contracts, In: Engineering management journal28(1)pp. 3-13 Taylor & Francis

    Assumptions used in field reliability data analysis may be seldom made explicit or questioned in practice, yet these assumptions affect how engineering managers develop metrics for use in long-term support contracts. To address this issue, this article describes a procedure to avoid the pitfalls in employing the results of field data analysis for repairable items. The procedure is implemented with the aid of a simplified example based on a real case study in defense avionics and is streamlined so that the computations can be replicated in other applications.

    Glenn Parry, Oscar Bustinza, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Nicholas O'Regan (2016)Internationalization of Product-Service System Global, Regional or National Strategy?, In: Foresight and STI governance10(1)pp. 16-29 Natl Research Univ Higher Sch Economics

    Highly dynamic market environment, knowledge creation and technology advancement demands that producers/providers need to be more efficient and effective in meeting existing and future consumer needs and expectations. In this regard, companies strive, as deeply as possible, to diversify a range of proposed products as well as strategies for their commercialisation. Using the case of music industry, this paper explores the validity of national, regional or global strategies in the provision of a product service system. The authors surveyed over 70,000 respondents from fifteen geographically spread countries which account for more than 85% of the global revenues of the industry. The analysis of the survey results identified a homogeneous group of so-called Out of Touch consumers characterized by their attitude: they are interested in and have money for, but no-longer purchase music. The authors attempt to ascertain if and how re-engaging the group in music purchase would achieve a significant sales increase. The analysis explores how potential consumers might respond to, or are able to be influenced by, value offerings in fifteen different countries. Findings suggest that firms may employ global strategies for supply of products and services, but regional strategies are required to define the appropriate bundles to re-engage Out of Touch consumers.

    Ettore Settanni, Linda B. Newnes, Nils E. Thenent, Daniel Bumblauskas, Glenn Parry, Yee Mey Goh (2016)A Case Study in Estimating Avionics Availability from Field Reliability Data, In: Quality and reliability engineering international32(4)pp. 1553-1580 Wiley

    Under incentivized contractual mechanisms such as availability-based contracts, the support service provider and its customer must share a common understanding of equipment reliability baselines. Emphasis is typically placed on the information technology-related solutions for capturing, processing and sharing vast amounts of data. In the case of repairable fielded items, scant attention is paid to the pitfalls within the modelling assumptions that are often endorsed uncritically and seldom made explicit during field reliability data analysis. This paper presents a case study in which good practices in reliability data analysis are identified and applied to real-world data with the aim of supporting the effective execution of a defence avionics availability-based contract. The work provides practical guidance on how to make a reasoned choice between available models and methods based on the intelligent exploration of the data available in practical industrial applications. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Clayton Davies, Glenn Parry, Janet Carruthers, Marcus Kepple-Palmer (2015)The Epistemological Foundations of Music Piracy in the Digital Marketplace, In: Foresight and STI governance9(4)pp. 42-53 Natl Research Univ Higher Sch Economics

    This paper examines the fundamental epistemological gap between the consumers and producers of digitally based products. Using the music industry and the significance of digital products in this arena as a case study of evolving relationships between buyers and sellers, we evaluate the nature of 'piracy' from multiple perspectives: creators, intermediaries, distributors, and end consumers. Our study centres on the epistemological boundaries of these agents and actors, using existing evidence and qualitative research to examine the nature and limits of the epistemological reach of agents and actors in this digital marketplace. Our theoretical model is an adapted and applied version of Domain-Generality and Domain-Specificity in Personal Epistemology. We find a series of epistemological dissonances, driven by differing levels of understanding about (and access to) the underlying technological, legal, and social structures of an evolving marketplace. As a result of instability, these structures inevitably create various epistemological boundaries. Using the developed analytical framework, the case study of music piracy illustrates how identifying epistemological dissonance helps sellers develop strategies that could minimize the impact of piracy on their revenue streams.

    Gareth R. T. White, Glenn Charles Parry, Aneka Puckering (2016)Knowledge Acquisition in Information System Development: A Case Study of System Developers in an International Bank, In: Strategic change25(1)pp. 81-95 Wiley

    The acquisition of knowledge by information system development has received comparatively little academic attention. Developers are found to acquire knowledge more rapidly than could be expected. The choice of methodology has implications for an organization's knowledge strategy as well as its information system development.

    Gerard Briscoe, Krista Keränen, Glenn Parry (2012)Understanding complex service systems through different lenses: An overview, In: European management journal30(5)pp. 418-426 Elsevier Ltd

    ► Paper provides an overview of complex service thinking. ► Different approaches to thinking about complex service. ► Theoretical and practical tools discussed. ► Common context to link contributors. The 2011 Grand Challenge in Service conference aimed to explore, analyse and evaluate complex service systems. A case scenario, improving the perception of safety in the London Borough of Sutton, provided a common context to link participant contributions. The key themes that emerged included value co-creation, systems and networks, technology, and complexity. Contributions on value co-creation were based mainly on empirical research and provided a variety of insights, including the importance of a better understanding of collaboration within value co-creation. Contributions on the systems perspective included efforts to understand the implications of the interactions within service systems, as well as their interactions with social systems. Contributions within the technological sphere were focused on the creation of new value constellations and demand fulfilment through hybrid offerings of physical assets, information and people. Contributions on complexity focused on the challenges in understanding, managing and analysing these complex service systems. The theoretical and applied contributions all demonstrated the importance of better understanding service for the future.

    Oscar F. Bustinza-Sanchez, Glenn Parry, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Vasileios Myrthianos (2015)Link channels or how to enhance upstream-downstream relations in servitized contexts, In: DYNA90(6)pp. 588-589 Federacion Asociaciones Ingenieros Industriales Espana
    Alexander Kharlamov, Glenn Parry, Linda Newnes (2019)When and Where Is Transdisciplinary Engineering Applied in Projects? A Case Study, In: K Hiekata, B Moser, M Inoue, J Stjepandic, N Wognum (eds.), TRANSDISCIPLINARY ENGINEERING FOR COMPLEX SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEMS10pp. 12-21 Ios Press

    Transdisciplinary engineering (TE) is gaining attention in academic literature and comes with the underlying assumption of being the next evolutionary step for incorporating engineering solutions in practice. We seek to answer the question of when TE is appropriate and what the conditions are for efficient applications of TE in practice. A framework for analysis is constructed integrating TE with theory of communication and strategic paradox. The framework is used as a lens in a single explorative case of an multi-university research project. The project brings together researchers from a diverse range of disciplines, working together to create a novel device that could have a transformative impact on specific cancer healthcare. Data is collected using structured interviews with project researchers. The main finding from the case study is that TE does not appear to be employed at all levels of abstraction. In this case TE is found to be employed at the strategic level, while tactical and operational levels adopt traditional approaches to working. Effective TE relies heavily on the relationship between specialisation and generalisation. We identify two main roles when it comes to people; specialists and generalists. Specialists (e.g. healthcare, pharmaceuticals & biotechnology) must be able to understand the general picture while the Generalists (e.g. business; operations) must be aware of the requirements and limitations of Specialists. Generalisations for practice and further research are discussed. The main contribution of the work is a framework for analysis of TE.

    Valerie Purchase, Glenn Parry, John Mills (2011)Service Enterprise Transformation, In: Ng, G Parry, P J Wild, D McFarlane, P Tasker (eds.), Complex Engineering Service Systemspp. 25-48 Springer Nature

    This chapter examines the challenges in transforming a complex multi-organisational service enterprise. It builds on a review of relevant literature and an empirical analysis of the early experience and lessons learned by industry and MoD partners in the ATTAC (ATTAC (Availability Transformation: Tornado Aircraft Contract) is a long-term, whole-aircraft availability contract where BAE Systems take prime responsibility to provide Tornado aircraft with depth support and upgrades, incentivised to achieve defined levels of available aircraft, spares and technical support at a target cost.) enterprise which delivers a through life support programme in the defence sector. The transformation will be explored within three sections. The first illustrates and further develops current understanding of the drivers and challenges inherent in the move to service. In the second section, the need for a 'holistic enterprise perspective' for service delivery in complex engineering systems is discussed and illustrated through the ATTAC case study. Finally, the challenges in undertaking such a complex transformation process are discussed. The frameworks created may support future service enterprise leaders in identifying and communicating to all stakeholders the key drivers for the transition to through-life support services and assessing the key barriers which may be faced in managing their own transformation.

    Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Vasileios Myrthianos, Glenn Parry, Oscar F. Bustinza (2017)Digital dark matter within product service systems, In: Competitiveness review27(1)pp. 62-79 Emerald Group Publishing

    Purpose - The unobserved benefits of digital technologies are described as digital dark matter. Product service systems (PSSs) are bundles of products and services that deliver value in use, which is unobserved but generates benefits. This paper aims to empirically quantify digital dark matter within PSSs and correlates that measure with national competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach - A novel methodology establishes the link between customer needs and a product and digital service portfolio offered across ten developed economies. The case context is the music industry where product and services are often substitutes - a cannibalistic PSS. Consumer information is obtained from a unique database of more than 18,000 consumer surveys. Consumer demand for digital formats is modelled and predicted through logistic regressions. Findings - The work provides inverse estimations for digital dark matter within PSSs by calculating the gap between supply and demand for digital offers - described as the business model challenge. The USA has the lowest business model challenge; the home of major companies developing digital technologies. Digital dark matter is shown to be positively correlated with national competitiveness and manufacturing competitiveness indices. Practical implications - The success of a cannibalistic PSS requires good understanding of market demand. Governments embarking on soft innovation policies might incentivise the development of service-orientated business models based on digital technologies. Originality/value -Work expands theory on the concept of digital dark matter to the PSS literature. Empirically, a novel method is proposed to measure digital dark matter.

    John Mills, Glenn Parry, Valerie Purchase (2011)Enterprise Imaging: Visualising the Scope and Dependencies of Complex Service Enterprises, In: Ng, G Parry, P J Wild, D McFarlane, P Tasker (eds.), Complex Engineering Service Systemspp. 49-65 Springer Nature

    This chapter develops a two dimensional "Enterprise Image" capable of assisting independent provider and client stakeholders to take a holistic perspective of their roles in complex support enterprises. Though the case study describes a complex, through-life, availability contract in the Defence sector (Empirical data are taken from ATTAC (Availability Transformation: Tornado Aircraft Contracts), a long term, whole-aircraft availability contract where BAE Systems take prime responsibility to provide Tornado aircraft with depth support and upgrades, delivering defined levels of available aircraft, spares and technical support at a target cost.), the image is believed to be applicable in other sectors. This is particularly the case in public sector to private sector contracts where both primary providers and clients have multiple aims and further independent organisations provide key inputs necessary for successful outcomes. In this environment the prime providers may manage combinations of their own and client staff at the client's premises using facilities provided by the client. Thus the provider may be directly dependent on actions by the client to fulfil the contract. This research contributes to provide a novel and structured mapping that illustrates the interfaces and dependencies that can emerge from complex, multi-organisational, contracts, provide a shared basis for co-operative discussion between stakeholders and thus raise opportunities for new resource configurations and integration mechanisms that create further value for clients and providers.

    J. Sajdakova, E. Carey, V. Dhokia, L. Newnes, G. Parry (2022)Proposal of a Self-Assessment Competency Framework for Transdisciplinary Engineering, In: Journal of industrial integration and management : innovation and entrepreneurship

    Transdisciplinary (TD) working is claimed to be critical to meet future societal needs, with engineers being at the core to provide solutions to these challenges. However, there is little available that enables one to assess whether they or their team have the competencies required. Within this paper, we propose a self-assessment framework to ascertain whether design engineers have the competencies which enable TD working. We describe how the competencies were identified using a systematic literature review (SLR), we then describe how we utilized coded decision trees to classify which disciplinary level a particular competency can enable. In total, 76 competencies were classified; the results of the analysis show 20 of these displaying TD attributes as defined by Jantsch. The novelty of the approach is as follows: (1) In this paper, we propose a novel way to map the identified competencies against the levels of Jantsch’s hierarchical framework. (2) The proposed framework enables self-assessment of individual or team competencies to assess whether they have the competencies which enable TD working. (3) It enables a move towards incorporating TD practices in engineering projects.

    G. Parry, C. Kowalkowski, H. Gebauer, B. Kamp (2017)Servitization and deservitization: Overview, concepts, and definitions Elsevier

    The topic of servitization has generated a considerable body of research and many conferences, as well as industry engagement. Yet, despite the extensive literature associated with this now-mature discipline, there is no broad-based consensus on the core concepts and definitions deployed by servitization scholars, and both terminology and usage often seem ambiguous. This paper examines challenges related to service growth strategies, as well as strategies involving deservitization or a retreat from service offerings. Showing that these strategies have been pursued for more than fifty years, clarification is sought here by framing the corresponding processes and proposing definitions for four core terms: servitization, service infusion, deservitization and service dilution. It becomes clear that in focusing on the organizational change entailed by these processes, future research must elucidate softer issues such as leadership and business logic.

    Glenn Parry, Roan De Bock, Gareth R. T. White (2015)Global Information System Implementation: A Study of Strategic and Cultural Challenges and Enablers in a DMNC, In: Strategic change24(5)pp. 447-462 Wiley

    The factors mentioned most frequently by the information system implementation teams as being critical to success were all issues pertaining to cultural rather than strategic management.

    Glenn Parry, Oscar F. Bustinza, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero (2012)Servitisation and value co-production in the UK music industry: An empirical study of Consumer Attitudes, In: International journal of production economics135(1)pp. 320-332 Elsevier

    Since the rise of music on the internet the record industry has reported falling total sales revenues. This has occurred at a time when technology has radically increased choice, availability and the opportunity for the consumer to purchase music. To date, pay-per-unit music sales channels have been more successful than music subscription services. As the music industry has moved from a product to a service business model, does the loss of sales indicate they have not taken their customers with them? This paper provides a description of different Music Consumer Attitudes, an independent variable in this research, based upon quantitative analysis of more than 5000 valid survey responses. Consumer Purchasing Behaviour and Music Discovery Methods are treated as dependant variables. An empirical study using Structural Equations Model was carried out to test the relationship between consumer groups and purchasing preference in relation to tangible products and intangible 'service' purchases. Moreover, consumer typology and propensity to actively engage with music communities was analysed and thus their willingness to co-produce value was explored. The most important findings were, first, all consumers view pay per unit positively. And second, a group of consumers representing just under half the sample was identified that would engage with a monthly subscription music service and could co-produce solutions in this channel. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Xiao Xi Huang, Linda B. Newnes, Glenn C. Parry (2012)The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service, In: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing25(4-5)pp. 417-431 Taylor & Francis

    This article presents an approach to ascertain whether product cost estimating techniques can be adapted for use in estimating the costs for providing a service. The research methodology adopted consists of a critique and analysis of the literature to ascertain how current cost estimation techniques are used. The analysis of the cost estimation techniques provides knowledge of cost estimation, in particular for products and service with advantages and drawbacks defined. This leads to the proposition of applying product costing methods to services. Hence, proposals on how product costing approaches can contribute to the service industry are presented as the focus of this article. Gaps and challenges for service costing are identified and corresponding future direction is suggested.

    Oscar F. Bustinza, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Glenn Parry, Vasileios Myrthianos (2013)Music business models and piracy, In: Industrial management + data systems113(1-2)pp. 4-22 Emerald Group Publishing

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to estimate the scale of illegal file-sharing activity across ten countries and to correlate this activity with country revenues. The work aims to elucidate an under-explored business model challenge which exists in parallel with a music piracy challenge. Design/methodology/approach - The study data are drawn from a number of sources, including a data set of a survey of more than 44,000 consumers in ten different countries undertaken in 2010. Following analysis, all findings are validated by a panel of industry experts. Findings - Results show that non-legitimate file-sharing activity is a heterogeneous issue across countries. The scale of activity varies from 14 per cent in Germany to 44 per cent in Spain, with an average of 28 per cent. File-sharing activity negatively correlates to music industry revenue per capita. This research finds many consumers are not engaging with online business models. Almost one fourth of the population claim that they do not consume digital music in either legal or illegal forms. This phenomenon is also negatively correlated with sales per capita. Practical implications - Results support the need for policy makers to introduce strong intellectual property rights (IPR) regulation which reduces file-sharing activity. The work also identifies a large percentage of non-participants in the digital market who may be re-engaged with music through business model innovation. Originality/value - This research presents a map of the current file-sharing activity in ten countries using a rich and unique dataset The work identifies that a country's legal origin correlates to data on file-sharing activity, with countries from a German legal origin illegally file sharing least. Approximately, half of the survey respondents chose not to answer the question related to file-sharing activity. Different estimates of the true scale of file-sharing activity are given based upon three different assumptions of the file sharing activity of non-respondents to this question. The challenge of engaging consumers in the digital market through different business models is discussed in light of digital music's high velocity environment.

    Glenn Parry, Andrew Graves (2008)The importance of knowledge management for ERP systems, In: International journal of logistics11(6)pp. 427-441 Taylor & Francis

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software provides a coherent integrated electronic business management environment, frequently controlling all logistics and billing for an enterprise. Many companies are now reliant upon these systems for their daily operations; maintaining and adapting them in parallel with their business as it evolves, adding new suppliers and customers. The process of managing the development of the ERP software requires detailed knowledge of systems. ERP systems often become unique to an enterprise and may have tens to millions of pounds being invested in their development. The value of knowledge management (KM) specifically for the management and operation of ERP systems is becoming evident. Managing ERP systems knowledge has been identified as a critical success factor if a firm, its suppliers and logistics providers are to retain control of their business and not be controlled by their systems. Case studies of KM practice for three global organisations from within the UK Aerospace and Defence industry have been undertaken. This study identifies leading practices, with references to the literature, for effective KM of ERP systems.

    Gareth R. T. White, Matthew Lomax, Glenn Parry (2014)The implementation of an environmental management system in the not-for-profit sector, In: Benchmarking : an international journal21(4)pp. 509-526 Emerald Group Publishing

    Purpose - This paper aims to examine the implementation of the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) in a non-profit, small-to-medium sized-enterprise (SME) in the UK. Design/methodology/approach - A four-year participatory action research study is made upon knowledge transfer partnerships between the University of the West of England and the Royal Bath and West Society. Findings - Through the adoption of EMAS, the organisation was able to identify operational improvements as well as make significant efforts to improve its environmental performance, reducing its carbon footprint by 30 tCO(2)e per annum and gaining new business. Research limitations/implications - The study is made upon a single not-for-profit organisation in the UK. Practical implications - It presents the costs, benefits and challenges that the organisation faced. Techniques that were used to successfully manage the environmental management systems (EMS) development are also discussed. The investigation identifies deficiencies in the materials that are provided to support companies that are seeking EMAS certification. To improve the uptake of these EMS and assist companies in their successful pursuit of ISO 14001 and EMAS, this supporting documentation requires enhancement. Originality/value - There has been relatively little empirical research around the development and benefits of organisational EMS. Even less has focussed upon the specific constraints and opportunities that face non-profit organisations when implementing EMAS. This paper addresses this gap, identifying its costs and tangible benefits.

    Neil J. Barnett, Glenn Parry, Mohammed Saad, Linda B. Newnes, Yee Mey Goh (2013)Servitization: Is a Paradigm Shift in the Business Model and Service Enterprise Required?, In: Strategic change22(3-4)pp. 145-156 Wiley

    Servitization is the move by firms to gain value from service associated with their products, which requires a strategic rather than incremental change in the provider firm.

    Oscar F. Bustinza, Glenn C. Parry, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero (2013)Supply and demand chain management: the effect of adding services to product offerings, In: Supply chain management18(6)pp. 618-629 Emerald Group Publishing

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand how firms manage their product and service offerings, integrating supply chain management (SCM) and demand chain management (DCM) strategies. Adding services to the product portfolio of a firm may bring benefits to an organisation, but requires a reconsideration of the supply chain management approach. Design/methodology/approach - A survey is used to collect data, with valid questionnaires obtained for 4,227 UK-based respondents. Empirical analysis utilises structural equation modelling (SEM). Findings - The paper proposes that a combination of management approaches is required by firms which add services to their portfolio of traditional product offerings. A supply chain management approach may be suitable for traditional product offerings. The management of the services value chain, where the customers' role as value creator is a central feature of the construct, is better served by integration of the market orientation of DCM. Originality/value - The paper addresses a research gap related to the shift in traditional activities carried out by a firm moving from purely product to a product service offer and reconsiders the supply and demand chain management approach. The paper is from a Business to Consumer (B2C) perspective. In this context, the work pioneers analysis into a particular case where a firm's product and service offerings may be substitutes for each other in the eyes of the customer.

    Jannis Angelis, Glenn Parry, Mairi Macintyre (2012)Discretion and complexity in customer focused environments, In: European management journal30(5)pp. 466-472 Elsevier

    Operations have traditionally focused on reductive analysis; transactional processes open to mass-customisation and standardisation. This study proposes that service complexity created by extensive 'reasonable' customer demand limits the ability to standardise and manage systems through mass-customisation. Beyond mass-customisation we propose management is by discretion. Discretion is difficult, if not impossible to codify, so operations are 'managed' via framework principles that also are difficult to replicate and provide a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The study furthers the servitisation discussion through a public sector services case. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Glenn Parry, Andrew Graves Introduction and Overview, In: Build To Orderpp. 1-10 Springer London

    This book addresses the conceptual and practical aspects of the automotive industry’s next goal – the delivery to the customer of a bespoke vehicle 5 days after placing the order. We have brought together a selection of leading European automotive experts from across industry and academia to provide insights into the goals of producing cars to order. Whilst the “voices” are all different, the message is the same – build to order is the future of the European motor industry. A compelling need to change has been identified and viable methods to do so have been developed and are presented here. Whilst the research and findings are the result of many years’ work in the automotive industry, most have application in many other sectors. Many car companies are losing money. The mass-production business model of the automotive industry is flawed and perhaps becoming dysfunctional. The industry suffers from global overcapacity and rising stock levels and exhibits inherently low profitability. It has now been nearly two decades since “lean production” was documented and the auto industry in the West set out to employ Japanese best practice and close the productivity gap. While lean efforts have delivered improvements in manufacturing efficiency, they have been largely ineffective in increasing profitability, due to a myopic focus on factory processes. The automotive industry has optimised systems for mass production, but not tackled the problems of capacity and demand. We find ourselves in a position where, following leading practice, a car can be built from flat steel in a production facility within 11 h. A customer ordering a car in a dealership has to wait around 40 days to purchase their desired vehicle, or buy one from stock. How has this occurred?

    Vasileios Myrthianos, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Glenn Parry, Oscar F. Bustinza (2014)Firm Profitability During the Servitization Process in the Music Industry, In: Strategic change23(5-6)pp. 317-328 Wiley

    The music industry, as other creative industries, has suffered a dramatic decrease in performance due to the digital disruption. While in the previous literature revenues are viewed as a proxy for performance, this paper uses profits, confirming the link between the fall in industry revenues and firm profits. Profits have decreased more for local firms than multinationals, indicating that the large firms adapt better to technological and economic disruptions.

    Glenn Parry, Marc McLening, Nigel Caldwell, Rob Thompson (2011)Complex Deployed Responsive Service, In: M Macintyre, G Parry, J Angelis (eds.), Service Design and Deliverypp. 95-117 Springer Nature
    Ettore Settanni, Linda B. Newnes, Nils E. Thenent, Glenn Parry, Yee Mey Goh (2014)A through-life costing methodology for use in product–service-systems, In: International journal of production economics153pp. 161-177 Elsevier B.V

    Availability-based contracts which provide customers with the use of assets such as machines, ships, aircraft platforms or subsystems like engines and avionics are increasingly offered as an alternative to the purchase of an asset and separate support contracts. The cost of servicing a durable product can be addressed by Through-life Costing (TLC). Providers of advanced services are now concerned with the cost of delivering outcomes that meet customer requirements using combinations of assets and activities via a Product Service System (PSS). This paper addresses the question: To what extent are the current approaches to TLC methodologically appropriate for costing the provision of advanced services, particularly availability, through a PSS? A novel methodology for TLC is outlined addressing the challenges of PSS cost assessment with regard to ‘what?’ (cost object), ‘why/to what extent?’ (scope and boundaries), and ‘how?’ (computations). The research provides clarity for those seeking to cost availability in a performance-orientated contractual setting and provides insight to the measures that may be associated with it. In particular, a reductionist approach that focuses on one cost object at a time is not appropriate for a PSS. Costing an advanced service delivered through a PSS is a problem of attributing the value of means to the economic activities carried out for specific ends to be achieved. Cost results from the interplay between monetary and non-monetary metrics, and uncertainties thereof. Whilst seeking to ensure generality of the findings, the application of TLC examined here is limited to a military aircraft platform and subsystems.

    Oscar F. Bustinza, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Ma Nieves Perez-Arostegui, Glenn Parry (2019)Technological capabilities, resilience capabilities and organizational effectiveness, In: International journal of human resource management30(8)pp. 1370-1392 Taylor & Francis

    Previous research has defined resilience as a desirable characteristic for an organization and its members to possess when circumstances adversely change. Resilience is analysed through different perspectives as organizational responses to external threats, organizational reliability or employee strengths. However, the role of resilience in enhancing organizational effectiveness is not fully understood. Grounded in organizational ambidexterity, the current research tests the value of resilience capabilities developed through specific Human Resource Practices (HRPs) in the context of ever-changing market conditions. This paper argues that as well as technological capabilities, HRPs that build resilience within an organization are needed to successfully implement technological change. Resilience capabilities are a mediating factor between technological capabilities and organizational effectiveness, whilst environment dynamism and competitive intensity are moderators of this relationship. Using a primary sample of 205 manufacturing firms, a model is presented and tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The results reinforce the importance of HRPs in building resilience which helps firms to continuously adjust to change and subsequently enhance their organizational effectiveness.

    Glenn Parry, Mike JamesMoore, Andrew Graves (2006)Outsourcing engineering commodity procurement, In: Supply chain management11(5)pp. 436-443 Emerald Group Publishing Limited

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to introduce and provide an insight into the benefits of outsourcing the procurement function for engineering commodity items. Designmethodologyapproach Research into the literature presents the development of outsourcing procurement functions and this manuscript adds to the body of knowledge through introducing the outsourcing of engineering commodity procurement, illustrated with the case study example. Findings A US Aerospace Fortune 50 company has made savings by outsourcing the procurement of commodity engineering parts. This has occurred in two stages. Firstly the commodity procurement was locally outsourced and staff migrated to the service provider to whom commodity procurement was a core competence enabling them to offer cost savings. Secondly the back office and telephone service was moved to India, further reducing cost whilst enhancing the service through an increased headcount. Originalityvalue The paper provides the first example of the two stages of outsourcing engineering commodity procurement.

    Glenn Parry, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Oscar F. Bustinza (2014)Using Data in Decision-Making: Analysis from the Music Industry, In: Strategic change23(3-4)pp. 265-277 Wiley

    Internet use provides an increasing amount of data that has potential value for managers and policy makers but, without a precise understanding of the meaning of data, erroneous conclusions may be drawn which could adversely affect future decisions made by managers.

    Alisha Tuladhar, Michael Rogerson, Glenn Charles Parry, Ayşe Begüm Kiliç (2023)Blockchain adoption by SMEs: Evidence from an EU-funded project

    As part of a European Union-funded project, we investigate why SMEs choose to adopt or not adopt blockchain in their operations. The study used the technological-organisational-environmental (TOE) framework to understand the challenges, enablers and barriers faced by small and mid-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their intention to adopt or to not adopt blockchain technology. A qualitative study involved interviews with SMEs and triad consultations session between blockchain technical experts, SMEs and researchers. Our findings suggest that SMEs find blockchain confusing and complex. Consequently, SMEs in our sample adopt the technology only where well-defined use cases can be used to attract larger clients or as a central function of the business model, rather than in addition to existing operations and supply chain uses. We believe this to be important because it means that SMEs will be less able to use blockchain as a disruptive source of competitive advantage against larger players.

    Robert Grattan, Nicholas O’Regan, Glenn Parry (2015)Strategic Defence Review 1998: Politics, Power, and Influence in Government Decisions, In: Strategic Change24(4 Special Issue: First Special Issue on New Strategies for Innovative Performance)pp. 305-320 Wiley

    Politics, power, and influence impact upon strategy, where the intention to produce a foreign policy-based strategic defence review was forgone during last-minute adjustments and compromises over money.

    Philip Davies, GLENN CHARLES PARRY, Laura Phillips, Irene Ng (2021)Boundary Negotiations: a paradox theoretical approach for efficient and flexible modular systems, In: International Journal of Operations and Production Management Emerald

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the interplay between firm boundary decisions and the management of both-and efficiency and flexibility and the implications this has for modular design in the provision of advanced services. Design/Methodology/Approach: A single case study in the defence industry employs semistructured interviews supplemented by secondary data. Data is analysed using thematic analysis. Findings: The findings provide a process model of boundary negotiations for the design of efficient and flexible modular systems consisting of three phases; boundary ambiguity, boundary defences and boundary alignment. Practical implications: The study provides a process framework for boundary negotiations to help organisations navigate the management of both-and efficiency and flexibility in the provision of advanced services. Originality/Value: Drawing upon modularity, paradox and systems theory, this article provides novel theoretical insight into the relationship between firm boundary decisions and the management of bothand efficiency vs. flexibility in the provision of product upgrade services.

    Engineering disciplines are paying increasing attention to transdisciplinary (TD) working. The terminology of single, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary lacks clarity. Consequently, there is currently no consensus on what defines a TD research approach. This makes it difficult to implement and measure the impact of TD and TD working. Clear definition of the approach and understanding of where TD is most applicable is needed because the education of tomorrow's engineers can only be realised if researchers build upon coherent theoretical frameworks. This paper draws on theory to define TD and then aims to reduce confusion and instill clarity by identifying when TD as a research approach should or should not be used. This is achieved by answering the research question: when might it be beneficial to take a TD rather than single, multi or interdisciplinary research approach? Survey responses from twenty-eight authors (50%) who presented papers at the 28 th ISTE International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering (TE2021) were qualitatively analysed. Findings show institutional barriers to TD adoption may prevent the benefits of TD engineering research from being realised. Rather than the research approach itself, it is the environment in which we do our research, one which is decided long before our work begins, that will determine if any meaningful benefits from TD are realised.

    Susan Lattanzio, Jana Sajdakova, Richard Burke, Glenn Parry, Linda Newnes (2020)Towards a Practical Approach for TE Education: A Pilot Study at the University of Bath, In: 27th International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering (TE2020)

    Recent decades have seen increased interest in transdisciplinary (TD) research. To deliver on the promise of TD working there has been a call for the expansion of TD education in emerging literature. The challenge with proposed approaches is that they are often difficult to implement requiring significantly changed courses structures, and the coordination of teams of academic and industry experts to deliver. This creates a barrier to the main-streaming of TD education. Our research aims to create a practical approach for Transdisciplinary Engineering (TE) education which can be easily incorporated within existing course designs and in doing so facilitate wider disseminated. This paper presents the design and pilot of a TE session with MRes students from the University of Bath’s, Centre of Doctoral Training in Advanced Automotive Propulsion Systems. The session is evaluated by way of student feedback. The results show broad satisfaction with the session. Six of the eight indicated that they were satisfied with the quality of the session (two students were neutral). All students considered that the course material was presented in a clear and understandable way. All students considered that the course was accessible to their level of understanding. Future work will see the session delivered within additional engineering MSc courses at Bath and internationally with informal agreements in place with Universities in Colombia, Korea and Poland.

    Glenn Parry, John Collomosse (2021)Perspectives on “Good” in Blockchain for Good, In: Frontiers in Blockchain3609136 Frontiers Media S.A

    Blockchain projects have been developed to extend the reach of distributed ledger technology (DLT) beyond cryptocurrency to achieve “good” in the world. Such projects may make a claim for moral, ethical, and responsible intent, but many researchers have not critically examined what good means in context. The concept of good has been debated for centuries and whilst we will not conclude the argument, we should engage in the discourse. We propose the idea that exploration across micro, meso, and macro levels of value creating ecosystems is needed. The implications, both practical and theoretical, of the use of blockchain for good require analysis. As the ambition for blockchain innovations to transform society for the better becomes practical reality, understanding of such change will come from transdisciplinary researchers able to bridge knowledge of social and technical systems.

    Elizabeth Green, Felix Ritchie, Peter Bradley, Glenn Parry (2021)Financial resilience, income dependence and organisational survival in UK charities, In: Voluntas : international journal of voluntary and nonprofit organizations Springer Nature Switzerland AG

    The financial well-being of the charity sector has important social implications. Numerous studies have analysed whether the concentration of income in a few sources increases financial vulnerability. However, few studies have systematically considered whether the type of income (grants, donation, fund-raising activities) affects the survival prospects of the charity. We extend the literature by (a) explicitly modelling the composition of sources of income (b) allowing for short-term volatility as well as long-term survival, and (c) testing alternative specifications in a nested form.We show that the usual association between income concentration per se and financial vulnerability is a specification error. Greater vulnerability is associated with dependence on grant funding, not overall concentration. Previous studies showing that concentration of income per se is problematic are picking up a proxy effect. We also show that the volatility of income streams may be an important factor in the survival of charities, but that this also varies between income sources.

    Companies within the Digital Economy are evolving their business models as they take advantage of the opportunities afforded by emerging digital technologies. There is a need to develop methods that will allow researchers and policy makers to understand the existence of, and relationships between, the different business models within the Digital Economy and track their evolution. Such methods could also help quantify the size and growth of the Digital Economy. This paper presents a computational method, which utilizes machine learning and web scraping, to identify new business models, and a taxonomy of organisations, through the analysis of a firm's webpage. The work seeks to provide an autonomous tool that provides regular output tracking trends in the number of firms in a market, their business model and changes in activity from product to service over time. This information would provide valuable and actionable insight for researchers, firms and markets.

    Burkhard Schafer, Glenn Charles Parry, John Philip Collomosse, Steven Alfred Schneider, Chris Speed, Christopher Elsden (2022)DeCaDE Contribution to the Law Commission Call for Evidence on The Changing Law on Ownership in Digital Assets

    This response to the Law Commission Call for Evidence on The Changing Law on Ownership in Digital Assetsis written on behalf of DeCaDe, the UKRI funded Centre for the decentralised digital economy. DECaDE is a multi-disciplinary collaboration between the Universities of Surrey, Edinburgh and the Digital Catapult. https://decade.ac.uk/ The response was coordinated by Professor Burkhard Schafer, University of Edinburgh 

    Burkhard Schafer, John Philip Collomosse, Glenn Charles Parry, Christopher Elsden (2023)DECaDE Contribution for DCMS Call for Evidence on NFTs

    This submission is made on behalf of DECaDE, the UKRI Centre for the Decentralised Digital Economy, and Creative Informatics, the Research and Development accelerator for the creative industries. 

    The covid-19 pandemic has created a fertile ground for fake news, particularly with regards to the vaccines produced. As a consequence, mistrust of the vaccine has grown in Europe. In a January 2021 survey, led for Reuters London, 30% of the UK population stated they distrusted them, and only 30% of the French population were willing to be vaccinated, one of the lowest rate in the world (Kelland, 2021). Governments and medical institutions need to address the challenge of fake news that is damaging people’s health and well-being, whether they relate to a global scheme to sterilize women globally (Stecklow & Macaskill, 2021) or a worldwide conspiracy let by Bill Gates (Goodman & Carmichael, 2020). To that aim health systems have focused on the development of social media strategies to fight false information and orient people toward legitimate sources (WHO, 2021). But how can they make sure people are given information sufficient to make well informed decisions, and best fight fake news?

    GLENN CHARLES PARRY, P. Lafargue, M. Rogerson (2021)Broken chocolate: visibility in cocoa supply chains, In: An International Journal Emerald

    Purpose: This paper examines the potential of ‘biomarkers’ to provide immutable identification for food products (chocolate), providing traceability and visibility in the supply chain from retail product back to farm. Design/methodology/approach: Research employs qualitative data collection, including fieldwork at cocoa farms and chocolate manufacturers in Ecuador and the Netherlands and semi-structured interviews with industry professionals to identify challenges and create a supply chain map from cocoa plant to retailer, validated by area experts. A library of biomarkers is created using DNA collected from fieldwork and the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, holders of cocoa varieties from known locations around the world. Matching sample biomarkers with those in the library enables identification of origins of cocoa used in a product, even when it comes from multiple different sources and has been processed. Findings: Supply chain mapping and interviews identify areas of the cocoa supply chain that lack visibility required for management to guarantee sustainability and quality. A decoupling point, where smaller farms/traders’ goods are combined to create larger economic units, obscures product origins and limits visibility. These factors underpin a potential boundary condition to institutional theory in the industry’s fatalism to environmental and human abuses in the face of rising institutional pressures. Biomarkers reliably identify product origin, including specific farms and (fermentation) processing locations, providing visibility and facilitating control and trust when purchasing cocoa. Research limitations/implications: The biomarker ‘meta-barcoding’ of cocoa beans used in chocolate manufacturing accurately identifies the farm, production facility or cooperative, where a cocoa product came from. A controlled dataset of biomarkers of registered locations is required for audit to link chocolate products to origin. Practical implications: Where biomarkers can be produced from organic products, they offer a method for closing visibility gaps, enabling responsible sourcing. Labels (QR codes, barcodes, etc.) can be swapped and products tampered with, but biological markers reduce reliance on physical tags, reducing the potential for fraud. Biomarkers identify product composition, pinpointing specific farm(s) of origin for cocoa in chocolate, allowing targeted audits of suppliers, and identifying if cocoa of unknown origin is present. Labour and environmental abuses exist in many supply chains and enabling upstream visibility may help firms address these challenges. Social implications: By describing a method for firms in cocoa supply chains to scientifically track their cocoa back to the farm level, the paper shows that organizations can conduct social audits for child labour and environmental abuses at specific farms proven to be in their supply chains. The paper therefore provides a method for delivering supply chain visibility for firms serious about tackling such problems. Originality/value: This paper provides one of the very first examples of biomarkers for agricultural supply chain visibility. An in-depth study of stakeholders from the cocoa and chocolate industry elucidates problematic areas in cocoa supply chains. Biomarkers provide a unique biological product identifier. Biomarkers can support efforts to address environmental and social sustainability issues such as child labour, modern slavery, and deforestation by providing visibility into previously hidden areas of the supply chain.

    P. Davies, Glenn Parry, K. Alves (2020)Updating the General Modular Systems Theory: Evidence from Servitization, In: Servitization 2019: 8th International Conference on Business Servitization (ICBS 2019)

    This paper examines innovation in product-service systems. Using the lens of the general modular systems theory (Schilling, 2000), the research examines the factors that influence whether a product-service system would benefit from an increasingly modular, or an increasingly synergistic specific (or integrated) state in a servitized context. The paper presents results from an in-depth case study of an OEM of military vehicles. The OEM provided design services to reconfigure military vehicles based on the requirements of the end-user (military personnel), and were based on real-time need from active overseas engagements. The research design uses a mixed-methods approach. Given modularity is a directly observable configuration of structure, design structure matrices (DSMs) were used to inspect the modular structure of vehicles each time a customer-requested design change was integrated. To supplement the DSMs, thematic analysis was conducted on 29 in-depth interviews with the organisation’s employees, as well as on texts, documents and secondary data. In applying the general modular systems theory to the context of an outcome-based product-service system, the research finds four additional factors that push a system toward or away from modularity. These factors arise from the diversity of the customers’ use-contexts that were not included in the original Schilling (2000) framework. These factors include requirements based on contextual variety, emergence, actor agency, urgency in use. The paper contributes to the innovation management and service modularity literature by updating and refining the general modular systems theory, and provides guidance to managers when designing and innovating outcome-based product-service systems.

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