Inaki Deza-Cruz

Dr Iñaki Deza-Cruz

Lecturer in Veterinary Public Health


Areas of specialism

Epidemiology; Microplastics; Food Safety; Veterinary Public Health

My qualifications

Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine
PhD in Epidemiology
Newcastle University


Research interests

Research projects


Postgraduate research supervision



I. Deza‑Cruz, J. M. Prada & V. Del RioVilas (2022) An analysis of the accuracy of COVID‑19 country transmission classification

Accurate epidemiological classification guidelines are essential to ensure implementation of adequate public health and social measures. Here, we investigate two frameworks, published in March 2020 and November 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO) to categorise transmission risks of COVID-19 infection, and assess how well the countries’ self-reported classification tracked their underlying epidemiological situation. We used three modelling approaches: an ordinal longitudinal model, a proportional odds model and a machine learning One-Rule classification algorithm. We applied these models to 202 countries’ daily transmission classification and epidemiological data, and study classification accuracy over time for the period April 2020 to June 2021, when WHO stopped publishing country classifications. Overall, the first published WHO classification, purely qualitative, lacked accuracy. The incidence rate within the previous 14 days was the best predictor with an average accuracy throughout the period of study of 61.5%. However, when each week was assessed independently, the models returned predictive accuracies above 50% only in the first weeks of April 2020. In contrast, the second classification, quantitative in nature, increased significantly the accuracy of transmission labels, with values as high as 94%.

Deza-Cruz I, Mill A, Rushton S, Kelly P. (2019) Short report: Comparison of the use of serum and plasma as matrix specimens in a widely used non-commercial dengue IgG ELISA

Although sera are most commonly used in serological diagnostic tests for dengue, sometimes only plasma containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) may be available. When we studied the performance of a widely used noncommercial dengue ELISA in the detection of reactive IgG in sera and plasma from the same individuals, we found no significant differences in the diagnostic performance of the assay. The inter-specimen coefficient of variation (CV) of the optical density was 0.081 and the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was 0.92, showing a very strong agreement between the two matrix specimens. The intra-specimen CV and CCC were higher for plasma than for serum at low dilutions, but similar at high dilutions. Overall, our results show that the performance of a widely used in-house ELISA using plasma containing EDTA is equivalent to serum with the recommendation to assay the plasma specimens in duplicate to reduce variability of results at lower dilutions.

Deza-Cruz, I (2018) Epidemiology of dengue, chikungunya and Zika in a naïve population in St. Kitts, West Indies.
Deza-Cruz, I. (2012) Trial of visual inspection of fattening pigs from noncontrolled housing conditions
Deza-Cruz, I (2007) ISO 22000 como el nuevo marco de la seguridad alimentaria, Albéitar: publicación veterinaria independiente
Gardner, B.; (...), Deza-Cruz, I*.; Lo Iacono, G.* (These authors contributed equally to this study.) (2023) Mapping the evidence of the effects of environmental factors on the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the non-built environment: Protocol for a systematic evidence map


Human, animal, and environmental health are increasingly threatened by the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Inappropriate use of antibiotic treatments commonly contributes to this threat, but it is also becoming apparent that multiple, interconnected environmental factors can play a significant role. Thus, a One Health approach is required for a comprehensive understanding of the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance and inform science-based decisions and actions. The broad and multidisciplinary nature of the problem poses several open questions drawing upon a wide heterogeneous range of studies.


This study seeks to collect and catalogue the evidence of the potential effects of environmental factors on the abundance or detection of antibiotic resistance determinants in the outdoor environment, i.e., antibiotic resistant bacteria and mobile genetic elements carrying antibiotic resistance genes, and the effect on those caused by local environmental conditions of either natural or anthropogenic origin.


Here, we describe the protocol for a systematic evidence map to address this, which will be performed in adherence to best practice guidelines. We will search the literature from 1990 to present, using the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Web of Science Core Collection as well as the grey literature. We shall include full-text, scientific articles published in English. Reviewers will work in pairs to screen title, abstract and keywords first and then full-text documents. Data extraction will adhere to a code book purposely designed. Risk of bias assessment will not be conducted as part of this SEM.

We will combine tables, graphs, and other suitable visualisation techniques to compile a database i) of studies investigating the factors associated with the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the environment and ii) map the distribution, network, cross-disciplinarity, impact and trends in the literature