University roles and responsibilities
- Professional Training Year Tutor for Food Science and Nutrition students
- Professional Training and Careers Committee
- Division of Nutritional Sciences Postgraduate Mentor
- Member of the Board of Studies
- Member of the Undergraduate Exam Boards
Affiliations and memberships
- Nutrition Working Party Chair 2006-2008
- Member of the FHMS Festival and Seminar Committee 2004-2006
- Organiser of the SBMS/FHMS Post-grad Poster Show 2004-2007
- Member of the Postgraduate Liaison Committee 2004-2008
- SBMS Disability Co-ordinator 2001
Polyphenols in health and disease
- Absorption and metabolism of (poly)phenols
- The role phytoestrogens in breast cancer
- The role of phytoestrogens in bone health
- Protective effects of (poly)phenols against UVA irradiation in biological systems
- (Poly)phenolic compound identification and quantitation in foods and beverages
- Antioxidant and metal chelation properties of polyphenols
- Glycaemic index and the role of polyphenols
- Herbs, their constituents and properties as antioxidants/antioxidants/cellular protective agents
- Dr Don Clarke, Central Science Laboratory, York
- Professor Gary Williamson, University of Leeds
- Professor Mike Clifford, University of Surrey
- Barbara Parry, WINS research team, Winchester and Eastleigh Healthcare NHS Trust
- Dr Valeria Rizzo, University of Catania, Italy
- Professor Samir Khoja, King Abdula-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia
- Dr Sue Lanham-New, University of Surrey
Indicators of esteem
£500,000 research income.
Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised
6 successfully completed; 3 currently active in their studies; 2 commencing soon (as of July 2009)
8 successfully completed; one currently active in their studies (as of July 2009)
- BMS1013 Food Science - lectures on the rancidity process, phytonutrients
- BMS2015 Food Science - lectures on food colours (e.g. anthocyanins, carotenoids, chlorophylls, haem pigments) and fruit ripening and storage methods
- BMS2016 Food Analysis - use of infrared in food analysis
- BMS2017 Practical Food Analysis - six practicals concerned with the analysis of sugars, starches, lipids and caffeine in food stuffs
- BMS2018 Key Skills 2 - assessment and feedback on student presentations from Nutrition and Nutrition/Food Science students
- BMS3021 Food Safety - lectures on nitrites, nitrates and nitrosamines
- BMS3022 Food Chemistry (module coordinator) - lectures on nitrate/nitrite, sulphites, phenols and polyphenols (5 lectures), antioxidants in foods and supplements, antioxidant methods
- BMS3023 Food Quality Assurance - lectures on carbohydrate, fat and vitamin analysis in foods
- BMS3024 Food Technology (module coordinator) - lectures on heat processing methods and newer methods of food processing (e.g. high pressure and pulsed electric fields), drying, evaporation and calculations related to processes
- MSc Nutritional Medicine module on Antioxidants, Phytoprotectants and Disease - lectures on anthocyanins and lignans as well as project student supervision
- MSc Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Project student supervision)
Al-Mssallem, M., Frost G., Hampton S. and Brown J.E. (2010) A study of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) in terms of its carbohydrate hydrolysis in vitro and glycaemic and insulinaemic indices in vivo. (submitted to EJCN)
Rizzo, V., Clifford, M.N. and Brown, J.E. (2010) The effects of processing on polyphenol and phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of semi-dried cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum M.) (in preparation)
Jamil, D.M., Howell, N.K. and Brown, J.E. (2010) Protection of low density lipoprotein from copper-mediated oxidation by the volatile oils of Thymus Syriacus Boiss. var syriacus and Thymbra spicata L. and their primary constituents (in preparation)
Jamil, D.M., Brown, J.E., Driscoll, D. and Howell, N.K. (2010) Characterization of the volatile oil content and composition of Thymus Syriacus Boiss. var syriacus and Thymbra spicata L. by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (in preparation)
Stoupi, S., Williamson, G., Viton F., Barron D., King, L.J. Brown, J.E. and Clifford M.N. (2010) In vivo bioavailability, absorption, excretion and pharmacokinetics of [14C] procyanidin in male rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 38(2), 287-291
Brown, J.E. and Kelly M.F. (2008) Influence of dietary cholesterol and stress on the metabolism of linoleic acid: Δ6-desaturase activity vs. product precursor ratios. International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health 1: 5-15
Gannon, R.H.T., Millward D.J., Brown J.E., MacDonald H.M., Lovell D.P., Frasetto L.A., Remer T. and Lanham-New S.A. (2008) Estimates of net acid excretion (NAEind) and net rate of endogenous non-carbonic acid production (NEAP) in the elderly UK population: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of British adults aged 65 years and over. British Journal of Nutrition 100:615-623
Rahimuddin, S.A., Khoja, S.M., Zuhair, M.M., Howell N.K. and Brown, J.E. (2007) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in UVA-treated skin fibroblasts by luteolin and its glucosides. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology 109 (7): 647-655
Brown, J.E. and Kelly M.F. (2007) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins, anthocyanidins and phenolic degradation products. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology 109 (1):66-71
Cassidy A., Brown J.E., Hawdon, A., Faughnan M.S., King L.J., Millward J., Zimmer-Nechemias L., Wolfe B. and Setchell K.D.R. (2006) Factors affecting the bioavailability of soy isoflavones in humans after ingestion of physiologically relevant levels from different soy foods. Journal of Nutrition 136:45-51
Clifford, M.N. and Brown J.E. (2006) Dietary flavonoids and health - broadening the perspective in - Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Application, Edited by Andersen and Markham CRC Press. pp 320-370
Harmer J. and Brown J.E. (2005) Properties of cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside in relation to their ability to prevent low density lipoprotein oxidation at physiological concentrations. Nutrition and Health Current Topics IV, Edited by T. Carr and K. Descheemaeker, Garant Publishers pp. 167-168
Brown J.E. (2005) A critical review of methods used to estimate linoleic acid Δ6-desaturation ex vivo and in vivo. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology 107 (2):119-134
Faughnan M.S., Hawdon A., Ah-Singh E., Brown J.E., Millward D.J. and Cassidy A. (2004) Urinary isoflavone kinetics: the effect of age, gender, food matrix and chemical composition. British Journal of Nutrition 91 (4): 567-574
Au A., and Brown J.E. (2002) The role of glycosylation on the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 33 (S1) S198
Tyrrell R.M., Pourzand C.A., Brown J.E., Hejmadi V., Kvam E., Ryter S. and Watkin R.D. (2000) Cellular studies with UVA radiation: A role for iron. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 91 (1-3): 37-39
Brown J.E., Lindsay, R.M. and Riemersma, R.A.(2000) Linoleic acid metabolism in the spontaneously diabetic rat. Δ6-desaturase activity vs. product precursor ratios. Lipids 35 (12) 1319-1323
Shafi, S., Welzel, D., Weidinger, G., Brown J.E. and Born G.V. (2000) Effect of reserpine treatment on low-density lipoproteins in arterial wall and internal organs of rats. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 35:686-92.
Collins, A.R., Brown, J.E., Bogdanov, M., Cadet, J., Cooke, M., Douki, T., Dunster, C., Eakins, J., Epe, B., Evans, M., Farmer, P., Gedik, C.M., Halliwell, B., Herbert, K., Hofer, T., Hutchinson, R., Jenner, A., Jones, G.D.D., Kasai, H., Kelly, F., Lloret, A., Loft, S., Lunec, J., McEwan, M., Moller, L., Olinki, R., Podmore, I., Poulsen, H., Ravanat, J-L., Rees, J.F., Reetz, F., Shertzer, B., Spiegelhalder, B., Turesky, R., Tyrrell, R., Vina, J., Vinicombe, D., Weimann, A., de Wergifosse, B. and Woods, S.G. (2000) Comparison of different methods of measuring 8-oxoguanine as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. Free Radical Research 32, 333-341.
Pourzand C., Watkin R.D., Brown, J.E. and Tyrrell, R.M. (1999) Ultraviolet A radiation induces immediate release of iron in human skin fibroblasts: The role of ferritin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96:6751-6756.
Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1998) Luteolin-rich artichoke extract protects low-density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro. Free Radical Research 29:247-255.
Brown, J.E., Khodr, H., Hider, R.C. and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1998) Structural-dependence of flavonoid interactions with copper ions: Implications for their antioxidant properties. Biochemical Journal 330:1173-1178.
Riemersma, R.A., Perkins, D., Brown, A.J. and Brown, J.E. (1994) Linoleic acid and coronary artery disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59:949-950.
Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1994) Effect of dietary cholesterol on delta-6-desaturase. Scottish Medical Journal 39:61.
Scott, N.A., Jennings, P.E., Brown, J.E. and Belch, J.J.F. (1991) Gliclazide: a general free radical scavenger. European Journal of Pharmacology 208:175-177.
Brown, J.E. and Wahle, K.W.J. (1990) Effect of fish oil and vitamin E supplementation on lipid peroxidation and whole blood aggregation in man. Clinica Chimica Acta 193:147-156.
Wahle, K.W.J. and Brown, J.E. (1990) Plasma lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation during high intakes of fish oil fatty acids. Fett Wissenschaft Technologie 92:326-330.
Brown, J.E. and Wahle, K.W.J. (1989) Fish oil supplements, lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation in man. Biochemical Society Transactions 17:493.
Collins, M.D., Brown, J.E. and Jones, D. (1988) Brachybacterium faecium gen. nov. sp. nov., a Coryneform bacterium from poultry deep litter. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 38:45-48.
Abstracts (posters and oral presentations)
Wahle K.W.J. and Brown, J.E. (1989) Plasma lipid peroxidation and vitamin E supplementation during high intakes of fish oil. In: Vitamin E symposium, Bochum, West Germany.
Brown, J.E., Jennings, P.E., Bridges, A.B., Scott, N. and Belch, J.J.F. (1990) Atherosclerosis, diabetes and free radicals. In: Abstracts of the 635th Meeting of the Biochemical Society, Aberdeen, Scotland.
Jankowski, J., Bridges, A., Scott, N., Brown, J.E. and Belch J.J.F. (1990) Circulating free radicals and peptic ulcer disease. Gut 31 (10) A1183-A1183.
Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1992) Coronary heart disease and Δ6-desaturase: Methodological aspects of Δ6-desaturase measurement. Scottish Lipid Discussion Group Meeting, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.
Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1993) The effects of dietary cholesterol and isolation stress on Δ6-desaturase in the rat. Scottish Lipid Discussion Group Meeting, St. Andrews, Scotland, UK.
Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1993) Effect of dietary cholesterol on Δ6-desaturase. Scottish Society for Experimental Medicine, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
Brown, J.E., Lindsay, R.M. and Riemersma, R.A. (1993) Altered Δ6-desaturase activity and fatty acid composition in liver and plasma in the spontaneously diabetic BB rat. International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, Lugano, Switzerland.
Brown, J.E., Lindsay, R.M. Baird, J.D., Riemersma, R.A. (1996) Reduced Δ6-desaturation of linoleic acid in insulin treated BB diabetic rats. British Diabetic Association - Medical and Scientific Section Spring Meeting, Dublin, Ireland.
Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C. (1996) Flavonoid structure and antioxidant activity. VIII Biennial Meeting of the International for Free Radical Research, Barcelona, Spain.
Paganga, G., Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C. (1996) Simultaneous determination of the major families of polyphenolic compounds in vegetables by HPLC. VIII Biennial Meeting of the International for Free Radical Research, Barcelona, Spain.
Brown, J.E. (1997) Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids. Mini-Symposium on Phytoprotectants. The Rank Prize Funds, Grasmere, England.
Brown, J.E., Khodr, H., Hider, R.C., Rice-Evans, C.A. (1998) Structural dependence of flavonoid interactions with Cu(II) ions: Implications for their antioxidant properties. World Congress of the Oxygen Club of California: Oxidants and Antioxidants in Biology, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1999) Artichoke extract protects LDL from oxidation. Meeting of the Society of Medicinal Plant Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans C.A. (2000) Structural determinants of antioxidant activities in anthocyanidins. Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research, Liverpool, England.
Tyrrell, R.M, Pourzand, C.A., Brown J.E., Hejmadi, V., Kvam E., Ryter, S. and Watkin R. (2000) Iron and heme release as key factors in the response of skin cells to UVA radiation. World Congress of the Oxygen Club of California: Oxidants and Antioxidants in Biology, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
Brown, J.E. (2001) Flavonoids - A natural class of metal chelators relevant to health. London's Chemistry, London, England.
Au, A and Brown, J.E. (2002) The role of glycosylation on the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. XIth Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research International, Paris, France
Harmer, J. and Brown, J.E. (2003) Properties of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in relation to their ability to prevent LDL oxidation at physiological concentrations. 4th Nutrition and Health Conference, London, UK.
Harmer, J. and Brown J.E. (2004) The modulation of anthocyanin antioxidant activity by albumin. Summer Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research Europe, Lodz, Poland.
Rahimuddin, S., Brown, J.E., Howell N.K. and Khoja, S.M. (2004) Effect of Luteolin and its glucosides on the prevention of UVA-induced oxidative damage in human skin fibroblasts. The Second Saudi Science Conference, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Brown, J.E. (2004) The effect of physiologically relevant concentrations of dietary anthocyanins on their ability to prevent LDL oxidation in the presence and absence of serum albumin. Nutrition Society Annual Summer Meeting, Dublin, Ireland.
Rahimuddin, S., Brown, J.E., Howell N.K. and Khoja, S.M. (2004) Effect of Luteolin and its glucosides on the prevention of UVA-induced oxidative damage in human skin fibroblasts. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
Parry B.M., Brown J.E., S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2005) Investigation of the phytoestrogen intake of group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Food Standards Agency Meeting, Gatwick, UK.
Stoupi S., Clifford M.N., Kuhnert N., Brown J.E. and Williamson G. (2006) Gut flora metabolism of flavan-3-ols. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
Parry B.M., Brown J.E., S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2006) Investigation of the phytoestrogen intake of group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Food Standards Agency Meeting, Slaley Hall, Hexham, UK.
Brown, J.E., J.W. Tong, B.M. Parry, S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2006) Creation of a new phytoestrogen database for the assessment of dietary intakes of isoflavones, coumestans and lignans in a group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Soy and Health Conference, Düsseldorf, Germany.
Parry B.M., Brown J.E., S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2007) Investigation of the phytoestrogen intake of group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Food Standards Agency Meeting, Slaley Hall, Hexham, UK.
Brown J.E., K. Chana, C. Mahende. (2007) Differences in the absorption and excretion of soy milk isoflavones in Oriental and Caucasian men. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Coleraine, N. Ireland
Stoupi S., Clifford M.N., Williamson G and Brown J.E. (2007) Gut flora metabolism of (-)epicatechin. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
Jamil D., Brown J.E., Driscoll D., Howell N. (2007) Gas chromatographic (GC) and GC-MS analysis of volatile oil components of Thymbra spicata L. and Thymus syriaca Boiss. var syriaca. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
Parry B.M., Lawrence J.M., Storey L., Brown J.E., Clarke D.B., Raats M., Horton S.M., Stilwell J.M., and Rainsbury R.M. (2007) Food choice and phytoestrogen consumption in women previously treated for post-menopausal breast cancer. WCRF and AICR Second Expert Launch Conference, Washington DC, USA.
Brown J.E., K. Chana, C. Mahende. (2007) Absorption and excretion of soy milk isoflavones differs between Oriental and Caucasian men. University of Surrey Festival of Research, November 2007, Guildford, Surrey, UK
Stoupi, S., Clifford, M.N., Williamson, G. and Brown, J.E. (2007) A comparison of the biotransformation of procyanidin B2 and (-)epicatechin by human colonic bacteria. 3rd International Conference on Polyphenols and Health, Kyoto, Japan.
Parry B.M., Lawrence J.M., Storey L., Brown J.E., Clarke D.B., Raats M., Horton S.M., Stilwell J.M., and Rainsbury R.M. (2008) Food choice and phytoestrogen consumption in women previously treated for post-menopausal breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research 2008, The Royal Society, London, UK.
Jamil D., Brown J.E., Driscoll D. Howell N.K. (2008) Composition and antioxidant properties of thyme and thymbra. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
Mssallem-Al M, Driscoll D., Frost G., and Brown J.E. (2008) Carbohydrate bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.
Stoupi, S., Williamson G., Drynan J.W., Brown J.E., and Clifford M.N. (2008) A comparison of the biotransformation of (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 by human colonic bacteria. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.
Brown, J.E., Cropp, E., Rizzo, V. (2009) Carotenoid content and antioxidant activity of fourteen tomato ketchups available in the UK. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.
Al-Mssallem, M., Frost G., Hampton S. and Brown J.E. (2009) A study of Hassawi rice in terms of its carbohydrate hydrolysis in vitro and glycaemic and insulinaemic indices in vivo. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.
Al-Mssallem, M., Frost G. and Brown J.E. (2009) Compositional analysis of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its associated glycaemic and insulinaemic indices. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Guildford, Surrey, UK.
Brown, J.E., Cropp, E. and Rizzo, V. (2009) Carotenoid content and antioxidant activity of fourteen tomato ketchups available in the UK. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Guildford, Surrey, UK.
Jamil, D.M., Brown J.E., Driscoll, D. and Howell, NK. (2009) Characterization and antioxidant activity of the volatile oils of Thymus Syriacus Boiss. var syriacus and Thymbra spicata L. grown wild in Kurdistan-Iraq. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Guildford, Surrey, UK.
Metformin is the most widely used oral hypoglycaemic drug, but it may lower B12 status, which could have important clinical implications. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency in persons with type 2 diabetes.
Electronic database searches were undertaken (1st January 1957?1st July 2013) using the Cochrane library, Scopus, CINAHL, Grey literature databases, Pub Med Central, NICE Clinical Guidelines UK, and ongoing clinical trials. Included studies were of any study design, with data from patients with type 2 diabetes of any age or gender, taking any dose or duration of metformin. Planned primary outcomes were serum vitamin B12 levels, % prevalence or incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency and risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.
Twenty-six papers were included in the review. Ten out of 17 observational studies showed statistically significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 in patients on metformin than not on metformin. Meta-analysis performed on four trials demonstrated a statistically significant overall mean B12 reducing effect of metformin of 57 pmol/L [WMD (fixed) = ?0.57 (95% CI: ?35 to ?79 pmol/L)] after 6 weeks to 3 months of use.
The evidence from this review demonstrates an association between metformin usage and lower levels of vitamin B12 by 57 pmol/L, which leads to frank deficiency or borderline status in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that it is prudent to monitor B12 levels in these patients who are at increased risk of deficiency.
Methods Three hundred and sixteen women each completed a 4- day food and drink diary (14 of whom also completed a 7-day weighed intake diary 6 weeks previously). The 55 most recently recruited women collected their urine for 24 hours whilst completing their diaries and were interviewed by telephone regarding their food choices since diagnosis.
Results A new dietary analysis database was created using peerreviewed published data and analysing 34 additional foods and beverages for which there were no published results. The urinanalysis results contributed validation data. A summary of the dietary intake data is shown in Table 1. There was a lack of primary analytical data on the phytoestrogen profile of many foods and beverages routinely consumed by this study population. However, food frequency data from the highest quartile show the important contribution of nonsoya foods to high intakes (Table 2). Telephone interviews were completed by 39 subjects. For most women, having breast cancer had not changed their diet. Health concerns unrelated to cancer, the needs of other family members, cooking on a budget and physical appearance all seemed more important than the impact of the cancer diagnosis.
Discussion Variation in phytoestrogen intakes and metabolite excretion reflect food preferences, dietary analysis database limitations and likely variations in existing knowledge combined with a lack of routine access to dietary information. In the absence of definitive advice, more immediate health and social concerns influence food choice rather than past breast cancer diagnosis.
Conclusion No data previously existed on intake in this potentially vulnerable group and these data will help evaluate the health implications related to such phytoestrogen consumption patterns.
Acknowledgement Funded by the Food Standards Agency, UK.
1. Adlercreutz H: Phytoestrogens and breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2002, 83:113-118.
2. Mills E, Ernst E, et al.: Health fo
Subjects/Methods: For GI and II measurements, HR, Uncle Ben?s rice (UBR) and a standard glucose solution were consumed by healthy subjects (n=13) on 7 randomised occasions. Capillary bloods were collected at specific times over 2 h after food intake. FAO/WHO protocols were employed to determine GI and II. For the in vitro studies, cooked rice was incubated with hydrolytic enzymes under standardised conditions. Samples were taken at t=20 & t=120 min and rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG) were computed.
Results: Values of RAG and SAG were lower for HR compared to their respective values for UBR (p0.05) despite a lower insulin response noted for HR (p=0.007).
Conclusions: HR had a similar GI to UBR although a lower insulin response was evident. RAG and SAG values were different for the two rice varieties despite similar GI values. These differences may be important in terms of their metabolic impact and outcome on diabetes.
The investigation was done to assess the cytotoxic effect of individual components in human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells and primary human colonic epithelial cells (HCoEpiC). It also investigates whether synergistic interactions or additive interactions occur between mixtures of QC, DHCA, and SFN in terms of potential cytotoxic activity in Caco-2 and HCoEpiC and it compares the effects observed in the cancer cell line with those in HCoEpiC.
The study demonstrated that Caco-2 cells or HCoEpiC were treated with various concentrations of QC (0-150 µM), DHCA (0-500 µM) or SFN (0-200 µM) individually and in combination, to determine the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value using the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay.
This has resulted in that QC and SFN had both concentration and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on Caco-2 cells (IC50 50 µM, p > 0.001 and 32 µM, p > 0.0001 for QC and 45 µM, p > 0.05 and 20 µM, p > 0.0001 for SFN after 24 and 48 h, respectively). DHCA only showed detectable cytotoxic effect in Caco-2 cells at the highest concentration tested. QC had no detectable cytotoxic effect on HCoEpiC, while SFN showed a very similar cytotoxic effect in HCoEpiC (IC50 19.21 µM, p > 0.0001), DHCA had no cytotoxic effect. However, SFN supplementation increased QC cytotoxicity in Caco-2 and HCoEpiC at low concentrations. Moreover, DHCA appeared to cause an increase in viability or cell number at all SFN concentrations tested in HCoEpiC but not in HCoEpiC. DHCA supplementation had a clear influence on QC-induced cytotoxicity in Caco-2 and but not in HCoEpiC.
In conclusion, combinations of the phytochemicals at low concentrations exhibited even greater cytotoxic effects than phytochemicals individually in CRC cells and they do not have an effect on primary. These data suggest the three phytochemicals each exhibit unique and distinct effects in CRC and primary colon cells. It is clear from the present studies that some combinations of phytochemicals can have an additive interaction effect rather than a synergistic interaction in CRC growth cells. In summary, evidence suggests that a combination of phytochemicals is a good candidate for further anticancer studies.