Dr Jonathan Brown


Senior Teaching Fellow in Nutrition and Food Science
BSc (Hons) MSc PhD FHEA
+44 (0)1483 686409
35 AY 03

University roles and responsibilities

  • Professional Training Year Tutor for Food Science and Nutrition students
  • Professional Training and Careers Committee
  • Division of Nutritional Sciences Postgraduate Mentor
  • Member of the Board of Studies
  • Member of the Undergraduate Exam Boards

My qualifications

1995
PhD Biochemistry
Faculty of Medicine, University of Edinburgh
1988
MSc Human Nutrition and Metabolism
Faculty of Medicine, University of Aberdeen
1987
BSc (Hons) Microbiology
Faculty of Science, University of Reading

Previous roles

2007
Fellow
Higher Education Academy
1998 - 1999
Senior Research Fellow
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath
1996 - 1998
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
United Medical and Dental School, Guy's Hospital, London
1994 - 1995
Graduate Research Fellow
William Harvey Research Institute, St. Bartholomew's Medical College, London
1989 - 1990
Graduate Research Assistant
Department of Medicine, University of Dundee

Affiliations and memberships

Nutrition Society
Member
Royal Society of Chemistry
Food Chemistry Group member
Society for Chemistry and Industry
Member
Society for Free Radical Research
Member

Research

Research interests

Research collaborations

Indicators of esteem

  • £500,000 research income.

Supervision

Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised

My teaching

My publications

Highlights

Papers

Al-Mssallem, M., Frost G., Hampton S. and Brown J.E. (2010) A study of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) in terms of its carbohydrate hydrolysis in vitro and glycaemic and insulinaemic indices in vivo. (submitted to EJCN)

Rizzo, V., Clifford, M.N. and Brown, J.E. (2010) The effects of processing on polyphenol and phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of semi-dried cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum M.) (in preparation)

Jamil, D.M., Howell, N.K. and Brown, J.E. (2010) Protection of low density lipoprotein from copper-mediated oxidation by the volatile oils of Thymus Syriacus Boiss. var syriacus and Thymbra spicata L. and their primary constituents (in preparation)

Jamil, D.M., Brown, J.E., Driscoll, D. and Howell, N.K. (2010) Characterization of the volatile oil content and composition of Thymus Syriacus Boiss. var syriacus and Thymbra spicata L. by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (in preparation)

Stoupi, S., Williamson, G., Viton F., Barron D., King, L.J. Brown, J.E. and Clifford M.N. (2010) In vivo bioavailability, absorption, excretion and pharmacokinetics of [14C] procyanidin in male rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 38(2), 287-291

Brown, J.E. and Kelly M.F. (2008) Influence of dietary cholesterol and stress on the metabolism of linoleic acid: Δ6-desaturase activity vs. product precursor ratios. International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health 1: 5-15

Gannon, R.H.T., Millward D.J., Brown J.E., MacDonald H.M., Lovell D.P., Frasetto L.A., Remer T. and Lanham-New S.A. (2008) Estimates of net acid excretion (NAEind) and net rate of endogenous non-carbonic acid production (NEAP) in the elderly UK population: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of British adults aged 65 years and over. British Journal of Nutrition 100:615-623

Rahimuddin, S.A., Khoja, S.M., Zuhair, M.M., Howell N.K. and Brown, J.E. (2007) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in UVA-treated skin fibroblasts by luteolin and its glucosides. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology 109 (7): 647-655

Brown, J.E. and Kelly M.F. (2007) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins, anthocyanidins and phenolic degradation products. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology 109 (1):66-71

Cassidy A., Brown J.E., Hawdon, A., Faughnan M.S., King L.J., Millward J., Zimmer-Nechemias L., Wolfe B. and Setchell K.D.R. (2006) Factors affecting the bioavailability of soy isoflavones in humans after ingestion of physiologically relevant levels from different soy foods. Journal of Nutrition 136:45-51

Clifford, M.N. and Brown J.E. (2006) Dietary flavonoids and health - broadening the perspective in - Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Application, Edited by Andersen and Markham CRC Press. pp 320-370

Harmer J. and Brown J.E. (2005) Properties of cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside in relation to their ability to prevent low density lipoprotein oxidation at physiological concentrations. Nutrition and Health Current Topics IV, Edited by T. Carr and K. Descheemaeker, Garant Publishers pp. 167-168

Brown J.E. (2005) A critical review of methods used to estimate linoleic acid Δ6-desaturation ex vivo and in vivo. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology 107 (2):119-134

Faughnan M.S., Hawdon A., Ah-Singh E., Brown J.E., Millward D.J. and Cassidy A. (2004) Urinary isoflavone kinetics: the effect of age, gender, food matrix and chemical composition. British Journal of Nutrition 91 (4): 567-574

Au A., and Brown J.E. (2002) The role of glycosylation on the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 33 (S1) S198

Tyrrell R.M., Pourzand C.A., Brown J.E., Hejmadi V., Kvam E., Ryter S. and Watkin R.D. (2000) Cellular studies with UVA radiation: A role for iron. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 91 (1-3): 37-39

Brown J.E., Lindsay, R.M. and Riemersma, R.A.(2000) Linoleic acid metabolism in the spontaneously diabetic rat. Δ6-desaturase activity vs. product precursor ratios. Lipids 35 (12) 1319-1323

Shafi, S., Welzel, D., Weidinger, G., Brown J.E. and Born G.V. (2000) Effect of reserpine treatment on low-density lipoproteins in arterial wall and internal organs of rats. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 35:686-92.

Collins, A.R., Brown, J.E., Bogdanov, M., Cadet, J., Cooke, M., Douki, T., Dunster, C., Eakins, J., Epe, B., Evans, M., Farmer, P., Gedik, C.M., Halliwell, B., Herbert, K., Hofer, T., Hutchinson, R., Jenner, A., Jones, G.D.D., Kasai, H., Kelly, F., Lloret, A., Loft, S., Lunec, J., McEwan, M., Moller, L., Olinki, R., Podmore, I., Poulsen, H., Ravanat, J-L., Rees, J.F., Reetz, F., Shertzer, B., Spiegelhalder, B., Turesky, R., Tyrrell, R., Vina, J., Vinicombe, D., Weimann, A., de Wergifosse, B. and Woods, S.G. (2000) Comparison of different methods of measuring 8-oxoguanine as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. Free Radical Research 32, 333-341.

Pourzand C., Watkin R.D., Brown, J.E. and Tyrrell, R.M. (1999) Ultraviolet A radiation induces immediate release of iron in human skin fibroblasts: The role of ferritin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96:6751-6756.

Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1998) Luteolin-rich artichoke extract protects low-density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro. Free Radical Research 29:247-255.

Brown, J.E., Khodr, H., Hider, R.C. and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1998) Structural-dependence of flavonoid interactions with copper ions: Implications for their antioxidant properties. Biochemical Journal 330:1173-1178.

Riemersma, R.A., Perkins, D., Brown, A.J. and Brown, J.E. (1994) Linoleic acid and coronary artery disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59:949-950.

Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1994) Effect of dietary cholesterol on delta-6-desaturase. Scottish Medical Journal 39:61.

Scott, N.A., Jennings, P.E., Brown, J.E. and Belch, J.J.F. (1991) Gliclazide: a general free radical scavenger. European Journal of Pharmacology 208:175-177.

Brown, J.E. and Wahle, K.W.J. (1990) Effect of fish oil and vitamin E supplementation on lipid peroxidation and whole blood aggregation in man. Clinica Chimica Acta 193:147-156.

Wahle, K.W.J. and Brown, J.E. (1990) Plasma lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation during high intakes of fish oil fatty acids. Fett Wissenschaft Technologie 92:326-330.

Brown, J.E. and Wahle, K.W.J. (1989) Fish oil supplements, lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation in man. Biochemical Society Transactions 17:493.

Collins, M.D., Brown, J.E. and Jones, D. (1988) Brachybacterium faecium gen. nov. sp. nov., a Coryneform bacterium from poultry deep litter. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 38:45-48.

Abstracts (posters and oral presentations)

Wahle K.W.J. and Brown, J.E. (1989) Plasma lipid peroxidation and vitamin E supplementation during high intakes of fish oil. In: Vitamin E symposium, Bochum, West Germany.

Brown, J.E., Jennings, P.E., Bridges, A.B., Scott, N. and Belch, J.J.F. (1990) Atherosclerosis, diabetes and free radicals. In: Abstracts of the 635th Meeting of the Biochemical Society, Aberdeen, Scotland.

Jankowski, J., Bridges, A., Scott, N., Brown, J.E. and Belch J.J.F. (1990) Circulating free radicals and peptic ulcer disease. Gut 31 (10) A1183-A1183.

Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1992) Coronary heart disease and Δ6-desaturase: Methodological aspects of Δ6-desaturase measurement. Scottish Lipid Discussion Group Meeting, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1993) The effects of dietary cholesterol and isolation stress on Δ6-desaturase in the rat. Scottish Lipid Discussion Group Meeting, St. Andrews, Scotland, UK.

Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1993) Effect of dietary cholesterol on Δ6-desaturase. Scottish Society for Experimental Medicine, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

Brown, J.E., Lindsay, R.M. and Riemersma, R.A. (1993) Altered Δ6-desaturase activity and fatty acid composition in liver and plasma in the spontaneously diabetic BB rat. International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, Lugano, Switzerland.

Brown, J.E., Lindsay, R.M. Baird, J.D., Riemersma, R.A. (1996) Reduced Δ6-desaturation of linoleic acid in insulin treated BB diabetic rats. British Diabetic Association - Medical and Scientific Section Spring Meeting, Dublin, Ireland.

Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C. (1996) Flavonoid structure and antioxidant activity. VIII Biennial Meeting of the International for Free Radical Research, Barcelona, Spain.

Paganga, G., Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C. (1996) Simultaneous determination of the major families of polyphenolic compounds in vegetables by HPLC. VIII Biennial Meeting of the International for Free Radical Research, Barcelona, Spain.

Brown, J.E. (1997) Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids. Mini-Symposium on Phytoprotectants. The Rank Prize Funds, Grasmere, England.

Brown, J.E., Khodr, H., Hider, R.C., Rice-Evans, C.A. (1998) Structural dependence of flavonoid interactions with Cu(II) ions: Implications for their antioxidant properties. World Congress of the Oxygen Club of California: Oxidants and Antioxidants in Biology, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1999) Artichoke extract protects LDL from oxidation. Meeting of the Society of Medicinal Plant Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans C.A. (2000) Structural determinants of antioxidant activities in anthocyanidins. Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research, Liverpool, England.

Tyrrell, R.M, Pourzand, C.A., Brown J.E., Hejmadi, V., Kvam E., Ryter, S. and Watkin R. (2000) Iron and heme release as key factors in the response of skin cells to UVA radiation. World Congress of the Oxygen Club of California: Oxidants and Antioxidants in Biology, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Brown, J.E. (2001) Flavonoids - A natural class of metal chelators relevant to health. London's Chemistry, London, England.

Au, A and Brown, J.E. (2002) The role of glycosylation on the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. XIth Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research International, Paris, France

Harmer, J. and Brown, J.E. (2003) Properties of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in relation to their ability to prevent LDL oxidation at physiological concentrations. 4th Nutrition and Health Conference, London, UK.

Harmer, J. and Brown J.E. (2004) The modulation of anthocyanin antioxidant activity by albumin. Summer Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research Europe, Lodz, Poland.

Rahimuddin, S., Brown, J.E., Howell N.K. and Khoja, S.M. (2004) Effect of Luteolin and its glucosides on the prevention of UVA-induced oxidative damage in human skin fibroblasts. The Second Saudi Science Conference, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Brown, J.E. (2004) The effect of physiologically relevant concentrations of dietary anthocyanins on their ability to prevent LDL oxidation in the presence and absence of serum albumin. Nutrition Society Annual Summer Meeting, Dublin, Ireland.

Rahimuddin, S., Brown, J.E., Howell N.K. and Khoja, S.M. (2004) Effect of Luteolin and its glucosides on the prevention of UVA-induced oxidative damage in human skin fibroblasts. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

Parry B.M., Brown J.E., S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2005) Investigation of the phytoestrogen intake of group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Food Standards Agency Meeting, Gatwick, UK.

Stoupi S., Clifford M.N., Kuhnert N., Brown J.E. and Williamson G. (2006) Gut flora metabolism of flavan-3-ols. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

Parry B.M., Brown J.E., S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2006) Investigation of the phytoestrogen intake of group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Food Standards Agency Meeting, Slaley Hall, Hexham, UK.

Brown, J.E., J.W. Tong, B.M. Parry, S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2006) Creation of a new phytoestrogen database for the assessment of dietary intakes of isoflavones, coumestans and lignans in a group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Soy and Health Conference, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Parry B.M., Brown J.E., S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2007) Investigation of the phytoestrogen intake of group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Food Standards Agency Meeting, Slaley Hall, Hexham, UK.

Brown J.E., K. Chana, C. Mahende. (2007) Differences in the absorption and excretion of soy milk isoflavones in Oriental and Caucasian men. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Coleraine, N. Ireland

Stoupi S., Clifford M.N., Williamson G and Brown J.E. (2007) Gut flora metabolism of (-)epicatechin. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

Jamil D., Brown J.E., Driscoll D., Howell N. (2007) Gas chromatographic (GC) and GC-MS analysis of volatile oil components of Thymbra spicata L. and Thymus syriaca Boiss. var syriaca. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

Parry B.M., Lawrence J.M., Storey L., Brown J.E., Clarke D.B., Raats M., Horton S.M., Stilwell J.M., and Rainsbury R.M. (2007) Food choice and phytoestrogen consumption in women previously treated for post-menopausal breast cancer. WCRF and AICR Second Expert Launch Conference, Washington DC, USA.

Brown J.E., K. Chana, C. Mahende. (2007) Absorption and excretion of soy milk isoflavones differs between Oriental and Caucasian men. University of Surrey Festival of Research, November 2007, Guildford, Surrey, UK

Stoupi, S., Clifford, M.N., Williamson, G. and Brown, J.E. (2007) A comparison of the biotransformation of procyanidin B2 and (-)epicatechin by human colonic bacteria. 3rd International Conference on Polyphenols and Health, Kyoto, Japan.

Parry B.M., Lawrence J.M., Storey L., Brown J.E., Clarke D.B., Raats M., Horton S.M., Stilwell J.M., and Rainsbury R.M. (2008) Food choice and phytoestrogen consumption in women previously treated for post-menopausal breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research 2008, The Royal Society, London, UK.

Jamil D., Brown J.E., Driscoll D. Howell N.K. (2008) Composition and antioxidant properties of thyme and thymbra. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

Mssallem-Al M, Driscoll D., Frost G., and Brown J.E. (2008) Carbohydrate bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.

Stoupi, S., Williamson G., Drynan J.W., Brown J.E., and Clifford M.N. (2008) A comparison of the biotransformation of (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 by human colonic bacteria. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.

Brown, J.E., Cropp, E., Rizzo, V. (2009) Carotenoid content and antioxidant activity of fourteen tomato ketchups available in the UK. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.

Al-Mssallem, M., Frost G., Hampton S. and Brown J.E. (2009) A study of Hassawi rice in terms of its carbohydrate hydrolysis in vitro and glycaemic and insulinaemic indices in vivo. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.

Al-Mssallem, M., Frost G. and Brown J.E. (2009) Compositional analysis of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its associated glycaemic and insulinaemic indices. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

Brown, J.E., Cropp, E. and Rizzo, V. (2009) Carotenoid content and antioxidant activity of fourteen tomato ketchups available in the UK. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

Jamil, D.M., Brown J.E., Driscoll, D. and Howell, NK. (2009) Characterization and antioxidant activity of the volatile oils of Thymus Syriacus Boiss. var syriacus and Thymbra spicata L. grown wild in Kurdistan-Iraq. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

Publications

Al-Mssallem MQ, Hampton SM, Frost GS, Brown JE (2011) A study of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) in terms of its carbohydrate hydrolysis (in vitro) and glycaemic and insulinaemic indices (in vivo),EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 65 (5) pp. 627-634 NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Hull SL, Brown JE (2011) An assessment of the effect of black tea on glucose and insulin response in vivo to a standard carbohydrate-rich food, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 70 (OCE4) pp. E144-E144 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Clarke DB, Lloyd AS, Lawrence JM, Brown JE, Storey L, Raats MM, Rainsbury RM, Culliford DJ, Bailey-Horne VA, Parry BM (2013) Development of a food compositional database for the estimation of dietary intake of phyto-oestrogens in a group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer and validation with urinary excretion,British Journal of Nutrition 109 (12) pp. 2261-2268 Cambridge University Press
The scientific literature contains evidence suggesting that women who have been treated for breast cancer may, as a result of their diagnosis, increase their phyto-oestrogen (PE) intake. In the present paper, we describe the creation of a dietary analysis database (based on Dietplan6) for the determination of dietary intakes of specific PE (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, formononetin, biochanin A, coumestrol, matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol), in a group of women previously diagnosed and treated for postmenopausal breast cancer. The design of the database, data evaluation criteria, literature data entry for 551 foods and primary analysis by LC-MS/MS of an additional thirty-four foods for which there were no published data are described. The dietary intake of 316 women previously treated for postmenopausal breast cancer informed the identification of potential food and beverage sources of PE and the bespoke dietary analysis database was created to, ultimately, quantify their PE intake. In order that PE exposure could be comprehensively described, fifty-four of the 316 subjects completed a 24 h urine collection, and their urinary excretion results allowed for the description of exposure to include those identified as 'equol producers'.
Wong MCY, Lee WTK, Wong JSW, Brown J, Frost G, Lodge J (2009) GLOBAL URINE METABOLITE PROFILING IN HUMAN UPON SOY CONSUMPTION USING UPLC-QToF MASS SPECTROMETRY, ANN NUTR METAB 55 pp. 156-157 KARGER
Chapman LE, Darling AL, Brown JE (2015) The association between the biguanide drug metformin and vitamin B-12 deficiency in diabetic patients: a systematic review, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 74 (OCE1) pp. E128-E128 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Stoupi S, Williamson G, Viton F, Barron D, King LJ, Brown JE, Clifford MN (2010) In Vivo Bioavailability, Absorption, Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics of [C-14]Procyanidin B2 in Male Rats, DRUG METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION 38 (2) pp. 287-291 AMER SOC PHARMACOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS
Al-Mssallem MQ, Brown JE (2013) Arabic coffee increases the glycemic index but not insulinemic index of dates, Saudi Medical Journal 34 (9) pp. 923-928
Objectives: To determine whether the glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (II) of dates could be altered by Arabic coffee consumption. Methods: This randomized cross-over study was conducted at the Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom from November 2009 to February 2010. Healthy subjects (5 males, 5 females) were recruited to the study. They were fed Khulas dates either with water, or with Arabic coffee. Plasma glucose and insulin responses were measured using standardized methods. Responses were compared with a pure glucose solution matched for available carbohydrate. The GI and II were calculated using standardized methods, and results were presented as means and standard error of mean. Glucose and insulin responses were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The GI of dates was 55 ± 6, which increased to 63 ± 5 for dates consumed with Arabic coffee (p=0.08). No significant difference was observed between the II for dates, and the II of dates consumed with Arabic coffee (p=1.00). Conclusion: Arabic coffee consumption modestly increased the plasma glucose response of dates compared to that of dates consumed with water. Insulin levels were not significantly affected. The modestly higher glycemic response to dates in the presence of Arabic coffee indicates that this custom may be considered detrimental to health.
Gannon RHT, Millward DJ, Brown JE, Macdonald HM, Lovell DP, Frassetto LA, Remer T, Lanham-New SA (2008) Estimates of daily net endogenous acid production in the elderly UK population: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of British adults aged 65 years and over,BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 100 (3) pp. 615-623 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Aldayel TS, Hampton SM, Lanham-New SA, Williams P, Brown JE (2014) An evaluation of serum cytokine levels in overweight women consuming a cinnamon supplement for 8 weeks, IMMUNOLOGY 143 pp. 184-185 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Aldayel T, Hampton SM, Lanham-New SA, Brown JE (2013) Acute effects of cinnamon on glucose response in vivo to a standard carbohydrate-rich food, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 72 (OCE4) pp. E203-E203 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Aim

Metformin is the most widely used oral hypoglycaemic drug, but it may lower B12 status, which could have important clinical implications. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency in persons with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Electronic database searches were undertaken (1st January 1957?1st July 2013) using the Cochrane library, Scopus, CINAHL, Grey literature databases, Pub Med Central, NICE Clinical Guidelines UK, and ongoing clinical trials. Included studies were of any study design, with data from patients with type 2 diabetes of any age or gender, taking any dose or duration of metformin. Planned primary outcomes were serum vitamin B12 levels, % prevalence or incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency and risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Results

Twenty-six papers were included in the review. Ten out of 17 observational studies showed statistically significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 in patients on metformin than not on metformin. Meta-analysis performed on four trials demonstrated a statistically significant overall mean B12 reducing effect of metformin of 57 pmol/L [WMD (fixed) = ?0.57 (95% CI: ?35 to ?79 pmol/L)] after 6 weeks to 3 months of use.

Conclusion

The evidence from this review demonstrates an association between metformin usage and lower levels of vitamin B12 by 57 pmol/L, which leads to frank deficiency or borderline status in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that it is prudent to monitor B12 levels in these patients who are at increased risk of deficiency.

Brown JE, Chana K, Marende C (2007) Differences in the absorption and excretion of soya-milk isoflavones in Oriental and Caucasian men, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 66 pp. 99A-99A CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Maher B, Sweeney C, O'Tuathaigh C, O'Flynn S, Brown JE (2013) Evaluation of a novel nutrition education intervention for medical students, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 72 (OCE3) pp. E124-E124 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Rahimuddin SA, Khoja SM, Zuhair MM, Howell NK, Brown JE (2007) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in UVA-treated skin fibroblasts by luteolin and its glucosides, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 109 (7) pp. 647-655 WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Cassidy A, Brown JE, Hawdon A, Faughnan MS, King LJ, Millward J, Zimmer-Nechemias L, Wolfe B, Setchell KDR (2006) Factors affecting the bioavallability of soy isoflavones in humans after ingestion of physiologically relevant levels from different soy foods, JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 136 (1) pp. 45-51 AMER SOCIETY NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE
Rizzo V, Clifford MN, Brown JE, Siracusa L, Muratore G (2015) Effects of processing on the polyphenol and phenolic acid content and antioxidant capacity of semi-dried cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum M.)., J Sci Food Agric 96 (6) pp. 2040-2046
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to test the effects of pre-treating cherry tomatoes with a solution containing citric acid-NaCl-CaCl2 (10:10:24 g L(-1)), followed by one of three different drying regimes (40, 60, 80 °C) on the antioxidant capacity of their aqueous extracts and the extent of phenolic compound degradation. RESULTS: Chlorogenic acids, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin and naringenin were all detected in the aqueous extracts. In fresh cherry tomatoes the predominant phenolic compound was rutin, followed by naringenin, which corresponded to 79% and 8% of the total phenolic compounds present, respectively. Pre-treatment was protective towards naringenin and had a modest protective effect on rutin and ferulic acid (0.1 > P > 0.05). Total phenolic content was similar in all samples, but there was a trend for the level of free polyphenols to be lower in treated tomatoes. The destruction of naringenin was confirmed by liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric data. CONCLUSION: A significant effect of temperature on the antioxidant capacity was observed. After this treatment the industry might introduce some advances in the processing of tomatoes, preserving the main nutritive characteristics and saving the products as semi-dried.
Brown JE, Kelly MF (2007) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins, anthocyanidins and their phenolic degradation products, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 109 (1) pp. 66-71 WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Parry BM, Lawrence JM, Storey L, Brown JE, Clarke DB, Raats M, Horton SM, Stilwell JM, Rainsbury RM (2008) Food choice and phytoestrogen consumption in women previously treated for postmenopausal breast cancer, Breast Cancer Research 10 pp. S47-S48
Background Phytoestrogens are plant-derived, bioactive substances with a chemical structure similar to that of 17â-oestradiol. Women previously treated for breast cancer may increase their phytoestrogen intake to avoid conventional hormone replacement therapy or because of a belief that they may help avoid recurrence [1,2]. There is no recommended daily intake and there are some concerns about phytoestrogen safety in this group, although the evidence is conflicting and more research is needed [3,4].
Methods Three hundred and sixteen women each completed a 4- day food and drink diary (14 of whom also completed a 7-day weighed intake diary 6 weeks previously). The 55 most recently recruited women collected their urine for 24 hours whilst completing their diaries and were interviewed by telephone regarding their food choices since diagnosis.
Results A new dietary analysis database was created using peerreviewed published data and analysing 34 additional foods and beverages for which there were no published results. The urinanalysis results contributed validation data. A summary of the dietary intake data is shown in Table 1. There was a lack of primary analytical data on the phytoestrogen profile of many foods and beverages routinely consumed by this study population. However, food frequency data from the highest quartile show the important contribution of nonsoya foods to high intakes (Table 2). Telephone interviews were completed by 39 subjects. For most women, having breast cancer had not changed their diet. Health concerns unrelated to cancer, the needs of other family members, cooking on a budget and physical appearance all seemed more important than the impact of the cancer diagnosis.
Discussion Variation in phytoestrogen intakes and metabolite excretion reflect food preferences, dietary analysis database limitations and likely variations in existing knowledge combined with a lack of routine access to dietary information. In the absence of definitive advice, more immediate health and social concerns influence food choice rather than past breast cancer diagnosis.
Conclusion No data previously existed on intake in this potentially vulnerable group and these data will help evaluate the health implications related to such phytoestrogen consumption patterns.
Acknowledgement Funded by the Food Standards Agency, UK.
References
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2. Mills E, Ernst E, et al.: Health fo
The primary aim of this research was to determine whether herbal infusions, yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hilaire) and rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm. F.) R. Dahlgren), could make a significant contribution to the dietary intake of polyphenols. A secondary aim was to determine whether the trace elemental content of these herbal infusions were of dietary significance. The total polyphenol (using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay), the individual polyphenol compounds (by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography) and the trace element content (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) was determined in the leaf and infusions of 47 yerba mate and 54 rooibos commercial products (tea bags and loose leaf). This research, for the first time, developed an extraction procedure and two ultra-high performance liquid chromatography methods that enabled the determination of 38 polyphenol compounds in yerba mate and 22 in rooibos samples. Fourteen trace elements were determined in leaf and infusion samples, enabling the extraction efficiency of trace elements to be calculated for the first time for these herbs. The total polyphenol content of green yerba mate (79.9 ? 303.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/ 200 ml) and fermented rooibos infusions (40.1 ? 101.9 mg GAE/ 235 ml) was within the range of that of other beverages (tea, coffee, fruit juices) as reported in the literature. It was noted that yerba mate in tea bags contained significantly higher levels of polyphenols than loose leaf products (ANOVA and Tukey?s test, probability, p
Al-Mssallem Muneera, Hampton Shelagh M, Frost Gary S, Brown Jonathan (2011) A study of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) in terms of its carbohydrate hydrolysis in vitro and glycaemic and insulinaemic indices in vivo,European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (5) pp. 627-634 Nature Publishing Group
Background/Objectives: A high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes exists in Saudi Arabia. Epidemiological evidence suggests that low glycaemic index (GI) diets reduce diabetes risk. Yet, little is known about the GI of traditional Saudi Arabian staples such as Hassawi rice (HR). HR was evaluated in terms of its GI and insulinaemic indices (II). Comparisons were made in vitro assessing glucose released enzymatically. A long grain rice variety available in both the UK and Saudi was studied as a comparison.
Subjects/Methods: For GI and II measurements, HR, Uncle Ben?s rice (UBR) and a standard glucose solution were consumed by healthy subjects (n=13) on 7 randomised occasions. Capillary bloods were collected at specific times over 2 h after food intake. FAO/WHO protocols were employed to determine GI and II. For the in vitro studies, cooked rice was incubated with hydrolytic enzymes under standardised conditions. Samples were taken at t=20 & t=120 min and rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG) were computed.
Results: Values of RAG and SAG were lower for HR compared to their respective values for UBR (p0.05) despite a lower insulin response noted for HR (p=0.007).
Conclusions: HR had a similar GI to UBR although a lower insulin response was evident. RAG and SAG values were different for the two rice varieties despite similar GI values. These differences may be important in terms of their metabolic impact and outcome on diabetes.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The incidence and mortality of CRC are higher in more developed regions than in less developed regions and they are also higher in males than in females from 45.7% to 7% and from 16.1% to 5.5%, respectively. These and other data suggest CRC may be amenable to improve prevention by suitable lifestyle interventions, including dietary modification. Quercetin (QC) is a flavonoid obtained from plants that can reach concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract in the range of 0.16?1.30 µM as determined by LC-MS analysis of faecal water. However, many other compounds are also present in faecal water, including those from other plants (e.g. SFN released from brassicas) and DHCA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid), which is a colonic microflora catabolite of the major dietary phenolic acids, derived from the consumption of fruits, vegetables, coffee, and tea.
The investigation was done to assess the cytotoxic effect of individual components in human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells and primary human colonic epithelial cells (HCoEpiC). It also investigates whether synergistic interactions or additive interactions occur between mixtures of QC, DHCA, and SFN in terms of potential cytotoxic activity in Caco-2 and HCoEpiC and it compares the effects observed in the cancer cell line with those in HCoEpiC.
The study demonstrated that Caco-2 cells or HCoEpiC were treated with various concentrations of QC (0-150 µM), DHCA (0-500 µM) or SFN (0-200 µM) individually and in combination, to determine the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value using the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay.
This has resulted in that QC and SFN had both concentration and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on Caco-2 cells (IC50 50 µM, p > 0.001 and 32 µM, p > 0.0001 for QC and 45 µM, p > 0.05 and 20 µM, p > 0.0001 for SFN after 24 and 48 h, respectively). DHCA only showed detectable cytotoxic effect in Caco-2 cells at the highest concentration tested. QC had no detectable cytotoxic effect on HCoEpiC, while SFN showed a very similar cytotoxic effect in HCoEpiC (IC50 19.21 µM, p > 0.0001), DHCA had no cytotoxic effect. However, SFN supplementation increased QC cytotoxicity in Caco-2 and HCoEpiC at low concentrations. Moreover, DHCA appeared to cause an increase in viability or cell number at all SFN concentrations tested in HCoEpiC but not in HCoEpiC. DHCA supplementation had a clear influence on QC-induced cytotoxicity in Caco-2 and but not in HCoEpiC.
In conclusion, combinations of the phytochemicals at low concentrations exhibited even greater cytotoxic effects than phytochemicals individually in CRC cells and they do not have an effect on primary. These data suggest the three phytochemicals each exhibit unique and distinct effects in CRC and primary colon cells. It is clear from the present studies that some combinations of phytochemicals can have an additive interaction effect rather than a synergistic interaction in CRC growth cells. In summary, evidence suggests that a combination of phytochemicals is a good candidate for further anticancer studies.
Robertson Tracey, Brown Jonathan, Fielding Barbara, Robertson M. Denise (2020) The cumulative effects of chilling and reheating a carbohydrate-based pasta meal on the postprandial glycaemic response: a pilot study,European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Springer Nature
This pilot study investigated the effects of chilling and reheating a pasta-based meal on
the postprandial glycaemic response. In this single-blind crossover study, 10 healthy
volunteers consumed identical pasta meals (pasta, olive oil and tomato sauce), served
either freshly prepared, chilled or chilled/reheated, on three separate randomised
occasions. Capillary blood samples were taken for two hours postprandially. A
significant difference in glucose Incremental Area Under the Curve (IAUC) was
observed (p = 0.006), with the greatest difference observed between the freshly cooked
and chilled/reheated meals (p = 0.041). Significant differences in incremental peak
glucose were also observed (p = 0.018). These results suggest that making simple
changes to domestic food processing methods can reduce the glycaemic excursion
following a pasta meal, with the potential for health benefit.