Dr Jonathan Brown


Senior Teaching Fellow in Nutrition and Food Science
BSc (Hons) MSc PhD FHEA
+44 (0)1483 686409
35 AY 03

University roles and responsibilities

  • Professional Training Year Tutor for Food Science and Nutrition students
  • Professional Training and Careers Committee
  • Division of Nutritional Sciences Postgraduate Mentor
  • Member of the Board of Studies
  • Member of the Undergraduate Exam Boards

    My qualifications

    1995
    PhD Biochemistry
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Edinburgh
    1988
    MSc Human Nutrition and Metabolism
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Aberdeen
    1987
    BSc (Hons) Microbiology
    Faculty of Science, University of Reading

    Previous roles

    2007
    Fellow
    Higher Education Academy
    1998 - 1999
    Senior Research Fellow
    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath
    1996 - 1998
    Postdoctoral Research Fellow
    United Medical and Dental School, Guy's Hospital, London
    1994 - 1995
    Graduate Research Fellow
    William Harvey Research Institute, St. Bartholomew's Medical College, London
    1989 - 1990
    Graduate Research Assistant
    Department of Medicine, University of Dundee

    Affiliations and memberships

    Nutrition Society
    Member
    Royal Society of Chemistry
    Food Chemistry Group member
    Society for Chemistry and Industry
    Member
    Society for Free Radical Research
    Member

    Research

    Research interests

    Research collaborations

    Indicators of esteem

    • £500,000 research income.

      Supervision

      Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised

      My teaching

      My publications

      Highlights

      Papers

      Al-Mssallem, M., Frost G., Hampton S. and Brown J.E. (2010) A study of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) in terms of its carbohydrate hydrolysis in vitro and glycaemic and insulinaemic indices in vivo. (submitted to EJCN)

      Rizzo, V., Clifford, M.N. and Brown, J.E. (2010) The effects of processing on polyphenol and phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of semi-dried cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum M.) (in preparation)

      Jamil, D.M., Howell, N.K. and Brown, J.E. (2010) Protection of low density lipoprotein from copper-mediated oxidation by the volatile oils of Thymus Syriacus Boiss. var syriacus and Thymbra spicata L. and their primary constituents (in preparation)

      Jamil, D.M., Brown, J.E., Driscoll, D. and Howell, N.K. (2010) Characterization of the volatile oil content and composition of Thymus Syriacus Boiss. var syriacus and Thymbra spicata L. by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (in preparation)

      Stoupi, S., Williamson, G., Viton F., Barron D., King, L.J. Brown, J.E. and Clifford M.N. (2010) In vivo bioavailability, absorption, excretion and pharmacokinetics of [14C] procyanidin in male rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 38(2), 287-291

      Brown, J.E. and Kelly M.F. (2008) Influence of dietary cholesterol and stress on the metabolism of linoleic acid: Δ6-desaturase activity vs. product precursor ratios. International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health 1: 5-15

      Gannon, R.H.T., Millward D.J., Brown J.E., MacDonald H.M., Lovell D.P., Frasetto L.A., Remer T. and Lanham-New S.A. (2008) Estimates of net acid excretion (NAEind) and net rate of endogenous non-carbonic acid production (NEAP) in the elderly UK population: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of British adults aged 65 years and over. British Journal of Nutrition 100:615-623

      Rahimuddin, S.A., Khoja, S.M., Zuhair, M.M., Howell N.K. and Brown, J.E. (2007) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in UVA-treated skin fibroblasts by luteolin and its glucosides. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology 109 (7): 647-655

      Brown, J.E. and Kelly M.F. (2007) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins, anthocyanidins and phenolic degradation products. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology 109 (1):66-71

      Cassidy A., Brown J.E., Hawdon, A., Faughnan M.S., King L.J., Millward J., Zimmer-Nechemias L., Wolfe B. and Setchell K.D.R. (2006) Factors affecting the bioavailability of soy isoflavones in humans after ingestion of physiologically relevant levels from different soy foods. Journal of Nutrition 136:45-51

      Clifford, M.N. and Brown J.E. (2006) Dietary flavonoids and health - broadening the perspective in - Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Application, Edited by Andersen and Markham CRC Press. pp 320-370

      Harmer J. and Brown J.E. (2005) Properties of cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside in relation to their ability to prevent low density lipoprotein oxidation at physiological concentrations. Nutrition and Health Current Topics IV, Edited by T. Carr and K. Descheemaeker, Garant Publishers pp. 167-168

      Brown J.E. (2005) A critical review of methods used to estimate linoleic acid Δ6-desaturation ex vivo and in vivo. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology 107 (2):119-134

      Faughnan M.S., Hawdon A., Ah-Singh E., Brown J.E., Millward D.J. and Cassidy A. (2004) Urinary isoflavone kinetics: the effect of age, gender, food matrix and chemical composition. British Journal of Nutrition 91 (4): 567-574

      Au A., and Brown J.E. (2002) The role of glycosylation on the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 33 (S1) S198

      Tyrrell R.M., Pourzand C.A., Brown J.E., Hejmadi V., Kvam E., Ryter S. and Watkin R.D. (2000) Cellular studies with UVA radiation: A role for iron. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 91 (1-3): 37-39

      Brown J.E., Lindsay, R.M. and Riemersma, R.A.(2000) Linoleic acid metabolism in the spontaneously diabetic rat. Δ6-desaturase activity vs. product precursor ratios. Lipids 35 (12) 1319-1323

      Shafi, S., Welzel, D., Weidinger, G., Brown J.E. and Born G.V. (2000) Effect of reserpine treatment on low-density lipoproteins in arterial wall and internal organs of rats. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 35:686-92.

      Collins, A.R., Brown, J.E., Bogdanov, M., Cadet, J., Cooke, M., Douki, T., Dunster, C., Eakins, J., Epe, B., Evans, M., Farmer, P., Gedik, C.M., Halliwell, B., Herbert, K., Hofer, T., Hutchinson, R., Jenner, A., Jones, G.D.D., Kasai, H., Kelly, F., Lloret, A., Loft, S., Lunec, J., McEwan, M., Moller, L., Olinki, R., Podmore, I., Poulsen, H., Ravanat, J-L., Rees, J.F., Reetz, F., Shertzer, B., Spiegelhalder, B., Turesky, R., Tyrrell, R., Vina, J., Vinicombe, D., Weimann, A., de Wergifosse, B. and Woods, S.G. (2000) Comparison of different methods of measuring 8-oxoguanine as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. Free Radical Research 32, 333-341.

      Pourzand C., Watkin R.D., Brown, J.E. and Tyrrell, R.M. (1999) Ultraviolet A radiation induces immediate release of iron in human skin fibroblasts: The role of ferritin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96:6751-6756.

      Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1998) Luteolin-rich artichoke extract protects low-density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro. Free Radical Research 29:247-255.

      Brown, J.E., Khodr, H., Hider, R.C. and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1998) Structural-dependence of flavonoid interactions with copper ions: Implications for their antioxidant properties. Biochemical Journal 330:1173-1178.

      Riemersma, R.A., Perkins, D., Brown, A.J. and Brown, J.E. (1994) Linoleic acid and coronary artery disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59:949-950.

      Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1994) Effect of dietary cholesterol on delta-6-desaturase. Scottish Medical Journal 39:61.

      Scott, N.A., Jennings, P.E., Brown, J.E. and Belch, J.J.F. (1991) Gliclazide: a general free radical scavenger. European Journal of Pharmacology 208:175-177.

      Brown, J.E. and Wahle, K.W.J. (1990) Effect of fish oil and vitamin E supplementation on lipid peroxidation and whole blood aggregation in man. Clinica Chimica Acta 193:147-156.

      Wahle, K.W.J. and Brown, J.E. (1990) Plasma lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation during high intakes of fish oil fatty acids. Fett Wissenschaft Technologie 92:326-330.

      Brown, J.E. and Wahle, K.W.J. (1989) Fish oil supplements, lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation in man. Biochemical Society Transactions 17:493.

      Collins, M.D., Brown, J.E. and Jones, D. (1988) Brachybacterium faecium gen. nov. sp. nov., a Coryneform bacterium from poultry deep litter. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 38:45-48.

      Abstracts (posters and oral presentations)

      Wahle K.W.J. and Brown, J.E. (1989) Plasma lipid peroxidation and vitamin E supplementation during high intakes of fish oil. In: Vitamin E symposium, Bochum, West Germany.

      Brown, J.E., Jennings, P.E., Bridges, A.B., Scott, N. and Belch, J.J.F. (1990) Atherosclerosis, diabetes and free radicals. In: Abstracts of the 635th Meeting of the Biochemical Society, Aberdeen, Scotland.

      Jankowski, J., Bridges, A., Scott, N., Brown, J.E. and Belch J.J.F. (1990) Circulating free radicals and peptic ulcer disease. Gut 31 (10) A1183-A1183.

      Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1992) Coronary heart disease and Δ6-desaturase: Methodological aspects of Δ6-desaturase measurement. Scottish Lipid Discussion Group Meeting, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

      Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1993) The effects of dietary cholesterol and isolation stress on Δ6-desaturase in the rat. Scottish Lipid Discussion Group Meeting, St. Andrews, Scotland, UK.

      Brown, J.E. and Riemersma, R.A. (1993) Effect of dietary cholesterol on Δ6-desaturase. Scottish Society for Experimental Medicine, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

      Brown, J.E., Lindsay, R.M. and Riemersma, R.A. (1993) Altered Δ6-desaturase activity and fatty acid composition in liver and plasma in the spontaneously diabetic BB rat. International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, Lugano, Switzerland.

      Brown, J.E., Lindsay, R.M. Baird, J.D., Riemersma, R.A. (1996) Reduced Δ6-desaturation of linoleic acid in insulin treated BB diabetic rats. British Diabetic Association - Medical and Scientific Section Spring Meeting, Dublin, Ireland.

      Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C. (1996) Flavonoid structure and antioxidant activity. VIII Biennial Meeting of the International for Free Radical Research, Barcelona, Spain.

      Paganga, G., Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C. (1996) Simultaneous determination of the major families of polyphenolic compounds in vegetables by HPLC. VIII Biennial Meeting of the International for Free Radical Research, Barcelona, Spain.

      Brown, J.E. (1997) Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids. Mini-Symposium on Phytoprotectants. The Rank Prize Funds, Grasmere, England.

      Brown, J.E., Khodr, H., Hider, R.C., Rice-Evans, C.A. (1998) Structural dependence of flavonoid interactions with Cu(II) ions: Implications for their antioxidant properties. World Congress of the Oxygen Club of California: Oxidants and Antioxidants in Biology, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

      Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1999) Artichoke extract protects LDL from oxidation. Meeting of the Society of Medicinal Plant Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

      Brown, J.E. and Rice-Evans C.A. (2000) Structural determinants of antioxidant activities in anthocyanidins. Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research, Liverpool, England.

      Tyrrell, R.M, Pourzand, C.A., Brown J.E., Hejmadi, V., Kvam E., Ryter, S. and Watkin R. (2000) Iron and heme release as key factors in the response of skin cells to UVA radiation. World Congress of the Oxygen Club of California: Oxidants and Antioxidants in Biology, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

      Brown, J.E. (2001) Flavonoids - A natural class of metal chelators relevant to health. London's Chemistry, London, England.

      Au, A and Brown, J.E. (2002) The role of glycosylation on the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. XIth Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research International, Paris, France

      Harmer, J. and Brown, J.E. (2003) Properties of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in relation to their ability to prevent LDL oxidation at physiological concentrations. 4th Nutrition and Health Conference, London, UK.

      Harmer, J. and Brown J.E. (2004) The modulation of anthocyanin antioxidant activity by albumin. Summer Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research Europe, Lodz, Poland.

      Rahimuddin, S., Brown, J.E., Howell N.K. and Khoja, S.M. (2004) Effect of Luteolin and its glucosides on the prevention of UVA-induced oxidative damage in human skin fibroblasts. The Second Saudi Science Conference, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

      Brown, J.E. (2004) The effect of physiologically relevant concentrations of dietary anthocyanins on their ability to prevent LDL oxidation in the presence and absence of serum albumin. Nutrition Society Annual Summer Meeting, Dublin, Ireland.

      Rahimuddin, S., Brown, J.E., Howell N.K. and Khoja, S.M. (2004) Effect of Luteolin and its glucosides on the prevention of UVA-induced oxidative damage in human skin fibroblasts. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

      Parry B.M., Brown J.E., S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2005) Investigation of the phytoestrogen intake of group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Food Standards Agency Meeting, Gatwick, UK.

      Stoupi S., Clifford M.N., Kuhnert N., Brown J.E. and Williamson G. (2006) Gut flora metabolism of flavan-3-ols. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

      Parry B.M., Brown J.E., S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2006) Investigation of the phytoestrogen intake of group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Food Standards Agency Meeting, Slaley Hall, Hexham, UK.

      Brown, J.E., J.W. Tong, B.M. Parry, S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2006) Creation of a new phytoestrogen database for the assessment of dietary intakes of isoflavones, coumestans and lignans in a group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Soy and Health Conference, Düsseldorf, Germany.

      Parry B.M., Brown J.E., S.M. Horton, J.M. Stilwell, D.B. Clarke, J.M. Lawrence, M. Raats, L. Storey and R.M. Rainsbury. (2007) Investigation of the phytoestrogen intake of group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer. Food Standards Agency Meeting, Slaley Hall, Hexham, UK.

      Brown J.E., K. Chana, C. Mahende. (2007) Differences in the absorption and excretion of soy milk isoflavones in Oriental and Caucasian men. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Coleraine, N. Ireland

      Stoupi S., Clifford M.N., Williamson G and Brown J.E. (2007) Gut flora metabolism of (-)epicatechin. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

      Jamil D., Brown J.E., Driscoll D., Howell N. (2007) Gas chromatographic (GC) and GC-MS analysis of volatile oil components of Thymbra spicata L. and Thymus syriaca Boiss. var syriaca. SBMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

      Parry B.M., Lawrence J.M., Storey L., Brown J.E., Clarke D.B., Raats M., Horton S.M., Stilwell J.M., and Rainsbury R.M. (2007) Food choice and phytoestrogen consumption in women previously treated for post-menopausal breast cancer. WCRF and AICR Second Expert Launch Conference, Washington DC, USA.

      Brown J.E., K. Chana, C. Mahende. (2007) Absorption and excretion of soy milk isoflavones differs between Oriental and Caucasian men. University of Surrey Festival of Research, November 2007, Guildford, Surrey, UK

      Stoupi, S., Clifford, M.N., Williamson, G. and Brown, J.E. (2007) A comparison of the biotransformation of procyanidin B2 and (-)epicatechin by human colonic bacteria. 3rd International Conference on Polyphenols and Health, Kyoto, Japan.

      Parry B.M., Lawrence J.M., Storey L., Brown J.E., Clarke D.B., Raats M., Horton S.M., Stilwell J.M., and Rainsbury R.M. (2008) Food choice and phytoestrogen consumption in women previously treated for post-menopausal breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research 2008, The Royal Society, London, UK.

      Jamil D., Brown J.E., Driscoll D. Howell N.K. (2008) Composition and antioxidant properties of thyme and thymbra. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

      Mssallem-Al M, Driscoll D., Frost G., and Brown J.E. (2008) Carbohydrate bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.

      Stoupi, S., Williamson G., Drynan J.W., Brown J.E., and Clifford M.N. (2008) A comparison of the biotransformation of (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 by human colonic bacteria. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.

      Brown, J.E., Cropp, E., Rizzo, V. (2009) Carotenoid content and antioxidant activity of fourteen tomato ketchups available in the UK. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.

      Al-Mssallem, M., Frost G., Hampton S. and Brown J.E. (2009) A study of Hassawi rice in terms of its carbohydrate hydrolysis in vitro and glycaemic and insulinaemic indices in vivo. FHMS Festival of Research, University of Surrey, Guildford. UK.

      Al-Mssallem, M., Frost G. and Brown J.E. (2009) Compositional analysis of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its associated glycaemic and insulinaemic indices. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

      Brown, J.E., Cropp, E. and Rizzo, V. (2009) Carotenoid content and antioxidant activity of fourteen tomato ketchups available in the UK. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

      Jamil, D.M., Brown J.E., Driscoll, D. and Howell, NK. (2009) Characterization and antioxidant activity of the volatile oils of Thymus Syriacus Boiss. var syriacus and Thymbra spicata L. grown wild in Kurdistan-Iraq. Nutrition Society Annual Meeting, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

      Publications

      The aim was to evaluate the drying characteristics, quality, safety, carbon footprint and physico-chemical properties of fresh and antioxidant-treated dried Siganus sutor fish fillets. An innovative hybrid windmill-solar tunnel dryer was designed and fabricated in Kenya to harness solar and wind energy, day and night and in damp weather conditions. The moisture content for both salted and unsalted Siganid fish reduced exponentially to 19.9 % over a 3-day drying period. The quality and yield of Siganid fish fillets after delayed icing for 0, 2 and 4 h that was determined using the Quality Index Method, was linearly related to storage time. Biochemical evaluation of solar dried fish, stored for up to 75 days, showed lowest levels of Peroxide Value (PV), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), Volatile -Total Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine, pH and moisture in vacuum packaging, followed by polythene packs and highest levels in samples with no packaging. Microbial plate counts were significantly reduced after solar tunnel drying of the Siganids. Fish fillets were treated with synthetic antioxidant BHA (control) and extracts from water hyacinth, seaweeds and turmeric as sources of natural antioxidants. The efficacy of antioxidants to reduce lipid oxidation products PV and TBARS was in the order BHA>tumeric>seaweed>water hyacinth and significant (p<0.05). Small deformation rheology of stored (up to 90 days) solar dried fish fillets treated with natural antioxidants had lower G’ values compared to the control, reflecting desirable texture qualities. The thermodynamic properties (denaturation temperature (Tm) and heat enthalpy change (∆H) altered significantly only after 60 days storage. The carbon footprint was low because of low labour input, non-motorized fishing vessels and renewable energy-wind and solar used for drying. A descriptive generic Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point tool for solar dried fish was obtained for the first time. The above findings can enhance the processing and preservation of fish and influence fish quality and fisheries policies.
      Faughnan Marian S., Hawdon Ann, Ah-Singh Eric, Brown Jonathan, Millward D. J., Cassidy Aedin (2004)Urinary isoflavone kinetics: the effect of age, gender, food matrix and chemical composition, In: British Journal of Nutrition91pp. 567-574

      Urinary isoflavone excretion is used to monitor compliance and examine biological effects. The present study determined if there were alterations in urinary isoflavone excretion following the ingestion of different soya foods and if age and gender potentially modified profiles. Twenty premenopausal women, seventeen post-menopausal women and twenty men received a defined single oral bolus dose (0·44 mg isoflavones/kg body weight) of soya milk, textured vegetable protein (TVP) or tempeh on three separate occasions. Baseline and four consecutive complete 24 h pooled urines were collected during each period. Urinary genistein recovery was influenced by gender and food matrix. For women the urinary genistein recovery was higher following soya-milk consumption compared with TVP (P<0·05). Tempeh consumption also resulted in an increased urinary genistein recovery relative to soya milk in premenopausal women (P<0·052). No differences in urinary genistein recoveries between soya foods were observed in the men. Although urinary daidzein excretion was similar across the foods studied and was not affected by age or gender, conversion to its intestinal metabolite, equol, resulted in potential matrix and chemical composition effects; urinary equol excretion was higher (P<0·01) following tempeh ingestion among equol producers. Together these data suggest that the fractional absorption of genistein is potentially different in men and women and is influenced by the food matrix and chemical composition. Furthermore, the data suggest that the metabolism of daidzein may be altered by the chemical composition of the isoflavones ingested. Further studies are required to examine the effect of higher intake and define the relative influence of these factors in elderly population groups.

      Brown JE, Chana K, Marende C (2007)Differences in the absorption and excretion of soya-milk isoflavones in Oriental and Caucasian men, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY66pp. 99A-99A CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      Stoupi S, Williamson G, Viton F, Barron D, King LJ, Brown JE, Clifford MN (2010)In Vivo Bioavailability, Absorption, Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics of [C-14]Procyanidin B2 in Male Rats, In: DRUG METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION38(2)pp. 287-291 AMER SOC PHARMACOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS
      Al-Mssallem Muneera, Hampton Shelagh M, Frost Gary S, Brown Jonathan (2011)A study of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) in terms of its carbohydrate hydrolysis in vitro and glycaemic and insulinaemic indices in vivo, In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition65(5)pp. 627-634 Nature Publishing Group
      Background/Objectives: A high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes exists in Saudi Arabia. Epidemiological evidence suggests that low glycaemic index (GI) diets reduce diabetes risk. Yet, little is known about the GI of traditional Saudi Arabian staples such as Hassawi rice (HR). HR was evaluated in terms of its GI and insulinaemic indices (II). Comparisons were made in vitro assessing glucose released enzymatically. A long grain rice variety available in both the UK and Saudi was studied as a comparison. Subjects/Methods: For GI and II measurements, HR, Uncle Ben’s rice (UBR) and a standard glucose solution were consumed by healthy subjects (n=13) on 7 randomised occasions. Capillary bloods were collected at specific times over 2 h after food intake. FAO/WHO protocols were employed to determine GI and II. For the in vitro studies, cooked rice was incubated with hydrolytic enzymes under standardised conditions. Samples were taken at t=20 & t=120 min and rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG) were computed. Results: Values of RAG and SAG were lower for HR compared to their respective values for UBR (p<0.001 & p=0.011, respectively). However, no significant difference was observed for GI (p>0.05) despite a lower insulin response noted for HR (p=0.007). Conclusions: HR had a similar GI to UBR although a lower insulin response was evident. RAG and SAG values were different for the two rice varieties despite similar GI values. These differences may be important in terms of their metabolic impact and outcome on diabetes.
      Aldayel T, Hampton SM, Lanham-New SA, Brown JE (2013)Acute effects of cinnamon on glucose response in vivo to a standard carbohydrate-rich food, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY72(OCE4)pp. E203-E203 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      Wong MCY, Lee WTK, Wong JSW, Brown J, Frost G, Lodge J (2009)GLOBAL URINE METABOLITE PROFILING IN HUMAN UPON SOY CONSUMPTION USING UPLC-QToF MASS SPECTROMETRY, In: ANN NUTR METAB55pp. 156-157 KARGER
      Maher B, Sweeney C, O'Tuathaigh C, O'Flynn S, Brown JE (2013)Evaluation of a novel nutrition education intervention for medical students, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY72(OCE3)pp. E124-E124 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      Chapman LE, Darling AL, Brown JE (2015)The association between the biguanide drug metformin and vitamin B-12 deficiency in diabetic patients: a systematic review, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE1)pp. E128-E128
      Brown JE, Kelly MF (2007)Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins, anthocyanidins and their phenolic degradation products, In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY109(1)pp. 66-71 WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
      Rizzo V, Clifford AN, Brown JE, Siracusa L, Muratore G (2016)Effects of processing on the polyphenol and phenolic acid content and antioxidant capacity of semi-dried cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum M.), In: JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE96(6)pp. 2040-2046 WILEY-BLACKWELL
      Robertson Tracey, Brown Jonathan, Fielding Barbara, Robertson M. Denise (2020)The cumulative effects of chilling and reheating a carbohydrate-based pasta meal on the postprandial glycaemic response: a pilot study, In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Springer Nature
      This pilot study investigated the effects of chilling and reheating a pasta-based meal on the postprandial glycaemic response. In this single-blind crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers consumed identical pasta meals (pasta, olive oil and tomato sauce), served either freshly prepared, chilled or chilled/reheated, on three separate randomised occasions. Capillary blood samples were taken for two hours postprandially. A significant difference in glucose Incremental Area Under the Curve (IAUC) was observed (p = 0.006), with the greatest difference observed between the freshly cooked and chilled/reheated meals (p = 0.041). Significant differences in incremental peak glucose were also observed (p = 0.018). These results suggest that making simple changes to domestic food processing methods can reduce the glycaemic excursion following a pasta meal, with the potential for health benefit.
      Al-Mssallem MQ, Hampton SM, Frost GS, Brown JE (2011)A study of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) in terms of its carbohydrate hydrolysis (in vitro) and glycaemic and insulinaemic indices (in vivo), In: EUR J CLIN NUTR65(5)pp. 627-634 NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
      Background/Objectives: A high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes exists in Saudi Arabia. Epidemiological evidence suggests that low glycaemic index (GI) diets reduce diabetes risk. Yet, little is known about the GI of traditional Saudi Arabian staples such as Hassawi rice (HR). HR was evaluated in terms of its GI and insulinaemic indices (II). Comparisons were made in vitro assessing glucose released enzymatically. A long grain rice variety available in both the UK and Saudi was studied as a comparison. Subjects/Methods: For GI and II measurements, HR, Uncle Ben’s rice (UBR) and a standard glucose solution were consumed by healthy subjects (n=13) on 7 randomised occasions. Capillary bloods were collected at specific times over 2 h after food intake. FAO/WHO protocols were employed to determine GI and II. For the in vitro studies, cooked rice was incubated with hydrolytic enzymes under standardised conditions. Samples were taken at t=20 & t=120 min and rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG) were computed. Results: Values of RAG and SAG were lower for HR compared to their respective values for UBR (p<0.001 & p=0.011, respectively). However, no significant difference was observed for GI (p>0.05) despite a lower insulin response noted for HR (p=0.007). Conclusions: HR had a similar GI to UBR although a lower insulin response was evident. RAG and SAG values were different for the two rice varieties despite similar GI values. These differences may be important in terms of their metabolic impact and outcome on diabetes.
      Rahimuddin SA, Khoja SM, Zuhair MM, Howell NK, Brown JE (2007)Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in UVA-treated skin fibroblasts by luteolin and its glucosides, In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY109(7)pp. 647-655 WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
      Gannon RHT, Millward DJ, Brown JE, Macdonald HM, Lovell DP, Frassetto LA, Remer T, Lanham-New SA (2008)Estimates of daily net endogenous acid production in the elderly UK population: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of British adults aged 65 years and over, In: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION100(3)pp. 615-623 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      Hull SL, Brown JE (2011)An assessment of the effect of black tea on glucose and insulin response in vivo to a standard carbohydrate-rich food, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY70(OCE4)pp. E144-E144 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      Cassidy A, Brown JE, Hawdon A, Faughnan MS, King LJ, Millward J, Zimmer-Nechemias L, Wolfe B, Setchell KDR (2006)Factors affecting the bioavallability of soy isoflavones in humans after ingestion of physiologically relevant levels from different soy foods, In: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION136(1)pp. 45-51 AMER SOCIETY NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE
      Aldayel TS, Hampton SM, Lanham-New SA, Williams P, Brown JE (2014)An evaluation of serum cytokine levels in overweight women consuming a cinnamon supplement for 8 weeks, In: IMMUNOLOGY143pp. 184-185 WILEY-BLACKWELL
      Al-Mssallem MQ, Brown JE (2013)Arabic coffee increases the glycemic index but not insulinemic index of dates, In: Saudi Medical Journal34(9)pp. 923-928
      Objectives: To determine whether the glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (II) of dates could be altered by Arabic coffee consumption. Methods: This randomized cross-over study was conducted at the Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom from November 2009 to February 2010. Healthy subjects (5 males, 5 females) were recruited to the study. They were fed Khulas dates either with water, or with Arabic coffee. Plasma glucose and insulin responses were measured using standardized methods. Responses were compared with a pure glucose solution matched for available carbohydrate. The GI and II were calculated using standardized methods, and results were presented as means and standard error of mean. Glucose and insulin responses were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The GI of dates was 55 ± 6, which increased to 63 ± 5 for dates consumed with Arabic coffee (p=0.08). No significant difference was observed between the II for dates, and the II of dates consumed with Arabic coffee (p=1.00). Conclusion: Arabic coffee consumption modestly increased the plasma glucose response of dates compared to that of dates consumed with water. Insulin levels were not significantly affected. The modestly higher glycemic response to dates in the presence of Arabic coffee indicates that this custom may be considered detrimental to health.
      Limpet, Patella vulgata is an underutilised mollusc found on rocky shores in the United Kingdom and Asia. The objective was to analyse the physical-chemical and functional properties of limpet muscle. Patella vulgata contained protein (15.3%) and lipid (2.5%). The fatty acid profile comprised saturated (28.09%), monounsaturated (24.33%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (47. 58%). Patella vulgata muscle indicated a water-soluble protein content of 3.07% ± 0.05 and salt-soluble proteins of 2.86% ± 0.17%. Protein characterization by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page) exhibited the major bands for myofibrillar proteins including myosin heavy chain, troponin and actin. The essential amino acid profile included lysine, threonine, valine, histidine, methionine, phenylalanine, leucine and isoleucine. Limpet muscle exhibited excellent rheological properties and denatured between 50 and 60 °C as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The gel strength and nutritional value of limpet were improved when combined with tapioca starch (10:5) and with whey protein isolate (7.5:7.5) when compared to limpet alone. Limpet flesh showed favourable interactions with other nutrients in food model systems and was further tested in real products like soups and sausages. Spices as chilli, turmeric, ginger and garlic (0.01%) were used in four soup formulations as natural anti-oxidants, and all dried formulations were stored and were monitored for lipid oxidation for 12 weeks. The recipe with the combination of turmeric and chilli exhibited the best result for inhibiting peroxide value (PV) (49.1 meq/kg of lipid, P <0.05) and inhibiting thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS) formation (166 mg TBARS/mg lipid, P <0.05) when compared with recipe control. All spices prevented the toughness of the soup powder during storage, resulting in a better texture compared to the control. Limpet sausages, gluten free and low in salt, were also developed with and without 2% turmeric and/or 2% ginger. The recipe containing ginger alone inhibited PV (3.3 meq/kg of lipid, P <0.05) versus the control (8.04 meq/kg of lipid), while the formulation with turmeric inhibited TBARS more effectively (0.016 mg TBARS/mg lipid, P <0.05) versus control (0.05 mg TBARS/mg lipid). The texture of cooked limpet sausages had a similar texture to commercial Quorn sausages with no significant difference in gel strength values (P <0.05) and was softer than chicken sausage. These project findings indicate that underutilised limpets can contribute to valuable protein and lipids in novel food products.
      Bioactive peptides represent an important source of health promoting food. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory peptides derived from bovine serum albumin (BSA) and to characterise them after further purification. To achieve this objective, BSA was hydrolyzed with pepsin enzyme, fractionated by ultrafiltration using a 10 kDa molecular weight cut off membrane, and purified by gel filtration chromatography prior to characterisation. The total antioxidant activity was evaluated in a linoleic acid model system using the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) methods. The results indicated that gel filtration fraction number 18 exhibited the highest FTC antioxidant activity (65.4 %) compared to the (< 10 kDa) ultrafiltration fraction (44.8 %) and BSA hydrolysate (34.9 %) using a concentration of 1mg peptide/ml. However, the peptide activities were lower than those of 0.01 % butylated hydroxyanisole (69.9 %) and 0.01 % trolox (78.5 %) (P ≤ 0.05). Likewise, TBARS inhibition values were 42.8, 54.8, 76.7 and 84.4 % for BSA hydrolysate, < 10 kDa, BHA and trolox, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the (Mw < 10 kDa) peptide was demonstrated by strong free radical scavenging using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), hydroxyl (OH•) and superoxide anion (O2-•); ferric (Fe3+) reducing and ferrous (Fe2+) metal ion chelating capacity and reducing power activity. A second gel filtration fraction number 22 exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (79.5%) compared to the (10 kDa) ultrafiltration fraction (44.7%) and BSA hydrolysate (33.2 %) at a concentration of 10 mg/ml, with corresponding low IC50 values of 0.32, 0.56 and 0.75 mg/ml respectively compared to captopril (88.5%, P ≤ 0.05). The peptide (GF 18) at 1 mg/ml had no cytotoxic effect in epithelial caco-2 cells. Moreover, the presence of the peptide showed high cell viability (99.7%) and reduced malondialdehyde formation (27.7 µg/ml) compared with cells treated with 3mM t-BHP alone, which showed low cell viability (54.6%) and high MDA (30.3 µg/ml) (P < 0.01). BSA peptides protected t-BHP treated cells from caspase-dependent apoptosis; inhibited intracellular ROS production and increased glutathione level and SOD activity. Similarly, the GF 22 peptides (1 mg/ml) protected the endothelial EA.hy 926 against 3mM t-BHP damage and showed reduced mROS production by both lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and the DHE fluorescence techniques. Additionally, the peptides reduced nitrite concentration and inhibited the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme in a dose dependent manner. This study reports novel findings showing that BSA peptides have antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities that could potentially be used as food supplements and pharmaceutical agents.
      Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The incidence and mortality of CRC are higher in more developed regions than in less developed regions and they are also higher in males than in females from 45.7% to 7% and from 16.1% to 5.5%, respectively. These and other data suggest CRC may be amenable to improve prevention by suitable lifestyle interventions, including dietary modification. Quercetin (QC) is a flavonoid obtained from plants that can reach concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract in the range of 0.16–1.30 µM as determined by LC-MS analysis of faecal water. However, many other compounds are also present in faecal water, including those from other plants (e.g. SFN released from brassicas) and DHCA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid), which is a colonic microflora catabolite of the major dietary phenolic acids, derived from the consumption of fruits, vegetables, coffee, and tea. The investigation was done to assess the cytotoxic effect of individual components in human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells and primary human colonic epithelial cells (HCoEpiC). It also investigates whether synergistic interactions or additive interactions occur between mixtures of QC, DHCA, and SFN in terms of potential cytotoxic activity in Caco-2 and HCoEpiC and it compares the effects observed in the cancer cell line with those in HCoEpiC. The study demonstrated that Caco-2 cells or HCoEpiC were treated with various concentrations of QC (0-150 µM), DHCA (0-500 µM) or SFN (0-200 µM) individually and in combination, to determine the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value using the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. This has resulted in that QC and SFN had both concentration and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on Caco-2 cells (IC50 50 µM, p > 0.001 and 32 µM, p > 0.0001 for QC and 45 µM, p > 0.05 and 20 µM, p > 0.0001 for SFN after 24 and 48 h, respectively). DHCA only showed detectable cytotoxic effect in Caco-2 cells at the highest concentration tested. QC had no detectable cytotoxic effect on HCoEpiC, while SFN showed a very similar cytotoxic effect in HCoEpiC (IC50 19.21 µM, p > 0.0001), DHCA had no cytotoxic effect. However, SFN supplementation increased QC cytotoxicity in Caco-2 and HCoEpiC at low concentrations. Moreover, DHCA appeared to cause an increase in viability or cell number at all SFN concentrations tested in HCoEpiC but not in HCoEpiC. DHCA supplementation had a clear influence on QC-induced cytotoxicity in Caco-2 and but not in HCoEpiC. In conclusion, combinations of the phytochemicals at low concentrations exhibited even greater cytotoxic effects than phytochemicals individually in CRC cells and they do not have an effect on primary. These data suggest the three phytochemicals each exhibit unique and distinct effects in CRC and primary colon cells. It is clear from the present studies that some combinations of phytochemicals can have an additive interaction effect rather than a synergistic interaction in CRC growth cells. In summary, evidence suggests that a combination of phytochemicals is a good candidate for further anticancer studies.
      Fish is an important dietary component and is a major source of protein and requires appropriate post-harvest handling, processing and storage. In this study, oven and freeze dried Atlantic salmon both untreated and treated with garlic, cinnamon and BHT as well as mixture (garlic + cinnamon + vitamin C) was stored for 24 weeks at 22 oC or 30 days at 40 oC. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, total lipids and ash) of the Atlantic salmon was also investigated. The mechanism of antioxidant activity was extensively studied through DPPH, H2O2, hydroxyl radical scavenging and metal chelating activity assays. It was demonstrated that garlic and cinnamon contain large amounts of polyphenols and flavonoids that reflect directly on the assays mentioned above. The PV value, protein, TBARS and carbonyl contents of the antioxidant-treated and untreated Atlantic salmon were studied. Atlantic salmon (control) without antioxidants deteriorated quickly resulting in high PV value; BHT was the most effective antioxidant, followed by the combination of garlic, cinnamon and vitamin C; garlic and cinnamon in oven- and freeze-dried salmon. However, cinnamon prevented TBARS formation more than garlic after 30 days storage (p<0.05). Garlic, cinnamon, the antioxidant mixture and BHT all reduced protein denaturation as shown by a lower carbonyl content and loss of solubility. In general, freeze drying was more effective than oven drying in maintaining the nutritional value of the stored Atlantic salmon. Structural, thermodynamic and texture changes that occurred during fish storage were assessed by FT-Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small deformation rheology respectively. FT-Raman spectroscopy showed that proteins were less denatured in the presence of different antioxidants; the tyrosine doublet ratio decreased and β-sheet structure (990 and 1239 cm-1) increased, suggesting the involvement of the hydroxyl groups in hydrogen bonding. Raman spectroscopy also confirmed that the structure and composition of salmon flesh lipids were directly affected by storage time and protected by the addition of antioxidants. However, DSC analysis showed that with the exception of garlic and BHT (Peak1 myosin), antioxidant-treated salmon fillets were significantly more denatured or cross-linked, with low ΔH values, compared to untreated control salmon fillets. Small deformation rheology showed an increase in the elastic modulus G’ over the viscous modulus G” indicating an initial gel nature of the dried fillet paste. An increase in G’ confirmed protein denaturation and muscle toughness during storage; the values were significantly higher than those observed in samples treated with different antioxidants. Finally, BSA was subjected to the previously discussed techniques and used as a model protein to show that protein-polyphenol (500 ppm cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde) interactions occurred mainly via aliphatic, aromatic and tyrosine amino acids. Protein denaturation was evidenced by higher G’ and ΔH values of protein-polyphenol mixtures compared to the control BSA.
      Food security can be improved by reducing post-harvest losses in sustainable food product chains. About 50% of fish is lost during filleting, including significant levels of high quality protein (10–23% (w/w)), which may be a source for biofunctional peptides. The fish processing waste protein hydrolysate can be a potential solution for minimizing the environmental issues related to marine processing products, and act as an alternative to producing value added fish processing by products. The main aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of fish processing waste streams from Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and mixed fish by membrane separation. Protein hydrolysates of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and mixed fish from fish waste streams were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using pepsin and pancreatin and measured for their antioxidant and functional properties. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, total lipids and ash) of the Atlantic mackerel and Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) fish fillets (FF) compared to fish waste (FW) was also investigated. Protein fractions from the fish waste samples were separated by using the TFF cogent μscale ultrafiltration system from Millipore, and parameters including transmembrane pressure (TMP) on flux excursion, protein performance scalability, mass transfer analysis, as well as hold up volume were studied. The mechanism of antioxidant activity was studied by DPPH, FRAP, FTC and TBARS assays. It was demonstrated that fish waste water protein hydrolysate especially for Atlantic Mackerel showed good antioxidant activities by the Ferric Thiocyanate (FTC) and Thiobarbituric acid Reactive substances (TBARS) methods and compared well with other antioxidants (BHA, ascorbic acid and trolox). There was significant difference (p<0.05) between samples and negative control (no antioxidant). DPPH scavenging activity increased with the extract concentration in the range of 1.5-26 %. In FRAP assay, both sample showed that there was an increase in absorbance with an increase in concentration. Structural and thermodynamic changes in fish waste samples were also determined by FT-Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small deformation rheology respectively. The DSC thermograms from the samples indicated that fish waste samples may be comparable. Moreover in fish waste sample hydrolysates, the same trends were obtained in 10 kDa AM and MF fractions. Fish waste samples especially hydrolysed fish waste samples, showed different protein denaturation transition peaks, indicating that enzymatic hydrolysis can affect the thermodynamic and functional properties of protein samples. Similarly, the rheological properties were different for different fish samples (AM and MF) with AM showing higher G’ or elastic modulus values (p<0.05). The proteins in mackerel and mixed fish waste stream were characterised by FT-Raman spectroscopy and showed significant differences in their respective spectra and most of the assigned peaks (p<0.05).