Josef Kittler

Professor Josef Kittler


Distinguished Professor
+44 (0)1483 689294
25 BA 00

Biography

Biography

I have been a Research Assistant in the Engineering Department of Cambridge University (1973--75), SERC Research Fellow at the University of Southampton (1975-77), Royal Society European Research Fellow, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommuninations, Paris (1977--78), IBM Research Fellow, Balliol College, Oxford (1978--80), Principal Research Associate, SERC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (1980--84) and Principal Scientific Officer, SERC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (1985).

I also worked as the SERC Coordinator for Pattern Analysis (1982), and was Rutherford Research Fellow in Oxford University, Dept. Engineering Science (1985).

I joined the Department of Electrical Engineering of Surrey University in 1986 as a Reader in Information Technology, and became Professor of Machine Intelligence in 1991 and gained the title Distinguished Professor in 2004.

Research interests

I have worked on various theoretical aspects of Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis and Computer Vision, and on many applications including System Identification, Automatic Inspection, ECG diagnosis, Mammographic Image Interpretation, Remote Sensing, Robotics, Speech Recognition, Character Recognition and Document Processing, Image Coding, Biometrics, Image and Video Database Retrieval, Surveillance. Contributions to statistical pattern recognition include k-nearest neighbour methods of pattern classification, feature selection, contextual classification, probabilistic relaxation and most recently to multiple expert fusion. In computer vision my major contributions include robust statistical methods for shape analysis and detection, motion estimation and segmentation, and image segmentation by thresholding and edge detection.

I have co-authored a book with the title `Pattern Recognition: a statistical approach' published by Prentice-Hall and published more than 500 papers.

Affiliations

Served as a member of the Editorial Board of IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence during 1982-85. Currently serves on the Editorial Boards of Pattern Recognition Letters, Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, Pattern Analysis and Applications.

Served on the Governing Board of the International Association for Pattern Recognition (IAPR) as one of the two British representatives during the period 1982-2005. President of the IAPR during 1994-1996. Currently a member of the KS Fu Prize Committee of IAPR.

Achievements and Honours

Received Best Paper awards from the Pattern Recognition Society, the British Machine Vision Association and IEE.

Received ``Honorary Medal'' from the Electrotechnical Faculty of the Czech Technical University in Prague in September 1995 for contributions to the field of pattern recognition and computer vision.

Elected Fellow of the International Association for Pattern Recognition in 1998

Elected Fellow of Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1999

Received Honorary Doctorate from the Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland, for contributions to Pattern Recognition and Computer Vision in 1999

Elected Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, 2000

Received Institution of Electrical Engineers Achievemments Medal 2002 for outstanding contributions to Visual Information Engineering

Elected BMVA Distinguished Fellow 2002

Received, from the Czech Academy of Sciences, the 2003 Bernard Bolzano Honorary Medal for Merit in the Mathematical Sciences

Awarded the title Distinguished Professor of the University of Surrey in 2004

Appointed as Series Editor for Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2004

Awarded the KS Fu Prize 2006, by the International Association for Pattern Recognition, for outstanding contributions to Pattern Recognition (the prize awarded biennially)

Received Honorary Doctorate from the Czech Technical University in Prague in 2007, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of its foundation.

Awarded the IET Faraday Medal 2008.

My publications

Publications

Manijeh Bashar, Ali Akbari, Kanapathippillai Cumanan, Hien Quoc Ngo, Alister G. Burr, Pei Xiao, Merouane Debbah, Josef Kittler (2020)Exploiting Deep Learning in Limited-Fronthaul Cell-Free Massive MIMO Uplink, In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

A cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) uplink is considered, where quantize-and-forward (QF) refers to the case where both the channel estimates and the received signals are quantized at the access points (APs) and forwarded to a central processing unit (CPU) whereas in combinequantize- and-forward (CQF), the APs send the quantized version of the combined signal to the CPU. To solve the non-convex sum rate maximization problem, a heuristic sub-optimal scheme is exploited to convert the power allocation problem into a standard geometric programme (GP). We exploit the knowledge of the channel statistics to design the power elements. Employing largescale-fading (LSF) with a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) enables us to determine a mapping from the LSF coefficients and the optimal power through solving the sum rate maximization problem using the quantized channel. Four possible power control schemes are studied, which we refer to as i) small-scale fading (SSF)-based QF; ii) LSF-based CQF; iii) LSF use-and-then-forget (UatF)-based QF; and iv) LSF deep learning (DL)-based QF, according to where channel estimation is performed and exploited and how the optimization problem is solved. Numerical results show that for the same fronthaul rate, the throughput significantly increases thanks to the mapping obtained using DCNN.

N Faraji Davar, Teofilo de Campos, David Windridge, Josef Kittler, William Christmas (2011)Domain Adaptation in the Context of Sport Video Action Recognition, In: Domain Adaptation Workshop, in conjunction with NIPS

We apply domain adaptation to the problem of recognizing common actions between differing court-game sport videos (in particular tennis and badminton games). Actions are characterized in terms of HOG3D features extracted at the bounding box of each detected player, and thus have large intrinsic dimensionality. The techniques evaluated here for domain adaptation are based on estimating linear transformations to adapt the source domain features in order to maximize the similarity between posterior PDFs for each class in the source domain and the expected posterior PDF for each class in the target domain. As such, the problem scales linearly with feature dimensionality, making the video-environment domain adaptation problem tractable on reasonable time scales and resilient to over-fitting. We thus demonstrate that significant performance improvement can be achieved by applying domain adaptation in this context.

A Tahir, J Kittler, K Mikolajczyk, F Yan (2009)A Multiple Expert Approach to the Class Imbalance Problem Using Inverse Random Under Sampling, In: International Workshop on Multiple Classifier Systems
J KITTLER, J ILLINGWORTH (1986)MINIMUM ERROR THRESHOLDING, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION19(1)pp. 41-47 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
JR Tena, RS Smith, A Hamouz, J Kittler, A Hilton, J Illingworth (2007)2D face pose normalisation using a 3D morphable model, In: 2007 IEEE CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED VIDEO AND SIGNAL BASED SURVEILLANCEpp. 51-56
Zhenhua Feng, Josef Kittler, William Christmas, Patrik Huber, X-J Wu (2017)Dynamic Attention-controlled Cascaded Shape Regression Exploiting Training Data Augmentation and Fuzzy-set Sample Weighting, In: Proceedings of CVPR 2017pp. 2481-2490 IEEE

We present a new Cascaded Shape Regression (CSR) architecture, namely Dynamic Attention-Controlled CSR (DAC-CSR), for robust facial landmark detection on unconstrained faces. Our DAC-CSR divides facial landmark detection into three cascaded sub-tasks: face bounding box refinement, general CSR and attention-controlled CSR. The first two stages refine initial face bounding boxes and output intermediate facial landmarks. Then, an online dynamic model selection method is used to choose appropriate domain-specific CSRs for further landmark refinement. The key innovation of our DAC-CSR is the fault-tolerant mechanism, using fuzzy set sample weighting, for attentioncontrolled domain-specific model training. Moreover, we advocate data augmentation with a simple but effective 2D profile face generator, and context-aware feature extraction for better facial feature representation. Experimental results obtained on challenging datasets demonstrate the merits of our DAC-CSR over the state-of-the-art methods.

M Awais, Fei Yan, Krystian Mikolajczyk, Josef Kittler (2011)Novel fusion methods for pattern recognition, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Proceedings of Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases (Part 1)6911(PART 1)pp. 140-155

Over the last few years, several approaches have been proposed for information fusion including different variants of classifier level fusion (ensemble methods), stacking and multiple kernel learning (MKL). MKL has become a preferred choice for information fusion in object recognition. However, in the case of highly discriminative and complementary feature channels, it does not significantly improve upon its trivial baseline which averages the kernels. Alternative ways are stacking and classifier level fusion (CLF) which rely on a two phase approach. There is a significant amount of work on linear programming formulations of ensemble methods particularly in the case of binary classification. In this paper we propose a multiclass extension of binary ν-LPBoost, which learns the contribution of each class in each feature channel. The existing approaches of classifier fusion promote sparse features combinations, due to regularization based on ℓ1-norm, and lead to a selection of a subset of feature channels, which is not good in the case of informative channels. Therefore, we generalize existing classifier fusion formulations to arbitrary ℓ p -norm for binary and multiclass problems which results in more effective use of complementary information. We also extended stacking for both binary and multiclass datasets. We present an extensive evaluation of the fusion methods on four datasets involving kernels that are all informative and achieve state-of-the-art results on all of them.

A Khan, David Windridge, T Campos, Josef Kittler, William Christmas (2010)Lattice-based Anomaly Rectification for Sport Video Annotation, In: Proceedings of ICPR 2010
R Bowden, L Ellis, J Kittler, M Shevchenko, D Windridge (2005)Unsupervised symbol grounding and cognitive bootstrapping in cognitive vision, In: Proc. 13th Int. Conference on Image Analysis and Processingpp. 27-36
F Yan, W Christmas, J Kittler (2005)A Tennis Ball Tracking Algorithm for Automatic Annotation of Tennis Match, In: British Machine Vision Conference2pp. 619-628

Several tennis ball tracking algorithms have been reported in the literature. However, most of them use high quality video and multiple cameras, and the emphasis has been on coordinating the cameras, or visualising the tracking results. In this paper, we propose a tennis ball tracking algorithm for low quality off-air video recorded with a single camera. Multiple visual cues are exploited for tennis candidate detection. A particle filter with improved sampling efficiency is used to track the tennis candidates. Experimental results show that our algorithm is robust and has a tracking accuracy that is sufficiently high for automatic annotation of tennis matches.

MA Tahir, J Kittler, A Bouridane (2016)Multi-label classification using stacked spectral kernel discriminant analysis, In: NEUROCOMPUTING171pp. 127-137 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
C-H Chan, J Kittler, K Messer (2007)Multi-scale Local Binary Pattern Histograms for Face Recognition, In: ICBpp. 809-818
A Tatarchuk, V Sulimova, D Windridge, V Mottl, M Lange, JA Benediktsson, J Kittler, F Roli (2009)Supervised Selective Combining Pattern Recognition Modalities and Its Application to Signature Verification by Fusing On-Line and Off-Line Kernels, In: MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS5519pp. 324-334
Soroush Fatemifar, Muhammad Awais, Shervin Rahimzadeh, Josef Kittler (2020)Combining Multiple one-class Classifiers for Anomaly based Face Spoofing Attack Detection, In: 2019 International Conference on Biometrics (ICB)

One-class spoofing detection approaches have been an effective alternative to the two-class learners in the face presentation attack detection particularly in unseen attack scenarios. We propose an ensemble based anomaly detection approach applicable to one-class classifiers. A new score normalisation method is proposed to normalise the output of individual outlier detectors before fusion. To comply with the accuracy and diversity objectives for the component classifiers, three different strategies are utilised to build a pool of anomaly experts. To boost the performance, we also make use of the client-specific information both in the design of individual experts as well as in setting a distinct threshold for each client. We carry out extensive experiments on three face anti-spoofing datasets and show that the proposed ensemble approaches are comparable superior to the techniques based on the two-class formulation or class-independent settings.

N Poh, T Bourlai, J Kittler, L Allano, F Alonso-Fernandez, O Ambekar, J Baker, B Dorizzi, O Fatukasi, J Fierrez, H Ganster, J Ortega-Garcia, D Maurer, AA Salah, T Scheidat, C Vielhauer (2009)Benchmarking Quality-Dependent and Cost-Sensitive Score-Level Multimodal Biometric Fusion Algorithms, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY4(4)pp. 849-866 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
J Kittler, N Poh (2010)Data quality dependent decision making in pattern classification, In: Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organizationpp. 25-36

Sensory information acquired by pattern recognition systems is invariably subject to environmental and sensing conditions, which may change over time. This may have a significant negative impact on the performance of pattern recognition algorithms. In the past, these problems have been tackled by building in invariance to the various changes, by adaptation and by multiple expert systems. More recently, the possibility of enhancing the pattern classification system robustness by using auxiliary information has been explored. In particular, by measuring the extent of degradation, the resulting sensory data quality information can be used with advantage to combat the effect of the degradation phenomena. This can be achieved by using the auxiliary quality information as features in the fusion stage of a multiple classifier system which uses the discriminant function values from the first stage as inputs. Data quality can be measured directly from the sensory data. Different architectures have been suggested for decision making using quality information. Examples of these architectures are presented and their relative merits discussed. The problems and benefits associated with the use of auxiliary information in sensory data analysis are illustrated on the problem of personal identity verification in biometrics. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

Josef Kittler, Cemre Zor (2018)Delta divergence: A novel decision cognizant measure of classifier incongruence, In: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics IEEE

In pattern recognition, disagreement between two classifiers regarding the predicted class membership of an observation can be indicative of an anomaly and its nuance. As in general classifiers base their decisions on class aposteriori probabilities, the most natural approach to detecting classifier incongruence is to use divergence. However, existing divergences are not particularly suitable to gauge classifier incongruence. In this paper, we postulate the properties that a divergence measure should satisfy and propose a novel divergence measure, referred to as Delta divergence. In contrast to existing measures, it focuses on the dominant (most probable) hypotheses and thus reduces the effect of the probability mass distributed over the non dominant hypotheses (clutter). The proposed measure satisfies other important properties such as symmetry, and independence of classifier confidence. The relationship of the proposed divergence to some baseline measures, and its superiority, is shown experimentally.

D Windridge, N Poh, V Mottl, A Tatarchuk, A Eliseyev, JA Benediktsson, J Kittler, F Roli (2009)Handling Multimodal Information Fusion with Missing Observations Using the Neutral Point Substitution Method, In: MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS5519pp. 161-170
D Goswami, CH Chan, D Windridge, J Kittler (2011)Evaluation of face recognition system in heterogeneous environments (visible vs NIR), In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Visionpp. 2160-2167

Performing facial recognition between Near Infrared (NIR) and visible-light (VIS) images has been established as a common method of countering illumination variation problems in face recognition. In this paper we present a new database to enable the evaluation of cross-spectral face recognition. A series of preprocessing algorithms, followed by Local Binary Pattern Histogram (LBPH) representation and combinations with Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) are used for recognition. These experiments are conducted on both NIR→VIS and the less common VIS→NIR protocols, with permutations of uni-modal training sets. 12 individual baseline algorithms are presented. In addition, the best performing fusion approaches involving a subset of 12 algorithms are also described. © 2011 IEEE.

J Kittler, W Christmas, A Kostin, F Yan, I Kolonias, D Windridge (2005)A Memory Architecture and Contextual Reasoning Framework for Cognitive Vision, In: 14th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis3540pp. 343-358

One of the key requirements for a cognitive vision system to support reasoning is the possession of an effective mechanism to exploit context both for scene interpretation and for action planning. Context can be used effectively provided the system is endowed with a conducive memory architecture that supports contextual reasoning at all levels of processing, as well as a contextual reasoning framework. In this paper we describe a unified apparatus for reasoning using context, cast in a Bayesian reasoning framework. We also describe a modular memory architecture developed as part of the VAMPIRE* vision system which allows the system to store raw video data at the lowest level and its semantic annotation of monotonically increasing abstraction at the higher levels. By way of illustration, we use as an application for the memory system the automatic annotation of a tennis match.

Tianyang Xu, Zhenhua Feng, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2019)Joint Group Feature Selection and Discriminative Filter Learning for Robust Visual Object Tracking, In: Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV 2019) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

We propose a new Group Feature Selection method for Discriminative Correlation Filters (GFS-DCF) based visual object tracking. The key innovation of the proposed method is to perform group feature selection across both channel and spatial dimensions, thus to pinpoint the structural relevance of multi-channel features to the filtering system. In contrast to the widely used spatial regularisation or feature selection methods, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that channel selection has been advocated for DCF-based tracking. We demonstrate that our GFS-DCF method is able to significantly improve the performance of a DCF tracker equipped with deep neural network features. In addition, our GFS-DCF enables joint feature selection and filter learning, achieving enhanced discrimination and interpretability of the learned filters. To further improve the performance, we adaptively integrate historical information by constraining filters to be smooth across temporal frames, using an efficient low-rank approximation. By design, specific temporal-spatial-channel configurations are dynamically learned in the tracking process, highlighting the relevant features, and alleviating the performance degrading impact of less discriminative representations and reducing information redundancy. The experimental results obtained on OTB2013, OTB2015, VOT2017, VOT2018 and TrackingNet demonstrate the merits of our GFS-DCF and its superiority over the state-of-the-art trackers. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/XU-TIANYANG/GFS-DCF.

D Windridge, J Kittler (2005)Performance measures of the tomographic classifier fusion methodology, In: Int. Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence19(6)pp. 731-753 World Scientific

We seek to quantify both the classification performance and estimation error robustness of the authors' tomographic classifier fusion methodology by contrasting it in field tests and model scenarios with the sum and product classifier fusion methodologies. In particular, we seek to confirm that the tomographic methodology represents a generally optimal strategy across the entire range of problem dimensionalities, and at a sufficient margin to justify the general advocation of its use. Final results indicate, in particular, a near 25% improvement on the next nearest performing combination scheme at the extremity of the tested dimensional range.

D Windridge, J Kittler, T De Campos, F Yan, C William, K Aftab (2014)Rule Induction for Adaptive Sport Video Characterization Using MLN Clause Templates, In: IEEE Transactions on MultiMedia22(2)

In practical applications of pattern recognition and computer vision, the performance of many approaches can be improved by using multiple models. In this paper, we develop a common theoretical framework for multiple model fusion at the feature level using multilinear subspace analysis (also known as tensor algebra). One disadvantage of the multilinear approach is that it is hard to obtain enough training observations for tensor decomposition algorithms. To overcome this difficulty, we adopted the M$^2$SA algorithm to reconstruct the missing entries of the incomplete training tensor. Furthermore, we apply the proposed framework to the problem of face image analysis using Active Appearance Model (AAM) to validate its performance. Evaluations of AAM using the proposed framework are conducted on Multi-PIE face database with promising results.

X Zou, J Kittler, K Messer (2006)Accurate face localisation for faces under active near-IR illumination, In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conferencepp. 369-374
D Coppi, T De Campos, F Yan, J Kittler, R Cucchiara (2014)On detection of novel categories and subcategories of images using incongruence, In: ICMR 2014 - Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval 2014pp. 337-344

Novelty detection is a crucial task in the development of autonomous vision systems. It aims at detecting if samples do not conform with the learnt models. In this paper, we consider the problem of detecting novelty in object recognition problems in which the set of object classes are grouped to form a semantic hierarchy. We follow the idea that, within a semantic hierarchy, novel samples can be defined as samples whose categorization at a specific level contrasts with the categorization at a more general level. This measure indicates if a sample is novel and, in that case, if it is likely to belong to a novel broad category or to a novel sub-category. We present an evaluation of this approach on two hierarchical subsets of the Caltech256 objects dataset and on the SUN scenes dataset, with different classification schemes. We obtain an improvement over Weinshall et al. and show that it is possible to bypass their normalisation heuristic. We demonstrate that this approach achieves good novelty detection rates as far as the conceptual taxonomy is congruent with the visual hierarchy, but tends to fail if this assumption is not satisfied. Copyright 2014 ACM.

A Tatarchuk, E Urlov, V Mottl, D Windridge, N El Gayar, J Kittler, F Roli (2010)A Support Kernel Machine for Supervised Selective Combining of Diverse Pattern-Recognition Modalities, In: MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS5997pp. 165-174
Zengxi Huang, Zhenhua Feng, Josef Kittler, Yiguang Liu (2018)Improve the Spoofing Resistance of Multimodal Verification with Representation-Based Measures, In: Pattern Recognition and Computer Vision. PRCV 2018.11258pp. 388-399 Springer

Recently, the security of multimodal verification has become a grow-ing concern since many fusion systems have been known to be easily deceived by partial spoof attacks, i.e. only a subset of modalities is spoofed. In this paper, we verify such a vulnerability and propose to use two representation-based met-rics to close this gap. Firstly, we use the collaborative representation fidelity with non-target subjects to measure the affinity of a query sample to the claimed client. We further consider sparse coding as a competing comparison among the client and the non-target subjects, and hence explore two sparsity-based measures for recognition. Last, we select the representation-based measure, and assemble its score and the affinity score of each modality to train a support vector machine classifier. Our experimental results on a chimeric multimodal database with face and ear traits demonstrate that in both regular verification and partial spoof at-tacks, the proposed method significant

J Kittler, M Shevchenko, D Windridge (2006)Visual Bootstrapping for Unsupervised Symbol Grounding, In: Proceedings of 8th Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems International Conferencepp. 1037-1046

Most existing cognitive architectures integrate computer vision and symbolic reasoning. However, there is still a gap between low-level scene representations (signals) and abstract symbols. Manually attaching, i.e. grounding, the symbols on the physical context makes it impossible to expand system capabilities by learning new concepts. This paper presents a visual bootstrapping approach for the unsupervised symbol grounding. The method is based on a recursive clustering of a perceptual category domain controlled by goal acquisition from the visual environment. The novelty of the method consists in division of goals into the classes of parameter goal, invariant goal and context goal. The proposed system exhibits incremental learning in such a manner as to allow effective transferable representation of high-level concepts.

R Patenall, D Windridge, J Kittler (2005)Multiple Classifier Fusion Performance in Networked Stochastic Vector Quantisers, In: Proceedings of 6th International Workshop on Multiple Classifier Systemspp. 128-135
F Yan, W Christmas, J Kittler (2006)A Maximum A Posteriori Probability Viterbi Data Association Algorithm for Ball Tracking in Sports Video, In: International Conference on Pattern Recognition
SR Arashloo, J Kittler (2014)Dynamic Texture Recognition Using Multiscale Binarized Statistical Image Features, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA16(8)pp. 2099-2109 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Zhenhua Feng, Patrik Huber, Josef Kittler, P Hancock, X-J Wu, Q Zhao, Paul Koppen, M Ratsch (2018)Evaluation of Dense 3D Reconstruction from 2D Face Images in the Wild, In: Proceedings of 13th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face & Gesture Recognition Conference IEEE

This paper investigates the evaluation of dense 3D face reconstruction from a single 2D image in the wild. To this end, we organise a competition that provides a new benchmark dataset that contains 2000 2D facial images of 135 subjects as well as their 3D ground truth face scans. In contrast to previous competitions or challenges, the aim of this new benchmark dataset is to evaluate the accuracy of a 3D dense face reconstruction algorithm using real, accurate and high-resolution 3D ground truth face scans. In addition to the dataset, we provide a standard protocol as well as a Python script for the evaluation. Last, we report the results obtained by three state-of-the-art 3D face reconstruction systems on the new benchmark dataset. The competition is organised along with the 2018 13th IEEE Conference on Automatic Face & Gesture Recognition.

M Shevchenko, D Windridge, J Kittler (2009)A linear-complexity reparameterisation strategy for the hierarchical bootstrapping of capabilities within perception-action architectures, In: IMAGE AND VISION COMPUTING27(11)pp. 1702-1714 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Miroslaw Bober, Josef Kittler (1994)Estimation of complex multimodal motion - an approach based on robust statistics and hough transform, In: Image and vision computing12(10)pp. 661-668 Elsevier
Jieyi Ren, Xiao-jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2020)Discriminative block-diagonal covariance descriptors for image set classification, In: Pattern Recognition Letters136pp. 230-236 Elsevier

Image set classification has recently received much attention due to its various applications in pattern recognition and computer vision. To compare and match image sets, the major challenges are to devise an effective and efficient representation and to define a measure of similarity between image sets. In this paper, we propose a method for representing image sets based on block-diagonal Covariance Descriptors (CovDs). In particular, the proposed image set representation is in the form of non-singular covariance matrices, also known as Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) matrices, that lie on Riemannian manifold. By dividing each image of an image set into square blocks of the same size, we compute the corresponding block CovDs instead of the global one. Taking the relative discriminative power of these block CovDs into account, a block-diagonal SPD matrix can be constructed to achieve a better discriminative capability. We extend the proposed approach to work with bidirectional CovDs and achieve a further boost in performance. The resulting block-diagonal SPD matrices combined with Riemannian metrics are shown to provide a powerful basis for image set classification. We perform an extensive evaluation on four datasets for several image set classification tasks. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

T Ogata, W Christmas, J Kittler, JK Tan, S Ishikawa (2007)Human activity detection by combining motion descriptors with boosting, In: Journal of Information Processing Society of Japan483pp. 1166-1175

A new, combined human activity detection method is proposed. Our method is based on Efros et al.’s motion descriptors and Ke et al.’s event detectors. Since both methods use optical flow, it is easy to combine them. However, the computational cost of the training increases considerably because of the increased number of weak classifiers. We reduce this computational cost by extending Ke et al.’s weak classifiers to incorporate multi-dimensional features. We also introduce a Look Up Table for further high-speed computation. The proposed method is applied to off-air tennis video data, and its performance is evaluated by comparison with the original two methods. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is a good compromise in terms of detection rate and computation time of testing and training.

T Ogata, W Christmas, J Kittler, S Ishikawa (2006)Improving human activity detection by combining multi-dimensional motion descriptors with boosting, In: Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition1pp. 295-298

A new, combined human activity detection method is proposed. Our method is based on Efros et al.'s motion descriptors[2] and Ke et al.'s event detectors[3]. Since both methods use optical flow, it is easy to combine them. However, the computational cost of the training increases considerably because of the increased number of weak classifiers. We reduce this computational cost by extend Ke et al.'s weak classifiers to incorporate multi-dimensional features. The proposed method is applied to off-air tennis video data, and its performance is evaluated by comparison with the original two methods. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is a good compromise in terms of detection rate and of computation time of testing and training. © 2006 IEEE.

WJ CHRISTMAS, J KITTLER, M PETROU (1995)STRUCTURAL MATCHING IN COMPUTER VISION USING PROBABILISTIC RELAXATION, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE17(8)pp. 749-764 IEEE COMPUTER SOC
D Windridge, J Kittler (2008)Epistemic constraints on autonomous symbolic representation in natural and artificial agents, In: Studies in Computational Intelligence122pp. 395-422 Springer

We set out to address, in the form of a survey, the fundamental constraints upon self-updating representation in cognitive agents of natural and artificial origin. The foundational epistemic problem encountered by such agents is that of distinguishing errors of representation from inappropriateness of the representational framework. Resolving this conceptual difficulty involves ensuring the empirical falsifiability of both the representational hypotheses and the entities so represented, while at the same time retaining their epistemic distinguishability. We shall thus argue that perception-action frameworks provide an appropriate basis for the development of an empirically meaningful criterion for validating perceptual categories. In this scenario, hypotheses about the agent’s world are defined in terms of environmental affordances (characterised in terms of the agent’s active capabilities). Agents with the capability to hierarchically-abstract this framework to a level consonant with performing syntactic manipulations and making deductive conjectures are consequently able to form an implicitly symbolic representation of the environment within which new, higher-level, modes of environment manipulation are implied (e.g. tool-use). This abstraction process is inherently open-ended, admitting a wide-range of possible representational hypotheses — only the form of the lowest-level of the hierarchy need be constrained a priori (being the minimally sufficient condition necessary for retention of the ability to falsify high-level hypotheses). In biological agents capable of autonomous cognitive-updating, we argue that the grounding of such a priori ‘bootstrap’ representational hypotheses is ensured via the process of natural selection.

B Goswami, WJ Christmas, J Kittler (2006)Statistical estimators for use in automatic lip segmentation, In: IET Conference Publications(516 CP)pp. 79-86

The past decade has seen a considerable increase in interest in the field of facial feature extraction. The primary reason for this is the variety of uses, in particular of the mouth region, in communicating important information about an individual which can in turn be used in a wide array of applications. The shape and dynamics of the mouth region convey the content of a communicated message, useful in applications involving speech processing as well as man-machine user interfaces. The mouth region can also be used as a parameter in a biometric verification system. Extraction of the mouth region from a face often uses lip contour processing to achieve these objectives. Thus, solving the problem of reliably segmenting the lip region given a talking face image is critical. This paper compares the use of statistical estimators, both robust and non-robust, when applied to the problem of automatic lip region segmentation. It then compares the results of the two systems with a state-of-the art method for lip segmentation.

P Sidiropoulos, V Mezaris, IY Kompatsiaris, J Kittler (2012)Differential Edit Distance: A Metric for Scene Segmentation Evaluation, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY22(6)pp. 904-914 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
D Windridge, J Kittler (2003)A morphologically optimal strategy for classifier combination: Multiple expert fusion as a tomographic process, In: IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence25pp. 343-353
N Poh, A Merati, J Kittler (2009)Adaptive Client-Impostor Centric Score Normalization: A Case Study in Fingerprint Verification, In: 2009 IEEE 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOMETRICS: THEORY, APPLICATIONS AND SYSTEMSpp. 245-251
Soroush Fatemifar, Shervin Rahimzadeh Arashloo, Muhammad Awais, Josef Kittler (2020)Client-Specific Anomaly Detection for Face Presentation Attack Detection, In: Pattern Recognition Elsevier

The one-class anomaly detection approach has previously been found to be effective in face presentation attack detection, especially in an ____textit{unseen} attack scenario, where the system is exposed to novel types of attacks. This work follows the same anomaly-based formulation of the problem and analyses the merits of deploying ____textit{client-specific} information for face spoofing detection. We propose training one-class client-specific classifiers (both generative and discriminative) using representations obtained from pre-trained deep convolutional neural networks. Next, based on subject-specific score distributions, a distinct threshold is set for each client, which is then used for decision making regarding a test query. Through extensive experiments using different one-class systems, it is shown that the use of client-specific information in a one-class anomaly detection formulation (both in model construction as well as decision threshold tuning) improves the performance significantly. In addition, it is demonstrated that the same set of deep convolutional features used for the recognition purposes is effective for face presentation attack detection in the class-specific one-class anomaly detection paradigm.

N Poh, J Kittler, S Marcel, D Matrouf, J-F Bonastre (2010)Model and score adaptation for biometric systems: Coping with device interoperability and changing acquisition conditions, In: Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognitionpp. 1229-1232
J Kittler, N Poh, A Merati (2011)Cohort Based Approach to Multiexpert Class Verification, In: MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEMS6713pp. 319-329 SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN
P Mortazavian, J Kittler, WJ Christmas (2012)3D Morphable Model Fitting For Low-Resolution Facial Images

This paper proposes a new algorithm for fitting a 3D morphable face model on low-resolution (LR) facial images. We analyse the criterion commonly used by the main fitting algorithms and by comparing with an image formation model, show that this criterion is only valid if the resolution of the input image is high. We then derive an imaging model to describe the process of LR image formation given the 3D model. Finally, we use this imaging model to improve the fitting criterion. Experimental results show that our algorithm significantly improves fitting results on LR images and yields similar parameters to those that would have been obtained if the input image had a higher resolution. We also show that our algorithm can be used for face recognition in low-resolutions where the conventional fitting algorithms fail.

Zhe Chen, Xiao-Jun Wu, He-Feng Yin, Josef Kittler (2020)Noise-robust dictionary learning with slack block-Diagonal structure for face recognition, In: Pattern Recognition100107118 Elsevier

Strict ‘0-1’ block-diagonal structure has been widely used for learning structured representation in face recognition problems. However, it is questionable and unreasonable to assume the within-class representations are the same. To circumvent this problem, in this paper, we propose a slack block-diagonal (SBD) structure for representation where the target structure matrix is dynamically updated, yet its blockdiagonal nature is preserved. Furthermore, in order to depict the noise in face images more precisely, we propose a robust dictionary learning algorithm based on mixed-noise model by utilizing the above SBD structure (SBD2L). SBD2L considers that there exists two forms of noise in data which are drawn from Laplacian and Gaussion distribution, respectively. Moreover, SBD2L introduces a low-rank constraint on the representation matrix to enhance the dictionary’s robustness to noise. Extensive experiments on four benchmark databases show that the proposed SBD2L can achieve better classification results than several state-of-the-art dictionary learning methods.

N FarajiDavar, TE deCampos, J Kittler (2014)Adaptive Transductive Transfer Machine, In: Preceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC)
S Taya, D Windridge, J Kittler, M Osman (2010)Rule-based modulation of visual attention allocation, In: Perception (Vol 39, Abstract Suppl)pp. 81-81

In what way is information processing influenced by the rules underlying a dynamic scene? In two studies we consider this question by examining the relationship between attention allocation in a dynamic visual scene (ie a singles tennis match) and the absence/presence of rule application (ie point allocation task). During training participants observed short clips of a tennis match, and for each they indicated the order of the items (eg players, ball, court lines, umpire, and crowd) from most to least attended. Participants performed a similar task in the test phase, but were also presented with a specific goal which was to indicate which of the two players won the point. In the second experiment, the effects of goal-directed vs non-goal directed observation were compared based on behavioural measures (self-reported ranks and point allocation) and eye-tracking data. Critical differences were revealed between observers regarding their attention allocation for items related to the specific goal (eg court lines). Overall, by varying the levels of goal specificity, observers showed different sensitivity to rule-based items in a dynamic visual scene according to the allocation of attention.

V Kilic, M Barnard, W Wang, J Kittler (2013)Adaptive particle filtering approach to audio-visual tracking, In: European Signal Processing Conferencepp. 1-5

Particle filtering has emerged as a useful tool for tracking problems. However, the efficiency and accuracy of the filter usually depend on the number of particles and noise variance used in the estimation and propagation functions for re-allocating these particles at each iteration. Both of these parameters are specified beforehand and are kept fixed in the regular implementation of the filter which makes the tracker unstable in practice. In this paper we are interested in the design of a particle filtering algorithm which is able to adapt the number of particles and noise variance. The new filter, which is based on audio-visual (AV) tracking, uses information from the tracking errors to modify the number of particles and noise variance used. Its performance is compared with a previously proposed audio-visual particle filtering algorithm with a fixed number of particles and an existing adaptive particle filtering algorithm, using the AV 16.3 dataset with single and multi-speaker sequences. Our proposed approach demonstrates good tracking performance with a significantly reduced number of particles. © 2013 EURASIP.

F Yan, J Kittler, D Windridge, W Christmas, K Mikolajczyk, S Cox, Q Huang (2014)Automatic annotation of tennis games: An integration of audio, vision, and learning, In: Image and Vision Computing32(11)pp. 896-903

Fully automatic annotation of tennis game using broadcast video is a task with a great potential but with enormous challenges. In this paper we describe our approach to this task, which integrates computer vision, machine listening, and machine learning. At the low level processing, we improve upon our previously proposed state-of-the-art tennis ball tracking algorithm and employ audio signal processing techniques to detect key events and construct features for classifying the events. At high level analysis, we model event classification as a sequence labelling problem, and investigate four machine learning techniques using simulated event sequences. Finally, we evaluate our proposed approach on three real world tennis games, and discuss the interplay between audio, vision and learning. To the best of our knowledge, our system is the only one that can annotate tennis game at such a detailed level. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

J Kittler, M Shevchenko, D Windridge (2006)Cognitive learning with automatic goal acquisition, In: STAIRS 2006142pp. 3-13
V Snell, W Christmas, J Kittler (2014)HEp-2 fluorescence pattern classification, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION47(7)pp. 2338-2347 ELSEVIER SCI LTD

Automation of HEp-2 cell pattern classification would drastically improve the accuracy and throughput of diagnostic services for many auto-immune diseases, but it has proven difficult to reach a sufficient level of precision. Correct diagnosis relies on a subtle assessment of texture type in microscopic images of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), which has, so far, eluded reliable replication through automated measurements. Following the recent HEp-2 Cells Classification contest held at ICPR 2012, we extend the scope of research in this field to develop a method of feature comparison that goes beyond the analysis of individual cells and majority-vote decisions to consider the full distribution of cell parameters within a patient sample. We demonstrate that this richer analysis is better able to predict the results of majority vote decisions than the cell-level performance analysed in all previous works. © 2013.

D Crouch, B Winney, Willem Koppen, William Christmas, K Hutnik, T Day, D Meena, A Boumertit, P Hysi, A Nessa, T Spector, Josef Kittler, W Bodmer (2018)The genetics of the human face: Identification of large-effect single gene variants, In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences115(4)pp. E676-E685 National Academy of Sciences

To discover specific variants with relatively large effects on the human face, we have devised an approach to identifying facial features with high heritability. This is based on using twin data to estimate the additive genetic value of each point on a face, as provided by a 3D camera system. In addition, we have used the ethnic difference between East Asian and European faces as a further source of face genetic variation. We use principal components (PCs) analysis to provide a fine definition of the surface features of human faces around the eyes and of the profile, and chose upper and lower 10% extremes of the most heritable PCs for looking for genetic associations. Using this strategy for the analysis of 3D images of 1,832 unique volunteers from the wellcharacterized People of the British Isles study and 1,567 unique twin images from the TwinsUK cohort, together with genetic data for 500,000 SNPs, we have identified three specific genetic variants with notable effects on facial profiles and eyes.

N Poh, J Kittler, T Bourlai (2010)Quality-Based Score Normalization With Device Qualitative Information for Multimodal Biometric Fusion, In: IEEE T SYST MAN CY A40(3)pp. 539-554 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC

As biometric technology is rolled out on a larger scale, it will be a common scenario (known as cross-device matching) to have a template acquired by one biometric device used by another during testing. This requires a biometric system to work with different acquisition devices, an issue known as device interoperability. We further distinguish two subproblems, depending on whether the device identity is known or unknown. In the latter case, we show that the device information can be probabilistically inferred given quality measures (e.g., image resolution) derived from the raw biometric data. By keeping the template unchanged, cross-device matching can result in significant degradation in performance. We propose to minimize this degradation by using device-specific quality-dependent score normalization. In the context of fusion, after having normalized each device output independently, these outputs can be combined using the naive Bayes principal. We have compared and categorized several state-of-the-art quality-based score normalization procedures, depending on how the relationship between quality measures and score is modeled, as follows: 1) direct modeling; 2) modeling via the cluster index of quality measures; and 3) extending 2) to further include the device information (device-specific cluster index). Experimental results carried out on the Biosecure DS2 data set show that the last approach can reduce both false acceptance and false rejection rates simultaneously. Furthermore, the compounded effect of normalizing each system individually in multimodal fusion is a significant improvement in performance over the baseline fusion (without using any quality information) when the device information is given.

Paul Koppen, Zhenhua Feng, Josef Kittler, Muhammad Awais, William Christmas, Xiao-Jun Wu, He-Feng Yin (2017)Gaussian Mixture 3D Morphable Face Model, In: Pattern Recognition74pp. 617-628 Elsevier

3D Morphable Face Models (3DMM) have been used in pattern recognition for some time now. They have been applied as a basis for 3D face recognition, as well as in an assistive role for 2D face recognition to perform geometric and photometric normalisation of the input image, or in 2D face recognition system training. The statistical distribution underlying 3DMM is Gaussian. However, the single-Gaussian model seems at odds with reality when we consider different cohorts of data, e.g. Black and Chinese faces. Their means are clearly different. This paper introduces the Gaussian Mixture 3DMM (GM-3DMM) which models the global population as a mixture of Gaussian subpopulations, each with its own mean. The proposed GM-3DMM extends the traditional 3DMM naturally, by adopting a shared covariance structure to mitigate small sample estimation problems associated with data in high dimensional spaces. We construct a GM-3DMM, the training of which involves a multiple cohort dataset, SURREY-JNU, comprising 942 3D face scans of people with mixed backgrounds. Experiments in fitting the GM-3DMM to 2D face images to facilitate their geometric and photometric normalisation for pose and illumination invariant face recognition demonstrate the merits of the proposed mixture of Gaussians 3D face model.

WJ CHRISTMAS, J KITTLER, M PETROU (1994)MATCHING OF ROAD SEGMENTS USING PROBABILISTIC RELAXATION - A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH, In: NEURAL AND STOCHASTIC METHODS IN IMAGE AND SIGNAL PROCESSING III2304pp. 166-174
M Pandit, Y Yusoff, J Kittler, WJ Christmas, EHS Chilton (1999)Video assisted segmentation of speech and audio track, In: MULTIMEDIA STORAGE AND ARCHIVING SYSTEMS IV3846pp. 68-77
N FarajiDavar, TE deCampos, J Kittler (2014)Transductive Transfer Machine, In: Preceedings of the Asian Conference on Computer Vision (ACCV)
AJ Fitch, A Kadyrov, WJ Christmas, J Kittler (2002)Fast exhaustive robust matching, In: 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PATTERN RECOGNITION, VOL III, PROCEEDINGSpp. 903-906
D Windridge, N El Gayar, J Kittler, F Roli (2010)Tomographic Considerations in Ensemble Bias/Variance Decomposition, In: MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS5997pp. 43-53
C Snoek, K Sande, O Rooij, B Huurnink, J Gemert, J Uijlings, J He, X Li, I Everts, V Nedovic, M Liempt, R Balen, F Yan, M Tahir, K Mikolajczyk, J Kittler, M Rijke, J Geusebroek, T Gevers, M Worring, A Smeulders, D Koelma (2008)The MediaMill TRECVID 2008 Semantic Video Search Engine, In: TRECVID Workshop

In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2008 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in three tasks: concept detection, automatic search, and interac- tive search. Rather than continuing to increase the number of concept detectors available for retrieval, our TRECVID 2008 experiments focus on increasing the robustness of a small set of detectors using a bag-of-words approach. To that end, our concept detection experiments emphasize in particular the role of visual sampling, the value of color in- variant features, the influence of codebook construction, and the effectiveness of kernel-based learning parameters. For retrieval, a robust but limited set of concept detectors ne- cessitates the need to rely on as many auxiliary information channels as possible. Therefore, our automatic search ex- periments focus on predicting which information channel to trust given a certain topic, leading to a novel framework for predictive video retrieval. To improve the video retrieval re- sults further, our interactive search experiments investigate the roles of visualizing preview results for a certain browse- dimension and active learning mechanisms that learn to solve complex search topics by analysis from user brows- ing behavior. The 2008 edition of the TRECVID bench- mark has been the most successful MediaMill participation to date, resulting in the top ranking for both concept de- tection and interactive search, and a runner-up ranking for automatic retrieval. Again a lot has been learned during this year’s TRECVID campaign; we highlight the most im- portant lessons at the end of this paper.

J Kittler, I Kompatsiaris, S Malasiotis, P Daras, N Grammalidis, V Mezaris, I Manakos, D Tzovaras (2014)Professor Maria Petrou's Professional Career, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION LETTERS48pp. 100-102 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
F Yan, W Christmas, J Kittler (2014)Ball tracking for tennis video annotation71pp. 25-45

Tennis game annotation using broadcast video is a task with a wide range of applications. In particular, ball trajectories carry rich semantic information for the annotation. However, tracking a ball in broadcast tennis video is extremely challenging. In this chapter, we explicitly address the challenges, and propose a layered data association algorithm for tracking multiple tennis balls fully automatically. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on two data sets with more than 100 sequences from real-world tennis videos, where other data association methods perform poorly or fail completely.

J Ortega-Garcia, J Fierrez, F Alonso-Fernandez, J Galbally, MR Freire, J Gonzalez-Rodriguez, C Garcia-Mateo, J-L Alba-Castro, E Gonzalez-Agulla, E Otero-Muras, S Garcia-Salicetti, L Allano, B Ly-Van, B Dorizzi, J Kittler, T Bourlai, N Poh, F Deravi, MWR Ng, M Fairhurst, J Hennebert, A Humm, M Tistarelli, L Brodo, J Richiardi, A Drygajlo, H Ganster, FM Sukno, S-K Pavani, A Frangi, L Akarun, A Savran (2010)The Multiscenario Multienvironment BioSecure Multimodal Database (BMDB), In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE32(6)pp. 1097-1111 IEEE COMPUTER SOC
WJ CHRISTMAS, J KITTLER, M PETROU (1994)ANALYTICAL APPROACHES TO THE NEURAL NET ARCHITECTURE DESIGN, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION IN PRACTICE IV: MULTIPLE PARADIGMS, COMPARATIVE STUDIES AND HYBRID SYSTEMS16pp. 325-335
Rui Wang, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2020)Graph Embedding Multi-Kernel Metric Learning for Image Set Classification with Grassmann Manifold-valued Features, In: IEEE Transactions on Multimediapp. 1-1 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

In the domain of video-based image set classification, a considerable advance has been made by modeling each video sequence as a linear subspace, which typically resides on a Grassmann manifold. Due to the large intra-class variations, how to establish appropriate set models to encode these variations of set data and how to effectively measure the dissimilarity between any two image sets are two open challenges. To seek a possible way to tackle these issues, this paper presents a graph embedding multi-kernel metric learning (GEMKML) algorithm for image set classification. The proposed GEMKML implements set modeling, feature extraction, and classification in two steps. Firstly, the proposed framework constructs a novel cascaded feature learning architecture on Grassmann manifold for the sake of producing more effective Grassmann manifold-valued feature representations. To make a better use of these learned features, a graph embedding multi-kernel metric learning scheme is then devised to map them into a lower-dimensional Euclidean space, where the inter-class distances are maximized and the intra-class distances are minimized. We evaluate the proposed GEMKML on four different video-based image set classification tasks using widely adopted datasets. The extensive classification results confirm its superiority over the state-of-the-art methods.

G Hu, P Mortazavian, J Kittler, W Christmas (2013)A Facial Symmetry Prior for Improved Illumination Fitting of 3D Morphable Model, In: Proceedings of the 6th IAPR International Conference on Biometrics

3D face reconstruction from a single 2D image can be performed using a 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) in an analysis-by-synthesis approach. However, the reconstruction is an ill-posed problem. The recovery of the illumination characteristics of the 2D input image is particularly difficult because the proportion of the albedo and shading contributions in a pixel intensity is ambiguous. In this paper we propose the use of a facial symmetry constraint, which helps to identify the relative contributions of albedo and shading. The facial symmetry constraint is incorporated in a multi-feature optimisation framework, which realises the fitting process. By virtue of this constraint better illumination parameters can be recovered, and as a result the estimated 3D face shape and surface texture are more accurate. The proposed method is validated on the PIE face database. The experimental results show that the introduction of facial symmetry constraint improves the performance of both, face reconstruction and face recognition.

N Poh, J Kittler, C-H Chan, M Pandit (2015)Algorithm to estimate biometric performance change over time, In: IET BIOMETRICS4(4)pp. 236-245 INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET

We present an algorithm that models the rate of change of biometric performance over time on a subject-dependent basis. It is called “homomorphic users grouping algorithm” or HUGA. Although the model is based on very simplistic assumptions that are inherent in linear regression, it has been applied successfully to estimate the performance of talking face and speech identity verification modalities, as well as their fusion, over a period of more than 600 days. Our experiments carried out on the MOBIO database show that subjects exhibit very different performance trends. While the performance of some users degrades over time, which is consistent with the literature, we also found that for a similar proportion of users, their performance actually improves with use. The latter finding has never been reported in the literature. Hence, our findings suggest that the problem of biometric performance degradation may be not as serious as previously thought, and so far, the community has ignored the possibility of improved biometric performance over time. The findings also suggest that adaptive biometric systems, that is, systems that attempt to update biometric templates, should be subject-dependent.

FX Cheng, WJ Christmas, J Kittler (2001)Detection and description of human running behaviour in sports video multimedia database, In: 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING, PROCEEDINGSpp. 366-371
X Song, Zhenhua Feng, G Hu, Josef Kittler, X-J Wu (2018)Dictionary Integration using 3D Morphable Face Models for Pose-invariant Collaborative-representation-based Classification, In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics & Security13(11)pp. 2734-2745 IEEE

The paper presents a dictionary integration algorithm using 3D morphable face models (3DMM) for poseinvariant collaborative-representation-based face classification. To this end, we first fit a 3DMM to the 2D face images of a dictionary to reconstruct the 3D shape and texture of each image. The 3D faces are used to render a number of virtual 2D face images with arbitrary pose variations to augment the training data, by merging the original and rendered virtual samples to create an extended dictionary. Second, to reduce the information redundancy of the extended dictionary and improve the sparsity of reconstruction coefficient vectors using collaborative-representation-based classification (CRC), we exploit an on-line class elimination scheme to optimise the extended dictionary by identifying the training samples of the most representative classes for a given query. The final goal is to perform pose-invariant face classification using the proposed dictionary integration method and the on-line pruning strategy under the CRC framework. Experimental results obtained for a set of well-known face datasets demonstrate the merits of the proposed method, especially its robustness to pose variations.

M Barnard, W Wang, J Kittler, SM Naqvi, J Chambers (2013)Audio-Visual Face Detection for Tracking in a Meeting Room Environment, In: 2013 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION FUSION (FUSION)pp. 1222-1227
C Snoek, K Sande, O Rooij, B Huurnink, J Uijlings, M Liempt, M Bugalhoy, I Trancosoy, F Yan, M Tahir, K Mikolajczyk, J Kittler, M Rijke, J Geusebroek, T Gevers, M Worring, D Koelma, A Smeulders (2009)The MediaMill TRECVID 2009 Semantic Video Search Engine, In: TRECVID Workshop

In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2009 video re- trieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in three tasks: concept detection, automatic search, and in- teractive search. The starting point for the MediaMill con- cept detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of last year, which uses multiple color descriptors, codebooks with soft-assignment, and kernel-based supervised learning. We improve upon this baseline system by explor- ing two novel research directions. Firstly, we study a multi- modal extension by including 20 audio concepts and fusion using two novel multi-kernel supervised learning methods. Secondly, with the help of recently proposed algorithmic re- nements of bag-of-word representations, a GPU implemen- tation, and compute clusters, we scale-up the amount of vi- sual information analyzed by an order of magnitude, to a total of 1,000,000 i-frames. Our experiments evaluate the merit of these new components, ultimately leading to 64 ro- bust concept detectors for video retrieval. For retrieval, a robust but limited set of concept detectors justi es the need to rely on as many auxiliary information channels as pos- sible. For automatic search we therefore explore how we can learn to rank various information channels simultane- ously to maximize video search results for a given topic. To further improve the video retrieval results, our interactive search experiments investigate the roles of visualizing pre- view results for a certain browse-dimension and relevance feedback mechanisms that learn to solve complex search top- ics by analysis from user browsing behavior. The 2009 edi- tion of the TRECVID benchmark has again been a fruitful participation for the MediaMill team, resulting in the top ranking for both concept detection and interactive search. Again a lot has been learned during this year's TRECVID campaign; we highlight the most important lessons at the end of this paper.

Z-H Feng, Josef Kittler, M Awais, Patrik Huber, X-J Wu (2017)Face Detection, Bounding Box Aggregation and Pose Estimation for Robust Facial Landmark Localisation in the Wild, In: IEEE CVPRW 2017 Proceedings

We present a framework for robust face detection and landmark localisation of faces in the wild, which has been evaluated as part of ‘the 2nd Facial Landmark Localisation Competition’. The framework has four stages: face detection, bounding box aggregation, pose estimation and landmark localisation. To achieve a high detection rate, we use two publicly available CNN-based face detectors and two proprietary detectors. We aggregate the detected face bounding boxes of each input image to reduce false positives and improve face detection accuracy. A cascaded shape regressor, trained using faces with a variety of pose variations, is then employed for pose estimation and image pre-processing. Last, we train the final cascaded shape regressor for fine-grained landmark localisation, using a large number of training samples with limited pose variations. The experimental results obtained on the 300W and Menpo benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our framework over state-of-the-art methods.

Cong Hu, Zhen-Hua Feng, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2020)Dual Encoder-Decoder based Generative Adversarial Networks for Disentangled Facial Representation Learning, In: IEEE Access8pp. 130-159 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

To learn disentangled representations of facial images, we present a Dual Encoder-Decoder based Generative Adversarial Network (DED-GAN). In the proposed method, both the generator and discriminator are designed with deep encoder-decoder architectures as their backbones. To be more specific, the encoder-decoder structured generator is used to learn a pose disentangled face representation, and the encoder-decoder structured discriminator is tasked to perform real/fake classification, face reconstruction, determining identity and estimating face pose. We further improve the proposed network architecture by minimizing the additional pixel-wise loss defined by the Wasserstein distance at the output of the discriminator so that the adversarial framework can be better trained. Additionally, we consider face pose variation to be continuous, rather than discrete in existing literature, to inject richer pose information into our model. The pose estimation task is formulated as a regression problem, which helps to disentangle identity information from pose variations. The proposed network is evaluated on the tasks of pose-invariant face recognition (PIFR) and face synthesis across poses. An extensive quantitative and qualitative evaluation carried out on several controlled and in-the-wild benchmarking datasets demonstrates the superiority of the proposed DED-GAN method over the state-of-the-art approaches.

V Kilic, M Barnard, W Wang, J Kittler (2013)Audio constrained particle filter based visual tracking, In: ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedingspp. 3627-3631

We present a robust and efficient audio-visual (AV) approach to speaker tracking in a room environment. A challenging problem with visual tracking is to deal with occlusions (caused by the limited field of view of cameras or by other speakers). Another challenge is associated with the particle filtering (PF) algorithm, commonly used for visual tracking, which requires a large number of particles to ensure the distribution is well modelled. In this paper, we propose a new method of fusing audio into the PF based visual tracking. We use the direction of arrival angles (DOAs) of the audio sources to reshape the typical Gaussian noise distribution of particles in the propagation step and to weight the observation model in the measurement step. Experiments on AV16.3 datasets show the advantage of our proposed method over the baseline PF method for tracking occluded speakers with a significantly reduced number of particles. © 2013 IEEE.

Guosheng Hu, Yongxin Yang, Dong Yi, Josef Kittler, William Christmas, Stan Li, Timothy Hospedales (2015)When Face Recognition Meets with Deep Learning: an Evaluation of Convolutional Neural Networks for Face Recognition, In: Computer Vision Workshop (ICCVW), 2015 IEEE International Conference onpp. 384-392

Deep learning, in particular Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), has achieved promising results in face recognition recently. However, it remains an open question: why CNNs work well and how to design a ‘good’ architecture. The existing works tend to focus on reporting CNN architectures that work well for face recognition rather than investigate the reason. In this work, we conduct an extensive evaluation of CNN-based face recognition systems (CNN-FRS) on a common ground to make our work easily reproducible. Specifically, we use public database LFW (Labeled Faces in the Wild) to train CNNs, unlike most existing CNNs trained on private databases. We propose three CNN architectures which are the first reported architectures trained using LFW data. This paper quantitatively compares the architectures of CNNs and evaluates the effect of different implementation choices. We identify several useful properties of CNN-FRS. For instance, the dimensionality of the learned features can be significantly reduced without adverse effect on face recognition accuracy. In addition, a traditional metric learning method exploiting CNN-learned features is evaluated. Experiments show two crucial factors to good CNN-FRS performance are the fusion of multiple CNNs and metric learning. To make our work reproducible, source code and models will be made publicly available.

V Kilic, X Zhong, M Barnard, W Wang, J Kittler (2014)Audio-Visual Tracking of a Variable Number of Speakers with a Random Finite Set Approach, In: 2014 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION FUSION (FUSION) IEEE
I Almajai, J Kittler, T De Campos, W Christmas, F Yan, D Windridge, A Khan (2010)BALL EVENT RECOGNITION USING HMM FOR AUTOMATIC TENNIS ANNOTATION, In: Proceedings of Intl. Conf. on Image Proc.
I Almajai, F Yan, T de Campos, A Khan, W Christmas, D Windridge, J Kittler (2012)Anomaly Detection and Knowledge Transfer in Automatic Sports Video Annotation, In: Proceedings of DIRAC Workshop on Detection and Identification of Rare Audivisual Cues384pp. 109-117

A key question in machine perception is how to adaptively build upon existing capabilities so as to permit novel functionalities. Implicit in this are the notions of anomaly detection and learning transfer. A perceptual system must firstly determine at what point the existing learned model ceases to apply, and secondly, what aspects of the existing model can be brought to bear on the newlydefined learning domain. Anomalies must thus be distinguished from mere outliers, i.e. cases in which the learned model has failed to produce a clear response; it is also necessary to distinguish novel (but meaningful) input from misclassification error within the existing models.We thus apply a methodology of anomaly detection based on comparing the outputs of strong and weak classifiers [8] to the problem of detecting the rule-incongruence involved in the transition from singles to doubles tennis videos. We then demonstrate how the detected anomalies can be used to transfer learning from one (initially known) rule-governed structure to another. Our ultimate aim, building on existing annotation technology, is to construct an adaptive system for court-based sport video annotation.

CGM Snoek, KEA van de Sande, JRR Uijlings, T Gevers, DC Koelma, AWM Smeulders, M Bugalho, I Trancoso, F Yan, MA Tahir, K Mikolajczyk, J Kittler (2009)Multi-frame, multi-modal, and multi-kernel concept detection in video, In: 2009 TREC Video Retrieval Evaluation Notebook Papers
Daqi Liu, Miroslaw Bober, Josef Kittler (2019)Visual Semantic Information Pursuit: A Survey, In: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Visual semantic information comprises two important parts: the meaning of each visual semantic unit and the coherent visual semantic relation conveyed by these visual semantic units. Essentially, the former one is a visual perception task while the latter one corresponds to visual context reasoning. Remarkable advances in visual perception have been achieved due to the success of deep learning. In contrast, visual semantic information pursuit, a visual scene semantic interpretation task combining visual perception and visual context reasoning, is still in its early stage. It is the core task of many different computer vision applications, such as object detection, visual semantic segmentation, visual relationship detection or scene graph generation. Since it helps to enhance the accuracy and the consistency of the resulting interpretation, visual context reasoning is often incorporated with visual perception in current deep end-to-end visual semantic information pursuit methods. Surprisingly, a comprehensive review for this exciting area is still lacking. In this survey, we present a unified theoretical paradigm for all these methods, followed by an overview of the major developments and the future trends in each potential direction. The common benchmark datasets, the evaluation metrics and the comparisons of the corresponding methods are also introduced.

Zhenhua Feng, Josef Kittler, Xiaojun Wu (2019)Mining Hard Augmented Samples for Robust Facial Landmark Localisation with CNNs, In: IEEE Signal Processing Letters26(3)pp. 450-454 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Effective data augmentation is crucial for facial landmark localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). In this letter, we investigate different data augmentation techniques that can be used to generate sufficient data for training CNN-based facial landmark localisation systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that provides a systematic analysis of different data augmentation techniques in the area. In addition, an online Hard Augmented Example Mining (HAEM) strategy is advocated for further performance boosting. We examine the effectiveness of those techniques using a regression-based CNN architecture. The experimental results obtained on the AFLW and COFW datasets demonstrate the importance of data augmentation and the effectiveness of HAEM. The performance achieved using these techniques is superior to the state-of-the-art algorithms.

SR Arashloo, J Kittler, WJ Christmas (2015)Face spoofing detection based on multiple descriptor fusion using multiscale dynamic binarized statistical image features, In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security10(11)pp. 2396-2407

Face recognition has been the focus of attention for the past couple of decades and, as a result, a significant progress has been made in this area. However, the problem of spoofing attacks can challenge face biometric systems in practical applications. In this paper, an effective countermeasure against face spoofing attacks based on a kernel discriminant analysis approach is presented. Its success derives from different innovations. First, it is shown that the recently proposed multiscale dynamic texture descriptor based on binarized statis- tical image features on three orthogonal planes (MBSIF-TOP) is effective in detecting spoofing attacks, showing promising perfor- mance compared with existing alternatives. Next, by combining MBSIF-TOP with a blur-tolerant descriptor, namely, the dynamic multiscale local phase quantization (MLPQ-TOP) representation, the robustness of the spoofing attack detector can be further improved. The fusion of the information provided by MBSIF-TOP and MLPQ-TOP is realized via a kernel fusion approach based on a fast kernel discriminant analysis (KDA) technique. It avoids the costly eigen-analysis computations by solving the KDA problem via spectral regression. The experimental evaluation of the proposed system on different databases demonstrates its advantages in detecting spoofing attacks in various imaging conditions, compared with the existing methods.

Josef Kittler, Paul Koppen, Philipp Kopp, Patrik Huber, Matthias Rätsch (2018)Conformal Mapping of a 3D Face Representation onto a 2D Image for CNN Based Face Recognition, In: 2018 International Conference on Biometrics (ICB) IEEE

Fitting 3D Morphable Face Models (3DMM) to a 2D face image allows the separation of face shape from skin texture, as well as correction for face expression. However, the recovered 3D face representation is not readily amenable to processing by convolutional neural networks (CNN). We propose a conformal mapping from a 3D mesh to a 2D image, which makes these machine learning tools accessible by 3D face data. Experiments with a CNN based face recognition system designed using the proposed representation have been carried out to validate the advocated approach. The results obtained on standard benchmarking data sets show its promise.

A Tahir, J Kittler, F Yan, K Mikolajczyk (2009)Kernel Discriminant Analysis using Triangular Kernel for Semantic Scene Classification, In: International Workshop on Content-Based Multimedia Indexing
Jun Wan, Sergio Escalera, Francisco J. Perales, Josef Kittler (2018)Articulated motion and deformable objects, In: Pattern Recognition79pp. 55-64 Elsevier

This guest editorial introduces the twenty two papers accepted for this Special Issue on Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects (AMDO). They are grouped into four main categories within the field of AMDO: human motion analysis (action/gesture), human pose estimation, deformable shape segmentation, and face analysis. For each of the four topics, a survey of the recent developments in the field is presented. The accepted papers are briefly introduced in the context of this survey. They contribute novel methods, algorithms with improved performance as measured on benchmarking datasets, as well as two new datasets for hand action detection and human posture analysis. The special issue should be of high relevance to the reader interested in AMDO recognition and promote future research directions in the field.

A Tahir, F Yan, M Barnard, M Awais, K Mikolajczyk, J Kittler (2010)The University of Surrey Visual Concept Detection System at ImageCLEF 2010: Working Notes, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Recognizing Patterns in Signals, Speech, Images and Videos: Contest Reports

Visual concept detection is one of the most important tasks in image and video indexing. This paper describes our system in the ImageCLEF@ICPR Visual Concept Detection Task which ranked first for large-scale visual concept detection tasks in terms of Equal Error Rate (EER) and Area under Curve (AUC) and ranked third in terms of hierarchical measure. The presented approach involves state-of-the-art local descriptor computation, vector quantisation via clustering, structured scene or object representation via localised histograms of vector codes, similarity measure for kernel construction and classifier learning. The main novelty is the classifier-level and kernel-level fusion using Kernel Discriminant Analysis with RBF/Power Chi-Squared kernels obtained from various image descriptors. For 32 out of 53 individual concepts, we obtain the best performance of all 12 submissions to this task.

Wenhua Dong, Xiao-jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2019)Sparse subspace clustering via smoothed ℓp minimization, In: Pattern Recognition Letters125pp. 206-211 Elsevier

In this letter, we formulate sparse subspace clustering as a smoothed ℓp (0 ˂ p ˂ 1) minimization problem (SSC-SLp) and present a unified formulation for different practical clustering problems by introducing a new pseudo norm. Generally, the use of ℓp (0 ˂ p ˂ 1) norm approximating the ℓ0 one can lead to a more effective approximation than the ℓp norm, while the ℓp-regularization also causes the objective function to be non-convex and non-smooth. Besides, better adapting to the property of data representing real problems, the objective function is usually constrained by multiple factors (such as spatial distribution of data and errors). In view of this, we propose a computationally efficient method for solving the multi-constrained non-smooth ℓp minimization problem, which smooths the ℓp norm and minimizes the objective function by alternately updating a block (or a variable) and its weight. In addition, the convergence of the proposed algorithm is theoretically proven. Extensive experimental results on real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

MA Tahir, J Kittler, K Mikolajczyk, F Yan (2010)Improving Multilabel Classification Performance by Using Ensemble of Multi-label Classifiers, In: MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS5997pp. 11-21
J Kittler, J Illingworth, I Ng (1990)A new 2D quadrature polar separable filter and its application to texture analysis, In: Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems2pp. 1050-1053

The frequency response of the filter consists of two independent parts. The first is a prolate spheroidal sequence that is dependent on the polar radius. The second is a cosine function of the polar angle. The product of these two parts constitutes a 2-D filtering function. The frequency characteristics of the new filter are similar to that of the 2-D Cartesian separable filter which is defined in terms of two prolate spheroidal sequences. However, in contrast to the 2-D Cartesian separable filter, the position and direction of the new filter in the frequency domain is easy to control. Some applications of the new filter in texture processing, such as generation of synthetic texture, estimation of texture orientation, feature extraction, and texture segmentation, are discussed.

T-K Kim, J Kittler, R Cipolla (2007)Discriminative learning and recognition of image set classes using canonical correlations, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE29(6)pp. 1005-1018 IEEE COMPUTER SOC
RS Smith, T Windeatt (2009)The Bias Variance Trade-Off in Bootstrapped Error Correcting Output Code Ensembles, In: MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS5519pp. 1-10

By performing experiments on publicly available multi-class datasets we examine the effect of bootstrapping on the bias/variance behaviour of error-correcting output code ensembles. We present evidence to show that the general trend is for bootstrapping to reduce variance but to slightly increase bias error. This generally leads to an improvement in the lowest attainable ensemble error, however this is not always the case and bootstrapping appears to be most useful on datasets where the non-bootstrapped ensemble classifier is prone to overfitting.

T Bourlai, J Kittler, K Messer (2007)Smart-card-based face verification system: Empirical optimization of system meta-parameters, In: 41ST ANNUAL IEEE INTERNATIONAL CARNAHAN CONFERENCE ON SECURITY TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGSpp. 85-92
J Princen, HK Yuen, J Illingworth, J Kittler (1989)Comparison of Hough Transform methods, In: IEE Conference Publication(307)pp. 73-77

An important aspect of any scientific discipline is the objective and independent comparison of algorithms which perform common tasks. In image analysis this problem has been neglected. In this paper we present the results and conclusions of a comparison of four Hough Transform, HT, based line finding algorithms on a range of realistic images from the industrial domain. We introduce the line detection problem and show the role of the Hough Transform in it. The basic idea underlying the Hough Transform is presented and is followed by a brief description of each of the four HT based methods considered in our work. The experimental evaluation and comparison of the four methods is given and a section offers our conclusions on the merits and deficiencies of each of the four methods.

X Zou, J Kittler, K Messer (2007)Motion compensation for face recognition based on active differential imaging, In: Advances in Biometrics, Proceedings4642pp. 39-48
N Poh, A Merati, J Kittler (2009)Making better biometric decisions with quality and cohort information: A case study in fingerprint verification, In: European Signal Processing Conferencepp. 70-74

Automatically recognizing humans using their biometric traits such as face and fingerprint will have very important implications in our daily lives. This problem is challenging because biometric traits can be affected by the acquisition process which is sensitive to the environmental conditions (e.g., lighting) and the user interaction. It has been shown that post-processing the classifier output, so called score normalization, is an important mechanism to counteract the above problem. In the literature, two dominant research directions have been explored: cohort normalization and quality-based normalization. The first approach relies on a set of competing cohort models, essentially making use of the resultant cohort scores. A well-established example is the T-norm. In the second approach, the normalization is based on deriving the quality information from the raw biometric signal. We propose to combine both the cohort score- and signal-derived information via logistic regression. Based on 12 independent fingerprint experiments, our proposal is found to be significantly better than the T-norm and two recently proposed cohort-based normalization methods. © EURASIP, 2009.

J Arturo Olvera-Lopez, J Ariel Carrasco-Ochoa, J Francisco Martinez-Trinidad, J Kittler (2010)A review of instance selection methods, In: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE REVIEW34(2)pp. 133-143 SPRINGER
S Prabhakar, J Kittler, D Maltoni, L O'Gorman, T Tan (2007)Introduction to the special issue on biometrics: Progress and directions, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE29(4)pp. 513-516 IEEE COMPUTER SOC
N Poh, J Kittler, F Alkoot (2012)A discriminative parametric approach to video-based score-level fusion for biometric authentication, In: Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognitionpp. 2335-2338

Video-based biometric systems are becoming feasible thanks to advancement in both algorithms and computation platforms. Such systems have many advantages: improved robustness to spoof attack, performance gain thanks to variance reduction, and increased data quality/resolution, among others. We investigate a discriminative video-based score-level fusion mechanism, which enables an existing biometric system to further harness the riches of temporarily sampled biometric data using a set of distribution descriptors. Our approach shows that higher order moments of the video scores contain discriminative information. To our best knowledge, this is the first time this higher order moment is reported to be effective in the score-level fusion literature. Experimental results based on face and speech unimodal systems, as well as multimodal fusion, show that our proposal can improve the performance over that of the standard fixed rule fusion strategies by as much as 50%. © 2012 ICPR Org Committee.

Fei Yan, Krystian Mikolajczyk, Josef Kittler (2011)Multiple Kernel Learning via Distance Metric Learning for Interactive Image Retrieval, In: 10th International Workshop, MCS 2011, Naples, Italy, June 15-17, 2011. Proceedingspp. 147-156 Springer

In this paper we formulate multiple kernel learning (MKL) as a distance metric learning (DML) problem. More specifically, we learn a linear combination of a set of base kernels by optimising two objective functions that are commonly used in distance metric learning. We first propose a global version of such an MKL via DML scheme, then a localised version. We argue that the localised version not only yields better performance than the global version, but also fits naturally into the framework of example based retrieval and relevance feedback. Finally the usefulness of the proposed schemes are verified through experiments on two image retrieval datasets.

J Kittler, J Illingworth, J Foglein, K Paler (1984)AUTOMATIC THRESHOLDING ALGORITHM AND ITS PERFORMANCE., In: Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognitionpp. 287-289

A novel method of automatic threshold selection based on a simple image statistic is proposed. The method avoids the analysis of complicated image histograms. The properties of the algorithm are presented and experimentally verified on computer generated and real world images.

We propose four variants of a novel hierarchical hidden Markov models strategy for rule induction in the context of automated sports video annotation including a multilevel Chinese takeaway process (MLCTP) based on the Chinese restaurant process and a novel Cartesian product label-based hierarchical bottom-up clustering (CLHBC) method that employs prior information contained within label structures. Our results show significant improvement by comparison against the flat Markov model: optimal performance is obtained using a hybrid method, which combines the MLCTP generated hierarchical topological structures with CLHBC generated event labels. We also show that the methods proposed are generalizable to other rule-based environments including human driving behavior and human actions.

M Prior, T Windeatt (2009)Improved Uniformity Enforcement in Stochastic Discrimination, In: MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS5519pp. 335-343

There are a variety of methods for inducing predictive systems from observed data. Many of these methods fall into the field of study of machine learning. Some of the most effective algorithms in this domain succeed by combining a number of distinct predictive elements to form what can be described as a type of committee. Well known examples of such algorithms are AdaBoost, bagging and random forests. Stochastic discrimination is a committee-forming algorithm that attempts to combine a large number of relatively simple predictive elements in an effort to achieve a high degree of accuracy. A key element of the success of this technique is that its coverage of the observed feature space should be uniform in nature. We introduce a new uniformity enforcement method, which on benchmark datasets, leads to greater predictive efficiency than the currently published method.

SR Arashloo, J Kittler (2014)Fast pose invariant face recognition using super coupled multiresolution Markov Random Fields on a GPU, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION LETTERS48pp. 49-59 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
F Yan, J Kittler, K Mikolajczyk (2010)Multiple Kernel Learning and Feature Space Denoising, In: International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics4pp. 1771-1776

We review a multiple kernel learning (MKL) technique called ℓp regularised multiple kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (MK-FDA), and investigate the effect of feature space denoising on MKL. Experiments show that with both the original kernels or denoised kernels, ℓp MK-FDA outperforms its fixed-norm counterparts. Experiments also show that feature space denoising boosts the performance of both single kernel FDA and ℓp MK-FDA, and that there is a positive correlation between the learnt kernel weights and the amount of variance kept by feature space denoising. Based on these observations, we argue that in the case where the base feature spaces are noisy, linear combination of kernels cannot be optimal. An MKL objective function which can take care of feature space denoising automatically, and which can learn a truly optimal (non-linear) combination of the base kernels, is yet to be found.

M Bober, J Kittler (1996)Combining the hough transform and multiresolution MRF's for the robust motion estimation, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)1035pp. 91-100

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996.The paper presents a novel approach to the Robust Analysis of Complex Motion. It employs a low-level robust motion estimator, conceptually based on the Hough Transform, and uses Multiresolution Markov Random Fields for the global interpretation of the local, low-level estimates. Motion segmentation is performed in the front-end estimator, in parallel with the motion parameter estimation process. This significantly improves the accuracy of estimates, particularly in the vicinity of motion boundaries, facilitates the detection of such boundaries, and allows the use of larger regions, thus improving robustness. The measurements extracted from the sequence in the front-end estimator include displacement, the spatial derivatives of the displacement, confidence measures, and the location of motion boundaries. The measurements are then combined within the MRF framework, employing the supercoupling approach for fast convergence. The excellent performance, in terms of estimate accuracy, boundary detection and robustness is demonstrated on synthetic and real-word sequences.

T Windeatt, M Prior, M Haindl, J Kittler, F Roli (2007)Stopping criteria for ensemble-based feature selection, In: Multiple Classifier Systems, Proceedings4472pp. 271-281
V Kilic, M Barnard, W Wang, J Kittler (2015)Audio Assisted Robust Visual Tracking With Adaptive Particle Filtering, In: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia17(2)pp. 186-200 IEEE

The problem of tracking multiple moving speakers in indoor environments has received much attention. Earlier techniques were based purely on a single modality, e.g., vision. Recently, the fusion of multi-modal information has been shown to be instrumental in improving tracking performance, as well as robustness in the case of challenging situations like occlusions (by the limited field of view of cameras or by other speakers). However, data fusion algorithms often suffer from noise corrupting the sensor measurements which cause non-negligible detection errors. Here, a novel approach to combining audio and visual data is proposed. We employ the direction of arrival angles of the audio sources to reshape the typical Gaussian noise distribution of particles in the propagation step and to weight the observation model in the measurement step. This approach is further improved by solving a typical problem associated with the PF, whose efficiency and accuracy usually depend on the number of particles and noise variance used in state estimation and particle propagation. Both parameters are specified beforehand and kept fixed in the regular PF implementation which makes the tracker unstable in practice. To address these problems, we design an algorithm which adapts both the number of particles and noise variance based on tracking error and the area occupied by the particles in the image. Experiments on the AV16.3 dataset show the advantage of our proposed methods over the baseline PF method and an existing adaptive PF algorithm for tracking occluded speakers with a significantly reduced number of particles.

RS Smith, T Windeatt (2010)Class-Separability Weighting and Bootstrapping in Error Correcting Output Code Ensembles, In: Multiple Classifier Systems, Proceedings5997pp. 185-194

A method for applying weighted decoding to error-correcting output code ensembles of binary classifiers is presented. This method is sensitive to the target class in that a separate weight is computed for each base classifier and target class combination. Experiments on 11 UCI datasets show that the method tends to improve classification accuracy when using neural network or support vector machine base classifiers. It is further shown that weighted decoding combines well with the technique of bootstrapping to improve classification accuracy still further.

EG Llano, J Kittler, K Messer, HM Vazquez (2006)A comparative study of face representations in the frequency domain, In: PROGRESS IN PATTERN RECOGNITON, IMAGE ANALYSIS AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS4225pp. 99-108
F Yan, J Kittler, K Mikolajczyk, A Tahir (2009)Non-Sparse Multiple Kernel Learning for Fisher Discriminant Analysis, In: Proceedings of The Ninth IEEE International Conference on Data Miningpp. 1064-1069

We consider the problem of learning a linear combination of pre-specified kernel matrices in the Fisher discriminant analysis setting. Existing methods for such a task impose an ¿1 norm regularisation on the kernel weights, which produces sparse solution but may lead to loss of information. In this paper, we propose to use ¿2 norm regularisation instead. The resulting learning problem is formulated as a semi-infinite program and can be solved efficiently. Through experiments on both synthetic data and a very challenging object recognition benchmark, the relative advantages of the proposed method and its ¿1 counterpart are demonstrated, and insights are gained as to how the choice of regularisation norm should be made.

Syed Khalid, Muhammad Awais, Zhenhua Feng, Chi-Ho Chan, Ammarah Farooq, Josef Kittler (2020)Resolution Invariant Face Recognition using a Distillation Approach, In: IEEE Transactions on Biometrics, Behavior, and Identity Science Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Modern face recognition systems extract face representations using deep neural networks (DNNs) and give excellent identification and verification results, when tested on high resolution (HR) images. However, the performance of such an algorithm degrades significantly for low resolution (LR) images. A straight forward solution could be to train a DNN, using simultaneously, high and low resolution face images. This approach yields a definite improvement at lower resolutions but suffers a performance degradation for high resolution images. To overcome this shortcoming, we propose to train a network using both HR and LR images under the guidance of a fixed network, pretrained on HR face images. The guidance is provided by minimising the KL-divergence between the output Softmax probabilities of the pretrained (i.e., Teacher) and trainable (i.e., Student) network as well as by sharing the Softmax weights between the two networks. The resulting solution is tested on down-sampled images from FaceScrub and MegaFace datasets and shows a consistent performance improvement across various resolutions. We also tested our proposed solution on standard LR benchmarks such as TinyFace and SCFace. Our algorithm consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on these datasets, confirming the effectiveness and merits of the proposed method.

D Gonzalez-Jimenez, E Argones-Rua, JL Alba-Castro, J Kittler (2007)Evaluation of point localisation and similarity fusion methods for Gabor jet-based face verification, In: IET COMPUTER VISION1(3-4)pp. 101-112 INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET
D Windridge, J Kittler (2000)Combined classifier optimisation via feature selection, In: Advances in Pattern Recognitionpp. 687-695
J Kittler, M Petrou, WJ Christmas (1998)A non-iterative probabilistic method for contextual correspondence matching, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION31(10)pp. 1455-1468 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
SR Arashloo, J Kittler (2014)Class-Specific Kernel Fusion of Multiple Descriptors for Face Verification Using Multiscale Binarised Statistical Image Features, In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security9(12)pp. 2100-2109 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
T-K Kim, J Kittler (2006)Design and fusion of pose-invariant face-identification experts, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY16(9)pp. 1096-1106 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Qiang Qian, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler, Tianyang Xu (2020)Correlation tracking with implicitly extending search region, In: Visual Computer Springer

Recently, the correlation filters have been successfully applied to visual tracking, but the boundary effect severely restrains their tracking performance. In this paper, to overcome this problem, we propose a correlation tracking framework with implicitly extending search region (TESR) without introducing background noise. The proposed tracking method is a two- stage detection framework. To implicitly extend the search region of the correlation tracking, firstly we add other four search centers except for the original search center in an elegant manner, which is given by the target location in previous frame, so our TESR will totally generate five potential object locations based on these five search centers. Then, an SVM classifier is used to determine the correct target position. We also apply the salient object detection score to regularize the output of the SVM classifier to improve its performance. The experimental results demonstrate that TESR exhibits superior performance in comparison with the state-of-the-art trackers.

M Ponti, JV Kittler, M Riva, T De Campos, C Zor (2017)A decision cognizant Kullback-Leibler divergence, In: Pattern Recognition61pp. 470-478

In decision making systems involving multiple classifiers there is the need to assess classifier (in)congruence, that is to gauge the degree of agreement between their outputs. A commonly used measure for this purpose is the Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence. We propose a variant of the KL divergence, named decision cognizant Kullback–Leibler divergence (DC-KL), to reduce the contribution of the minority classes, which obscure the true degree of classifier incongruence. We investigate the properties of the novel divergence measure analytically and by simulation studies. The proposed measure is demonstrated to be more robust to minority class clutter. Its sensitivity to estimation noise is also shown to be considerably lower than that of the classical KL divergence. These properties render the DC-KL divergence a much better statistic for discriminating between classifier congruence and incongruence in pattern recognition systems.

UR Sanchez, J Kittler (2006)Fusion of talking face biometric modalities for personal identity verification, In: 2006 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vols 1-13pp. 5931-5934
Cemre Zor, Berrin Yanikoglu, Erinc Merdivan, Terry Windeatt, Josef Kittler, Ethem Alpaydin (2017)BeamECOC: A local search for the optimization of the ECOC matrix, In: ICPR 2016 Proceedingspp. 198-203 IEEE

Error Correcting Output Coding (ECOC) is a multi- class classification technique in which multiple binary classifiers are trained according to a preset code matrix such that each one learns a separate dichotomy of the classes. While ECOC is one of the best solutions for multi-class problems, one issue which makes it suboptimal is that the training of the base classifiers is done independently of the generation of the code matrix. In this paper, we propose to modify a given ECOC matrix to improve its performance by reducing this decoupling. The proposed algorithm uses beam search to iteratively modify the original matrix, using validation accuracy as a guide. It does not involve further training of the classifiers and can be applied to any ECOC matrix. We evaluate the accuracy of the proposed algorithm (BeamE- COC) using 10-fold cross-validation experiments on 6 UCI datasets, using random code matrices of different sizes, and base classifiers of different strengths. Compared to the random ECOC approach, BeamECOC increases the average cross-validation accuracy in 83 : 3% of the experimental settings involving all datasets, and gives better results than the state-of-the-art in 75% of the scenarios. By employing BeamECOC, it is also possible to reduce the number of columns of a random matrix down to 13% and still obtain comparable or even better results at times.

P Huber, G Hu, R Tena, P Mortazavian, P Koppen, WJ Christmas, M Ratsch, J Kittler (2016)A Multiresolution 3D Morphable Face Model and Fitting Framework, In: Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications

3D Morphable Face Models are a powerful tool in computer vision. They consist of a PCA model of face shape and colour information and allow to reconstruct a 3D face from a single 2D image. 3D Morphable Face Models are used for 3D head pose estimation, face analysis, face recognition, and, more recently, facial landmark detection and tracking. However, they are not as widely used as 2D methods - the process of building and using a 3D model is much more involved. In this paper, we present the Surrey Face Model, a multi-resolution 3D Morphable Model that we make available to the public for non-commercial purposes. The model contains different mesh resolution levels and landmark point annotations as well as metadata for texture remapping. Accompanying the model is a lightweight open-source C++ library designed with simplicity and ease of integration as its foremost goals. In addition to basic functionality, it contains pose estimation and face frontalisation algorithms. With the tools presented in this paper, we aim to close two gaps. First, by offering different model resolution levels and fast fitting functionality, we enable the use of a 3D Morphable Model in time-critical applications like tracking. Second, the software library makes it easy for the community to adopt the 3D Morphable Face Model in their research, and it offers a public place for collaboration.

C McCool, S Marcel, A Hadid, M Pietikäinen, P Matějka, J Černocký, N Poh, J Kittler, A Larcher, C Lévy, D Matrouf, J-F Bonastre, P Tresadern, T Cootes (2012)Bi-modal person recognition on a mobile phone: Using mobile phone data, In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo Workshops, ICMEW 2012pp. 635-640

This paper presents a novel fully automatic bi-modal, face and speaker, recognition system which runs in real-time on a mobile phone. The implemented system runs in real-time on a Nokia N900 and demonstrates the feasibility of performing both automatic face and speaker recognition on a mobile phone. We evaluate this recognition system on a novel publicly-available mobile phone database and provide a well defined evaluation protocol. This database was captured almost exclusively using mobile phones and aims to improve research into deploying biometric techniques to mobile devices. We show, on this mobile phone database, that face and speaker recognition can be performed in a mobile environment and using score fusion can improve the performance by more than 25% in terms of error rates. © 2012 IEEE.

J Kittler, Y Yusoff, W Christmas, T Windeatt, D Windridge (2001)Boosting multiple experts by joint optimisation of decision thresholds, In: Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis113pp. 529-541

We consider a multiple classifier system which combines the hard decisions of experts by voting. We argue that the individual experts should not set their own decision thresholds. The respective thresholds should be selected jointly as this will allow compensation of the weaknesses of some experts by the relative strengths of the others. We perform the joint optimization of decision thresholds for a multiple expert system by a systematic sampling of the multidimensional decision threshold space. We show the effectiveness of this approach on the important practical application of video shot cut detection.

MT Sadeghi, J Kittler (2006)Confidence based gating of multiple face authentication experts, In: STRUCTURAL, SYNTACTIC, AND STATISTICAL PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROCEEDINGS4109pp. 667-676
CH Chan, J Kittler (2012)Blur kernel estimation to improve recognition of blurred faces, In: Image Processing (ICIP), 2012 19th IEEE International Conference onpp. 1989-1992
Zhen-Hua Feng, Josef Kittler, Bill Christmas, Xiao-Jun Wu (2019)A Unified Tensor-based Active Appearance Model, In: ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications and Applications Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

Appearance variations result in many difficulties in face image analysis. To deal with this challenge, we present a Unified Tensor-based Active Appearance Model (UT-AAM) for jointly modelling the geometry and texture information of 2D faces. For each type of face information, namely shape and texture, we construct a unified tensor model capturing all relevant appearance variations. This contrasts with the variation-specific models of the classical tensor AAM. To achieve the unification across pose variations, a strategy for dealing with self-occluded faces is proposed to obtain consistent shape and texture representations of pose-varied faces. In addition, our UT-AAM is capable of constructing the model from an incomplete training dataset, using tensor completion methods. Last, we use an effective cascaded-regression-based method for UT-AAM fitting. With these advancements, the utility of UT-AAM in practice is considerably enhanced. As an example, we demonstrate the improvements in training facial landmark detectors through the use of UT-AAM to synthesise a large number of virtual samples. Experimental results obtained on a number of well-known face datasets demonstrate the merits of the proposed approach.

E Chatzilari, S Nikolopoulos, Y Kompatsiaris, JV Kittler (2016)SALIC: Social Active Learning for Image Classification, In: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia18(8)pp. 1488-1503

In this paper, we present SALIC, an active learning method for selecting the most appropriate user tagged images to expand the training set of a binary classifier. The process of active learning can be fully automated in this social context by replacing the human oracle with the images' tags. However, their noisy nature adds further complexity to the sample selection process since, apart from the images' informativeness (i.e., how much they are expected to inform the classifier if we knew their label), our confidence about their actual label should also be maximized (i.e., how certain the oracle is on the images' true contents). The main contribution of this work is in proposing a probabilistic approach for jointly maximizing the two aforementioned quantities. In the examined noisy context, the oracle's confidence is necessary to provide a contextual-based indication of the images' true contents, while the samples' informativeness is required to reduce the computational complexity and minimize the mistakes of the unreliable oracle. To prove this, first, we show that SALIC allows us to select training data as effectively as typical active learning, without the cost of manual annotation. Finally, we argue that the speed-up achieved when learning actively in this social context (where labels can be obtained without the cost of human annotation) is necessary to cope with the continuously growing requirements of large-scale applications. In this respect, we demonstrate that SALIC requires ten times less training data in order to reach the same performance as a straightforward informativeness-agnostic learning approach.

Xue-Feng Zhu, Xiao-Jun Wu, Tianyang Xu, Zhenhua Feng, Josef Kittler (2020)Complementary Discriminative Correlation Filters Based on Collaborative Representation for Visual Object Tracking, In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

In recent years, discriminative correlation filter (DCF) based algorithms have significantly advanced the state of the art in visual object tracking. The key to the success of DCF is an efficient discriminative regression model trained with powerful multi-cue features, including both hand-crafted and deep neural network features. However, the tracking performance is hindered by their inability to respond adequately to abrupt target appearance variations. This issue is posed by the limited representation capability of fixed image features. In this work, we set out to rectify this shortcoming by proposing a complementary representation of a visual content. Specifically, we propose the use of a collaborative representation between successive frames to extract the dynamic appearance information from a target with rapid appearance changes, which results in suppressing the undesirable impact of the background. The resulting collaborative representation coefficients are combined with the original feature maps using a spatially regularised DCF framework for performance boosting. The experimental results on several benchmarking datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method, as compared with a number of state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

J Princen, J Illingworth, J Kittler (1990)Hypothesis testing: A framework for analysing and optimising Hough transform performance, In: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligencepp. 427-434
D Windridge, J Kittler (2002)On the general application of the tomographic classifier fusion methodology, In: Multiple classifier systems 2002pp. 149-158
K Zhang, M Bober, J Kittler (1996)Video coding using affine motion compensated prediction, In: 1996 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH, AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1-6pp. 1978-1981
Rui Wang, Xiao-Jun Wu, Kai-Xuan Chen, Josef Kittler (2020)Multiple Riemannian Manifold-valued Descriptors based Image Set Classification with Multi-Kernel Metric Learning, In: IEEE Transactions on Big Datapp. 1-1 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The importance of wild video based image set recognition is becoming monotonically increasing. However, the contents of these collected videos are often complicated, and how to efficiently perform set modeling and feature extraction is a big challenge in CV community. Recently, some proposed image set classification methods have made a considerable advance by modeling the original image set with covariance matrix, linear subspace, or Gaussian distribution. Moreover, the distinctive geometry spanned by them are three types of Riemannian manifolds. As a matter of fact, most of them just adopt a single geometric model to describe each set data, which may lose some information for classification. To tackle this, we propose a novel algorithm to model each image set from a multi-geometric perspective. Specifically, the covariance matrix, linear subspace, and Gaussian distribution are applied for set representation simultaneously. In order to fuse these multiple heterogeneous features, the well-equipped Riemannian kernel functions are first utilized to map them into high dimensional Hilbert spaces. Then, a multi-kernel metric learning framework is devised to embed the learned hybrid kernels into a lower dimensional common subspace for classification. We conduct experiments on four widely used datasets. Extensive experimental results justify its superiority over the state-of-the-art.

I NG, J KITTLER, J ILLINGWORTH (1993)SUPERVISED SEGMENTATION USING A MULTIRESOLUTION DATA REPRESENTATION, In: SIGNAL PROCESSING31(2)pp. 133-163 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Shervin Rahimzadeh, Josef Kittler (2020)Robust One-Class Kernel Spectral Regression, In: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systemspp. 1-15 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The kernel null-space technique is known to be an effective one-class classification (OCC) technique. Nevertheless, the applicability of this method is limited due to its susceptibility to possible training data corruption and the inability to rank training observations according to their conformity with the model. This article addresses these shortcomings by regularizing the solution of the null-space kernel Fisher methodology in the context of its regression-based formulation. In this respect, first, the effect of the Tikhonov regularization in the Hilbert space is analyzed, where the one-class learning problem in the presence of contamination in the training set is posed as a sensitivity analysis problem. Next, the effect of the sparsity of the solution is studied. For both alternative regularization schemes, iterative algorithms are proposed which recursively update label confidences. Through extensive experiments, the proposed methodology is found to enhance robustness against contamination in the training set compared with the baseline kernel null-space method, as well as other existing approaches in the OCC paradigm, while providing the functionality to rank training samples effectively

D Windridge, J Kittler (2002)Morphologically unbiased clasifier combination through graphical PDF correlation, In: Joint IAPR International Workshop on Structural,Syntactic and Statistical Pattern Recognitionpp. 789-797
M Awais, F Yan, K Mikolajczyk, J Kittler (2011)Two-Stage Augmented Kernel Matrix for Object Recognition, In: 10th International Workshop, MCS 2011, Naples, Italy, June 15-17, 2011. Proceedingspp. 137-146

Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) has become a preferred choice for information fusion in image recognition problem. Aim of MKL is to learn optimal combination of kernels formed from different features, thus, to learn importance of different feature spaces for classification. Augmented Kernel Matrix (AKM) has recently been proposed to accommodate for the fact that a single training example may have different importance in different feature spaces, in contrast to MKL that assigns same weight to all examples in one feature space. However, AKM approach is limited to small datasets due to its memory requirements. We propose a novel two stage technique to make AKM applicable to large data problems. In first stage various kernels are combined into different groups automatically using kernel alignment. Next, most influential training examples are identified within each group and used to construct an AKM of significantly reduced size. This reduced size AKM leads to same results as the original AKM. We demonstrate that proposed two stage approach is memory efficient and leads to better performance than original AKM and is robust to noise. Results are compared with other state-of-the art MKL techniques, and show improvement on challenging object recognition benchmarks.

F Yan, J Kittler, K Mikolajczyk, A Tahir (2010)Combining Multiple Kernels by Augmenting the Kernel Matrix, In: International Workshop on Multiple Classifier Systems
Soroush Fatemifar, Muhammad Awais, Ali Akbari, Josef Kittler (2020)A Stacking Ensemble for Anomaly Based Client-Specific Face Spoofing Detection, In: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)pp. 1371-1375 IEEE

To counteract spoofing attacks, the majority of recent approaches to face spoofing attack detection formulate the problem as a binary classification task in which real data and attack-accesses are both used to train spoofing detectors. Although the classical training framework has been demonstrated to deliver satisfactory results, its robustness to unseen attacks is debatable. Inspired by the recent success of anomaly detection models in face spoofing detection, we propose an ensemble of one-class classifiers fused by a Stacking ensemble method to reduce the generalisation error in the more realistic unseen attack scenario. To be consistent with this scenario, anomalous samples are considered neither for training the component anomaly classifiers nor for the design of the Stacking ensemble. To achieve better face-anti spoofing results, we adopt client-specific information to build both constituent classifiers as well as the Stacking combiner. Besides, we propose a novel 2-stage Genetic Algorithm to further improve the generalisation performance of Stacking ensemble. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed systems on publicly available face anti-spoofing databases including Replay-Attack, Replay-Mobile and Rose-Youtu. The experimental results following the unseen attack evaluation protocol confirm the merits of the proposed model.

Recently, impressively growing efforts have been devoted to the challenging task of facial age estimation. The improvements in performance achieved by new algorithms are measured on several benchmarking test databases with different characteristics to check on consistency. While this is a valuable methodology in itself, a significant issue in the most age estimation related studies is that the reported results lack an assessment of intrinsic system uncertainty. Hence, a more in-depth view is required to examine the robustness of age estimation systems in different scenarios. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an evaluative and comparative analysis of different age estimation systems to identify trends, as well as the points of their critical vulnerability. In particular, we investigate four age estimation systems, including the online Microsoft service, two best state-of-the-art approaches advocated in the literature, as well as a novel age estimation algorithm. We analyse the effect of different internal and external factors, including gender, ethnicity, expression, makeup, illumination conditions, quality and resolution of the face images, on the performance of these age estimation systems. The goal of this sensitivity analysis is to provide the biometrics community with the insight and understanding of the critical subject-, camera- and environmental-based factors that affect the overall performance of the age estimation system under study.

ALI AKBARI, Muhammad Awais, AMMARAH FAROOQ, JOSEF VACLAV KITTLER (2020)A Flatter Loss for Bias Mitigation in Cross-dataset Facial Age Estimation

—Existing studies in facial age estimation have mostly focused on intra-dataset protocols that assume training and test images captured under similar conditions. However, this is rarely valid in practical applications, where training and test sets usually have different characteristics. In this paper, we advocate a cross-dataset protocol for age estimation benchmarking. In order to improve the cross-dataset age estimation performance, we mitigate the inherent bias caused by the learning algorithm itself. To this end, we propose a novel loss function that is more effective for neural network training. The relative smoothness of the proposed loss function is its advantage with regards to the optimisation process performed by stochastic gradient descent. Its lower gradient, compared with existing loss functions, facilitates the discovery of and convergence to a better optimum, and consequently a better generalisation. The crossdataset experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of accuracy and generalisation capability.

P Huber, Z Feng, WJ Christmas, J Kittler, M Raetsch (2015)Fitting 3D Morphable Models using Local Features, In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP 2015 Proceedingspp. 1195-1199

In this paper, we propose a novel fitting method that uses local image features to fit a 3D Morphable Face Model to 2D images. To overcome the obstacle of optimising a cost function that contains a non-differentiable feature extraction operator, we use a learning-based cascaded regression method that learns the gradient direction from data. The method allows to simultaneously solve for shape and pose parameters. Our method is thoroughly evaluated on Morphable Model generated data and first results on real data are presented. Compared to traditional fitting methods, which use simple raw features like pixel colour or edge maps, local features have been shown to be much more robust against variations in imaging conditions. Our approach is unique in that we are the first to use local features to fit a 3D Morphable Model. Because of the speed of our method, it is applicable for real-time applications. Our cascaded regression framework is available as an open source library at github.com/patrikhuber/superviseddescent.

WJ Christmas, J Kittler, M Petrou (1996)Probabilistic feature-labelling schemes: Modelling compatibility coefficient distributions, In: IMAGE AND VISION COMPUTING14(8)pp. 617-625
V Kilic, M Barnard, W Wang, A Hilton, J Kittler (2016)Mean-Shift and Sparse Sampling Based SMC-PHD Filtering for Audio Informed Visual Speaker Tracking, In: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia

The probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) approximation (also known as SMC-PHD filter) has proven to be a promising algorithm for multi-speaker tracking. However, it has a heavy computational cost as surviving, spawned and born particles need to be distributed in each frame to model the state of the speakers and to estimate jointly the variable number of speakers with their states. In particular, the computational cost is mostly caused by the born particles as they need to be propagated over the entire image in every frame to detect the new speaker presence in the view of the visual tracker. In this paper, we propose to use audio data to improve the visual SMC-PHD (VSMC- PHD) filter by using the direction of arrival (DOA) angles of the audio sources to determine when to propagate the born particles and re-allocate the surviving and spawned particles. The tracking accuracy of the AV-SMC-PHD algorithm is further improved by using a modified mean-shift algorithm to search and climb density gradients iteratively to find the peak of the probability distribution, and the extra computational complexity introduced by mean-shift is controlled with a sparse sampling technique. These improved algorithms, named as AVMS-SMCPHD and sparse-AVMS-SMC-PHD respectively, are compared systematically with AV-SMC-PHD and V-SMC-PHD based on the AV16.3, AMI and CLEAR datasets.

Tianyang Xu, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2018)Non-negative Subspace Representation Learning Scheme for Correlation Filter Based Tracking, In: 2018 24th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR)2018-pp. 1888-1893 IEEE

Discriminative correlation filter (DCF) based tracking methods have achieved great success recently. However, the temporal learning scheme in the current paradigm is of a linear recursion form determined by a fixed learning rate which can not adaptively feedback appearance variations. In this paper, we propose a unified non-negative subspace representation constrained leaning scheme for DCF. The subspace is constructed by several templates with auxiliary memory mechanisms. Then the current template is projected onto the subspace to find the non-negative representation and to determine the corresponding template weights. Our learning scheme enables efficient combination of correlation filter and subspace structure. The experimental results on OTB50 demonstrate the effectiveness of our learning formulation.

Tianyang Xu, Zhenhua Feng, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2021)Adaptive Channel Selection for Robust Visual Object Tracking with Discriminative Correlation Filters, In: International Journal of Computer Vision129(5)pp. 1359-1375 Springer Nature

Discriminative Correlation Filters (DCF) have been shown to achieve impressive performance in visual object tracking. However, existing DCF-based trackers rely heavily on learning regularised appearance models from invariant image feature representations. To further improve the performance of DCF in accuracy and provide a parsimonious model from the attribute perspective, we propose to gauge the relevance of multi-channel features for the purpose of channel selection. This is achieved by assessing the information conveyed by the features of each channel as a group, using an adaptive group elastic net inducing independent sparsity and temporal smoothness on the DCF solution. The robustness and stability of the learned appearance model are significantly enhanced by the proposed method as the process of channel selection performs implicit spatial regularisation. We use the augmented Lagrangian method to optimise the discriminative filters efficiently. The experimental results obtained on a number of well-known benchmarking datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and stability of the proposed method. A superior performance over the state-of-the-art trackers is achieved using less than $$10\%$$ 10 % deep feature channels.

ALI AKBARI, MUHAMMAD AWAIS TANVIR RANA, SOROUSH FATEMIFAR, SYED SAFWAN KHALID, JOSEF VACLAV KITTLER (2021)A Novel Ground Metric for Optimal Transport based Chronological Age Estimation, In: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics IEEE

—Label distribution Learning (LDL) is the state-of-the-art approach to deal with a number of real-world applications , such as chronological age estimation from a face image, where there is an inherent similarity among adjacent age labels. LDL takes into account the semantic similarity by assigning a label distribution to each instance. The well-known Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence is the widely used loss function for the LDL framework. However, the KL divergence does not fully and effectively capture the semantic similarity among age labels, thus leading to the sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we propose a novel loss function based on optimal transport theory for the LDL-based age estimation. A ground metric function plays an important role in the optimal transport formulation. It should be carefully determined based on underlying geometric structure of the label space of the application in-hand. The label space in the age estimation problem has a specific geometric structure, i.e. closer ages have more inherent semantic relationship. Inspired by this, we devise a novel ground metric function, which enables the loss function to increase the influence of highly correlated ages; thus exploiting the semantic similarity among ages more effectively than the existing loss functions. We then use the proposed loss function, namely γ–Wasserstein loss, for training a deep neural network (DNN). This leads to a notoriously computationally expensive and non-convex optimisa-tion problem. Following the standard methodology, we formulate the optimisation function as a convex problem and then use an efficient iterative algorithm to update the parameters of the DNN. Extensive experiments in age estimation on different benchmark datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, which consistently outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.

Tianyang Xu, Zhen-Hua Feng, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2020)An accelerated correlation filter tracker, In: Pattern recognition102107172 Elsevier Ltd

•A formulation of the DCF design problem which focuses on informative feature channels and spatial structures by means of novel regularisation.•A proposed relaxed optimisation algorithm referred to as R_A-ADMM for optimising the regularised DCF. In contrast with the standard ADMM, the algorithm achieves a better convergence rate.•A temporal smoothness constraint, implemented by an adaptive initialisation mechanism, to achieve further speed up via transfer learning among video frames.•The proposed adoption of AlexNet to construct a light-weight deep representation with a tracking accuracy comparable to more complicated deep networks, such as VGG and ResNet.•An extensive evaluation of the proposed methodology on several well-known visual object tracking datasets, with the results confirming the acceleration gains for the regularised DCF paradigm.

Tianyang Xu, Zhen-Hua Feng, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2019)Joint Group Feature Selection and Discriminative Filter Learning for Robust Visual Object Tracking, In: 2019 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)pp. 7949-7959 IEEE

We propose a new Group Feature Selection method for Discriminative Correlation Filters (GFS-DCF) based visual object tracking. The key innovation of the proposed method is to perform group feature selection across both channel and spatial dimensions, thus to pinpoint the structural relevance of multi-channel features to the filtering system. In contrast to the widely used spatial regularisation or feature selection methods, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that channel selection has been advocated for DCF-based tracking. We demonstrate that our GFS-DCF method is able to significantly improve the performance of a DCF tracker equipped with deep neural network features. In addition, our GFS-DCF enables joint feature selection and filter learning, achieving enhanced discrimination and interpretability of the learned filters. To further improve the performance, we adaptively integrate historical information by constraining filters to be smooth across temporal frames, using an efficient low-rank approximation. By design, specific temporal-spatial-channel configurations are dynamically learned in the tracking process, highlighting the relevant features, and alleviating the performance degrading impact of less discriminative representations and reducing information redundancy. The experimental results obtained on OTB2013, OTB2015, VOT2017, VOT2018 and TrackingNet demonstrate the merits of our GFS-DCF and its superiority over the state-of-the-art trackers. The code is publicly available at \url{https://github.com/XU-TIANYANG/GFS-DCF}.

M Awais, F Yan, K Mikolajczyk, J Kittler (2011)Two-stage augmented kernel matrix for object recognition, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Multiple Classifier Systems6713pp. 137-146

Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) has become a preferred choice for information fusion in image recognition problem. Aim of MKL is to learn optimal combination of kernels formed from different features, thus, to learn importance of different feature spaces for classification. Augmented Kernel Matrix (AKM) has recently been proposed to accommodate for the fact that a single training example may have different importance in different feature spaces, in contrast to MKL that assigns same weight to all examples in one feature space. However, AKM approach is limited to small datasets due to its memory requirements. We propose a novel two stage technique to make AKM applicable to large data problems. In first stage various kernels are combined into different groups automatically using kernel alignment. Next, most influential training examples are identified within each group and used to construct an AKM of significantly reduced size. This reduced size AKM leads to same results as the original AKM. We demonstrate that proposed two stage approach is memory efficient and leads to better performance than original AKM and is robust to noise. Results are compared with other state-of-the art MKL techniques, and show improvement on challenging object recognition benchmarks.

WP Koppen, WJ Christmas, DJM Crouch, WF Bodmer, JV Kittler (2016)Extending Non-negative Matrix Factorisation to 3D Registered Data, In: Proceedings of 2016 International Conference on Biometrics (ICB 2016) (ISBN: 9781509018703)

The use of non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF) on 2D face images has been shown to result in sparse feature vectors that encode for local patches on the face, and thus provides a statistically justified approach to learning parts from wholes. However successful on 2D images, the method has so far not been extended to 3D images. The main reason for this is that 3D space is a continuum and so it is not apparent how to represent 3D coordinates in a non-negative fashion. This work compares different non-negative representations for spatial coordinates, and demonstrates that not all non-negative representations are suitable. We analyse the representational properties that make NMF a successful method to learn sparse 3D facial features. Using our proposed representation, the factorisation results in sparse and interpretable facial features.

A Tahir, J Kittler, F Yan, K Mikolajczyk (2009)Concept Learning for Image and Video Retrieval: the Inverse Random Under Sampling Approach, In: European Signal Processing Conferencepp. 574-578
M Bober, M Petrou, J Kittler (1998)Nonlinear motion estimation using the supercoupling approach, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE20(5)pp. 550-555 IEEE COMPUTER SOC
D Windridge, R Patenall, J Kittler (2004)The relationship between classifier factorisation and performance in stochastic vector quantisation, In: Multiple Classifier Systemspp. 194-203
J Kittler, WJ Christmas, F Yan, I Kolonias, D Windridge (2005)A memory architecture and contextual reasoning framework for cognitive vision, In: Proc. SCIApp. 343-358
Tianyang Xu, Zhen-hua Feng, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2019)Learning Adaptive Discriminative Correlation Filters via Temporal Consistency preserving Spatial Feature Selection for Robust Visual Object Tracking, In: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing28(11)pp. 5596-5609 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

With efficient appearance learning models, Discriminative Correlation Filter (DCF) has been proven to be very successful in recent video object tracking benchmarks and competitions. However, the existing DCF paradigm suffers from two major issues, i.e., spatial boundary effect and temporal filter degradation. To mitigate these challenges, we propose a new DCF-based tracking method. The key innovations of the proposed method include adaptive spatial feature selection and temporal consistent constraints, with which the new tracker enables joint spatial-temporal filter learning in a lower dimensional discriminative manifold. More specifically, we apply structured spatial sparsity constraints to multi-channel filers. Consequently, the process of learning spatial filters can be approximated by the lasso regularisation. To encourage temporal consistency, the filter model is restricted to lie around its historical value and updated locally to preserve the global structure in the manifold. Last, a unified optimisation framework is proposed to jointly select temporal consistency preserving spatial features and learn discriminative filters with the augmented Lagrangian method. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations have been conducted on a number of well-known benchmarking datasets such as OTB2013, OTB50, OTB100, Temple-Colour, UAV123 and VOT2018. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art approaches.

N Poh, A Merati, J Kittler, N Poh (2011)Heterogeneous information fusion: A novel fusion paradigm for biometric systems, In: 2011 International Joint Conference on Biometrics

One of the most promising ways to improve biometric person recognition is indisputably via information fusion, that is, to combine different sources of information. This paper proposes a novel fusion paradigm that combines heterogeneous sources of information such as user-specific, cohort and quality information. Two formulations of this problem are proposed, differing in the assumption on the independence of the information sources. Unlike the more common multimodal/multi-algorithmic fusion, the novel paradigm has to deal with information that is not necessarily discriminative but still it is relevant. The methodology can be applied to any biometric system. Furthermore, extensive experiments based on 30 face and fingerprint experiments indicate that the performance gain with respect to the baseline system is about 30%. In contrast, solving this problem using conventional fusion paradigm leads to degraded results. © 2011 IEEE.

M Bober, N Georgis, J Kittler (1998)On accurate and robust estimation of fundamental matrix, In: COMPUTER VISION AND IMAGE UNDERSTANDING72(1)pp. 39-53 ACADEMIC PRESS INC
M Awais, F Yan, K Mikolajczyk, J Kittler (2013)Augmented Kernel Matrix vs Classifier Fusion for Object Recognition, In: Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conferencepp. 60.1-60.11
F Yan, W Christmas, J Kittler (2008)Layered Data Association Using Graph-Theoretic Formulation with Application to Tennis Ball Tracking in Monocular Sequences, In: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence3010pp. 1814-1830

In this paper, we propose a multi-layered data association scheme with graph-theoretic formulation for tracking multiple objects that undergo switching dynamics in clutter. The proposed scheme takes as input object candidates detected in each frame. At the object candidate level, "tracklets" are "grown" from sets of candidates that have high probabilities of containing only true positives. At the tracklet level, a directed and weighted graph is constructed, where each node is a tracklet, and the edge weight between two nodes is defined according to the "compatibility” of the two tracklets. The association problem is then formulated as an all-pairs shortest path (APSP) problem in this graph. Finally, at the path level, by analyzing the all-pairs shortest paths, all object trajectories are identified, and track initiation and track termination are automatically dealt with. By exploiting a special topological property of the graph, we have also developed a more efficient APSP algorithm than the general-purpose ones. The proposed data association scheme is applied to tennis sequences to track tennis balls. Experiments show that it works well on sequences where other data association methods perform poorly or fail completely.

M Veta, PJ van Diest, SM Willems, H Wang, A Madabhushi, A Cruz-Roa, F Gonzalez, ABL Larsen, JS Vestergaard, AB Dahl, DC Ciresan, J Schmidhuber, A Giusti, LM Gambardella, FB Tek, T Walter, C-W Wang, S Kondo, BJ Matuszewski, F Precioso, V Snell, J Kittler, TE de Campos, AM Khan, NM Rajpoot, E Arkoumani, MM Lacle, MA Viergever, JPW Pluim (2015)Assessment of algorithms for mitosis detection in breast cancer histopathology images, In: MEDICAL IMAGE ANALYSIS20(1)pp. 237-248 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV

The proliferative activity of breast tumors, which is routinely estimated by counting of mitotic figures in hematoxylin and eosin stained histology sections, is considered to be one of the most important prognostic markers. However, mitosis counting is laborious, subjective and may suffer from low inter-observer agreement. With the wider acceptance of whole slide images in pathology labs, automatic image analysis has been proposed as a potential solution for these issues. In this paper, the results from the Assessment of Mitosis Detection Algorithms 2013 (AMIDA13) challenge are described. The challenge was based on a data set consisting of 12 training and 11 testing subjects, with more than one thousand annotated mitotic figures by multiple observers. Short descriptions and results from the evaluation of eleven methods are presented. The top performing method has an error rate that is comparable to the inter-observer agreement among pathologists.

K Zhang, M Bober, J Kittler (1997)Image sequence coding using multiple-level segmentation and affine motion estimation, In: IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS15(9)pp. 1704-1713 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
F Yan, W Christmas, J Kittler (2007)All Pairs Shortest Path Formulation for Multiple Object Tracking with Application to Tennis Video Analysis, In: British Machine Vision Conference

In previous work, we developed a novel data association algorithm with graph-theoretic formulation, and used it to track a tennis ball in broadcast tennis video. However, the track initiation/termination was not automatic, and it could not deal with situations in which more than one ball appeared in the scene. In this paper, we extend our previous work to track multiple tennis balls fully automatically. The algorithm presented in this paper requires the set of all-pairs shortest paths in a directed and edge-weighted graph. We also propose an efficient All-Pairs Shortest Path algorithm by exploiting a special topological property of the graph. Comparative experiments show that the proposed data association algorithm performs well both in terms of efficiency and tracking accuracy.

M Loog, X-J Wu, J-P Lu, J-Y Yang, S-T Wang, J Kittler (2008)A note on an extreme case of the generalized optimal discriminant transformation, In: NEUROCOMPUTING72(1-3)pp. 664-665 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
J PRINCEN, J ILLINGWORTH, J KITTLER (1990)A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH TO LINE EXTRACTION BASED ON THE HOUGH TRANSFORM, In: COMPUTER VISION GRAPHICS AND IMAGE PROCESSING52(1)pp. 57-77 ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS
MA Tahir, J Kittler, A Bouridane (2012)Multilabel classification using heterogeneous ensemble of multi-label classifiers, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION LETTERS33(5)pp. 513-523 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Zhenhua Feng, Josef Kittler, Muhammad Awais, Xiao-Jun Wu (2019)Rectified Wing Loss for Efficient and Robust Facial Landmark Localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks., In: International Journal of Computer Visionpp. 1-20 Springer

Efficient and robust facial landmark localisation is crucial for the deployment of real-time face analysis systems. This paper presents a new loss function, namely Rectified Wing (RWing) loss, for regression-based facial landmark localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). We first systemically analyse different loss functions, including L2, L1 and smooth L1. The analysis suggests that the training of a network should pay more attention to small-medium errors. Motivated by this finding, we design a piece-wise loss that amplifies the impact of the samples with small-medium errors. Besides, we rectify the loss function for very small errors to mitigate the impact of inaccuracy of manual annotation. The use of our RWing loss boosts the performance significantly for regression-based CNNs in facial landmarking, especially for lightweight network architectures. To address the problem of under-representation of samples with large pose variations, we propose a simple but effective boosting strategy, referred to as pose-based data balancing. In particular, we deal with the data imbalance problem by duplicating the minority training samples and perturbing them by injecting random image rotation, bounding box translation and other data augmentation strategies. Last, the proposed approach is extended to create a coarse-to-fine framework for robust and efficient landmark localisation. Moreover, the proposed coarse-to-fine framework is able to deal with the small sample size problem effectively. The experimental results obtained on several well-known benchmarking datasets demonstrate the merits of our RWing loss and prove the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art approaches.

T Bourlai, J Kittler, K Messer (2006)Database size effects on performance on a smart card face verification system, In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conferencepp. 61-66
K Messer, J Kittler, J Short, G Heusch, F Cardinaux, S Marcel, Y Rodriguez, S Shan, Y Su, W Gao, X Chen (2006)Performance characterisation of face recognition algorithms and their sensitivity to severe illumination changes, In: ADVANCES IN BIOMETRICS, PROCEEDINGS3832pp. 1-11
R Wong, N Poh, J Kittler, DM Frohlich (2010)Interactive quality-driven feedback for biometric systems, In: Biometrics: Theory Applications and Systems (BTAS), 2010 Fourth IEEE International Conference onpp. ?-?

The application of biometric technology has so far been top-down, driven by governments and law enforcement agencies. The low demand of this technology from the public, despite its many advantages compared to the traditional means of authentication is probably due to the lack of human factor considerations in the design process. In this work, we propose a guideline to design an interactive quality-driven feedback mechanism. The mechanism aims to improve the quality of biométrie samples during the acquisition process by putting in place objective assessment of the quality and feeding this information back to the user instantaneously, thus eliminating subjective quality judgement by the user. We illustrate the feasibility of the design methodology using face recognition as a case study. Preliminary results show that the methodology can potentially increase efficiency, effectiveness and accessibility of a biométrie system.

M-C Roh, B Christmas, J Kittler, S-W Lee (2008)Gesture Spotting for Low-Resolution Sports Video Annotation, In: Pattern Recognition413pp. 1124-1137

Human gesture recognition plays an important role in automating the analysis of video material at a high level. Especially in sports videos, the determination of the player’s gestures is a key task. In many sports views, the camera covers a large part of the sports arena, resulting in low resolution of the player’s region. Moreover, the camera is not static, but moves dynamically around its optical center, i.e. pan/tilt/zoom camera. These factors make the determination of the player’s gestures a challenging task. To overcome these problems, we propose a posture descriptor that is robust to shape corruption of the player’s silhouette, and a gesture spotting method that is robust to noisy sequences of data and needs only a small amount of training data. The proposed posture descriptor extracts the feature points of a shape, based on the curvature scale space (CSS) method. The use of CSS makes this method robust to local noise, and our method is also robust to significant shape corruption of the player’s silhouette. The proposed spotting method provides probabilistic similarity and is robust to noisy sequences of data. It needs only a small number of training data sets, which is a very useful characteristic when it is difficult to obtain enough data for model training. In this paper, we conducted experiments spotting serve gestures using broadcast tennis play video. From our experiments, for 63 shots of playing tennis, some of which include a serve gesture and while some do not, it achieved 97.5% precision rate and 86.7% recall rate.

R Wong, N Poh, J Kittler, DM Frohlich (2010)Towards inclusive design in mobile biometry, In: IEEE Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Human System Interactionpp. 267-274

As mobile devices are becoming more ubiquitous, it is now possible to enhance the security of the phone, as well as remote services requiring identity verification, by means of biometric traits such as fingerprint and speech. We refer to this as mobile biometry. The objective of this study is to increase the usability of mobile biometry for visually impaired users, using face as biometrics. We illustrate a scenario of a person capturing his/her own face images which are as frontal as possible. This is a challenging task for the following reasons. Firstly, a greater variation in head pose and degradation in image quality (e.g., blur, de-focus) is expected due to the motion introduced by the hand manipulation and unsteadiness. Second, for the visually impaired users, there currently exists no mechanism to provide feedback on whether a frontal face image is detected. In this paper, an audio feedback mechanism is proposed to assist the visually impaired to acquire face images of better quality. A preliminary user study suggests that the proposed audio feedback can potentially (a) shorten the acquisition time and (b) improve the success rate of face detection, especially for the non-sighted users.

D Windridge, R Bowden, J Kittler (2004)A General Strategy for Hidden Markov Chain Parameterisation in Composite Feature-Spaces, In: SSPR/SPRpp. 1069-1077
J Short, J Kittler, K Messer (2006)Photometric normalisation for component-based face verification, In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conferencepp. 114-119
J Ilonen, J-K Kamarainen, P Paalanen, M Hamouz, J Kittler, H Kalviainen (2008)Image feature localization by multiple hypothesis testing of Gabor features, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING17(3)pp. 311-325 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
BH Shekar, RK Bharathi, J Kittler, YV Vizilter, L Mestestskiy (2015)Grid Structured Morphological Pattern Spectrum for Off-line Signature Verification, In: 2015 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOMETRICS (ICB)pp. 430-435
J Kittler, N Poh, O Fatukasi, K Messer, K Kryszczuk, J Richiardi, A Drygajlo (2007)Quality dependent fusion of intramodal and multimodal biometric experts - art. no. 653903, In: BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY FOR HUMAN IDENTIFICATION IV6539pp. 53903-53903 SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING

We address the problem of score level fusion of intramodal and multimodal experts in the context of biometric identity verification. We investigate the merits of confidence based weighting of component experts. In contrast to the conventional approach where confidence values are derived from scores, we use instead raw measures of biometric data quality to control the influence of each expert on the final fused score. We show that quality based fusion gives better performance than quality free fusion. The use of quality weighted scores as features in the definition of the fusion functions leads to further improvements. We demonstrate that the achievable performance gain is also affected by the choice of fusion architecture. The evaluation of the proposed methodology involves 6 face and one speech verification experts. It is carried out on the XM2VTS data, base.

TK Kim, J Kittler, R Cipolla (2006)Learning discriminative canonical correlations for object recognition with image sets, In: COMPUTER VISION - ECCV 2006, PT 3, PROCEEDINGS3953pp. 251-262
E Chatzilari, S Nikolopoulos, Y Kompatsiaris, J Kittler (2014)HOW MANY MORE IMAGES DO WE NEED? PERFORMANCE PREDICTION OF BOOTSTRAPPING FOR IMAGE CLASSIFICATION, In: 2014 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING (ICIP)pp. 4256-4260
J Kittler, A Ahmadyfard, D Windridge (2003)Serial multiple classifier systems exploiting a coarse to fine output coding, In: Multiple Classifier Systemspp. 106-114
V Snell, William Christmas, Josef Kittler (2013)Texture and shape in fluorescence pattern identification for auto-immune disease diagnosis, In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR2012)pp. 3750-3753 IEEE

Automation of HEp-2 cell pattern classification would drastically improve the accuracy and throughput of diagnostic services for many auto-immune diseases, but it has proven difficult to reach a sufficient level of precision. Correct diagnosis relies on a subtle assessment of texture type in microscopic images of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), which so far has eluded reliable replication through automated measurements. We introduce a combination of spectral analysis and multiscale digital filtering to extract the most discriminative variables from the cell images. We also apply multistage classification techniques to make optimal use of the limited labelled data set. Overall error rate of 1.6% is achieved in recognition of 6 different cell patterns, which drops to 0.5% if only positive samples are considered.

J-Y Guillemaut, J Kittler, MT Sadeghi, WJ Christmas (2006)General pose face recognition using frontal face model, In: PROGRESS IN PATTERN RECOGNITON, IMAGE ANALYSIS AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS4225pp. 79-88
P Poschmann, P Huber, M Raetsch, J Kittler, H-J Boehme (2014)Fusion of tracking techniques to enhance adaptive real-time tracking of arbitrary objects, In: 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION, IHCI 201439pp. 162-165
I Kolonias, J Kittler, WJ Christmas, F Yan (2007)Improving the Accuracy of Automatic Tennis Video Annotation by High Level Grammar, In: International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing
P Mortazavian, J Kittler, W Christmas (2009)3D-assisted Facial Texture Super-Resolution, In: Proceedings of BMVC 2009
X Zou, J Kittler, K Messer (2006)Ambient illumination variation removal by active near-IR imaging, In: ADVANCES IN BIOMETRICS, PROCEEDINGS3832pp. 19-25
WJ Christmas, J Kittler, M Petrou (1996)Labelling 2-D geometric primitives using probabilistic relaxation: Reducing the computational requirements, In: ELECTRONICS LETTERS32(4)pp. 312-314 IEE-INST ELEC ENG
A Khan, W Christmas, J Kittler (2007)Lip contour segmentation using kernel methods and level sets, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)4842 L(PART 2)pp. 86-95

This paper proposes a novel method for segmenting lips from face images or video sequences. A non-linear learning method in the form of an SVM classifier is trained to recognise lip colour over a variety of faces. The pixel-level information that the trained classifier outputs is integrated effectively by minimising an energy functional using level set methods, which yields the lip contour(s). The method works over a wide variety of face types, and can elegantly deal with both the case where the subjects' mouths are open and the mouth contour is prominent, and with the closed mouth case where the mouth contour is not visible. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007.

N Poh, J Kittler (2008)Incorporating model-specific score distribution in speaker verification systems, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING16(3)pp. 594-606 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
SR Arashloo, J Kittler, WJ Christmas (2010)Facial feature localization using graph matching with higher order statistical shape priors and global optimization, In: IEEE 4th International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, BTAS 2010
JA Olvera-Lopez, JF Martinez-Trinidad, JA Carrasco-Ochoa, J Kittler (2009)Prototype selection based on sequential search, In: INTELLIGENT DATA ANALYSIS13(4)pp. 599-631 IOS PRESS
P Mortazavian, J Kittler, W Christmas (2009)A 3-D assisted generative model for facial texture super-resolution, In: IEEE 3rd International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, BTAS 2009pp. 452-458
HM Vazquez, J Kittler, C-H Chan, EBG Reyes (2010)On Combining Local DCT with Preprocessing Sequence for Face Recognition under Varying Lighting Conditions, In: CIARPpp. 410-417
EA Rua, J Kittler, JLA Castro, DG Jimenez (2006)Information fusion for local Gabor features based frontal face verification, In: ADVANCES IN BIOMETRICS, PROCEEDINGS3832pp. 173-181
D Windridge, J Kittler (2007)Open-Ended Inference of Relational Representations in the COSPAL Perception-Action Architecture, In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Machine Vision Applications
Z-H Feng, X-J Wu, P Huber, J Kittler, W Christmas (2015)Random cascaded-regression copse for robust facial landmark detection, In: IEEE Signal Processing Letters22(1)pp. 76-80

In this letter, we present a random cascaded-regression copse (R-CR-C) for robust facial landmark detection. Its key innovations include a new parallel cascade structure design, and an adaptive scheme for scale-invariant shape update and local feature extraction. Evaluation on two challenging benchmarks shows the superiority of the proposed algorithm to state-of-the-art methods. © 1994-2012 IEEE.

D Windridge, J Kittler (2010)Perception-Action Learning as an Epistemologically-Consistent Model for Self-Updating Cognitive Representation, In: BRAIN INSPIRED COGNITIVE SYSTEMS 2008657pp. 95-134 SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN

As well as having the ability to formulate models of the world capable of experimental falsification, it is evident that human cognitive capability embraces some degree of representational plasticity, having the scope (at least in infancy) to modify the primitives in terms of which the world is delineated. We hence employ the term 'cognitive bootstrapping' to refer to the autonomous updating of an embodied agent's perceptual framework in response to the perceived requirements of the environment in such a way as to retain the ability to refine the environment model in a consistent fashion across perceptual changes.We will thus argue that the concept of cognitive bootstrapping is epistemically ill-founded unless there exists an a priori percept/motor interrelation capable of maintaining an empirical distinction between the various possibilities of perceptual categorization and the inherent uncertainties of environment modeling.As an instantiation of this idea, we shall specify a very general, logically-inductive model of perception-action learning capable of compact re-parameterization of the percept space. In consequence of the a priori percept/action coupling, the novel perceptual state transitions so generated always exist in bijective correlation with a set of novel action states, giving rise to the required empirical validation criterion for perceptual inferences. Environmental description is correspondingly accomplished in terms of progressively higher-level affordance conjectures which are likewise validated by exploratory action.Application of this mechanism within simulated perception-action environments indicates that, as well as significantly reducing the size and specificity of the a priori perceptual parameter-space, the method can significantly reduce the number of iterations required for accurate convergence of the world-model. It does so by virtue of the active learning characteristics implicit in the notion of cognitive bootstrapping.

C-H Chan, J Kittler, K Messer (2007)Multispectral Local Binary Pattern Histogram for Component-based Color Face Verification, In: Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems, 2007. BTAS 2007. First IEEE International Conference onpp. 1-7
D Windridge, J Kittler (2008)A model for empirical validation in self-updating cognitive representation, In: Proceedings of Brain Inspired Systems 2008 (BICS 2008)
MC Roh, W Christmas, J Kittler, SW Lee (2006)Gesture spotting in low-quality video with features based on curvature scale space, In: FGR 2006: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition2006pp. 375-380

Player's gesture and action spotting in sports video is a key task in automatic analysis of the video material at a high level. In many sports views, the camera covers a large part of the sports arena, so that the area of player's region is small, and has large motion. These make the determination of the player's gestures and actions a challenging task. To overcome these problems, we propose a method based on curvature scale space templates of the player's silhouette. The use of curvature scale space makes the method robust to noise and our method is robust to significant shape corruption of a part of player's silhouette. We also propose a new recognition method which is robust to noisy sequence of posture and needs only a small amount of training data, which is essential characteristic for many practical applications. © 2006 IEEE.

G Hu, CH Chan, F Yan, W Christmas, J Kittler (2014)Robust face recognition by an albedo based 3D morphable model, In: IJCB 2014 - 2014 IEEE/IAPR International Joint Conference on Biometrics

Large pose and illumination variations are very challenging for face recognition. The 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) approach is one of the effective methods for pose and illumination invariant face recognition. However, it is very difficult for the 3DMM to recover the illumination of the 2D input image because the ratio of the albedo and illumination contributions in a pixel intensity is ambiguous. Unlike the traditional idea of separating the albedo and illumination contributions using a 3DMM, we propose a novel Albedo Based 3D Morphable Model (AB3DMM), which removes the illumination component from the images using illumination normalisation in a preprocessing step. A comparative study of different illumination normalisation methods for this step is conducted on PIE and Multi-PIE databases. The results show that overall performance of our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

B Goswami, W Christmas, J Kittler, H Araujo, AM Mendonca, AJ Pinho, MI Torres (2009)Robust Statistical Estimation Applied to Automatic Lip Segmentation, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION AND IMAGE ANALYSIS, PROCEEDINGS5524pp. 200-207

Automation of HEp-2 cell pattern classification would drastically improve the accuracy and throughput of diagnostic services for many auto-immune diseases, but it has proven difficult to reach a sufficient level of precision. Correct diagnosis relies on a subtle assessment of texture type in microscopic images of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), which so far has eluded reliable replication through automated measurements. We introduce a combination of spectral analysis and multiscale digital filtering to extract the most discriminative variables from the cell images. We also apply multistage classification techniques to make optimal use of the limited labelled data set. Overall error rate of 1.6% is achieved in recognition of 6 different cell patterns, which drops to 0.5% if only positive samples are considered.

SR Arashloo, J Kittler (2009)Pose-Invariant Face Matching Using MRF Energy Minimization Framework, In: ENERGY MINIMIZATION METHODS IN COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROCEEDINGS5681pp. 56-69
SR Arashloo, J Kittler, WJ Christmas (2011)Pose-invariant face recognition by matching on multi-resolution MRFs linked by supercoupling transform, In: Computer Vision and Image Understanding115(7)pp. 1073-1083
J Kittler, W Christmas, T de Campos, D Windridge, F Yan, J Illingworth, M Osman (2013)Domain Anomaly Detection in Machine Perception: A System Architecture and Taxonomy., In: IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell

We address the problem of anomaly detection in machine perception. The concept of domain anomaly is introduced as distinct from the conventional notion of anomaly used in the literature. We propose a unified framework for anomaly detection which exposes the multifaceted nature of anomalies and suggest effective mechanisms for identifying and distinguishing each facet as instruments for domain anomaly detection. The framework draws on the Bayesian probabilistic reasoning apparatus which clearly defines concepts such as outlier, noise, distribution drift, novelty detection (object, object primitive), rare events, and unexpected events. Based on these concepts we provide a taxonomy of domain anomaly events. One of the mechanisms helping to pinpoint the nature of anomaly is based on detecting incongruence between contextual and noncontextual sensor(y) data interpretation. The proposed methodology has wide applicability. It underpins in a unified way the anomaly detection applications found in the literature. To illustrate some of its distinguishing features, in here the domain anomaly detection methodology is applied to the problem of anomaly detection for a video annotation system.

MC Roh, W Christmas, J Kittler, SW Lee (2006)Robust player gesture spotting and recognition in low-resolution sports video, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)3954 Lpp. 347-358

The determination of the player's gestures and actions in sports video is a key task in automating the analysis of the video material at a high level. In many sports views, the camera covers a large part of the sports arena, so that the resolution of player's region is low. This makes the determination of the player's gestures and actions a challenging task, especially if there is large camera motion. To overcome these problems, we propose a method based on curvature scale space templates of the player's silhouette. The use of curvature scale space makes the method robust to noise and our method is robust to significant shape corruption of a part of player's silhouette. We also propose a new recognition method which is robust to noisy sequences of data and needs only a small amount of training data. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006.

N Poh, J Kittler, R Smith, JR Tena (2007)A Method for Estimating Authentication Performance over Time, with Applications to Face Biometrics, In: Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognitionpp. 360-369
J KITTLER, J EGGLETON, J ILLINGWORTH, K PALER (1987)AN AVERAGING EDGE DETECTOR, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION LETTERS6(1)pp. 27-32 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
WJ Christmas, J Kittler, M Petrou (1995)Modelling compatibility coefficient distributions for probabilistic feature-labelling schemes, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH BRITISH MACHINE VISION CONFERENCE 1995, VOLS 1 AND 2pp. 603-612
A Kostin, J Kittler, WJ Christmas (2005)Object recognition by symmetrised graph matching using relaxation labelling with an inhibitory mechanism, In: Pattern Recognition Letters263pp. 381-393

Object recognition using graph-matching techniques can be viewed as a two-stage process: extracting suitable object primitives from an image and corresponding models, and matching graphs constructed from these two sets of object primitives. In this paper we concentrate mainly on the latter issue of graph matching, for which we derive a technique based on probabilistic relaxation graph labelling. The new method was evaluated on two standard data sets, SOIL47 and COIL100, in both of which objects must be recognised from a variety of different views. The results indicated that our method is comparable with the best of other current object recognition techniques. The potential of the method was also demonstrated on challenging examples of object recognition in cluttered scenes.

J KITTLER, J ILLINGWORTH (1985)RELAXATION LABELING ALGORITHMS - A REVIEW, In: IMAGE AND VISION COMPUTING3(4)pp. 206-216 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
D Windridge, M Shevchenko, J Kittler (2008)An Entropy-Based Approach to the Hierarchical Acquisition of Perception-Action Capabilities, In: COGNITIVE VISION5329pp. 79-92
N Poh, J Kittler (2008)On Using Error Bounds to Optimize Cost-Sensitive Multimodal Biometric uthentication, In: IEEE Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Pattern Recognitionpp. 684-687

While using more biometric traits in multimodal biometric fusion can effectively increase the system robustness, often, the cost associated to adding additional systems is not considered. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that can efficiently bound the biometric system error. This helps not only to speed up the search for the optimal system configuration by an order of magnitude but also unexpectedly to enhance the robustness to population mismatch. This suggests that bounding the error of biometric system from above can possibly be better than directly estimating it from the data. The latter strategy can be susceptible to spurious biometric samples and the particular choice of users. The efficiency of the proposal is achieved thanks to the use of Chernoff bound in estimating the authentication error. Unfortunately, such a bound assumes that the match scores are normally distributed, which is not necessarily the correct distribution model. We propose to transform simultaneously the class conditional match scores (genuine user or impostor scores) into ones that are more conforming to normal distributions using a modified criterion of the Box-Cox transform.

FX Cheng, WJ Christmas, J Kittler (2002)Recognising human running behaviour in sports video sequences, In: 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PATTERN RECOGNITION, VOL II, PROCEEDINGSpp. 1017-1020
M Barnard, W Wang, J Kittler (2013)Audio head pose estimation using the direct to reverberant speech ratio, In: ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedingspp. 8056-8060

Head pose is an important cue in many applications such as, speech recognition and face recognition. Most approaches to head pose estimation to date have used visual information to model and recognise a subject's head in different configurations. These approaches have a number of limitations such as, inability to cope with occlusions, changes in the appearance of the head, and low resolution images. We present here a novel method for determining coarse head pose orientation purely from audio information, exploiting the direct to reverberant speech energy ratio (DRR) within a highly reverberant meeting room environment. Our hypothesis is that a speaker facing towards a microphone will have a higher DRR and a speaker facing away from the microphone will have a lower DRR. This hypothesis is confirmed by experiments conducted on the publicly available AV16.3 database. © 2013 IEEE.

Michael Danner, Matthias Raetsch, Patrik Huber, Muhammad Awais, Zhenhua Feng, Josef Kittler (2020)Texture-based 3D Face Recognition using Deep Neural Networks for unconstrained Human-Machine Interaction, In: Proceedings of the 15th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications VISAPP 2020 SCITEPRESS

3D assisted 2D face recognition involves the process of reconstructing 3D faces from 2D images and solving the problem of face recognition in 3D. To facilitate the use of deep neural networks, a 3D face, normally represented as a 3D mesh of vertices and its corresponding surface texture, is remapped to image-like square isomaps by a conformal mapping. Based on previous work, we assume that face recognition benefits more from texture. In this work, we focus on the surface texture and its discriminatory information content for recognition purposes. Our approach is to prepare a 3D mesh, the corresponding surface texture and the original 2D image as triple input for the recognition network, to show that 3D data is useful for face recognition. Texture enhancement methods to control the texture fusion process are introduced and we adapt data augmentation methods. Our results show that texture-map-based face recognition can not only compete with state-of-the-art systems under the same preconditions but also outperforms standard 2D methods from recent years.

N Poh, J Kittler (2009)A Biometric Menagerie Index for Characterising Template/Model-Specific Variation, In: ADVANCES IN BIOMETRICS5558pp. 816-827
CH Chan, B Goswami, J Kittler, W Christmas (2012)Local ordinal contrast pattern histograms for spatiotemporal, lip-based speaker authentication, In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security7(2)pp. 602-612 IEEE

Lip region deformation during speech contains biometric information and is termed visual speech. This biometric information can be interpreted as being genetic or behavioral depending on whether static or dynamic features are extracted. In this paper, we use a texture descriptor called local ordinal contrast pattern (LOCP) with a dynamic texture representation called three orthogonal planes to represent both the appearance and dynamics features observed in visual speech. This feature representation, when used in standard speaker verification engines, is shown to improve the performance of the lip-biometric trait compared to the state-of-the-art. The best baseline state-of-the-art performance was a half total error rate (HTER) of 13.35% for the XM2VTS database. We obtained HTER of less than 1%. The resilience of the LOCP texture descriptor to random image noise is also investigated. Finally, the effect of the amount of video information on speaker verification performance suggests that with the proposed approach, speaker identity can be verified with a much shorter biometric trait record than the length normally required for voice-based biometrics. In summary, the performance obtained is remarkable and suggests that there is enough discriminative information in the mouth-region to enable its use as a primary biometric trait.

N Poh, R Wong, J Kittler, F Roli (2009)Challenges and Research Directions for Adaptive Biometric Recognition Systems, In: ADVANCES IN BIOMETRICS5558pp. 753-764
HK YUEN, J PRINCEN, J ILLINGWORTH, J KITTLER (1990)COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF HOUGH TRANSFORM METHODS FOR CIRCLE FINDING, In: IMAGE AND VISION COMPUTING8(1)pp. 71-77 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
X Zou, J Kittler, M Hamouz, JR Tena (2008)Robust albedo estimation from face image under unknown illumination, In: BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY FOR HUMAN IDENTIFICATION V6944
T-K Kim, B Stenger, J Kittler, R Cipolla (2011)Incremental Linear Discriminant Analysis Using Sufficient Spanning Sets and Its Applications, In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER VISION91(2)pp. 216-232 SPRINGER
L Granai, JR Tena, M Hamouz, J Kittler (2009)Influence of compression on 3D face recognition, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION LETTERS30(8)pp. 745-750 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
N Poh, J Kittler (2008)A Family of Methods for Quality-based Multimodal Biometric Fusion using Generative Classifiers, In: 2008 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONTROL AUTOMATION ROBOTICS & VISION: ICARV 2008, VOLS 1-4pp. 1162-1167
MT Sadeghi, M Samiei, J Kittler (2010)Fusion of PCA-Based and LDA-Based Similarity Measures for Face Verification, In: EURASIP JOURNAL ON ADVANCES IN SIGNAL PROCESSINGARTN 6pp. ?-? HINDAWI PUBLISHING CORPORATION
T-K Kim, J Kittler, R Cipolla (2010)On-line Learning of Mutually Orthogonal Subspaces for Face Recognition by Image Sets, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING19(4)pp. 1067-1074 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
K Zhang, M Bober, J Kittler (1996)A hybrid codec for very low bit rate video coding, In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING, PROCEEDINGS - VOL Ipp. 641-644 I E E E
D Windridge, J Kittler, T de Campos, F Yan, W Christmas (2015)A Novel Markov Logic Rule Induction Strategy for Characterizing Sports Video Footage, In: IEEE MULTIMEDIA22(2)pp. 24-35 IEEE COMPUTER SOC

The grounding of high-level semantic concepts is a key requirement of video annotation systems. Rule induction can thus constitute an invaluable intermediate step in characterizing protocol-governed domains, such as broadcast sports footage. The authors propose a clause grammar template approach to the problem of rule induction in video footage of court games that employs a second-order meta-grammar for Markov Logic Network construction. The aim is to build an adaptive system for sports video annotation capable, in principle, of both learning ab initio and adaptively transferring learning between distinct rule domains. The authors tested the method using a simulated game predicate generator as well as real data derived from tennis footage via computer-vision-based approaches including HOG3D-based player-action classification, Hough-transform-based court detection, and graph-theoretic ball tracking. Experiments demonstrate that the method exhibits both error resilience and learning transfer in the court domain context. Moreover, the clause template approach naturally generalizes to any suitably constrained, protocol-governed video domain characterized by feature noise or detector error.

Miroslaw Bober, Josef Kittler (1994)Robust motion analysis, In: 1994 IEEE computer society conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, proceedingspp. 947-952 IEEE, Computer Soc Press
N Poh, J Kittler (2011)A Unified Framework for Multimodal Biometric Fusion Incorporating Quality Measures., In: IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell

This paper proposes a unified framework for quality-based fusion of multimodal biometrics. Quality- dependent fusion algorithms aim to dynamically combine several classifier (biometric expert) outputs as a function of automatically derived (biometric) sample quality. Quality measures used for this purpose quantify the degree of conformance of biometric samples to some predefined criteria known to influence the system performance. Designing a fusion classifier to take quality into consideration is difficult because quality measures cannot be used to distinguish genuine users from impostors, i.e., they are non- discriminative; yet, still useful for classification. We propose a general Bayesian framework that can utilize the quality infor- mation effectively. We show that this framework encompasses several recently proposed quality-based fusion algorithms in the literature -- Nandakumar et al., 2006; Poh et al., 2007; Kryszczuk and Drygajo, 2007; Kittler et al., 2007; Alonso- Fernandez, 2008; Maurer and Baker, 2007; Poh et al., 2010. Furthermore, thanks to the systematic study concluded herein, we also develop two alternative formulations of the problem, leading to more efficient implementation (with fewer parameters) and achieving performance comparable to, or better than the state of the art. Last but not least, the framework also improves the understanding of the role of quality in multiple classifier combination.

J-K Kamarainen, M Hamouz, J Kittler, P Paalanen, J Ilonen, A Drobchenko (2007)Object localisation using generative probability model for spatial constellation and local image features, In: 2007 IEEE 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION, VOLS 1-6pp. 2784-2791
CH Chan, X Zou, N Poh, J Kittler (2014)Illumination Invariant Face Recognition: A Survey, In: Face Recognition in Adverse Conditions IGI Global
D Windridge, V Mottl, A Tatarchuk, A Eliseyev, M Haindl, J Kittler, F Roli (2007)The neutral point method for kernel-based combination of disjoint training data in multi-modal pattern recognition, In: Multiple Classifier Systems, Proceedings4472pp. 13-21
K Zhang, M Bober, J Kittler (1995)Motion based image segmentation for video coding, In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING - PROCEEDINGS, VOLS I-IIIpp. C476-C479 I E E E, COMPUTER SOC PRESS
F Yan, J Kittler, K Mikolajczyk, A Tahir (2011)Non-Sparse Multiple Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis, In: Journal of Machine Learning Research13pp. 607-642 Microtome Publishing

Sparsity-inducing multiple kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (MK-FDA) has been studied in the literature. Building on recent advances in non-sparse multiple kernel learning (MKL), we propose a non-sparse version of MK-FDA, which imposes a general `p norm regularisation on the kernel weights. We formulate the associated optimisation problem as a semi-infinite program (SIP), and adapt an iterative wrapper algorithm to solve it. We then discuss, in light of latest advances inMKL optimisation techniques, several reformulations and optimisation strategies that can potentially lead to significant improvements in the efficiency and scalability of MK-FDA. We carry out extensive experiments on six datasets from various application areas, and compare closely the performance of `p MK-FDA, fixed norm MK-FDA, and several variants of SVM-based MKL (MK-SVM). Our results demonstrate that `p MK-FDA improves upon sparse MK-FDA in many practical situations. The results also show that on image categorisation problems, `p MK-FDA tends to outperform its SVM counterpart. Finally, we also discuss the connection between (MK-)FDA and (MK-)SVM, under the unified framework of regularised kernel machines.

TED Campos, A Khan, F Yan, N Faraji Davar, D Windridge, J Kittler, W Christmas (2013)A framework for automatic sports video annotation with anomaly detection and transfer learning, In: Proceedings of Machine Learning and Cognitive Science
MA Tahir, J Kittler, F Yan (2012)Inverse random under sampling for class imbalance problem and its application to multi-label classification, In: Pattern Recognition45(10)pp. 3738-3750 Elsevier

In this paper, a novel inverse random undersampling (IRUS) method is proposed for the class imbalance problem. The main idea is to severely under sample the majority class thus creating a large number of distinct training sets. For each training set we then find a decision boundary which separates the minority class from the majority class. By combining the multiple designs through fusion, we construct a composite boundary between the majority class and the minority class. The proposed methodology is applied on 22 UCI data sets and experimental results indicate a significant increase in performance when compared with many existing class-imbalance learning methods. We also present promising results for multi-label classification, a challenging research problem in many modern applications such as music, text and image categorization.

A Merati, N Poh, J Kittler (2012)User-Specific Cohort Selection and Score Normalization for Biometric Systems, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY7(4)pp. 1270-1277 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
J Kittler, D Windridge, D Goswami (2008)Subsurface Scattering Deconvolution for Improved NIR-Visible Facial Image Correlation, In: 2008 8TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AUTOMATIC FACE & GESTURE RECOGNITION (FG 2008), VOLS 1 AND 2pp. 889-894

Significant improvements in face-recognition performance have recently been achieved by obtaining near infrared (NIR) probe images. We demonstrate that by taking into account the differential effects of sub-surface scattering, correlation between facial images in the visible (VIS) and NIR wavelengths can be significantly improved. Hence, by using Fourier analysis and Gaussian deconvolution with variable thresholds for the scattering deconvolution radius and frequency, sub-surface scattering effects are largely eliminated from perpendicular isomap transformations of the facial images. (Isomap images are obtained via scanning reconstruction, as in our case, or else, more generically, via model fitting). Thus, small-scale features visible in both the VIS and NIR, such as skin-pores and certain classes of skin-mottling, can be equally weighted within the correlation analysis. The method can consequently serves as the basis for more detailed forms of facial comparison

C-H Chan, J Kittler, K Messer (2007)Multispectral Local Binary Pattern Histogram for Component-based Color Face Verification, In: Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems, 2007. BTAS 2007. First IEEE International Conference onpp. 1-7
T Bourlai, J Kittler, K Messer (2010)On design and optimization of face verification systems that are smart-card based, In: MACHINE VISION AND APPLICATIONS21(5)pp. 695-711 SPRINGER
M Tahir, F Yan, P Koniusz, M Awais, M Barnard, K Mikolajczyk, J Kittler (2012)A Robust and Scalable Visual Category and Action Recognition System using Kernel Discriminant Analysis with Spectral Regression, In: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Z-H Feng, G Hu, J Kittler, WJ Christmas, X-J Wu (2015)Cascaded collaborative regression for robust facial landmark detection trained using a mixture of synthetic and real images with dynamic weighting, In: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing24(11)pp. 3425-3440 IEEE

A large amount of training data is usually crucial for successful supervised learning. However, the task of providing training samples is often time-consuming, involving a considerable amount of tedious manual work. Also the amount of training data available is often limited. As an alternative, in this paper, we discuss how best to augment the available data for the application of automatic facial landmark detection (FLD). We propose the use of a 3D morphable face model to generate synthesised faces for a regression-based detector training. Benefiting from the large synthetic training data, the learned detector is shown to exhibit a better capability to detect the landmarks of a face with pose variations. Furthermore, the synthesised training dataset provides accurate and consistent landmarks as compared to using manual landmarks, especially for occluded facial parts. The synthetic data and real data are from different domains; hence the detector trained using only synthesised faces does not generalise well to real faces. To deal with this problem, we propose a cascaded collaborative regression (CCR) algorithm, which generates a cascaded shape updater that has the ability to overcome the difficulties caused by pose variations, as well as achieving better accuracy when applied to real faces. The training is based on a mix of synthetic and real image data with the mixing controlled by a dynamic mixture weighting schedule. Initially the training uses heavily the synthetic data, as this can model the gross variations between the various poses. As the training proceeds, progressively more of the natural images are incorporated, as these can model finer detail. To improve the performance of the proposed algorithm further, we designed a dynamic multi-scale local feature extraction method, which captures more informative local features for detector training. An extensive evaluation on both controlled and uncontrolled face datasets demonstrates the merit of the proposed algorithm.

Zhe Chen, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2020)Low-rank discriminative least squares regression for image classification, In: Signal Processing173107485 Elsevier

Discriminative least squares regression (DLSR) aims to learn relaxed regression labels to replace strict zero-one labels. However, the distance of the labels from the same class can also be enlarged while using the ε-draggings technique to force the labels of different classes to move in the opposite directions, and roughly persuing relaxed labels may lead to the problem of overfitting. To solve above problems, we propose a low-rank discriminative least squares regression model (LRDLSR) for multi-class image classification. Specifically, LRDLSR class-wisely imposes low-rank constraint on the relaxed labels obtained by non-negative relaxation matrix to improve its within-class compactness and similarity. Moreover, LRDLSR introduces an additional regularization term on the learned labels to avoid the problem of overfitting. We show that these two improvements help to learn a more discriminative projection for regression, thus achieving better classification performance. The experimental results over a range of image datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed LRDLSR method. The Matlab code of the proposed method is available at https://github.com/chenzhe207/LRDLSR.

J KITTLER, J ILLINGWORTH, K PALER (1983)THE MAGNITUDE ACCURACY OF THE TEMPLATE EDGE DETECTOR, In: PATTERN RECOGNITION16(6)pp. 607-613 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Zhenhua Feng, Josef Kittler (2018)Advances in facial landmark detection, In: Biometric Technology Today2018(3)pp. 8-11 Elsevier

In recent years, facial landmark detection – also known as face alignment or facial landmark localisation – has become a very active area, due to its importance to a variety of image and video-based face analysis systems, such as face recognition, emotion analysis, human-computer interaction and 3D face reconstruction. This article looks at the challenges and latest technology advances in facial landmarks.

P Huber, W Christmas, JV Kittler, P Kopp, M Ratsch (2016)Real-time 3D Face Fitting and Texture Fusion on In-the-wild Videos, In: IEEE Signal Processing Letters

We present a fully automatic approach to real-time 3D face reconstruction from monocular in-the-wild videos. With the use of a cascaded-regressor based face tracking and a 3D Morphable Face Model shape fitting, we obtain a semi-dense 3D face shape. We further use the texture information from multiple frames to build a holistic 3D face representation from the video footage. Our system is able to capture facial expressions and does not require any person-specific training. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach on the challenging 300 Videos in the Wild (300-VW) dataset. Our real-time fitting framework is available as an open source library at http://4dface.org.

T De Campos, M Barnard, K Mikolajczyk, J Kittler, F Yan, W Christmas, D Windridge (2011)An evaluation of bags-of-words and spatio-temporal shapes for action recognition, In: Proceedings of 2011 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV)pp. 344-351

Bags-of-visual-Words (BoW) and Spatio-Temporal Shapes (STS) are two very popular approaches for action recognition from video. The former (BoW) is an un-structured global representation of videos which is built using a large set of local features. The latter (STS) uses a single feature located on a region of interest (where the actor is) in the video. Despite the popularity of these methods, no comparison between them has been done. Also, given that BoW and STS differ intrinsically in terms of context inclusion and globality/locality of operation, an appropriate evaluation framework has to be designed carefully. This paper compares these two approaches using four different datasets with varied degree of space-time specificity of the actions and varied relevance of the contextual background. We use the same local feature extraction method and the same classifier for both approaches. Further to BoW and STS, we also evaluated novel variations of BoW constrained in time or space. We observe that the STS approach leads to better results in all datasets whose background is of little relevance to action classification.

N Poh, J Kittler (2007)On the use of log-likelihood ratio based model-specific score normalisation in biometric authentication, In: Advances in Biometrics, Proceedings4642pp. 614-624
N Poh, A Ross, W Li, J Kittler (2014)A user-specific and selective multimodal biometric fusion strategy by ranking subjects (vol 46, 3341, 2013), In: PATTERN RECOGNITION47(1)pp. 493-493 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tianyang Xu, Zhen-Hua Feng, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2019)Learning Low-rank and Sparse Discriminative Correlation Filters for Coarse-to-Fine Visual Object Tracking, In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technologypp. 1-13 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Discriminative correlation filter (DCF) has achieved advanced performance in visual object tracking with remarkable efficiency guaranteed by its implementation in the frequency domain. However, the effect of the structural relationship of DCF and object features has not been adequately explored in the context of the filter design. To remedy this deficiency, this paper proposes a Low-rank and Sparse DCF (LSDCF) that improves the relevance of features used by discriminative filters. To be more specific, we extend the classical DCF paradigm from ridge regression to lasso regression, and constrain the estimate to be of low-rank across frames, thus identifying and retaining the informative filters distributed on a low-dimensional manifold. To this end, specific temporal-spatial-channel configurations are adaptively learned to achieve enhanced discrimination and interpretability. In addition, we analyse the complementary characteristics between hand-crafted features and deep features, and propose a coarse-to-fine heuristic tracking strategy to further improve the performance of our LSDCF. Last, the augmented Lagrange multiplier optimisation method is used to achieve efficient optimisation. The experimental results obtained on a number of well-known benchmarking datasets, including OTB2013, OTB50, OTB100, TC128, UAV123, VOT2016 and VOT2018, demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method, delivering outstanding performance compared to the state-of-the-art trackers.

V Snell, J Kittler, W Christmas (2011)Segmentation and Shape Classification of Nuclei in DAPI Images, In: British Machine Vision Conference Workshop

This paper addresses issues of analysis of DAPI-stained microscopy images of cell samples, particularly classification of objects as single nuclei, nuclei clusters or nonnuclear material. First, segmentation is significantly improved compared to Otsu’s method[5] by choosing a more appropriate threshold, using a cost-function that explicitly relates to the quality of resulting boundary, rather than image histogram. This method applies ideas from active contour models to threshold-based segmentation, combining the local image sensitivity of the former with the simplicity and lower computational complexity of the latter. Secondly, we evaluate some novel measurements that are useful in classification of resulting shapes. Particularly, analysis of central distance profiles provides a method for improved detection of notches in nuclei clusters. Error rates are reduced to less than half compared to those of the base system, which used Fourier shape descriptors alone.

J PRINCEN, J ILLINGWORTH, J KITTLER (1994)HYPOTHESIS-TESTING - A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING AND OPTIMIZING HOUGH TRANSFORM PERFORMANCE, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE16(4)pp. 329-341 IEEE COMPUTER SOC
M Hamouz, JR Tena, J Kittler, A Hilton, J Illingworth (2007)3D assisted face recognition: A survey, In: 3D IMAGING FOR SAFETY AND SECURITY35pp. 3-23
A Merati, N Poh, J Kittler (2010)Extracting discriminative information from cohort models, In: IEEE Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems

Cohort models are non-match models available in a biometric system. They could be other enrolled models in the gallery of the system. Cohort models have been widely used in biometric systems. A well-established scheme such as T-norm exploits cohort models to predict the statistical parameters of non-match scores for biometric authentication. They have also been used to predict failure or recognition performance of biometric system. In this paper we show that cohort models that are sorted by their similarity to the claimed target model, can produce a discriminative score pattern. We also show that polynomial regression can be used to extract discriminative parameters from these patterns. These parameters can be combined with the raw score to improve the recognition performance of an authentication system. The experimental results obtained for the face and fingerprint modalities of the Biosecure database validate this claim.

N Poh, J Kittler, T Bourlai (2007)Improving biometric device interoperability by likelihood ratio-based quality dependent score normalization, In: 2007 FIRST IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOMETRICS: THEORY, APPLICATIONS AND SYSTEMSpp. 325-329
R Rambaruth, W Christmas, J Kittler (1998)Interframe texture coding of uncovered regions for a region-based scheme, In: Electronics Letters3417pp. 1655-7

Region-based coding schemes for video sequences have recently received much attention owing to their potential to enable several interesting multimedia applications. In this paper, we focus on the optimisation of the coding of uncovered regions. We find that the widely-used tools for coding the texture within arbitrarily shaped regions of the intra image are not appropriate for failure regions. We propose a new method for doing so which consists in applying a predictive coding step to the newly visible portions based on already transmitted spatial data.

F Yan, J kittler, K mikolajczyk, D windridge (2012)Automatic Annotation of Court Games with Structured Output Learning
Q Liu, W Wang, PJB Jackson, M Barnard, J Kittler, J Chambers (2013)Source separation of convolutive and noisy mixtures using audio-visual dictionary learning and probabilistic time-frequency masking, In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing61(22)99pp. 5520-5535

In existing audio-visual blind source separation (AV-BSS) algorithms, the AV coherence is usually established through statistical modelling, using e.g. Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). These methods often operate in a lowdimensional feature space, rendering an effective global representation of the data. The local information, which is important in capturing the temporal structure of the data, however, has not been explicitly exploited. In this paper, we propose a new method for capturing such local information, based on audio-visual dictionary learning (AVDL). We address several challenges associated with AVDL, including cross-modality differences in size, dimension and sampling rate, as well as the issues of scalability and computational complexity. Following a commonly employed bootstrap coding-learning process, we have developed a new AVDL algorithm which features, a bimodality balanced and scalable matching criterion, a size and dimension adaptive dictionary, a fast search index for efficient coding, and cross-modality diverse sparsity. We also show how the proposed AVDL can be incorporated into a BSS algorithm. As an example, we consider binaural mixtures, mimicking aspects of human binaural hearing, and derive a new noise-robust AV-BSS algorithm by combining the proposed AVDL algorithm with Mandel’s BSS method, which is a state-of-the-art audio-domain method using time-frequency masking. We have systematically evaluated the proposed AVDL and AV-BSS algorithms, and show their advantages over the corresponding baseline methods, using both synthetic data and visual speech data from the multimodal LILiR Twotalk corpus.

Zhenhua Feng, Josef Kittler, M Awais, Patrik Huber, X-J Wu (2018)Wing Loss for Robust Facial Landmark Localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks, In: Proceedings of CVPR 2018pp. 2235-2245 IEEE

We present a new loss function, namely Wing loss, for robust facial landmark localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). We first compare and analyse different loss functions including L2, L1 and smooth L1. The analysis of these loss functions suggests that, for the training of a CNN-based localisation model, more attention should be paid to small and medium range errors. To this end, we design a piece-wise loss function. The new loss amplifies the impact of errors from the interval (-w, w) by switching from L1 loss to a modified logarithm function. To address the problem of under-representation of samples with large out-of-plane head rotations in the training set, we propose a simple but effective boosting strategy, referred to as pose-based data balancing. In particular, we deal with the data imbalance problem by duplicating the minority training samples and perturbing them by injecting random image rotation, bounding box translation and other data augmentation approaches. Last, the proposed approach is extended to create a two-stage framework for robust facial landmark localisation. The experimental results obtained on AFLW and 300W demonstrate the merits of the Wing loss function, and prove the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art approaches.

G Hu, Chi Ho Chan, Josef Kittler, B Christmas (2012)Resolution-Aware 3D Morphable Model, In: BMVCpp. 1-10

The 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) is currently receiving considerable attention for human face analysis. Most existing work focuses on fitting a 3DMM to high resolution images. However, in many applications, fitting a 3DMM to low-resolution images is also important. In this paper, we propose a Resolution-Aware 3DMM (RA- 3DMM), which consists of 3 different resolution 3DMMs: High-Resolution 3DMM (HR- 3DMM), Medium-Resolution 3DMM (MR-3DMM) and Low-Resolution 3DMM (LR-3DMM). RA-3DMM can automatically select the best model to fit the input images of different resolutions. The multi-resolution model was evaluated in experiments conducted on PIE and XM2VTS databases. The experimental results verified that HR- 3DMM achieves the best performance for input image of high resolution, and MR- 3DMM and LR-3DMM worked best for medium and low resolution input images, respectively. A model selection strategy incorporated in the RA-3DMM is proposed based on these results. The RA-3DMM model has been applied to pose correction of face images ranging from high to low resolution. The face verification results obtained with the pose-corrected images show considerable performance improvement over the result without pose correction in all resolutions

RWK Lam, HHS Ip, KKT Cheung, LHY Tang, R Hanka (2000)A multi-window approach to classify histological features, In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PATTERN RECOGNITION, VOL 2, PROCEEDINGSpp. 259-262 IEEE COMPUTER SOC
F Yan, K Mikolajczyk, J Kittler, A Tahir (2009)A Comparison of L1 Norm and L2 Norm Multiple Kernel SVMs in Image and Video Classification, In: International Workshop on Content-Based Multimedia Indexingpp. 7-9
M Hamouz, JR Tena, J Kittler, A Hilton, J Illingworth (2006)Algorithms for 3D-Assisted Face Recognition, In: IEEE 14th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference ( SIU06)
N Dowson, R Bowden (2004)Metric mixtures for mutual information ((MI)-I-3) tracking, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PATTERN RECOGNITION, VOL 2pp. 752-756
S Rahimzadeh Arashloo, J Kittler (2010)Energy Normalization for Pose-Invariant Face Recognition Based on MRF Model Image Matching., In: IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell

A pose-invariant face recognition system based on an image matching method formulated on MRFs s presented. The method uses the energy of the established match between a pair of images as a measure of goodness-of-match. The method can tolerate moderate global spatial transformations between the gallery and the test images and alleviates the need for geometric preprocessing of facial images by encapsulating a registration step as part of the system. It requires no training on non-frontal face images. A number of innovations, such as a dynamic block size and block shape adaptation, as well as label pruning and error prewhitening measures have been introduced to increase the effectiveness of the approach. The experimental evaluation of the method is performed on two publicly available databases. First, the method is tested on the rotation shots of the XM2VTS data set in a verification scenario. Next, the evaluation is conducted in an identification scenario on the CMU-PIE database. The method compares favorably with the existing 2D or 3D generative model based methods on both databases in both identification and verification scenarios.

CH Chan, B Goswami, J Kittler, W Christmas (2011)Kernel-based Speaker Verification Using Spatiotemporal Lip Information, In: Proceedings of MVA 2011 - IAPR Conference on Machine Vision Applicationspp. 422-425
B Goswami, C Chan, J Kittler, W Christmas (2011)Speaker authentication using video-based lip information, In: ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedingspp. 1908-1911

The lip-region can be interpreted as either a genetic or behavioural biometric trait depending on whether static or dynamic information is used. In this paper, we use a texture descriptor called Local Ordinal Contrast Pattern (LOCP) in conjunction with a novel spatiotemporal sampling method called Windowed Three Orthogonal Planes (WTOP) to represent both appearance and dynamics features observed in visual speech. This representation, with standard speaker verification engines, is shown to improve the performance of the lipbiometric trait compared to the state-of-the-art. The improvement obtained suggests that there is enough discriminative information in the mouth-region to enable its use as a primary biometric as opposed to a "soft" biometric trait.

AJ Fitch, A Kadyrov, WJ Christmas, J Kittler (2005)Fast robust correlation, In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING14(8)pp. 1063-1073 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
WP Koppen, CH Chan, WJ Christmas, J Kittler (2012)An intrinsic coordinate system for 3D face registration, In: Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognitionpp. 2740-2743

We present a method to estimate, based on the horizontal symmetry, an intrinsic coordinate system of faces scanned in 3D. We show that this coordinate system provides an excellent basis for subsequent landmark positioning and model-based refinement such as Active Shape Models, outperforming other -explicit- landmark localisation methods including the commonly-used ICP+ASM approach. © 2012 ICPR Org Committee.

AH McIntyre, PJB Hancock, J Kittler, SRH Langton (2013)Improving Discrimination and Face Matching with Caricature, In: APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY27(6)pp. 725-734 WILEY-BLACKWELL
N Poh, G Heusch, J Kittler (2007)On combination of face authentication experts by a mixture of quality dependent fusion classifiers, In: Multiple Classifier Systems, Proceedings4472pp. 344-356
J Kittler, R Ghaderi, T Windeatt, J Matas (2001)Face identification and verification via ECOC, In: AUDIO- AND VIDEO-BASED BIOMETRIC PERSON AUTHENTICATION, PROCEEDINGS2091pp. 1-13
J Kittler, M Hamouz, JR Tena, A Hilton, J Illingworth, M Ruiz (2005)3D assisted 2D face recognition: Methodology, In: PROGRESS IN PATTERN RECOGNITION, IMAGE ANALYSIS AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS3773pp. 1055-1065
R Rambaruth, W Christmas, J Kittler (2015)Representation of regions for accurate motion compensation, In: European Signal Processing Conference2015-M(March)

© 2000 EUSIPCO. We propose a novel motion compensation technique for the precise reconstruction of regions over several frames within a region-based coding scheme. This is achieved by using a more accurate internal representation of arbitrarily shaped regions than the standard grid structure, thus avoiding repeated approximations for a region at each frame.

RS Smith, J Kittler, M Hamouz, J Illingworth (2006)Face recognition using angular LDA and SVM ensembles, In: 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Vol 3, Proceedingspp. 1008-1012
G Hu, Fei Yan, Josef Kittler, William Christmas, Chi Ho Chan, Zhenhua Feng, Patrik Huber (2017)Efficient 3D Morphable Face Model Fitting, In: Pattern Recognition67pp. 366-379 Elsevier

3D face reconstruction of shape and skin texture from a single 2D image can be performed using a 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) in an analysis-by-synthesis approach. However, performing this reconstruction (fitting) efficiently and accurately in a general imaging scenario is a challenge. Such a scenario would involve a perspective camera to describe the geometric projection from 3D to 2D, and the Phong model to characterise illumination. Under these imaging assumptions the reconstruction problem is nonlinear and, consequently, computationally very demanding. In this work, we present an efficient stepwise 3DMM-to-2D image-fitting procedure, which sequentially optimises the pose, shape, light direction, light strength and skin texture parameters in separate steps. By linearising each step of the fitting process we derive closed-form solutions for the recovery of the respective parameters, leading to efficient fitting. The proposed optimisation process involves all the pixels of the input image, rather than randomly selected subsets, which enhances the accuracy of the fitting. It is referred to as Efficient Stepwise Optimisation (ESO). The proposed fitting strategy is evaluated using reconstruction error as a performance measure. In addition, we demonstrate its merits in the context of a 3D-assisted 2D face recognition system which detects landmarks automatically and extracts both holistic and local features using a 3DMM. This contrasts with most other methods which only report results that use manual face landmarking to initialise the fitting. Our method is tested on the public CMU-PIE and Multi-PIE face databases, as well as one internal database. The experimental results show that the face reconstruction using ESO is significantly faster, and its accuracy is at least as good as that achieved by the existing 3DMM fitting algorithms. A face recognition system integrating ESO to provide a pose and illumination invariant solution compares favourably with other state-of-the-art methods. In particular, it outperforms deep learning methods when tested on the Multi-PIE database.

Cemre Zor, Josef Kittler (2017)Maritime anomaly detection in ferry tracks, In: Proceedings of ICASSP 2017

This paper proposes a methodology for the automatic detec- tion of anomalous shipping tracks traced by ferries. The ap- proach comprises a set of models as a basis for outlier detec- tion: A Gaussian process (GP) model regresses displacement information collected over time, and a Markov chain based detector makes use of the direction (heading) information. GP regression is performed together with Median Absolute Devi- ation to account for contaminated training data. The method- ology utilizes the coordinates of a given ferry recorded on a second by second basis via Automatic Identification System. Its effectiveness is demonstrated on a dataset collected in the Solent area.

Z Huang, Zhenhua Feng, Fei Yan, Josef Kittler, X-J Wu (2018)Robust Pedestrian Detection for Semi-automatic Construction of A Crowded Person Re-Identification Dataset, In: LNCS10945pp. 63-72 Springer Verlag

The problem of re-identification of people in a crowd com- monly arises in real application scenarios, yet it has received less atten- tion than it deserves. To facilitate research focusing on this problem, we have embarked on constructing a new person re-identification dataset with many instances of crowded indoor and outdoor scenes. This paper proposes a two-stage robust method for pedestrian detection in a complex crowded background to provide bounding box annotations. The first stage is to generate pedestrian proposals using Faster R-CNN and locate each pedestrian using Non-maximum Suppression (NMS). Candidates in dense proposal regions are merged to identify crowd patches. We then apply a bottom-up human pose estimation method to detect individual pedestrians in the crowd patches. The locations of all subjects are achieved based on the bounding boxes from the two stages. The identity of the detected subjects throughout each video is then automatically annotated using multiple features and spatial-temporal clues. The experimental results on a crowded pedestrians dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

T Bourlai, J Kittler, K Messer (2009)Designing a smart-card-based face verification system: empirical investigation, In: MACHINE VISION AND APPLICATIONS20(4)pp. 225-242 SPRINGER
Yin He-Feng, Wu Xiao-Jun, Josef Kittler, Feng Zhen-Hua (2019)Learning a representation with the block-diagonal structure for pattern classification., In: Pattern Analysis and Applications23pp. 1381-1390 Springer Verlag

Sparse-representation-based classification (SRC) has been widely studied and developed for various practical signal classification applications. However, the performance of a SRC-based method is degraded when both the training and test data are corrupted. To counteract this problem, we propose an approach that learns representation with block-diagonal structure (RBDS) for robust image recognition. To be more specific, we first introduce a regularization term that captures the block-diagonal structure of the target representation matrix of the training data. The resulting problem is then solved by an optimizer. Last, based on the learned representation, a simple yet effective linear classifier is used for the classification task. The experimental results obtained on several benchmarking datasets demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed RBDS method. The source code of our proposed RBDS is accessible at https://github.com/yinhefeng/RBDS.

Q Huang, S Cox, F Yan, TE deCampos, D Windridge, J Kittler, W Christmas (2011)Improved Detection of Ball Hit Events in a Tennis Game Using Multimodal Information, In: 11th International Conference on Auditory-Visual Speech Processing (AVSP)

We describe a novel framework to detect ball hits in a tennis game by combining audio and visual information. Ball hit detection is a key step in understanding a game such as tennis, but single-mode approaches are not very successful: audio detection suffers from interfering noise and acoustic mismatch, video detection is made difficult by the small size of the ball and the complex background of the surrounding environment. Our goal in this paper is to improve detection performance by focusing on high-level information (rather than low-level features), including the detected audio events, the ball’s trajectory, and inter-event timing information. Visual information supplies coarse detection of the ball-hits events. This information is used as a constraint for audio detection. In addition, useful gains in detection performance can be obtained by using and inter-ballhit timing information, which aids prediction of the next ball hit. This method seems to be very effective in reducing the interference present in low-level features. After applying this method to a women’s doubles tennis game, we obtained improvements in the F-score of about 30% (absolute) for audio detection and about 10% for video detection.

CH Chan, J Kittler, N Poh, T Ahonen, M Pietikainen (2009)(Multiscale) Local Phase Quantisation histogram discriminant analysis with score normalisation for robust face recognition, In: Computer Vision Workshops (ICCV Workshops), 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference onpp. 633-640
Josef Kittler, Cemre Zor, Ioannis Kaloskampis, Yulia Hicks, Wenwu Wang (2017)Error sensitivity analysis of Delta divergence - A novel measure for classifier incongruence detection, In: Pattern Recognition77pp. 30-44 Elsevier

The state of classfier incongruence in decision making systems incorporating multiple classifiers is often an indicator of anomaly caused by an unexpected observation or an unusual situation. Its assessment is important as one of the key mechanisms for domain anomaly detection. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of Delta divergence, a novel measure of classifier incongruence, to estimation errors. Statistical properties of Delta divergence are analysed both theoretically and experimentally. The results of the analysis provide guidelines on the selection of threshold for classifier incongruence detection based on this measure.

JR Beveridge, H Zhang, BA Draper, PJ Flynn, Z Feng, P Huber, J Kittler, Z Huang, S Li, Y Li, M Kan, R Wang, S Shan, X Chen, H Li, G Hua, V Štruc, J Križaj, C Ding, D Tao, PJ Phillips (2015)Report on the FG 2015 Video Person Recognition Evaluation

This report presents results from the Video Person Recognition Evaluation held in conjunction with the 11th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Two experiments required algorithms to recognize people in videos from the Point-and-Shoot Face Recognition Challenge Problem (PaSC). The first consisted of videos from a tripod mounted high quality video camera. The second contained videos acquired from 5 different handheld video cameras. There were 1401 videos in each experiment of 265 subjects. The subjects, the scenes, and the actions carried out by the people are the same in both experiments. Five groups from around the world participated in the evaluation. The video handheld experiment was included in the International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB) 2014 Handheld Video Face and Person Recognition Competition. The top verification rate from this evaluation is double that of the top performer in the IJCB competition. Analysis shows that the factor most effecting algorithm performance is the combination of location and action: where the video was acquired and what the person was doing.

N Poh, CH Chan, J Kittler (2014)Fusion of Face Recognition Classifiers under Adverse Conditions, In: Face Recognition in Adverse Conditions IGI Global
Hui Li, Xiao-Jun Wu, Josef Kittler (2020)MDLatLRR: A novel decomposition method for infrared and visible image fusion, In: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing29 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Image decomposition is crucial for many image processing tasks, as it allows to extract salient features from source images. A good image decomposition method could lead to a better performance, especially in image fusion tasks. We propose a multi-level image decomposition method based on latent lowrank representation(LatLRR), which is called MDLatLRR. This decomposition method is applicable to many image processing fields. In this paper, we focus on the image fusion task. We build a novel image fusion framework based on MDLatLRR which is used to decompose source images into detail parts(salient features) and base parts. A nuclear-norm based fusion strategy is used to fuse the detail parts and the base parts are fused by an averaging strategy. Compared with other state-of-the-art fusion methods, the proposed algorithm exhibits better fusion performance in both subjective and objective evaluation.

H Mendez-Vazquez, J Kittler, CH Chan, E Garcia-Reyes (2013)PHOTOMETRIC NORMALIZATION FOR FACE RECOGNITION USING LOCAL DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PATTERN RECOGNITION AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE27(3)ARTN 13600 WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD
J Kittler, P Huber, Z Feng, G Hu, W Christmas (2016)3D Morphable Face Models and Their Applications, In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) vol.9756: 9th International Conference, AMDO 2016, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings9756pp. 185-206

3D Morphable Face Models (3DMM) have been used in face recognition for some time now. They can be applied in their own right as a basis for 3D face recognition and analysis involving 3D face data. However their prevalent use over the last decade has been as a versatile tool in 2D face recognition to normalise pose, illumination and expression of 2D face images. A 3DMM has the generative capacity to augment the training and test databases for various 2D face processing related tasks. It can be used to expand the gallery set for pose-invariant face matching. For any 2D face image it can furnish complementary information, in terms of its 3D face shape and texture. It can also aid multiple frame fusion by providing the means of registering a set of 2D images. A key enabling technology for this versatility is 3D face model to 2D face image fitting. In this paper recent developments in 3D face modelling and model fitting will be overviewed, and their merits in the context of diverse applications illustrated on several examples, including pose and illumination invariant face recognition, and 3D face reconstruction from video.

V Kilic, M Barnard, W Wang, A Hilton, J Kittler (2015)AUDIO INFORMED VISUAL SPEAKER TRACKING WITH SMC-PHD FILTER, In: 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MULTIMEDIA & EXPO (ICME)
BH Shekar, DS Rajesh, J Kittler (2015)Affine Normalized Stockwell Transform based Face Recognition, In: 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, INFORMATICS, COMMUNICATION AND ENERGY SYSTEMS (SPICES)
Cemre Zor, Terry Windeatt, Josef Kittler (2013)ECOC Pruning using Accuracy, Diversity and Hamming Distance Information, In: 2013 21ST SIGNAL PROCESSING AND COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS CONFERENCE (SIU)pp. ?-?

Existing ensemble pruning algorithms in the literature have mainly been defined for unweighted or weighted voting ensembles, whose extensions to the Error Correcting Output Coding (ECOC) framework is not successful. This paper presents a novel pruning algorithm to be used in the pruning of ECOC, via using a new accuracy measure together with diversity and Hamming distance information. The results show that the novel method outperforms those existing in the state-of-the-art.

Soroush Fatemifar, Shervin Rahimzadeh Arashloo, Muhammad Awais, Josef Kittler (2019)Spoofing Attack Detection by Anomaly Detection, In: ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)pp. 8464-8468 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Spoofing attacks on biometric systems can seriously compromise their practical utility. In this paper we focus on face spoofing detection. The majority of papers on spoofing attack detection formulate the problem as a two or multiclass learning task, attempting to separate normal accesses from samples of different types of spoofing attacks. In this paper we adopt the anomaly detection approach proposed in [1], where the detector is trained on genuine accesses only using one-class classifiers and investigate the merit of subject specific solutions. We show experimentally that subject specific models are superior to the commonly used client independent method. We also demonstrate that the proposed approach is more robust than multiclass formulations to unseen attacks.

CH Chan, MA Tahir, J Kittler, M Pietikäinen (2013)Multiscale local phase quantization for robust component-based face recognition using kernel fusion of multiple descriptors., In: IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell35(5)pp. 1164-1177

Face recognition subject to uncontrolled illumination and blur is challenging. Interestingly, image degradation caused by blurring, often present in real-world imagery, has mostly been overlooked by the face recognition community. Such degradation corrupts face information and affects image alignment, which together negatively impact recognition accuracy. We propose a number of countermeasures designed to achieve system robustness to blurring. First, we propose a novel blur-robust face image descriptor based on Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) and extend it to a multiscale framework (MLPQ) to increase its effectiveness. To maximize the insensitivity to misalignment, the MLPQ descriptor is computed regionally by adopting a component-based framework. Second, the regional features are combined using kernel fusion. Third, the proposed MLPQ representation is combined with the Multiscale Local Binary Pattern (MLBP) descriptor using kernel fusion to increase insensitivity to illumination. Kernel Discriminant Analysis (KDA) of the combined features extracts discriminative information for face recognition. Last, two geometric normalizations are used to generate and combine multiple scores from different face image scales to further enhance the accuracy. The proposed approach has been comprehensively evaluated using the combined Yale and Extended Yale database B (degraded by artificially induced linear motion blur) as well as the FERET, FRGC 2.0, and LFW databases. The combined system is comparable to state-of-the-art approaches using similar system configurations. The reported work provides a new insight into the merits of various face representation and fusion methods, as well as their role in dealing with variable lighting and blur degradation.