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Dr Katherine Hubbard

+44 (0)1483 683964
08 AD 03



Research interests


Postgraduate research supervision

Postgraduate research supervision

My teaching

My publications



Hubbard, K. (2019). Queer Ink: A Blotted History Towards Liberation. Routledge.


Hubbard, K.A. & Griffiths, D.A. (2019). Sexual Offenses, Diagnosis and Activism: A Queer British History of Psychology. American Psychologist. Special Issue 50 years   since Stonewall: The science and politics of sexual orientation and gender diversity. 74(8), 940-953

Capdevila, R. Hubbard, K. & Donnelly, L. (2019). Standing still whilst ‘looking back and moving forwards’: the personal accounts of POWS members in the here and now. Psychology of Women and Equalities Review, 2(1), 1-12.

Hubbard, K. (2018). The British projective test movement: Reflections on a queer feminist tale. History and Philosophy of Psychology, 19(1) 26-35.

Hubbard, K. (2017). Queer Signs: The women of the British projective test movement. Journal of the history of the Behavioural Sciences, 53(2), 265-285.

Hubbard, K. (2017). Treading on delicate ground: Comparing the Lesbian and Gay Affirmative Rorschach Research of June Hopkins and Evelyn Hooker. Psychology of  Women Section Review, 19 (1), 3-9.

Hubbard, K. & Hegarty, P. (2017). Rorschach tests and Rorschach vigilantes: Queering the history of Psychology in Watchmen. History of the Human Sciences, 30(4) 75–99.

Hubbard, K. & Hegarty, P. (2016). Blots and all: A history of the Rorschach Ink Blot test in Britain.  Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences, 52(2), 146-166.

Hubbard, K. & de Visser, R. (2015). Not just bi the bi: The relationship between essentialist beliefs and attitudes about bisexuality. Psychology and Sexuality, 6(3), 258-274.

Hubbard, K. & Hegarty, P. (2014) Why is the History of Heterosexuality Essential? Beliefs about the History of Sexuality and Their Relationship to Sexual Prejudice. Journal of Homosexuality, 61, 471-490.


Hubbard, K. & Bharj, N. (2019). A Gendered Prestige: The Powers at Play when Doing Psychology with Ink Blots/Statistics.  In Psychological Studies in Science and Technology. O’Doherty, K., Ernst Schraube, E., & Yen,J. (Eds.).

Hubbard, K. (2018). Hooker, Evelyn. American National Biography.

Hubbard, K. & Hare, D. (2015). Psychologists as testers.  In Clinical Psychology in   Britain: Historical Perspectives. Hall, J., Pilgrim, D. & Turpin, G. (Eds.). History of Psychology Centre Monograph No 2. British Psychology Society, Leicester: Blackwell.

Hegarty, P., Bartos, S., & Hubbard, K. (2015).  The History of Theory in Social  Psychology. In Wright, J. D (Eds.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and  Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier.


Hegarty, P., Hubbard, K., & Nyatanga, L., (2015).  Innovative Approaches to Teaching CHIP: An Introduction [to the Special Issue edited by the authors]. History and Philosophy of Psychology, 16(1), 1-3.


Hubbard, K. (2020). Non-Binary Lives. The Psychologist. December issue.

Hubbard, K. (2019). A Recent History of Lesbian and Gay Psychology: From Homophobia to       LGBT. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 55(4), 365-366.

Hubbard, K. (2018). Queer: A Graphic History, Review. Psychology of Sexualities Review, 9(2), 53-54.

Hubbard, K. (2016). Review of Phellas, C. (2012). Researching non- heterosexual sexualities. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Psychology of Sexualities Review, 7(1), 114-118.            

Hubbard, K. (2016). Review of Lepore, J. (2014). The Secret History of Wonder        Woman. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Feminism & Psychology, 7(11), 114-118. 

Hubbard, K. (2015).  Review of Lesbian Lives Conference 2015: Lesbians Feminism/s         Now!  Psychology of Sexualities Review, 6(1), 110-111.

Hubbard, K. (2015). Review of Hayward, R. (2014). The Transformation of the Psyche in British Primary Care 1880-1970. Bloomsbury: London. Journal of the History of  the Behavioral Sciences, 51(3), 338–340


Katherine Hubbard (2018)The British projective test movement: Reflections on a queer feminist tale, In: History and Philosophy of Psychology19(1) British Psychological Society

In order to do queer history well a number of difficult challenges have to be overcome. Our understanding of sexuality has changed so much over time that historians must be careful and considerate when carving out ‘queer’ as a narrative. In this paper I will be outlining some of my analysis from my recent paper 'Queer signs: The women of the British projective test movement' in the Journal of the Behavioural Sciences and present some of the notable queer women involved in the early projective test movement. By paying attention to their queerness, in terms of their unusual and unconventional positions in a men-dominated early Psychology and their queer private lives, I add an additional lens through which we can consider early British Psychology. In reflection of this research I will draw upon two key issues central to this analysis. By reflecting upon the research project outlined here I argue it is not only important to recognise the work of these early queer women but also celebrate their work, their resistance and their unconventionality.

Katherine Hubbard (2017)Queer signs: The women of the British projective test movement, In: Journal of The History of the Behavioral Sciences53(3)pp. 265-285 Wiley

As queer history is often hidden historians must look for ‘signs’ that hint at queer lives and experiences. When psychologists use projective tests the search for queer signs has historically been more literal, and this was especially true in the homophobic practices of Psychology in the mid-20th century. In this paper I respond to Elizabeth Scarborough’s call for more analytic history about the lesser known women in Psychology’s history. By focusing on British projective research conducted by lesbian Psychologist June Hopkins I shift perspective and consider, not those who were tested (which has been historically more common), but those who did the testing, and position them as potential queer subjects. After briefly outlining why the projective test movement is ripe for such analysis and the kinds of queer signs that were identified using the Rorschach ink blot test in the mid-20th century, I then present June Hopkins’ (1969; 1970) research on the ‘lesbian personality’. This work forms a framework upon which I then consider the lives of Margaret Lowenfeld, Ann Kaldegg and Effie Lillian Hutton, all of whom were involved in the British projective test movement a generation prior to Hopkins. By adopting Hopkins’ research to frame their lives I present the possibility of this ambiguous history being distinctly queer.

Katherine Hubbard (2017)Hooker, Evelyn (2 Sept. 1907–18 Nov. 1996), In: American National Biography Oxford University Press

Hooker, Evelyn (2 September 1907 – 18 Nov. 1996) psychologist and key figure in the movement to depathologise homosexuality in the US, was born Evelyn Gentry in her grandmother’s one-room farm house in North Platte, Nebraska, the sixth of nine children of Edward and Jessie Bethel Gentry.

Katherine Hubbard, Richard O. de Visser (2015)Not just bi the bi: the relationship between essentialist beliefs and attitudes about bisexuality, In: Psychology & Sexuality6(3)pp. 258-274 Taylor & Francis

In the literature about bisexuality few studies consider bisexual people’s beliefs about bisexuality and none examine essentialist beliefs about bisexuality. In the present study 244 participants (bisexual n = 58, lesbian/gay n = 54 and heterosexual n =132) from the UK were asked via online questionnaire about their attitudes towards bisexuality, homosexuality and heterosexuality, and how stable they perceived bisexuality, homosexuality and heterosexuality to be. They were also asked about their essentialist beliefs towards bisexuality. Bisexual respondents viewed bisexuality as significantly more stable than lesbian, gay and heterosexual respondents. Analysis also showed that less belief in the discreetness of bisexuality predicted more positive attitudes towards bisexuality, as did positive beliefs towards homosexuality and heterosexuality. Belief in the immutability of bisexuality did not, however, predict attitudes towards bisexuality. Therefore, discreteness appears to be an especially problematic essentialist belief about all sexual minorities, as it is consistently associated with negative attitudes. However, beliefs about the immutability of sexuality are not consistently associated with negative attitudes for all sexual minorities.

Katherine Hubbard, Peter Hegarty (2017)Rorschach tests and Rorschach vigilantes: Queering the history of Psychology in Watchmen, In: History of the Human Sciences30(4)pp. 75-99 Sage

One of the clearest signs that Psychology has impacted popular culture is the public’s familiarity with the Rorschach ink blot test. An excellent example of the Rorschach in popular culture can be found in Watchmen, the comic/graphic novel written by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons (1987). In the mid-20th century Psychology had an especially contentious relationship with comics; some psychologists were very anxious about the impact on comics on young people, whereas others wrote comics to subvert dominant norms about gender and sexuality. Yet historians of Psychology have had almost nothing to say about this popular and critically acclaimed novel. We read Watchmen here for its narratives that most concern the history of Psychology. We focus on such themes as anti-psychiatry, sexual violence, homophobia, lesbian erasure, and social psychological research on bystander intervention. We argue it is possible to more closely align Psychology and comics despite their sometimes contentious history. In doing so we demonstrate the active role of the public in the history of the Rorschach, public engagement of Psychology via comics, and also reveal what is possible when historians consider comics within their histories.

K Hubbard, PJ Hegarty (2016)Blots and all: A British history of the Rorschach, In: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences52(2)pp. 146-166 Wiley

Despite the easily recognizable nature of the Rorschach ink blot test very little is known about the history of the test in Britain. We attend to the oft-ignored history of the Rorschach test in Britain and compare it to its history in the US. Prior to the Second World War, Rorschach testing in Britain had attracted advocates and critiques. Afterward, the British Rorschach Forum, a network with a high proportion of women, developed around the Tavistock Institute in London and The Rorschach Newsletter. In 1968, the International Rorschach Congress was held in London but soon after the group became less exclusive, and fell into decline. A comparative account of the Rorschach in Britain demonstrates how different national institutions invested in the ‘projective hypothesis’ according to the influence of psychoanalysis, the adoption of a nationalized health system, and the social positioning of ‘others’ throughout the twentieth century. In comparing and contrasting the history of the Rorschach in Britain and the US, we decentralize and particularize the history of North American Psychology.

Katherine Anne Hubbard, David Andrew Griffiths (2019)Sexual Offences, Diagnosis and Activism: A British History of LGBTIQ Psychology, In: American Psychologist American Psychological Association

This article charts the historical period from the 1950s to the 1990s, focusing on the role of Psychology in the lives of LGBTIQ people in Britain. Psychology has been, and is, central to the social, legal and medical understandings of biological sex and how best to understand diversity in gender and sexuality. Likewise, gay liberation and liberationist politics also had an effect on Psychology. For the 1950s-1960s, we outline how Psychologists influenced the Law in relation to the Wolfenden Report (1957) and how expertise was centrally located within the Psy disciplines. Following this, in the 1960s-1970s, activists began to challenge this expertise and became increasingly critical of pathologisation and of ‘treatments’ for homosexuality. They did not reject Psychology wholesale, however, and some groups engaged with queer affirmative psychologists who had similar liberatory aims. Finally, for the 1980s-1998 we highlight the establishment of the Lesbian and Gay Section of the British Psychological Society which signalled institutional recognition of lesbian and gay psychologists. This is explored against a backdrop of a specific British history of HIV/AIDS and Section 28. The past fifty years have been a battleground of categories in which LGBTIQ people were conflated, compared, and confused. We demonstrate that psychologists (not all of whom adopted a pathologising perspective) alongside politicians, lawyers, doctors, journalists and activists all played a role in the boundary-making practices of this period. Across this entangled history we demonstrate varied and significant shifts in the legitimacy of professional and personal expertise. Public Significance Statement: This article presents a British history of LGBTIQ Psychology from 1954-1998. Within a complex landscape of law, social change, medicine and activism, it recognises the influence Psychology has had on the lives of LGBTIQ people and vice versa. This history is important for contemporary Psychology as LGBTIQ issues continue to be contested in Britain and further afield.

Katherine Hubbard (2017)Treading on delicate ground: Comparing the lesbian and gay affirmative Rorschach research of June Hopkins & Evelyn Hooker, In: Psychology of Women Section Review19(1)pp. 1-9 British Psychological Society

‘An old Victorian oil lamp. The shape of the lamp. Two girls - at each side going to kiss each other. Big breasts, very slim, high heads, only one leg. Red lipstick.’ These are the responses to the above Rorschach ink blot (Card 3) by a woman ‘who was deeply involved in a homosexual relationship’ while at her stay in a psychiatric hospital in London (Barker, 1970). The use of the Rorschach in pathologising and affirmative research towards lesbians and gay men has had an interesting history. In this short paper I outline the work of two individual women – Evelyn Hooker and June Hopkins- and compare their approaches to lesbian and gay affirmative research using the Rorschach. By paying close attention to the historical contexts of such research, I allow for new interpretations of the meaning of difference to emerge and suggest the projective test moment to be particularly rich for feminist scholars.

PJ Hegarty, K Hubbard, L Nyatanga (2015)Innovative approaches to teaching CHIP: An introduction to the Special Issue, In: History and Philosophy of Psychology16(1)pp. 1-3 British Psychological Society

Heterosexual people with more positive attitudes to lesbians and gay men generally believe that homosexuality is immutable, is not a discrete social category, and that homosexuality exists in all cultures and time periods. Equivalent beliefs about heterosexuality and beliefs about components of sexuality have been less-often researched. 136 people with diverse sexualities described heterosexuality as more universal across history and culture than homosexuality (Study 1). 69 heterosexual-identified participants similarly believed that love, identity, behaviour and desire were more historically invariant aspects of heterosexuality than of homosexuality (Study 2). Less prejudiced participants thought all components of homosexuality – except for identity – were more historically invariant. Teasing apart beliefs about the history of components of heterosexuality and homosexuality suggests that there is no “essential” relationship between sexual prejudice and the tension between ‘essentialist’ and ‘constructivist’ views about the history of sexual identity.