Monica Hill

Postgraduate Research Student
BSc, MSc


My research project

My qualifications

BSc (Hons) Biochemistry
University of Portsmouth
MSc Medical Microbiology
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Affiliations and memberships

Microbiology Society
Postgraduate Member


Fernandez-Camacho, B., Peña-Calero, B., Guillermo-Roman, M. et al. (2024) Malaria seroepidemiology in very low transmission settings in the Peruvian Amazon

Despite progress towards malaria reduction in Peru, measuring exposure in low transmission areas is crucial for achieving elimination. This study focuses on two very low transmission areas in Loreto (Peruvian Amazon) and aims to determine the relationship between malaria exposure and proximity to health facilities. Individual data was collected from 38 villages in Indiana and Belen, including geo-referenced households and blood samples for microscopy, PCR and serological analysis. A segmented linear regression model identified significant changes in seropositivity trends among different age groups. Local Getis-Ord Gi* statistic revealed clusters of households with high (hotspots) or low (coldspots) seropositivity rates. Findings from 4000 individuals showed a seropositivity level of 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%-3.0%) for P. falciparum and 7.8% (95%CI: 7.0%-8.7%) for P. vivax, indicating recent or historical exposure. The segmented regression showed exposure reductions in the 40–50 age group (β1 = 0.043, p = 0.003) for P. vivax and the 50–60 age group (β1 = 0.005, p = 0.010) for P. falciparum. Long and extreme distance villages from Regional Hospital of Loreto exhibited higher malaria exposure compared to proximate and medium distance villages (p < 0.001). This study showed the seropositivity of malaria in two very low transmission areas and confirmed the spatial pattern of hotspots as villages become more distant.