Placeholder image for staff profiles

Dr Raffaella Guida


Senior Lecturer in Satellite Remote Sensing

Academic and research departments

Surrey Space Centre.

Biography

Biography

Raffaella received the Laurea degree (cum laude) in Telecommunications Engineering and the Ph.D. degree in Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering from the University of Naples Federico II (Naples, Italy), in 2003 and 2007, respectively. In 2006, she received a two-year research grant from the University of Naples Federico II to be spent at the Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering on the topic of electromagnetic field propagation in urban environment. In 2006, she was also a Guest Scientist with the Department of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Technische Universität München (Munich, Germany). In 2008, Raffaella joined the Surrey Space Centre (SSC), University of Surrey (Guildford, U.K.) as a Lecturer in Satellite Remote Sensing. Today she is still in SSC where she leads the Remote Sensing Applications research group. In collaboration with SSTL she looks at and develops potential applications for the data coming from the first UK spaceborne SAR mission NovaSAR-S in the field of maritime security, flooding and vegetation monitoring.

Raffaella has published more than 50 papers and has recently been awarded the IEEE J-STARS Best Paper Award 2013 for her research on statistical analysis of SAR data.

Research interests

  • Microwave remote sensing
  • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
  • Scattering models from natural and not natural targets
  • Statistical models for SAR images
  • Main applications: urban areas, natural disasters (flooding, earthquake, oil spill), vegetation, maritime surveillance

Research collaborations

Raffaella has a huge network of international collaborations with universities, space agencies, space and remote sensing companies and non-governmental organizations.

Teaching

  • Satellite Remote Sensing
  • Laboratories, Design and Professional Studies I
  • Laboratories, Design and Professional Studies II

For her excellence in teaching and keen attitude to introduce new teaching methodologies, Raffaella has been awarded the Teaching with New Technologies (TeNT) Award by University of Surrey in 2008.

Departmental duties

  • Member of the Student Liaison Committee (SLC)
  • Member of the Faculty Research Degrees Committee (FRDC)
  • FRDC representative on the Postgraduate Research Student Engagement Forum
  • Rep for the Electronic Engineering Library

Affiliations

Raffaella is a member of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society.

PhD Programme

Possible work areas and topics

Earth observation
  • Urban areas monitoring with high resolution SAR images
  • UK forests monitoring with optical, infrared and radar imagery
  • Carbon stocks mapping
  • SAR polarimetry for land mapping
  • Maritime surveillance
  • Mines detection with remote sensing imagery
  • Remote sensing data fusion over urban areas
Disaster monitoring
  • Detection of flooded areas with optical and SAR images
  • Detection of damaged urban areas after earthquake in SAR images
Technology
  • S-band SAR

Requirements

You hold a first class honours degree in Engineering, Physics or Maths. You have knowledge of Remote Sensing and interest in Earth Observation and Disaster Monitoring, together with familiarity with at least one of the following fields: Electromagnetics, Image Processing, Geographical Information Systems (GIS).Creative and hard-working profiles are particularly encouraged.

Other skills

Experience with IDL and/or ENVI software is an advantage.

My publications

Publications

Khan SS, Guida R (2012) On Single-look Multivariate G Distribution for PolSAR Data, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 5 (4) pp. 1149-1163 IEEE
Franceschetti G, Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D, Ruello G (2005) Building Height Retrieval From Radiometric Parameters On SAR Images,
Urban structure detection, in terms of both geometric and electromagnetic features, from a single Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is, nowadays, an interesting still open challenge. Within this framework a new deterministic approach for the extraction of the height of an isolated building on a rough terrain is presented. The approach is based on a sound electromagnetic model which fully represents the electromagnetic return from an isolated building to an active microwave sensor, analytically evaluated in closed form. Particularly, building height is extracted from double scattering contribution to the radar cross section measured on the SAR image. Some simulation examples, relative to canonical scenes, accompany and validate the approach proposed.
Guida R (2010) Introduction of Podcasts in Remote Sensing Education, Proceedings of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium pp. 1104-1106 IEEE
This paper deals with a new teaching experience carried on at the Department of Electronic Engineering at University of Surrey. The experience is based on the enhancement of students learning in the Satellite Remote Sensing class with the adoption of new technologies for assessment and teaching purposes. More precisely, podcasts have been introduced in a 3-year long project as supporting teaching material or coursework. Here the experience of the first year, where podcasts are introduced as group coursework, is described in detailed and commented.
Iervolino P, Cohen M, Guida R, Whittaker P (2014) Ship-detection in SAR imagery using Low Pulse Repetition Frequency Radar, EUSAR 2014 VDE
The paper introduces a novel approach for ship-detection and ambiguity removal in images acquired from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operating in Low Pulse Repetition Frequency (LPRF) mode. The procedure consists of four steps. In the detection step, the bright clusters of pixels representative of the ships are isolated using a Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) algorithm; in the maximum selection step a pixel maximum in amplitude is chosen for each cluster; in the third step the isolated pixels are interpolated and, finally, the stationary point of the curve, corresponding to the actual position of the target, is computed. The algorithm is tested on an airborne S-band SAR image of the Solent in the United Kingdom.
Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D, Stilla U (2008) Model-Based Interpretation of High-Resolution SAR Images of Buildings, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 1 (2) pp. 107-119 IEEE
High-resolution (HR) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of urban areas reveal a large variety of details that, although potentially bringing a lot of information, are often very difficult to interpret. Until now, most of the research activity in this field has been devoted to the attempt to retrieve geometric information on buildings in terms of their positions and sizes, by using simplified geometrical models. However, this approach does not allow us to fully exploit the large amount of information present in HR SAR images. In order to improve information retrieval from such images, and, hence, their interpretation, in this paper, we propose to employ a more refined model that accounts for both geometrical (including fine details) and electromagnetic properties of the building. A meaningful case study is presented to show that the main features appearing on the SAR image of a building can be interpreted by using our geometric and electromagnetic model. In addition, a first example of retrieval of the complex dielectric constant of building materials from a SAR image is presented.
Iervolino P, Guida R, Whittaker P (2015) A New GLRT-Based Ship Detection Technique in SAR Images,
Brett, P.T.B., Guida R (2012) Geometry-based SAR curvilinear feature selection for damage detection, EUSAR. 9th European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar pp. 62-65 IEEE
Bright curvilinear features in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images arising from the geometry of urban structures have been successfully used for estimating urban earthquake damage, using single pre- and post-event high resolution amplitude SAR images. In this paper, further automation of the process of selecting candidate curvilinear features for change detection is proposed, based on a model selection using priors derived from idealised building geometry. The technique is demonstrated using COSMO-SkyMed data covering the 2010 Port-au-Prince earthquake.
Bird R, Whittaker P, Stern B, Angli N, Cohen M, Guida R (2013) NovaSAR-S: A Low Cost Approach to SAR Applications,
NovaSAR-S is SSTL?s revolutionary small Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite designed for low cost missions. The instrument specification and mission characteristics of the NovaSAR satellite have been designed to provide benefit to a range of applications - the key ones being maritime surveillance (including ship and oil slick detection), forestry, disaster monitoring (particularly flooding) and agriculture. The paper will present an assessment of the ability of NovaSAR to address these key applications and provide examples of products that could be derived from NovaSAR imagery to support these applications.
Guida R, Marcello J, Eugenio F (2015) SAR, Optical and Lidar Data Fusion for the High Resolution Mapping of Natural Protected Areas,
Guida R, Franceschetti G, Iodice A, Riccio D, Ruello G (2005) Deterministic Extraction of Building Parameters from High Resolution SAR Images, Proceedings of the 3rd RSS/ISPRS joint Symposium on Remote Sensing and Data Fusion over Urban Areas
Natale A, Guida R, Bird R, Whittaker P, Cohen M, Hall D (2011) Demonstration and analysis of the applications of S-band SAR, 2011 3rd International Asia-Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar pp. 167-170
The use of some working frequencies is still novel in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) especially when associated to a full exploitation of polarimetric channels. In this paper the potential value of a spaceborne multi-pol SAR system in S-band (3.2 GHz) is presented following the first acquisitions of the Astrium UK airborne SAR demonstrator and relevant analysis based on Pauli and eigenvalue-eigenvector decompositions. Most interesting results are presented and discussed.
Guida R, Franceschetti G, Iodice A, Riccio D, Ruello G (2005) Models for Features Extraction from SAR images of Urban Areas, Proceedings of the XXVIIIth URSI General Assembly
Guida R, Franceschetti G, Iodice A, Riccio D, Ruello G, Stilla U (2007) Simulation Tools for Interpretation of High Resolution SAR Images of Urban Areas, Urban Remote Sensing Joint Event, 2007 IEEE
New powerful spaceborne sensors for monitoring urban areas have been designed and are ready for launch. More detailed SAR images will be soon available and, consequently, new tools for their interpretation are needed, above all when urban scenes are illuminated. In this paper, the authors propose some tools for the study and the analysis of high resolution SAR images based on a SAR raw signal simulator for urban areas. Comparing simulated SAR images with the real one, interpretation of SAR data is improved and fundamental support of the employed tools is further assessed.
Natale, A, Guida R, Bird, R, Whittaker, P, Hall, D, Cohen, M (2012) Validation of S-band data performance for future spaceborne SAR missions, EUSAR. 9th European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar pp. 75-78 IEEE
Most of the SAR missions of the latest years presented sensors working in X-band (like in the TerraSAR-X and
Cosmo-SkyMed missions). Today new SAR missions, working at alternative frequencies like S-band, are under
planning/design and will be launched in the upcoming years. In addition, full polarimetry is likely to be implemented
in some of those missions. This is the case of the UK sensor NovaSAR-S to be launched by 2013. In order
to validate the performance of S-band, especially in comparison with the better known and tested X-band, an
airborne demonstrator has been set up to contemporaneously acquire fully polarimetric SAR data in both bands.
In this paper we present, compare and discuss results deriving from the application of the H/± and the Pauli decompositions
to the fully polarimetric datasets in both bands to understand possible advantages of S-band in specific
applications.
A new form of G distribution, called the dual-texture G distribution, is proposed for Single-Look Complex (SLC) PolSAR data. Unlike the scalar texture productmodel, the dual texture G distribution is derived considering different texture variables for co-pol and cross-pol (x-pol) channels. The co-pol and x-pol texture variables are modelled by the Generalized Inverse Gaussian (GIG) distribution, separately. The result is a more flexible multivariate distribution. Also Mellin Kind Statistics (MKS) are utilized to analyze GIG textures, observe evidence of dual texture and to estimate shape parameters.
Franceschetti, G, Guida R, Iodice, A, Riccio, D, Ruello, G, Stilla, U (2007) ELECTROMAGNETIC FEATURE EXTRACTION
FROM REAL SAR IMAGES OF BUILT-UP AREAS,
Proceedings of the 27th Symposium of the European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories (EARSeL)
Nowadays, monitoring and management of built-up areas is becoming a crucial endeavor for all civil and politic communities. In the upcoming future, important contributions to this matter will come from scientific community. In fact, new powerful spaceborne sensors for monitoring urban areas have been designed and are ready for launch. In particular, a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called TerraSAR-X with outstanding performance of resolution will be soon launched by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) [1].
Availability of more detailed SAR images could improve, at least in theory, human interpretation as more information is contained in the image itself. But the extraction of this both geometric and electromagnetic information, is still a hard task.
With regards geometric features of urban areas, many steps have been done in building shape and dimensions retrieval and are widely documented in literature [2],[3]. But extraction concerning electromagnetic features of a building (i.e. dielectric constants of its parts) is not yet a concrete result even if it would be of paramount importance for the impact that a similar retrieval would have on applications. For example, let us think of the possibility of checking the presence of water infiltrations in building walls or of amianthus, widely employed in the past in building industry as insulating material but now forbidden by the law in many countries for its demonstrated carcinogenic properties.
In this paper, capability of retrieving electromagnetic information from high resolution SAR images is inspected.
To our aim, we need scattering models taking into considerations the electromagnetic properties of the building materials when the radar signal interacts with a building in the scene. Some empirical models have been developed for radar backscattering from soils, crops, forest vegetation etc., but for urban geometries they are still inadequate. Despite of this, a complete electromagnetic backscattering model for a canonical isolated structure placed on a rough terrain [4] is here employed in simulation examples.
In order to foresee our future ability to retrieve electromagnetic information from high resolution SAR images of urban areas, some experiments have been jointly carried out by the remote sensing groups at the University of Naples (Italy) and the University of Munich (Germany). The test area is located in Munich and shows the buildings of Technische Universität and the Alte Pinakothek in the quarter of
Guida R, Iervolino P, Freemantle T, Spittle S, Minchella A, Marti P, Napiorkowska M, Howard G, Arana HH, Alvarado SC (2016) Earth Observation for the Preservation of the Bacalar Area, Living Planet Symposium 2016 Spacebooks Online
Guida R, Brett PTB (2011) A SAR image-based tool for prompt and effective earthquake response, Proceedings of 2011 Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event pp. 213-216 IEEE
Recently, a new concept for detection of damaged infrastructure after earthquakes has been introduced, based on analysis of double reflection lines in SAR images. This paper describes the development of a processing step for extraction of double-reflection lines, and its implementation. In particular, an unsupervised bright line detector working on the ratio of pre- and post-event single look complex SAR data is introduced, and is demonstrated using COSMO-SkyMed SAR data from the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake.
Franceschetti, G, Guida R, Iodice, A, Riccio, D, Ruello, G (2006) VERIFICA DI UN SOFTWARE PER LA PREVISIONE DELLA RADIOCOPERTURA,
In this paper a measurement procedure for the validation of a software for the evaluation of the electromagnetic field levels in urban environment is presented. The considered software is a ray-tracing based tool. It relies on a deterministic description of the macroscopic environment and a statistical contribution to account for the several random phenomena typical of urban scenarios. The measurements are performed in an area made of different building density and properties. A transmitting antenna radiated a field, whose values were acquired by a receiver mounted on a car. The obtained measured data are compared with the software evaluation. Matching and differences between measurements and theoretical results are provided.
Hagen-Zanker AH, guida (2014) A computational framework for scale-sensitive landscape pattern analysis,
Iervolino P, Guida R, Whittaker P (2015) A Novel Ship-Detection Technique for Sentinel-1 SAR Data, Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (APSAR) pp. 797-801 IEEE / Curran Associates Inc.
The paper shows a novel algorithm for ship-detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The algorithm is divided in three main steps: land mask rejection, detection and discrimination. In the first step land pixels are rejected by using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data; in the second stage the potential ships are detected on a method based on the Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) and, finally, some targets are rejected by removing the azimuth ambiguities and by gathering the target pixels in clusters. The algorithm is tested on a Sentinel-1 image acquired over the Portsmouth harbour and compared with the outcomes coming from a Constant False Alarm Algorithm (CFAR).
Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D (2010) Height Retrieval of Isolated Buildings From Single High-Resolution SAR Images, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING 48 (7) pp. 2967-2979
Iervolino P, Guida R, Whittaker P (2014) ROUGHNESS PARAMETERS ESTIMATION OF SEA SURFACE FROM SAR IMAGES, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2014 IEEE International pp. 5013-5016 IEEE
Some knowledge of sea state and conditions is input in ship detection algorithms based on inversion of scatteri ng models for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. This paper shows a novel technique for the estimati on of
roughness parameters of the sea surface from SAR images. The estimation procedure is based on the minimization of the absolute error between the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the sea surface measured on the SAR image and the expected RCS computed using the Kirchhoff approach within the Geometrical Optics (GO) solution. The technique
is tested on three different TerraSAR-X images acquired in November 2012 over the Portsmouth harbour in the UK
Guida R, Ng SW (2015) S- and X-band SAR data fusion, Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (APSAR) pp. 578-581 IEEE / Curran Associates Inc.
This paper investigates the benefits deriving from introducing a wavelet-transform-based fusion framework for multi-frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. A specific application is considered in the assessment of the fused classification map derived and this is the discrimination of different kinds of oil in sea. S-band and X-band datasets, concurrently acquired from the same airborne platform, have here been used. The findings suggest that fusing S-band and X-band SAR data does improve the oil type discrimination between crude oil and diesel oil used in the exercise, although a more quantitative analysis should be conducted in the future to measure the degree of improvement.
Guida R, Iodice, A, Riccio, D (2010) Fast Change Detection Algorithm for Single Post-Earthquake SAR Images of Urban Areas, Proceedings of the 18th RiNEm SIEm
Guida R, Fotias V (2015) Soil Moisture Retrieval with S-Band SAR Data,
Guida R, Franceschetti G, Iodice A, Riccio D (2009) Electromagnetic Modelling for Information Extraction from High Resolution SAR Images of Urban Areas, Proceedings of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium '08 1 pp. I-78-I-81 IEEE
Analysis, interpretation and feature extraction concerning High Resolution (HR) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of urban areas urgently require support of sound and appropriate electromagnetic modelling. The modelling takes into consideration the radar geometry and the (geometric and electromagnetic) scene parameters but also the novelty brought by high resolution. In this paper, this way of developing suitable electromagnetic modelling for HR SAR images of urban areas is shown to be successful as able to interpret and retrieve, from these scenarios, new and interesting details that will certainly represent the main actor of next generation of applications for urban areas with SAR sensors.
Brett PTB, Guida R (2011) Bright line detection in COSMO-SkyMed SAR images of urban areas, Proceeedings of Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event pp. 253-256 IEEE
Bright lines are a characteristic feature of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) amplitude images of urban areas, and are commonly associated with man-made structures. In order to aid in the development of SAR applications using these features, an automated approach to bright line detection is proposed, based on scale-space ridge detection at a single scale, and using a nai?ve Bayesian classification step to select the ridge points corresponding to bright lines. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by applying it to a COSMO-SkyMed image of L'Aquila, Italy.
Iervolino P, Diessa V, Iodice A, Ricciardi A, Riccio D, Guida R (2011) A new local approach for flooding level estimation in urban areas using single SAR images, Proceedings of 2011 Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event pp. 257-260 IEEE
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the level of flooding in proximity of sensible targets in urban areas using only one Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image. To this purpose a two-step algorithm is here proposed: first the flooded areas are detected in the SAR image; and then the water level is retrieved by inverting scattering models developed for urban areas and now properly adapted for the case at issue. The retrieval is performed through a local approach where the a-priori knowledge of the target ground truth and two gauges in the premises is required. The approach is tested on a High Resolution (HR) TerraSAR-X image acquired during the flooding occurred in the Gloucestershire in July 2007.
Guida R (2015) Multi-Sensor Data Fusion for Long Range Demining Area Reduction,
Guida R, Brett PTB (2014) Remote sensing and crowd-sourcing for water-quality measurements in Malawi,
Khan SS, Guida R (2014) On Fractional Moments of Multilook Polarimetric Whitening Filter for Polarimetric SAR Data, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing pp. 3502-3512 IEEE
Guida R, Franceschetti G, Iodice A, Riccio D (2006) A Tool for Planning of High Resolution/Wide Coverage Imaging Radars, Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento - Italian Journal of Remote Sensing 35 pp. 45-52 Italian Society of Remote Sensing (Associazione Italiana di Telerilevamento - AIT)
Iervolino P, Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D (2014) Flooding water depth estimation with high-resolution SAR, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 53 (5) pp. 2295-2307
© 1980-2012 IEEE.The retrieval of flooding levels with high-resolution (HR) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is presented in this paper. A new framework is proposed. It is based on the inversion of theoretical scattering models initially developed for nonflooded urban areas and here adapted to the flooding case. Starting from the theory, two possible retrieval approaches have been developed and are the main topic of this paper: two possible retrieval approaches have been developed and are the main topic of this paper: the local Single Image Objects Aware (SIObA) and the global Two Image Area Aware (TIArA). These two approaches are conceived to be applicable under different working conditions and consequently holding different properties and reliability. For each of them, a different algorithm is derived and tested, and the retrieval results are validated on a meaningful data set of HR TerraSAR-X images relevant to the Gloucestershire (U.K.) flooding that occurred in year 2007.
Franceschetti, G, Guida R, Iodice, A, Riccio, D, Ruello, G (2006) ANALISI DI SENSIBILITA? PER LA STIMA DELL?ALTEZZA DI EDIFICI DA IMMAGINI SAR,
In the last years, new approaches for feature extraction from high resolution SAR images have been presented. One of them is the deterministic approach for building height retrieval from double reflection contribution on SAR images of urban areas. Actually, promising results can be guaranteed only if a high aprioristic knowledge of involved radar and scene parameters is available, but this requirement is not always satisfied. For this reason, here we investigate the influence of an imperfect knowledge of the scene on the final result of building height estimation. In particular, by means of sensitivity analyses and simulation examples, the influence on the height retrieval of an error on the knowledge of the angle between the building wall and the radar flight trajectory is investigated and discussed.
Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D (2008) New Models for the Analysis of High Resolution SAR Images of Urban Areas, Proceedings of the IEEE GOLD Conference
Khan S, Doulgeris AP, Savastano S, Guida R Automatic clustering of multispectral data using a non-Gaussian statistical model, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) pp. 4276-4279
© 2014 IEEE.This paper proposes an unsupervised clustering algorithm for multispectral images, which automatically determines the number of statistically distinct clusters in the image. It uses the multivariate student-t distribution as a more flexible underlying statistical model, with the Gaussian as only a special case. The algorithm shows better data modeling flexibility than the Gaussian case. Excellent and reproducible clustering results are observed for both simulated data and real data from Worldview-2 multispectral sensor.
Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D (2011) An application of the deterministic feature extraction approach to COSMO-SKyMed data, Proceedings of the European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar pp. 1014-1017
In the last years a new feature extraction approach from a single amplitude SAR image of urban areas has been introduced by the authors. In this paper they discuss the feasibility of this approach to detect changes in urban areas when natural hazards occur, with the aim to identify damaged or collapsed buildings by monitoring changes in the radiometric content of relevant SAR images. The test is performed on COSMO-SKyMed data provided before and after the earthquake that took place in the area around L¿Aquila, Italy, in April 2009. First results are presented and discussed.
Iervolino P, Guida R, Whittaker P (2013) NovaSAR-S and Maritime Surveillance, IGARSS Proceedings
The paper shows a new algorithm for ship-detection from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The algorithm consists of three main stages: pre-processing, detection and discrimination. In the pre-processing a land mask is obtained considering the different statistics between the sea and the land?s backscattered field; the detection stage isolates the bright points over the sea background employing a Constant False Alarm (CFAR) method; while the ships are retrieved, in the discrimination step, by evaluating the scattering contributions of the possible targets detected in the previous stage. The algorithm is tested on an airborne S-band SAR image of Portsmouth harbor, similar to those that will become available with the upcoming UK SAR mission NovaSAR-S.
Guida R, Franceschetti G, Iodice A, Riccio D, Ruello G (2004) Efficient Simulation of hybrid stripmap/spotlight SAR raw signals from extended scenes, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 42 (11) pp. 2385-2396 IEEE
The hybrid stripmap/spotlight mode for a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system is able to generate microwave images with an azimuth resolution better than the one achieved in the stripmap mode and a ground coverage better than the one of the spotlight mode. In this paper, time- and frequency-domain-based procedures to simulate the raw signal in the hybrid stripmap/spotlight mode are presented and compared. We show that a two-dimensional Fourier domain approach, although highly desirable for its efficiency, is not viable. Accordingly, we propose a one-dimensional (1-D) range Fourier domain approach, followed by 1-D azimuth time-domain integration. This method is much more efficient than the time-domain one, so that extended scenes can be considered. In addition, it involves approximations usually acceptable in actual cases. Effectiveness of the simulation scheme is assessed by using numerical examples.
Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D (2010) Assessment of TerraSAR-X Products with a New Feature Extraction Application: Monitoring of Cylindrical Tanks, IEEE T GEOSCI REMOTE 48 (2) pp. 930-938 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Guida R, Natale, A, Bird, R, Whittaker, P, Cohen, M, Hall, D (2012) CANOPY CLASSIFICATION WITH S-BAND POLARIMETRIC SAR DATA, pp. 6535-6538 IEEE
New Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) missions in S-band are currently under design but the potential performance of this microwave frequency is still under discussion. This paper presents the outcomes of a study on canopy classification carried out with fully polarimetric S- and X-band datasets contemporaneously acquired by the Astrium airborne SAR demonstrator. Classical polarimetric decompositions have been applied to investigate the S-band capabilities in vegetation monitoring and preliminary results are here presented.
Guida R, Franceschetti G, Iodice A, Riccio D, Ruello G, Stilla U (2008) Building Feature Extraction via a Deterministic Approach: Application to Real High Resolution SAR Images, IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium pp. 2681-2684 IEEE
Interpretation of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images is still a hard task, especially when man-made objects crowd the scene under detection. This paper contributes to the analysis of this kind of data by adopting an approach, based on a scattering model, for the retrieval of buildings height from real SAR images and presenting first numerical results.
Iervolino P, Guida R, Whittaker P (2016) A Model for the Backscattering from a Canonical Ship in SAR imagery, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 9 (3) pp. 1163-1175 IEEE
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors represent one of the most effective means to support activities in the sector of maritime surveillance. In the field of ship detection, many SAR-based algorithms have been proposed recently, but none of them has ever considered the electromagnetic aspects behind the interactions of SAR signals with the ship and surrounding waters, with the detection step and rate strongly influenced by relative thresholding techniques applied to the SAR amplitude or intensity image. This paper introduces a novel model to evaluate the radar cross section (RCS) backscattered from a canonical ship adapted, to the case at issue, from similar existing models developed for, and applied to, urban areas. The RCS is modeled using the Kirchhoff approximation (KA) within the geometrical optics (GO) solution and, following some assumptions on the scene parameters, derived by empirical observations; its probability density function is derived for all polarizations. An analysis of the sensitiveness of the RCS to the uncertainty on the input scene parameters is then performed. The new model is validated on two different TerraSAR-X images acquired in November 2012 over the Solent area in the U.K.: the RCS relevant to several isolated ships is measured and compared with the expected value deriving from the theoretical model here introduced. Results are widely discussed and ranges of applicability finally suggested.
Guida R, Brett PTB, Khan SS (2013) Remote Sensing and Crowd-Sourcing, IGARSS Proceedings IEEE
Collection of ground truth to validate remote sensing classification and/or detection algorithms is rarely accounted for due to the inaccessibility of the sites or the elevated costs of such operations.
In this paper some of the opportunities behind crowd sourcing are explored through the description of a remote sensing project on water quality monitoring in Africa where the ground truth was collected involving and training people from local communities.
Khan SS, Guida R (2014) Application of Mellin Kind Statistics to Polarimetric G Distribution for SAR Data, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing pp. 3513-3528 IEEE
The ${cal K}$ distribution can arguably be regarded as one of the most successful and widely used models for radar data. However, in the last two decades, we have seen tremendous growth in even more accurate modeling of radar statistics. In this regard, the relatively recent ${cal G}^{0}$ distribution has filled some deficiencies that were left unaccounted for by the ${cal K}$ model. The ${cal G}^{0}$ model, in fact, resulted as a special case of a more general model, the ${cal G}$ distribution, which also has the ${cal K}$ model as its special form. Single-look and multilook complex polarimetric extensions of these models (and many others) have also been proposed in this prolific era. Unfortunately, statistical analysis using the polarimetric ${cal G}$ distribution remained limited, primarily because of more complicated parameter estimation. In this paper, the authors have analyzed the ${cal G}$ model for its parameter estimation using state-of-the-art univariate and matrix-variate Mellin-kind statistics (MKS). The outcome is a class of estimators based on the method of log cumulants and the method of matrix log cumulants. These estimators show superior performance characteristics for product model distributions such as the ${cal G}$ model. Diverse regions in TerraSAR-X polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data have also been statistically analyzed using the ${cal G}$ model with its new and old estimators. Formal goodness-of-fit testing, based on the MKS theory, has been used to assess the fitting accuracy between different estimators and also between the ${cal G}$, ${cal K}$, ${cal - }^{0}$, and Kummer-${cal U}$ models.
Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D (2009) SAR monitoring of suburban areas based on an electromagnetic scattering model, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) 5 pp. V104-V107 IEEE
Cylindrical-shape tanks are typical of any suburban area and often contain dangerous gases or fluids. In this paper, we suggest a way to monitor them by means of high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and a scattering model able to quantitatively consider how the radar signal interacts with this kind of structures and how they appear m the SAR images. Adopting the model, geometrical information as the tank height is retrieved from the SAR images m a non-conventional way that is exploiting the information content contained m the double reflection contribution to the radar cross section. Results are compared with more traditional methods and discussed.
Bird R, Whittaker P, Stern B, Angli N, Cohen M, Guida R (2013) NovaSAR-S: A Low Cost Approach to SAR Applications, APSAR 2013 Conference proceedings
NovaSAR-S is SSTL?s revolutionary small Synthetic
Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite designed for low cost missions. The instrument specification and mission characteristics of the NovaSAR satellite have been designed to provide benefit to a range of applications - the key ones being maritime surveillance (including ship and oil slick detection), forestry, disaster monitoring (particularly flooding) and agriculture. The paper
will present an assessment of the ability of NovaSAR to address these key applications and provide examples of products that could be derived from NovaSAR imagery to support these applications.
Franceschetti G, Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D (2008) Modelli elettromagnetici per immagini SAR ad alta risoluzione di edifici,
High Resolution (HR) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors are now available and
new information are then retrievable by SAR images. In case of urban areas, the
adoption of sound scattering models is crucial for developing reliable feature
extractions algorithms in the inverse problem. In this paper, new proper models for the
backscattering of urban structures, including features whose dimensions are
comparable to the resolution of HR SAR, are introduced and then discussed with
emphasis on their use in algorithms for building height retrieval from double reflection
contribution to the radar cross section.
Guida R, Franceschetti G, Iodice A, Riccio D, Ruello G (2004) Efficient Hybrid Stripmap/Spotlight SAR Raw Signal Simulation, Proceedings of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium '04 3 pp. 1767-1769 IEEE
Recently, a new operating mode for Synthetic
Aperture Radar (SAR) system, referred to as hybrid
stripmap/spotlight mode, has been presented [1-2]. In the hybrid
acquisition mode the radar antenna beam is steered about a point
farther away from the radar than the area being illuminated, thus
generating microwave images with an azimuth resolution better
than that achieved in the stripmap configuration, and a ground
coverage better than the one of the spotlight configuration.
The subject of design, processing and data interpretation for
the hybrid SAR mode is gaining an increasing interest in the
remote sensing scientific community. Consequently, a hybrid
SAR raw signal simulator is strongly required, especially when
real raw data are not available yet, to test processing algorithms
and to help mission planning. In addition, to analyse the effects of
processing errors and to verify the impact of different system
design choices on the final image for different kinds of imaged
scenes, an extended scene SAR raw signal simulator simulator is
very useful: it is what we present in this paper. After showing that
in this case a 2D Fourier domain approach is not viable, we
demonstrate that a 1D range Fourier domain approach, followed
by 1D azimuth time domain integration, is possible when some
approximations, usually valid in the actual cases, are accepted.
Khan SS, Guida R (2012) The new form of G distribution for single-look PolSAR data, EUSAR. 9th European Conference Synthetic Aperture Radar pp. 523-526 IEEE
Guida R, Franceschetti G, Iodice A, Riccio D, Ruello G (2007) Accuracy of Building Height Estimation from SAR images, Proceedings of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium '06 pp. 3647-3650 IEEE
Abstract?Applicability and efficiency of building height retrieval
from radiometric parameters on SAR images is here investigated.
The influence of an imperfect knowledge of ground truth is
studied by means of a theoretical analysis compared with results
deriving from simulation examples. For some cases, propagated
errors are quantitatively evaluated and discussed.
Guida R, Franceschetti G, Iodice A, Riccio D, Ruello G (2007) Building Height Retrieval From Radiometric Parameters On SAR Images, Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento - Italian Journal of Remote Sensing 38 pp. 97-106 Italian Society of Remote Sensing (Associazione Italiana di Telerilevamento - AIT)
Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D (2010) MONITORING OF COLLAPSED BUILT-UP AREAS WITH HIGH RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES, 2010 IEEE INTERNATIONAL GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING SYMPOSIUM pp. 2422-2425 IEEE
Brett PTB, Guida R (2013) Earthquake Damage Detection in Urban Areas using Curvilinear Features, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing IEEE
Bright curvilinear features arising from the geometry of man-made structures are characteristic of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of urban areas, particularly due to double-reflection mechanisms. An approach to urban earthquake damage detection using double-reflection line amplitude change in single-look images has been established in previous literature. Based on this method, this paper introduces an automated tool for fast, unsupervised damage detection in urban areas. Ridge-based curvilinear features are extracted from a preevent SAR image, and double-reflection candidates are selected using prior probability distributions derived from a simple geometrical building model. The candidate features are then used with the ratio of a pair of single preevent and postevent SAR single-look amplitude images to estimate damage levels. The algorithm is very efficient, with overall computational complexity of $O(Nlog k)$ for an $N$-pixel image containing features of mean length $k$. The technique is demonstrated using COSMO-SkyMed data covering L'Aquila, Italy, and Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D (2004) A New Efficient Simulator for Hybrid SAR Raw Signals, IEEE
Khan S, Guida R (2011) Feasibility of time-frequency urban area analysis on TerraSAR-X fully polarimetric dataset, Proceedings of 2011 Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event pp. 265-268 IEEE
The feasibility of azimuthal Time-Frequency (TF) analysis for urban area identification using TerraSAR-X (TX) fully polarimetric data has been investigated for the first time. Space-borne sensors, unlike airborne sensors, are characterized by a very small azimuth antenna aperture, which limits the Sub-Aperture (SA) decomposition in the azimuth direction. Due to this limitation, the usefulness of SA decomposition for space-borne sensors, has still not been explored. Pixel stationarity, which generally has lower values over urban areas, has been measured for TX data. It has been found that the full doppler spectrum has to be utilized for TX to generate a meaningful stationarity pixel map from SA coherency matrices. This analysis has been performed on TX fully polarimetric data acquired in April, 2009 over a site called Wallerfing in Germany.
Iervolino P, Guida R, Iodice A, Riccio D (2012) FLOODING LEVEL ESTIMATION IN URBAN AREAS WITH SAR IMAGES,
One of the main goals of the State is to guarantee the security and welfare of the citizens. States have agreed in making ?a better world? for citizens under the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets and actions. States have acquired the obligation to address this mandate and seek all possible solutions to address it. International cooperation and the use of space technology are tools to achieve this endeavor. This paper discusses the innovations of international cooperation introduced by States and its impact in law-making agreements focusing on Climate Change effects and the protection of the environment under the SDG 13. It explains the innovation in cooperation and law-making procedures by taking as an example the UK-Mexico cooperation for the protection of the Bacalar region and its ecosystem within the International Partnership Space Programme (IPSP). Within this scenario, an Earth observation (EO) product for the flood detection using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is presented and efficiently tested over two images acquired during the Hurricane Dean in 2007.
Disclaimer: The information and contents in this paper are solely the original work of the author and does not claim to represent the views of the UKSA, AEM and/or its space partners.
Iervolino P, Guida R (2017) A Novel Ship Detector Based on the
Generalized-Likelihood Ratio Test for SAR Imagery,
Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 10 (8) pp. 3616-3630 IEEE
Ship detection with synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
images, acquired at different working frequencies, is presented
in this paper where a novel technique is proposed based on the
generalized-likelihood ratio test (GLRT). Suitable electromagnetic
models for both the sea clutter and the signal backscattered from
the ship are considered in the new technique in order to improve the
detector performance. The GLRT is compared to the traditional
constant false alarm rate (CFAR) algorithm throughMonte?Carlo
simulations in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC)
curves and computational load at different bands (S-, C-, and X-).
Performances are also compared through simulations with different
orbital and scene parameters at fixed values of band and
polarization. The GLRT is then applied to real datasets acquired
from different sensors (TerraSAR-X, Sentinel-1, and Airbus airborne
demonstrator) operating at different bands (S-, C-, and X-).
An analysis of the target-to-clutter ratio (TCR) is then performed
and detection outcomes are comparedwith an automatic identification
system data when available. Simulations show that the GLRT
presents better ROCs than those obtained through the CFAR algorithm.
On the other side, results on real SAR images demonstrate
that the proposed approach greatly improves the TCR (between
22 and 32 dB on average), but its computational time is 1.5 times
slower when compared to the CFAR algorithm.
Bird R, Whittaker P, Stern B, Angli N, Cohen M, Guida R (2014) NovaSAR-S: A Low Cost Approach to SAR Applications, Conference Proceedings of 2013 Asia-Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (APSAR) IEEE
NovaSAR-S is SSTL?s revolutionary small Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite designed for low cost missions. The instrument specification and mission characteristics of the NovaSAR satellite have been designed to provide benefit to a range of applications - the key ones being maritime surveillance (including ship and oil slick detection), forestry, disaster monitoring (particularly flooding) and agriculture. The paper will present an assessment of the ability of NovaSAR to address these key applications and provide examples of products that could be derived from NovaSAR imagery to support these applications.
This paper proposes a new method of estimating the shape parameters of polarimetric singlelook complex compound distributions which model synthetic aperture radar data. The estimators derived from this method utilize fractional moments of polarimetric whitening filter, and can be derived for all commonly occurring distributions. They also exhibit low variance properties.
Iervolino P, Guida R, Lumsdon P, Janoth J, Clift M, Minchella A (2017) Ship detection in SAR imagery: a comparison study, Proceedings of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2017) IEEE
This paper presents a ship-detection study with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired at two different frequencies: X- and C-band. The detection procedure relies on a novel algorithm based on the likelihood functions of both canonical ship target and sea clutter. Spaceborne images were acquired over the same area in the Solent Channel in UK at approximately the same time on the 7th June 2016. Here, datasets are compared in terms of probability of detection (PD), probability of false alarm (PFA) and Target-to-Clutter Ratio (TCR). Detection maps are validated with Automatic Identification System (AIS) data when available and preliminary results show a higher TCR for the X-band SAR image.
Benoudjit A, Guida R (2017) Semi-automated estimation of the local flood depth on SAR images, 2017 IEEE 3rd International Forum on Research and Technologies for Society and Industry (RTSI) pp. 1-6 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

In the context of a flooding, a clear cloud-free SAR (Synthetic
Aperture Radar) image proves mainly useful to retrieve flood
features that can provide an extensive understanding of the
disaster. Among these features, extremely important is the
water depth on which this paper will focus by looking for a
semi-automated algorithm for its estimation in the neighborhood
of a given building from a pair of SAR images.

In this study, two SAR images acquired during dry and
flooded conditions are necessary, as well as a DSM (Digital
Surface Model) to give an a priori knowledge of the height of
the building and its footprint. The whole process is divided
into two main parts: First, an extraction of the building?s
double-bounce contribution using Genetic Algorithms, then
the computation of the inundated building?s height, to eventually
evaluate the water level locally in the neighborhood of
this building.

Thanks to the semi-automation of the double-reflection
line retrieval, the execution time of the whole process was
reduced from a few minutes (time to manually delineate the
double-bounce line) to a few seconds, while keeping an error
in the estimated flood depth in the order of a few decimeters
(35cm on average).

Yahia O, Guida R, Iervolino P (2018) Sentinel-1 and Landsat-8 feature level fusion for soil moisture content estimation, Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (EUSAR 2018) EUSAR
A novel methodology is proposed for soil moisture content (SMC) estimation using the feature level fusion of Senti-nel-1 and Landsat-8 satellite datasets. This fusion consists of concatenating Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) to the feature vector (radar and physical features) of the inversion of the Integral Equation Model (IEM) through Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to reduce vegetation effects on Sentinel-1 estimation. This methodology is applied on Blackwell farms, Guildford, United Kingdom, where ground truth and satellite data were collected dur-ing 2017. The preliminary SMC estimation results show lower RMSE errors (by 0.474%) and less bias than the IEM inversion method.
Achiri L, Guida R, Iervolino P (2018) Collaborative use of SAR and AIS data from NovaSAR-S for Maritime Surveillance, Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (EUSAR 2018), Aachen, Germany EUSAR
This paper provides a novel approach for the fusion of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and Automatic Identification System (AIS) data for the tracking of vessels over sea areas. At this aim, SAR and AIS data are simulated and optimized for the upcoming NovaSAR-S maritime and stripmap modes. These simulated data are used to test the proposed tracking methodology in real time scenario. The results also give practical guidelines on how to task NovaSAR-S to cover uncooperative vessels over the revisit time of the satellite considering the Doppler shift due to the radial velocity of the target.
Iervolino P, Guida R, Ayesh-Meagher A (2018) Land Classification using a novel Multispectral and SAR data Fusion in Doha area, EUSAR 2018 Proceedings VDE VERLAG GMBH
A new algorithm for land classification is presented in this paper and is based on the fusion of Multispectral, Panchromatic and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The novel approach relies on Generalized Intensity-Hue-Saturation (G-HIS) transform and the Wavelet Transform (WT). The fused image is derived by modulating the SAR texture with the high features details of the Panchromatic WT and by injecting this product at the place of G-HIS high feature details. Finally, a classification is performed on the fused product by using a Maximum Likelihood (ML) classifier. The algorithm has been tested on data acquired by Sentinel-1 (SAR) and Landsat-8 (Multispectral and Panchromatic) over the area of Greater Doha in Qatar in 2017. Results show an increment of 3% in the overall accuracy for the fused product compared to the Multispectral dataset.
Savastano Salvatore, Guida Raffaella (2018) Uncertainty quantification in synthetic aperture radar remote sensing data processing, Proceedings of IGARSS 2018, the 38th annual symposium of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
A new methodology, based on the International Organization
for Standardization (ISO) Guide to the expression of Uncertainty
in Measurement (GUM), for the analysis of uncertainties
in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data
is presented. The principal idea is to assess the sources of uncertainty,
developing computational approaches to propagate
uncertainties through the whole SAR signal processing chain.
The final goal is to construct uncertainties budgets to quantify
the total uncertainty of SAR products, permitting their ?traceability?
to international reference standards.
Yahia Oualid, Guida Raffaella, Iervolino Pasquale (2018) Weights based decision level data fusion of landsat-8 and sentinel-1 for soil moisture content estimation, Proceedings of IGARSS 2018, the 38th annual symposium of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
A novel decision level data fusion algorithm for soil
moisture content estimation is proposed in this paper.
Firstly, individual estimations are determined, respectively,
from the inversion of the Integral Equation Model (IEM) for
Sentinel-1 and from the Temperature Vegetation Dryness
Index (TVDI) for LANDSAT-8. Then, a feature level fusion
of these methods is performed using an Artificial Neural
Network (ANN). Finally, all estimations including the
feature level fusion estimation are fused at the decision level
using a novel weights based estimation. The area of interest
for this study is Blackwell Farms, Guildford, United
Kingdom and datasets were taken on 17/11/2017 for both
Landsat-8 and Sentinel-1. Estimation from the proposed
decision level fusion method produces a Root Mean Square
Error RMSE (1.090%) which is lower than RMSE of the
individual estimations of each sensor as well as that of the
feature level fusion estimation.
Achiri Lotfi, Guida Raffaella, Iervolino Pasquale (2018) SAR and AIS Fusion for Maritime Surveillance, Proceedings of the 4th International Forum on Research and Technologies for Society and Industry Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
This paper presents a novel approach to fuse
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and Automatic
Identification System (AIS) data for maritime surveillance. The
procedure consists of four steps. First, ship detection is performed
in the SAR image using a Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR)
algorithm; then feature extraction (ship position, heading and size)
is performed on ships detected in the SAR image, the third step
consists in identifying the detected ships and extracting the same
features from the AIS data. The final step is to feed the fusion
block with both features vectors extracted separately from the
SAR and AIS. Here the arithmetic mean function is established.
The algorithm is tested using simulated SAR images and AIS data.
Preliminary results of the fusion of SAR and AIS data are
presented and discussed.
Benoudjit Abdelhakim, Guida Raffaella (2018) A web application for the automatic mapping of the flood extent on SAR images, Proceedings of the 4th International Forum on Research and Technologies for Society and Industry (RTSI 2018) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Flood is causing devastating damages every year all over the
world. One way to improve the readiness of stakeholders (rescue
authorities, policy makers, and communities) is by providing
flood extent maps promptly after the disaster, preferably
in an automated way and with a minimum number of
satellite imagery to reduce costs. The web application developed
in this paper aims to address this problem by mapping
the flood extent automatically from SAR images.

This web application is portable since it runs on the internet
browser, and allows to perform the classification of
the flooding in an automated fashion. Another strong point
is the rapidity of the processing: the whole processing time
was around 3 to 5 minutes for a subset of 20 million pixels.
The inundation map returned by our algorithm was validated
against vector files mapped by the United Nations Institute for
Training and Research (UNITAR) for the same flood event.

Regarding the dataset needed in this study, a pair of a preflood
SAR image and an optical image of the same area were
used to build a training dataset of water and non-water classes.
The learning phase is immediately followed by the classification
of the post-flood SAR image into a binary flood map.
The web application described in this paper was built with
open-source Python libraries which are backed by large communities
(Django, Scikit-learn among others). The flood map
was eventually displayed on OpenStreetMap maps provided
by Mapbox.

Amitrano Donato, Guida Raffaella, Dell?Aglio Domenico, Di Martino Gerardo, Di Martire Diego, Iodice Antonio, Costantini Mario, Malvarosa Fabio, Minati Federico (2019) Long-Term Satellite Monitoring of the Slumgullion Landslide Using Space-Borne Synthetic Aperture Radar Sub-Pixel Offset Tracking, Remote Sensing 11 (3) MDPI
Kinematic characterization of a landslide at large, small, and detailed scale is today still rare and challenging, especially for long periods, due to the difficulty in implementing demanding ground surveys with adequate spatiotemporal coverage. In this work, the suitability of space-borne synthetic aperture radar sub-pixel offset tracking for the long-term monitoring of the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado (US) is investigated. This landslide is classified as a debris slide and has so far been monitored through ground surveys and, more recently, airborne remote sensing, while satellite images are scarcely exploited. The peculiarity of this landslide is that it is subject to displacements of several meters per year. Therefore, it cannot be monitored with traditional synthetic aperture radar differential interferometry, as this technique has limitations related to the loss of interferometric coherence and to the maximum observable displacement gradient/rate. In order to overcome these limitations, space-borne synthetic aperture radar sub-pixel offset tracking is applied to pairs of images acquired with a time span of one year between August 2011 and August 2013. The obtained results are compared with those available in the literature, both at landslide scale, retrieved through field surveys, and at point scale, using airborne synthetic aperture radar imaging and GPS. The comparison showed full congruence with the past literature. A consistency check covering the full observation period is also implemented to confirm the reliability of the technique, which results in a cheap and effective methodology for the long-term monitoring of large landslide-induced movements.
Amitrano Donato, Guida Raffaella, Ruello Giuseppe (2019) Multitemporal SAR RGB Processing for Sentinel-1 GRD Products: Methodology and Applications, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing pp. 1-11 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
The Sentinel-1 mission has finally reached its maturity with the launch of the second Sentinel radar. Among the products delivered by the agency, the ground range detected class is raising more and more interest among users due to its reduced computational demand for information extraction and availability on cloud exploitation platforms, like the Google Earth Engine. In this paper, we present a novel multitemporal processing chain, suitable to be applied to Sentinel-1 ground range detected products to obtain RGB images, using a series of single polarization detected images. These products aim at being the equivalent for the recently introduced Level-1 $\alpha$ , exploiting a texture measure instead of the interferometric coherence, to properly render and enhance the presence of built-up areas. The discussion is supported by experiments showing the reliability of this newly introduced class of products in classic synthetic aperture radar applications like image photointerpretation, flood mapping, and long-term urban area monitoring.