Professor Tazeeb Rajwani


Professor of International Business and Strategy; Head of Department of Strategy and International Business
BSc (Hons) MA PhD FRSA FHEA FCMI
+44 (0)1483 686300
07 MS 02
By appointment

Biography

University roles and responsibilities

  • Head of Department of Strategy and International Business
  • Member of Senior Management Team
  • Chair in International Business and Strategy

My qualifications

BSc (Hons) in International Hospitality Management
Univesity of Surrey, UK
MA in Management
University of Nottingham, UK
PhD in Strategic Management
Imperial College London, UK

Previous roles

Head of Executive Education
University of Essex
Director of Postgraduate Programmes
University of Essex
Director of EMBA
Cranfield School of Management
Director of Government Affairs Research
Cranfield School of Management and Open University
Professor of International Business and Strategy
University of Essex
Reader in Strategic Management
Cranfield School of Management
VP in Corporate Finance
KPMG LLP

Affiliations and memberships

Academy of Management
Academy of International Business
Strategic Management Society
CMI

Research

Research interests

Research projects

Indicators of esteem

  • - Emerald citation award for his highly cited paper on 'Corporate political activity'.

    - Best paper Awards and Nominations at Academy of Management, Strategic Management Society and Academy of International Business conferences.

    - Keynote speaker at various world leading universities (e.g. University of Chicago, LSE, Imperial College London, London Business School, Durham, amongst others), thought leadership events (e.g. CEO Summit, Young President Organisation, Oracle E2.0, Mexican Franchise Association, Malaysian Human Resource Development Fund, UK-India Business Council, Institute of Directors etc) and international conferences (e.g. Academy of Management, Academy of International Business, British Academy of Management, European Academy of Management and Strategic Management Society).

    - Best reviewer awards at Journal of International Management, Journal of Business Research and many international conferences. 

    - Nomination of 'Management Book of the Year' Award by CMI.

    - Mentor and Advisor at the UK Sirius programme.

    - External Reviewer for REF 2021 outputs in the 'Strategy and International Business' field for Warwick Business School.

     

     

My teaching

Supervision

Postgraduate research supervision

My publications

Highlights

Selected Publications

  1. De Villa, M.A, Rajwani, T, Lawton, T and Mellahi (2018) “To engage or not to engage? A study of corporate political activities in emerging markets with high institutional risk”, Global Strategy Journal. https://doi.org/10.1002/gsj.1205
  2. White, G, Boddewyn, J, Rajwani, T and Hemphill, T (2018). “Political ties and regulator vulnerabilities to political pressure: The moderating effects of regulatory and political distance”, Management International Review. 58(5), pp.743-769
  3. Liedong, T and Rajwani, T (2017). “The impact of Political Ties on Corporate Governance and Debt Financing: Evidence from Ghana”, Long Range Planning, 51(5), pp. 666-679
  4. Liedong, T, Rajwani, T and Mellahi, K (2017). “Reality or illusion? The efficacy of nonmarket strategy in institutional risk reduction”, British Journal of Management, 28 (4), pp. 609-628. 
  5. Lawton, T, Rajwani, T and Minto, M (2017). “Why trade associations matter: Exploring function, meaning and influence”, Journal of Management Inquiry, 27 (1), pp. 5-9.   
  6. Lawton, T and Rajwani, T (2017). “Introduction: Revisiting the Roles and Responsibilities of Trade Associations”, Journal of Management Inquiry, 27 (1), pp.3-4.  
  7. White, G, Fainshmidt, S and Rajwani, T (2017). “Antecedents and Outcomes of Political Tie intensity: Institutional and Strategic Fit Perspectives”, Journal of International Management, 24 (1), pp. 1-15. 
  8. Amaeshi, K, Adegbite, E and Rajwani, T (2016). “Corporate social responsibility in developing economies: Do institutional voids matter?” Journal of Business Ethics, 134 (1), pp. 135-153. 
  9. Rajwani, T, Lawton, T and Phillips, N (2015). “The Voice of Industry: Why management researchers should pay attention to Trade Associations”, Strategic Organization, 13 (3), pp. 224-232
  10. Rajwani, T and Liedong, T (2015). “Political activity and firm performance within nonmarket research: An international assessment and research agenda’, Journal of World Business, 50 (2), pp. 273-283.  
  11. Andrea De Villa, M, Rajwani, T and Lawton, T (2015). “Market entry modes in a multipolar world: Untangling the moderating effect of the political environment”, International Business Review, 24 (3), pp. 419-429. 
  12. Liedong, T, Ghobadian, A, Rajwani, T and O’Regan, N (2015). “Toward a view of complementarity: Trust and policy influence effects of corporate social responsibility and corporate political activity”, Group and Organization Management, 40 (3) pp. 405-427. 
  13. Doh, J, Lawton, T, Rajwani, T and Paroutis, S (2014). “Why your company may need a Chief External Officer: Upgrading external affairs can help align strategy and improve competitive advantage”, Organizational Dynamics, 43 (2), 96-104. 
  14. Stadler, C, Rajwani, T and Karaba, F (2014). “Solutions to the exploration/exploitation dilemma: Networks as a new level of analysis”. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16 (2), pp 172-193. 
  15. Lawton, T, McGuire, S and Rajwani, T. (2013). “Corporate political activity: A literature review and research agenda”, International Journal of Management Reviews, 15 (1), pp. 86-105
  16. Lawton, T, Rajwani, T and Doh, J. (2013). “The antecedents of political capabilities: The study of ownership, cross-border activity and organization at legacy airlines in a deregulatory context”, International Business Review, 22 (1), pp. 228-242. 
  17. Doh, J, Lawton, T and Rajwani, T (2012). “Advancing nonmarket strategy research: institutional perspectives in a changing world” for Academy of Management Perspectives Journal, 26 (3), pp.22-39
  18. Lawton, T, Rajwani, T and Reinmoeller, P (2012). “Rethinking survival instincts: Natural coping strategies for hostile environments”, Business Horizons, 55 (1), pp. 81-91.
  19. Lawton, T and Rajwani, T (2011), “Designing lobbying capabilities: Managerial choices in unpredictable environments”, European Business Review, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 167-189. 
  20. Harrington, D, Lawton, T.C and Rajwani, T (2005). “Embracing and exploiting industry turbulence: The strategic transformation of Aer Lingus”, European Management Journal, 23 (4), pp.450-457. 

Publications

White III George O., Fainshmidt Stav, Rajwani Tazeeb (2018) Antecedents and Outcomes of Political Tie Intensity: Institutional and Strategic Fit Perspectives, Journal of International Management 24 (1) pp. 1-15 Elsevier
Although international nonmarket strategy research has highlighted the importance of political
ties, it is still unclear why some foreign subsidiaries are more politically active than others and
what conditions may render political practices beneficial in a host country. We argue that foreign
subsidiary political tie intensity ? the extent to which senior managers provide time and re-
sources in informally dealing with government officials for nonmarket purposes ? will be influ-
enced by political institutions in their parent's home country, especially when the MNE parent
attempts to protect foreign subsidiary resources. Additionally, we assert that fit between a par-
ent's home country political institutions and foreign subsidiary political tie intensity will posi-
tively affect subsidiary performance. We employ primary data collected from 181 foreign sub-
sidiaries in the Philippines and find support for our hypotheses. This study advances international
nonmarket strategy research by highlighting how an MNE's home country political institutions
shape subsidiary political networking and strategic performance outcomes in host country en-
vironments.
Lawton T.C., Rajwani T.S. (2015) Introduction: The evolution of non-market strategy in theory and practice, In: The Routledge Companion to Non-Market Strategy The Routledge Companion to Non-Market Strategy pp. 3-11 Taylor and Francis Inc.
The late Kenneth Waltz, father of the neorealist approach to international relations, first suggested that a bipolar world is more stable,1 arguing that a world dominated by two great powers is less prone to large-scale conflict.2 The end of the Cold War heralded the dissolution of this system and the emergence of a unipolar world dominated by the United States. Susan Strange?s notion of structural power3 seemed to support this thesis, since, during the 1990s, the US had the authority to shape and determine the structure of the global political economy. This power manifests as the ability to control the four key pillars of the world economy: security, production, finance, and knowledge.
Stadler C., Rajwani T., Karaba F. (2013) Solutions to the exploration/exploitation dilemma: Networks as a new level of analysis, International Journal of Management Reviews 16 (2) pp. 172-193 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
This paper reviews the extant literature on the exploration/exploitation dilemma. Based on a systematic analysis of structural, behavioural, systemic and temporal solutions, the authors are able to show that the learning literature continues to struggle with the question of how exactly an organization can separate exploration and exploitation and at the same time enable necessary knowledge exchange and cooperation between these two notions. Paying closer attention to networks might enable future research to answer this question. In particular, a combination of structural aspects of networks and social ties has the potential to explain how the solutions currently on offer can be implemented successfully, how organizations can combine several of them, and how they can shift between them.
Rajwani T., Liedong T.A. (2014) Political activity and firm performance within nonmarket research: A review and international comparative assessment, Journal of World Business 50 (2) pp. 273-283 Elsevier
There is a widely held view that the performance of firms depends not only on the ability of managers to exploit economic markets but also on their ability to succeed in political markets. To test the value of political activism, recent scholarship has probed the impact of corporate political activity (CPA) on firm performance. However, mixed findings and the fragmented nature of the field raise more questions than answers as to the nature of this relationship. This systematic review examines scholarly articles for evidence of the impact of CPA on firm value. The findings suggest that CPA is more valuable in emerging countries and that relational CPA strategies are more common in emerging (versus developed) countries where social capital underlies political and economic exchange. We also document the paucity of research on informational CPA strategies and policy outcomes in the emerging country context. We consider the implications of these findings and others for local and multinational enterprises, and offer suggestions for further research. © 2014.
Lawton Thomas, Rajwani Tazeeb, Reinmoeller Patrick (2011) Do you have a survival instinct? Leveraging genetic codes to achieve fit in hostile business environments, Business Horizons 55 (1) pp. 81-91 Elsevier
It is too easy to blame market turbulence or unexpected events for a company's poor performance; yet, this is frequently the response of managers to circumstances and activities beyond their immediate control. As a consequence, managers and owners often fail to develop strategies for coping with challenge or crisis the next time it occurs. The result is that many organizations are doomed to repeat the same or similar mistakes over and over again in a form of corporate déjà vu. To gain insights regarding how companies can better manage in hostile environments, we consider the solutions that have evolved in nature over billions of years. We trace nature's codes for adapting to hostile environments and explore the underlying characteristics of four genetic code types that can help business organizations to offset the negative implications of hostility through ensuring strategic fit. We then link the four genetic codes most frequently found in nature with organizational capabilities. When correctly identified and leveraged, these capabilities can enable a company to focus attention and resources on how to manage successfully in hostile environments.
Doh J.P., Lawton T.C., Rajwani T., Paroutis S. (2014) Why your company may need a chief external officer. Upgrading external affairs can help align strategy and improve competitive advantage, Organizational Dynamics 43 (2) pp. 96-104 Elsevier Science
Rajwani Tazeeb, Lawton Thomas, Phillips Nelson (2015) The ?Voice of Industry?: Why management researchers should pay more attention to trade associations, Strategic Organization 13 (3) pp. 224-232 SAGE Publications
Trade associations work to influence regulation, government policy, and public opinion on behalf of the collective needs and objectives of their members. They also serve as agents for disseminating and exchanging information within industries, and often act as informal regulators by setting voluntary standards of behavior for industry members. Yet, despite the obvious importance of trade associations for firms, industries, and societies, management and organization researchers have devoted surprisingly little attention to understanding them. In this essay, we argue that researchers must develop a deeper understanding of their purpose, sources of influence, and impact on companies, industries, and society. We go on to discuss three examples of areas of management research?institutional theory, collective identity, and nonmarket strategy?where we believe trade associations are of particular relevance and where existing theoretical perspectives remain limited without an explicit consideration of these important organizations.
Lawton Thomas, Rajwani Tazeeb, Doh Jonathan (2012) The antecedents of political capabilities: A study of ownership, cross-border activity and organization at legacy airlines in a deregulatory context, International Business Review 22 (1) pp. 228-242 Elsevier
Governments and ownership structures can both facilitate and constrain organizational value creation. Firm-level political strategy is a frequent response to protect or promote organizational interests. When effectively configured and implemented, these political strategies can become capabilities. This inductive study examines the antecedents of political capabilities in European airlines within the context of cross-border market deregulation. Our central contribution is an understanding of how management teams from non-state and state airlines organize and develop divergent corporate political capabilities in this context. While managers? actions in response to specific public policy processes can create political capabilities, the outcome is moderated by the nature of corporate ownership and the relative influence of public and private stakeholders on capability formation. Our theoretical contribution is to extend the study of organizational capabilities into the non-market context through analyzing how European flag carrier airlines organized their political capabilities in anticipation of a changing transnational policy context.
De Villa Maria A., Rajwani Tazeeb, Lawton Thomas C., Mellahi Kamel (2018) To engage or not to engage with host governments: Corporate political activity and host-country political risk, Global Strategy Journal Wiley

Research summary: We analyze how a host market?s institutional context can influence an MNE?s senior management?s choice and deployment of corporate political activity (CPA). First, we argue that a non-engaged approach to CPA is likely to be chosen when senior management perceives high host-country political risk, arising not only from host-country political institutions, but also from the distance between home and host-government relations. Second, we propose that the deployment of this approach can require active adaptation through four political strategies: low-visibility, ensuring a minimal degree of general attention from other actors; rapid-compliance, entailing high speed actions to obey the rules; reconfiguration, involving re-arranging the MNE?s structure and processes for competitiveness; and anticipation, implying the prediction of public policy and analysis of interest groups to anticipate responses.

Managerial summary: Senior managers of multinational enterprises (MNEs) often examine when and how to engage, or not to engage, with host governments. We argue that senior managers are likely to choose to evade engagement with a host government when they perceive high host-country political risk, not only through public political risk ratings, but also via their home and host-government relations. We show that this choice can require senior managers to lead active adaptation through four strategies: low-visibility, enabling the MNE to operate under the radar of host governments; rapid-compliance, entailing high speed actions to obey the rules; reconfiguration, involving re-arranging the MNE?s structure and processes for competitiveness; and anticipation, implying the prediction of public policy and analysis of interest groups to anticipate responses.

Amaeshi K., Adegbite E., Rajwani T. (2014) Corporate Social Responsibility in Challenging and Non-enabling Institutional Contexts: Do Institutional Voids matter?, JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS 134 (1) pp. 135-153 SPRINGER
The extant literature on comparative Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) often assumes functioning and enabling institutional arrangements, such as strong government, market and civil society, as a necessary condition for responsible business practices. Setting aside this dominant assumption and drawing insights from a case study of Fidelity Bank, Nigeria, we explore why and how firms still pursue and enact responsible business practices in what could be described as challenging and non-enabling institutional contexts for CSR. Our findings suggest that responsible business practices in such contexts are often anchored on some CSR adaptive mechanisms. These mechanisms uniquely complement themselves and inform CSR strategies. The CSR adaptive mechanisms and strategies, in combination and in complementarity, then act as an institutional buffer (i.e. ?institutional immunity?), which enables firms to successfully engage in responsible practices irrespective of their weak institutional settings. We leverage this understanding to contribute to CSR in developing economies, often characterised by challenging and non-enabling institutional contexts. The research, policy and practice implications are also discussed.
De Villa Maria A., Rajwani Tazeeb, Lawton Thomas (2015) Market entry modes in a multipolar world: Untangling the moderating effect of the political environment, International Business Review 24 (3) pp. 419-429 Elsevier
We review the extant literature on market entry modes to explain the multi-levels of the political environment that can have a moderating effect on transnational corporations? (TNC) market entry processes. Based on a systematic review of the Uppsala model, transaction cost analysis, real options, eclectic paradigm, industrial network, and institutional approaches, we show that the market entry modes literature has largely excluded some aspects of the political environment from market entry mode decisions. Consequently, we continue to struggle with the question of how TNCs can factor the political environment into their foreign market entry processes. We suggest a more detailed analysis of the political environment may enable future research to address this challenge using corporate political activity literature and institutional theory. In particular, a distinction between macro and micro levels of analysis can explain how the moderating effect of the political environment on market entry mode decisions can be untangled.
Lawton Thomas, Rajwani Tazeeb (2017) Introduction: Revisiting the Roles and Responsibilities of Trade Associations, Journal of Management Inquiry 27 (1) pp. 3-4 SAGE Publications
We explain that the reasons for this Dialog stem from the enduring gaps in our understanding of what trade associations are, how they work, and what impact they have on members, industries, markets, and societies. The Dialog includes an opening paper by Thomas Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani and Amy Minto and is followed by contributions from Michael Barnett, Steven Kahl, Lyn Spillman, and Howard Aldrich. Building on previous and ongoing research, each author reflected on the key questions driving this Dialogue: Do trade associations matter and if so, how? We argue that not only do they matter but more attention needs to be given to their roles and responsibilities.
White III George O., Boddewyn Jean J., Rajwani Tazeeb, Hemphill Thomas A. (2018) Regulator Vulnerabilities to Political Pressures and Political Tie Intensity: The Moderating Effects of Regulatory and Political Distance, MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL REVIEW 58 (5) pp. 743-769 Springer
This study applies the institution-based view and neo-institutional theory
in addressing how managerial perceptions of regulator vulnerabilities to political pressure,
and institutional distance, influence intensification of political ties. Our analysis of
181 wholly owned foreign subsidiary (WOFSs) operating in the Philippines suggests
that managerial perceptions of regulator vulnerability to political pressures positively
enhance the intensification of political ties. Our results also reveal that regulatory distance
and, more importantly, the simultaneous presence of political and regulatory distance
diminish the positive relationship between managerial perceptions of regulator vulnerability
to political pressures and a WOFS?s propensity to enhance the intensification
of political ties. Managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.
Lawton T.C., Rajwani T.S. (2015) Conclusion: Where next for non-market strategy?, In: The Routledge Companion to Non-Market Strategy pp. 412-417 Taylor and Francis Inc.
As David Baron noted in his Foreword to this book, non-market strategies serve one or more of five purposes:

rent seeking (e.g. the continuation of government subsidies);

unlocking opportunities (such as pushing for industry deregulation);

defense (against rivals, non-governmental organization (NGO) criticism, community activism, or government directives);

attracting customers (those who place a premium on environmental protection, social justice, or the protection of rights); and

strengthening reputation, building trust, and enhancing legitimacy.

Lawton Thomas, Rajwani Tazeeb, Minto Amy (2017) Why Trade Associations Matter: Exploring Function, Meaning, and Influence, Journal of Management Inquiry 27 (1) pp. 5-9 SAGE Publications
We explore the organizational characteristics of trade associations (TAs) and suggest theoretical approaches for undertaking research into or involving TAs in management and organization studies. Through emphasizing the role of TAs within and between industries and at the interface of business and society, we consider how TAs generate meaning and influence.
Lawton Thomas, Rajwani Tazeeb (2011) Designing lobbying capabilities: managerial choices in unpredictable environments, European Business Review 23 (2) pp. 167-189 Emerald

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how, in unpredictable policy environments, specific managerial choices play a vital role in designing lobbying capabilities through the choice of levels of investment in human capital, network relationships and structural modification.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an inductive case study approach, data were collected through 42 in?depth, semi?structured interviews and documented archival data. Cross?case pattern sequencing was used to construct an interpretive model of lobbying capability design. Data were framed by the dynamic resource?based theory of the firm.

Findings

Heterogeneous lobbying capabilities are adapted differently in private and state?owned airlines as a result of diverse ownership structures and time compositions that interplay with organizational processes. The result is a divergence between private? and state?owned airlines in how they engage with governmental actors and policies.

Research limitations/implications

The paper contributes to ongoing discourse in and between the dynamic capabilities and corporate political activity literatures, particularly on how state/non?state?owned airlines design their political lobbying capabilities. The research is limited in so far as it only studies the European airline industry.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates how a specific and far?reaching unanticipated external policy stimulus (the 9/11 terrorist attacks) impacted on management choices for lobbying design in the European airline industry.

Lawton Thomas, Doh Jonathan P., Rajwani Tazeeb (2014) Aligning for Advantage: Competitive Strategies for the Political and Social Arenas, Oxford University Press

Takes a strategic management approach to a company's engagement with political, regulatory and social arenas and interests

Develops a conceptual framework and managerial process for designing and delivering successful nonmarket strategies

Compares and synthesizes nonmarket strategy best practices in a variety of company and country contexts.

Advances an argument and logic for aligning nonmarket and market strategies to deliver competitive advantage

Argues that regulatory and responsibility departments in companies should be functionally integrated and managerially elevated to ensure that the nonmarket environment is engaged at a strategic level in business organizations

Lawton T. C., Rajwani T. (2018) Introduction: Revisiting the Roles and Responsibilities of Trade Associations, JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT INQUIRY 27 (1) pp. 3-4 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC
We explain that the reasons for this Dialog stem from the enduring gaps in our understanding of what trade associations are, how they work, and what impact they have on members, industries, markets, and societies. The Dialog includes an opening paper by Thomas Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani and Amy Minto and is followed by contributions from Michael Barnett, Steven Kahl, Lyn Spillman, and Howard Aldrich. Building on previous and ongoing research, each author reflected on the key questions driving this Dialogue: Do trade associations matter and if so, how? We argue that not only do they matter but more attention needs to be given to their roles and responsibilities.
Liedong T.A., Ghobadian A., Rajwani T., O'Regan N. (2015) Toward a View of Complementarity: Trust and Policy Influence Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Political Activity, Group and Organization Management 40 (3) pp. 405-427 SAGE Publications Inc.
The extant literature argues that nonmarket strategies can establish, sustain, or enhance a firm?s competitive advantage. Less clear is how and why effective nonmarket strategies influence a firm?s competitiveness. Moreover, the extant literature tends to examine the two building blocks of nonmarket strategy?corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate political activity (CPA)?separately. In this article, we extend trust to the nonmarket environment. We analyze how CSR and CPA complement each other to create strong trust between firms and the polity, and how they consequently influence government policy. We show the mediating role of trust in policy influence, and argue that CSR and CPA should be aligned for the successful influence of salient government policy.
Liedong T. A., Rajwani T. (2017) The impact of managerial political ties on corporate governance and debt financing: Evidence from Ghana, Long Range Planning 51 (5) pp. 666-679 Elsevier Science
In this study, we draw upon insights from agency theory to examine the impact of managerial political ties on cost of debt and also to explore whether corporate governance mediates this impact. We hypothesize that political ties reduce financial reporting quality, disclosure of non-financial information and board independence, and are therefore associated with higher interest rates. We also hypothesize that the negative effect of political ties on the cost of debt will be stronger if firms borrow from privately-owned banks versus government-owned banks. Using data from Ghana, we find support for our direct and moderation hypotheses; political ties are associated with high interest rates and poor corporate governance. However, we do not find evidence of mediation. Altogether, the findings reveal the dark side of political connections and highlight the cost of political embeddedness in emerging credit markets.
Doh Jonathan P., Lawton Thomas C., Rajwani Tazeeb (2012) Advancing Nonmarket Strategy Research: Institutional Perspectives in a Changing World, Academy of Management Perspectives 26 (3) pp. 22-39 Academy of Management
Nonmarket strategy is now well established as a legitimate field of research. In this paper, we review the dominant paradigms in contemporary nonmarket research and report on the key insights and findings from those perspectives. We use this review to suggest that the integration of institutional and strategic perspectives provides a logical path for the continued development of nonmarket strategy research going forward. Looking ahead, our premise is that institutional perspectives will have an increased relevance to nonmarket scholarship, particularly with the increasing importance of emergent economies to international business. As companies are required to invest more in nonmarket practices, and adapt those practices to unique country contexts, we anticipate that research will increasingly draw from multiple conceptual paradigms and perspectives.
John A., Rajwani T.S., Lawton T.C. (2015) Corporate political activity, In: The Routledge Companion to Non-Market Strategy pp. 115-140 Taylor and Francis Inc.
The creation and preservation of competitive advantage remains the central concern of strategic managers (Lawton et al., 2013). Throughout this book, the contributors argue that in the modern world economy, the competitive advantage of a company is determined as much by its non-market strategy as it is by its market engagement. Following on Chapter 7?s discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR), in this chapter we focus on the second pillar of non-market strategy, usually referred to in the literature as ?corporate political activity? (CPA). This ranges from lobbying government through the use of political campaign contributions, to sharing information with political or regulatory actors, to attending political action committee meetings on policy formulation. Therefore, the key objectives of this chapter are to reflect on the various perspectives in the field, shed light on the dominant theoretical constructs in CPA, and set out a future research agenda. Our discussion underpins numerous subsequent chapters of this book.
Lawton Thomas C., Rajwani T., Minto A. (2018) Why Trade Associations Matter: Exploring Function, Meaning, and Influence, JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT INQUIRY 27 (1) pp. 5-9 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC
We explore the organizational characteristics of trade associations (TAs) and suggest theoretical approaches for undertaking research into or involving TAs in management and organization studies. Through emphasizing the role of TAs within and between industries and at the interface of business and society, we consider how TAs generate meaning and influence.
Liedong T.A., Rajwani Tazeeb, Mellahi K. (2017) Reality or Illusion? The Efficacy of Non-market Strategy in Institutional Risk Reduction, British Journal of Management 28 (4) pp. 609-628 Wiley
Non-market strategy researchers have postulated that political and social strategies reduce the exposure of firms to risk, but those arguments have received little empirical attention. In this paper, we integrate social capital and institutional theories to examine the efficacy of managerial political ties (MPTs) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in institutional risk reduction. Using survey data from 179 firms in Ghana we find that, whereas CSR reduces institutional risk exposure, MPTs do not. We also find that the effect of MPTs on risk exposure is moderated by public affairs functions. Contrary to extant literature, we do not find evidence of complementarity between MPTs and CSR. Altogether, the findings not only show that the proposed efficacy of MPTs in risk reduction is illusive, but they also signal the need for scrutinizing the harmony between non-market political and social strategies.

Additional publications