Professor Tazeeb Rajwani

Professor of International Business and Strategy / Head of Department of Strategy and International Business
+44 (0)1483 688807
07 MS 02
Student Feedback & Consultation hours: Please email me to arrange a meeting


University roles and responsibilities

  • Head of Department of Strategy and International Business
  • Member of Senior Management Team
  • Chair in International Business and Strategy
  • REF Output Review Panel
  • Personal/Academic Tutor

    My qualifications

    PhD in Strategic Management
    Imperial College London, UK
    MA in Management
    University of Nottingham, UK
    BSc (Hons) in International Hospitality Management
    Univesity of Surrey, UK

    Previous roles

    Head of Executive Education
    University of Essex
    Director of Postgraduate Programmes
    University of Essex
    Director of EMBA
    Cranfield School of Management
    Director of Government Affairs Research
    Cranfield School of Management and Open University
    Professor of International Business and Strategy
    University of Essex
    Reader in Strategic Management
    Cranfield School of Management
    VP in Corporate Finance

    Affiliations and memberships

    Academy of Management
    Academy of International Business
    Strategic Management Society


    Research interests

    Research projects

    Indicators of esteem

      Additional Information: 


      Postgraduate research supervision

      My teaching

      My publications


      Selected Publications

      1. Sun, P, Doh, J, Rajwani, T and Siegel, D (2021). "Navigating Cross-Border Institutional Complexity: A Review and Assessment of Multinational Nonmarket Strategy," Journal of International Business Studies.
      2. Peprah, A, Giachetti, C, Larsen, M and Rajwani, T (2021). “How Business Models Evolve in Weak Institutional Environments: The case of Jumia, the of Africa”, Organization Science.
      3. White, G and Rajwani, T (2021) “Regulatory Uncertainty and Foreign Subsidiary Strategic Proactiveness: An Institutional Approach”, European Journal of International Management.
      4. White, G, Rajwani, T and Lawton, T (2021) “Open for Business in a Closed World? Managing MNE Nonmarket Strategy in Times of Populism and Geopolitical Uncertainty”, Multinational Business Review.
      5. Lawton, T, Dorobantu, S, Rajwani, T and Sun, P (2020). “The implications of COVID-19 for Nonmarket Strategy research”, Journal of Management Studies.
      6. Liedong, T and Rajwani, T (2020) “Managerial Ties and Access to Finance in Weak Institutional Contexts: Does CEO Duality Matter?”, Africa Journal of Management.
      7. Kearney, A, Harrington, D and Rajwani, T (2020). “Entrepreneurial Strategy making in tourism firms: A systematic review and future research agenda”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research. 27 (2), pp 496-519.
      8. Darendeli, I, Hill, T.L, Rajwani, T and Cheng, Y (2020) “The Arab Spring: Exposure to political shocks and building legitimacy through projects for resilience”, Multinational Business Review.
      9. Mungai, E, Ndiritu, S and Rajwani, T (2020). “Raising the bar? Top Management Teams, Gender Diversity, and Environmental Sustainability”, Africa Journal of Management.
      10. Liedong, T, Rajwani, T and Lawton, T (2020)."Information and Nonmarket Strategy: Conceptualizing the Interrelationship between Big Data and Corporate Political Activity".  Technological Forecasting & Social Change
      11. White, G, Hemphill, T, Rajwani, T and Boddewyn, J (2020). "Does context really matter? The influence of deficient legal services on the intensity of political ties in the regulatory and legal arenas". Multinational Business Review.
      12. Mungai, E, Ndiritu, S and Rajwani, T (2020) “Do voluntary environmental management systems improve Environmental performance? Evidence from waste management by Kenyan firms”, Journal of Cleaner Production
      13. Liedong, T,  Peprah, A, Amartey, A and Rajwani, T (2020). "Institutional Voids and Firms’ Resource Commitment in Emerging Markets: A Review and Future Research Agenda". Journal of International Management 
      14. Liedong, T, Aghanya, D and Rajwani, T (2019). “Corporate Political Strategies in Weak Institutional Environments: A break from conventions”, Journal of Business Ethics
      15. De Villa, M.A, Rajwani, T, Lawton, T and Mellahi (2018) “To engage or not to engage? A study of corporate political activities in emerging markets with high institutional risk”, Global Strategy Journal.
      16. White, G, Boddewyn, J, Rajwani, T and Hemphill, T (2018). “Political ties and regulator vulnerabilities to political pressure: The moderating effects of regulatory and political distance”, Management International Review. 58(5), pp.743-769
      17. Liedong, T and Rajwani, T (2017). “The impact of Political Ties on Corporate Governance and Debt Financing: Evidence from Ghana”, Long Range Planning, 51(5), pp. 666-679
      18. Liedong, T, Rajwani, T and Mellahi, K (2017). “Reality or illusion? The efficacy of nonmarket strategy in institutional risk reduction”, British Journal of Management, 28 (4), pp. 609-628. 
      19. Lawton, T, Rajwani, T and Minto, M (2017). “Why trade associations matter: Exploring function, meaning and influence”, Journal of Management Inquiry, 27 (1), pp. 5-9.   
      20. Lawton, T and Rajwani, T (2017). “Introduction: Revisiting the Roles and Responsibilities of Trade Associations”, Journal of Management Inquiry, 27 (1), pp.3-4.  
      21. White, G, Fainshmidt, S and Rajwani, T (2017). “Antecedents and Outcomes of Political Tie intensity: Institutional and Strategic Fit Perspectives”, Journal of International Management, 24 (1), pp. 1-15. 
      22. Amaeshi, K, Adegbite, E and Rajwani, T (2016). “Corporate social responsibility in developing economies: Do institutional voids matter?” Journal of Business Ethics, 134 (1), pp. 135-153. 
      23. Rajwani, T, Lawton, T and Phillips, N (2015). “The Voice of Industry: Why management researchers should pay attention to Trade Associations”, Strategic Organization, 13 (3), pp. 224-232
      24. Rajwani, T and Liedong, T (2015). “Political activity and firm performance within nonmarket research: An international assessment and research agenda’, Journal of World Business, 50 (2), pp. 273-283.  
      25. Andrea De Villa, M, Rajwani, T and Lawton, T (2015). “Market entry modes in a multipolar world: Untangling the moderating effect of the political environment”, International Business Review, 24 (3), pp. 419-429. 
      26. Liedong, T, Ghobadian, A, Rajwani, T and O’Regan, N (2015). “Toward a view of complementarity: Trust and policy influence effects of corporate social responsibility and corporate political activity”, Group and Organization Management, 40 (3) pp. 405-427. 
      27. Doh, J, Lawton, T, Rajwani, T and Paroutis, S (2014). “Why your company may need a Chief External Officer: Upgrading external affairs can help align strategy and improve competitive advantage”, Organizational Dynamics, 43 (2), 96-104. 
      28. Stadler, C, Rajwani, T and Karaba, F (2014). “Solutions to the exploration/exploitation dilemma: Networks as a new level of analysis”. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16 (2), pp 172-193. 
      29. Lawton, T, McGuire, S and Rajwani, T. (2013). “Corporate political activity: A literature review and research agenda”, International Journal of Management Reviews, 15 (1), pp. 86-105
      30. Lawton, T, Rajwani, T and Doh, J. (2013). “The antecedents of political capabilities: The study of ownership, cross-border activity and organization at legacy airlines in a deregulatory context”, International Business Review, 22 (1), pp. 228-242. 
      31. Doh, J, Lawton, T and Rajwani, T (2012). “Advancing nonmarket strategy research: institutional perspectives in a changing world” for Academy of Management Perspectives Journal, 26 (3), pp.22-39
      32. Lawton, T, Rajwani, T and Reinmoeller, P (2012). “Rethinking survival instincts: Natural coping strategies for hostile environments”, Business Horizons, 55 (1), pp. 81-91.
      33. Lawton, T and Rajwani, T (2011), “Designing lobbying capabilities: Managerial choices in unpredictable environments”, European Business Review, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 167-189. 
      34. Harrington, D, Lawton, T.C and Rajwani, T (2005). “Embracing and exploiting industry turbulence: The strategic transformation of Aer Lingus”, European Management Journal, 23 (4), pp.450-457. 

      Books Published

      1. “The Routledge Companion to Non-Market Strategy”, Co-edited with Thomas Lawton, Routledge Press, 2015.
      2. “Aligning for Advantage: competitive strategies for the political and social arenas”, With Thomas Lawton and Jonathon Doh, Oxford University Press, 2014.

      Book Chapters 

      1. Doh, J.D, Rajwani, T and Lawton, T (2018). ”An uncomfortable relationship: Nongovernmental organizations, trade associations, and the development of industry self-regulation”. In The Routledge Handbook of NGOs and International Relations, edited by Davies, T. Routledge Press.
      2. Lawton, T and Rajwani, T (2015). “Where next for non-market strategy?”. In The Routledge Companion to Non-Market Strategy, edited by Lawton, T and Rajwani, T. Routledge Press.
      3. John, A., Rajwani, T and Lawton, T (2015). “Corporate Political Activity”. In The Routledge Companion to Non-Market Strategy, edited by Lawton, T and Rajwani, T. Routledge Press.
      4. Harrington, D, Lawton, T and Rajwani, T (2007). “Embracing and Exploiting Industry Turbulence: The Strategic Transformation of Aer Lingus”. In Strategic Management in Aviation, edited by Thomas C. Lawton, Ashgate Publishing.
      5. Harrington, D, Lawton, T and Rajwani, T. (2005). “Aer Lingus”. In “Cases in Irish Entrepreneurship”, edited by Thomas M. Cooney, Blackhall Publishing.


      George O. White III, TAZEEB SULTANALI RAJWANI, THOMAS LAWTON (2021)Open for Business in a Closed World: Managing MNE Nonmarket Strategy in Times of Populism and Geopolitical Uncertainty, In: Multinational business review Emerald Publishing

      Purpose – Multinational corporations are increasingly augmenting their international strategies with insights on, and approaches to, external stakeholders and nonmarket dynamics. The rise of populism and increased geopolitical uncertainty have accelerated these efforts, particularly for business leaders anticipating and engaging external agents, events, and issues that challenge the strategic objectives of their enterprises. Approach – In this introduction to the special issue, we begin by explaining why the increased preponderance of populism and geopolitical uncertainty are simultaneously posing an existential threat to the post-Cold War global economy predicated on free trade and (relatively) open borders, and consequently, challenging the structures and strategies of international business. Findings – We provide an overview of the four papers in our special issue, and consider how each advances insights on how multinationals effectively navigate the nonmarket uncertainties of the contemporary global economy. We then advance four important areas for international business research around multinational nonmarket strategies: (i) resilience and legitimacy; (ii), diversification; (iii), market and nonmarket strategy integration; and (iv), institutional arbitrage. Research implications – We anticipate that nonmarket strategy scholars can build on these themes to assess how nonmarket strategies can better enable multinationals to survive and thrive in an age of heightened global risk and uncertainty.

      T.C. Lawton, T.S. Rajwani (2015)Introduction: The evolution of non-market strategy in theory and practice, In: The Routledge Companion to Non-Market Strategypp. 3-11 Taylor and Francis Inc.

      The late Kenneth Waltz, father of the neorealist approach to international relations, first suggested that a bipolar world is more stable,1 arguing that a world dominated by two great powers is less prone to large-scale conflict.2 The end of the Cold War heralded the dissolution of this system and the emergence of a unipolar world dominated by the United States. Susan Strange’s notion of structural power3 seemed to support this thesis, since, during the 1990s, the US had the authority to shape and determine the structure of the global political economy. This power manifests as the ability to control the four key pillars of the world economy: security, production, finance, and knowledge.

      A. John, T.S. Rajwani, T.C. Lawton (2015)Corporate political activity, In: The Routledge Companion to Non-Market Strategypp. 115-140 Taylor and Francis Inc.

      The creation and preservation of competitive advantage remains the central concern of strategic managers (Lawton et al., 2013). Throughout this book, the contributors argue that in the modern world economy, the competitive advantage of a company is determined as much by its non-market strategy as it is by its market engagement. Following on Chapter 7’s discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR), in this chapter we focus on the second pillar of non-market strategy, usually referred to in the literature as “corporate political activity” (CPA). This ranges from lobbying government through the use of political campaign contributions, to sharing information with political or regulatory actors, to attending political action committee meetings on policy formulation. Therefore, the key objectives of this chapter are to reflect on the various perspectives in the field, shed light on the dominant theoretical constructs in CPA, and set out a future research agenda. Our discussion underpins numerous subsequent chapters of this book.

      Thomas Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani, Conor O'Kane (2011)Strategic reorientation and business turnaround: the case of global legacy airlines, In: Journal of Strategy and Management4(3)pp. 215-237 Emerald

      Purpose This paper aims to illustrate how legacy airlines can reorientate to achieve sharp recoveries in performance following prolonged periods of stagnation, decline and eroding competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach The authors use a qualitative analysis of five longitudinal case studies of legacy airlines that embarked on strategic change between 1997 and 2006. Data collection spanned ten years and included archival data, public documents, news clippings, accounts in specialist books and internal company documentation. Findings The paper identifies two distinct approaches for reorientation in the legacy airline industry. Companies that have fallen behind and are in risk of failure focus on regaining customer trust and loyalty, and restructuring route networks, business processes and costs in an “improvement and innovation” reorienting approach. Underperforming airlines, for whom growth has declined in traditional markets and who note that opportunities exist elsewhere, focus on product and service development and geographical growth in an “extension and expansion” reorienting approach. Practical implications The paper develops a framework for successful reorientation in the legacy airline industry. This framework encourages executives to focus on and leverage profit maximization, quality, leadership, alliance networks, regional consolidation and staff development during periods of strategy formulation and reorientation. Originality/value This research addresses the dearth of understanding and attention afforded to the concept of reorientation in the literature on strategic turnaround. The research also serves to emphasize the presence and importance of reorientation as a strategy of change within the legacy airline industry. Furthermore, in demonstrating how this strategy can be implemented in a sharp‐bending or performance improvement context, this study illustrates how reorientation is intertwined with the broader turnaround process.

      Thomas Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani, Patrick Reinmoeller (2011)Do you have a survival instinct? Leveraging genetic codes to achieve fit in hostile business environments, In: Business Horizons55(1)pp. 81-91 Elsevier

      It is too easy to blame market turbulence or unexpected events for a company's poor performance; yet, this is frequently the response of managers to circumstances and activities beyond their immediate control. As a consequence, managers and owners often fail to develop strategies for coping with challenge or crisis the next time it occurs. The result is that many organizations are doomed to repeat the same or similar mistakes over and over again in a form of corporate déjà vu. To gain insights regarding how companies can better manage in hostile environments, we consider the solutions that have evolved in nature over billions of years. We trace nature's codes for adapting to hostile environments and explore the underlying characteristics of four genetic code types that can help business organizations to offset the negative implications of hostility through ensuring strategic fit. We then link the four genetic codes most frequently found in nature with organizational capabilities. When correctly identified and leveraged, these capabilities can enable a company to focus attention and resources on how to manage successfully in hostile environments.

      Maria A. De Villa, Tazeeb Rajwani, Thomas C. Lawton, Kamel Mellahi (2018)To engage or not to engage with host governments: Corporate political activity and host-country political risk, In: Global Strategy Journal9(2)pp. 208-242 Wiley

      Research summary: We analyze how a host market’s institutional context can influence an MNE’s senior management’s choice and deployment of corporate political activity (CPA). First, we argue that a non-engaged approach to CPA is likely to be chosen when senior management perceives high host-country political risk, arising not only from host-country political institutions, but also from the distance between home and host-government relations. Second, we propose that the deployment of this approach can require active adaptation through four political strategies: low-visibility, ensuring a minimal degree of general attention from other actors; rapid-compliance, entailing high speed actions to obey the rules; reconfiguration, involving re-arranging the MNE’s structure and processes for competitiveness; and anticipation, implying the prediction of public policy and analysis of interest groups to anticipate responses. Managerial summary: Senior managers of multinational enterprises (MNEs) often examine when and how to engage, or not to engage, with host governments. We argue that senior managers are likely to choose to evade engagement with a host government when they perceive high host-country political risk, not only through public political risk ratings, but also via their home and host-government relations. We show that this choice can require senior managers to lead active adaptation through four strategies: low-visibility, enabling the MNE to operate under the radar of host governments; rapid-compliance, entailing high speed actions to obey the rules; reconfiguration, involving re-arranging the MNE’s structure and processes for competitiveness; and anticipation, implying the prediction of public policy and analysis of interest groups to anticipate responses.

      Jonathan P. Doh, Thomas C. Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani (2012)Advancing Nonmarket Strategy Research: Institutional Perspectives in a Changing World, In: Academy of Management Perspectives26(3)pp. 22-39 Academy of Management

      Nonmarket strategy is now well established as a legitimate field of research. In this paper, we review the dominant paradigms in contemporary nonmarket research and report on the key insights and findings from those perspectives. We use this review to suggest that the integration of institutional and strategic perspectives provides a logical path for the continued development of nonmarket strategy research going forward. Looking ahead, our premise is that institutional perspectives will have an increased relevance to nonmarket scholarship, particularly with the increasing importance of emergent economies to international business. As companies are required to invest more in nonmarket practices, and adapt those practices to unique country contexts, we anticipate that research will increasingly draw from multiple conceptual paradigms and perspectives.

      Thomas Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani, Jonathan Doh (2012)The antecedents of political capabilities: A study of ownership, cross-border activity and organization at legacy airlines in a deregulatory context, In: International Business Review22(1)pp. 228-242 Elsevier

      Governments and ownership structures can both facilitate and constrain organizational value creation. Firm-level political strategy is a frequent response to protect or promote organizational interests. When effectively configured and implemented, these political strategies can become capabilities. This inductive study examines the antecedents of political capabilities in European airlines within the context of cross-border market deregulation. Our central contribution is an understanding of how management teams from non-state and state airlines organize and develop divergent corporate political capabilities in this context. While managers’ actions in response to specific public policy processes can create political capabilities, the outcome is moderated by the nature of corporate ownership and the relative influence of public and private stakeholders on capability formation. Our theoretical contribution is to extend the study of organizational capabilities into the non-market context through analyzing how European flag carrier airlines organized their political capabilities in anticipation of a changing transnational policy context.

      T. A. Liedong, T. Rajwani (2017)The impact of managerial political ties on corporate governance and debt financing: Evidence from Ghana, In: Long Range Planning51(5)pp. 666-679 Elsevier Science

      In this study, we draw upon insights from agency theory to examine the impact of managerial political ties on cost of debt and also to explore whether corporate governance mediates this impact. We hypothesize that political ties reduce financial reporting quality, disclosure of non-financial information and board independence, and are therefore associated with higher interest rates. We also hypothesize that the negative effect of political ties on the cost of debt will be stronger if firms borrow from privately-owned banks versus government-owned banks. Using data from Ghana, we find support for our direct and moderation hypotheses; political ties are associated with high interest rates and poor corporate governance. However, we do not find evidence of mediation. Altogether, the findings reveal the dark side of political connections and highlight the cost of political embeddedness in emerging credit markets.

      Thomas Lawton, Steven McGuire, Tazeeb Rajwani (2012)Corporate Political Activity: A Literature Review and Research Agenda, In: International Journal of Management Reviews15(1)pp. 86-105 Wiley

      This paper reviews the diverse literature on corporate political activity (CPA) and develops a framework that details and integrates existing research in this field. A systematic analysis of extant CPA literatures is conducted to order them into domains that have implications for organizational performance. The paper is structured into three such domain emphases, which require further research investigation: resources and capabilities focus; institutional focus; and political environment focus. The contribution of each to an understanding of CPA in pursuit or defence of corporate competitive advantage is discussed. The authors also suggest that the internationalization of business, including the more recent emergence of developing country economies and companies, presents scholars with the challenge of understanding CPA in more varied institutional settings. CPA practices continue to expand as commerce goes increasingly global and, consequently, involves a wider array of political actors and institutions. The paper contributes by increasing the clarity of CPA classification, reflecting on the implications of a multi‐polar world for CPA research and advancing future agendas for scholars in this research community.

      K. Amaeshi, E. Adegbite, T. Rajwani (2014)Corporate Social Responsibility in Challenging and Non-enabling Institutional Contexts: Do Institutional Voids matter?, In: JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS134(1)pp. 135-153 SPRINGER

      The extant literature on comparative Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) often assumes functioning and enabling institutional arrangements, such as strong government, market and civil society, as a necessary condition for responsible business practices. Setting aside this dominant assumption and drawing insights from a case study of Fidelity Bank, Nigeria, we explore why and how firms still pursue and enact responsible business practices in what could be described as challenging and non-enabling institutional contexts for CSR. Our findings suggest that responsible business practices in such contexts are often anchored on some CSR adaptive mechanisms. These mechanisms uniquely complement themselves and inform CSR strategies. The CSR adaptive mechanisms and strategies, in combination and in complementarity, then act as an institutional buffer (i.e. ‘institutional immunity’), which enables firms to successfully engage in responsible practices irrespective of their weak institutional settings. We leverage this understanding to contribute to CSR in developing economies, often characterised by challenging and non-enabling institutional contexts. The research, policy and practice implications are also discussed.

      T.C. Lawton, T.S. Rajwani (2015)Conclusion: Where next for non-market strategy?, In: The Routledge Companion to Non-Market Strategypp. 412-417 Taylor and Francis Inc.

      As David Baron noted in his Foreword to this book, non-market strategies serve one or more of five purposes: rent seeking (e.g. the continuation of government subsidies); unlocking opportunities (such as pushing for industry deregulation); defense (against rivals, non-governmental organization (NGO) criticism, community activism, or government directives); attracting customers (those who place a premium on environmental protection, social justice, or the protection of rights); and strengthening reputation, building trust, and enhancing legitimacy.

      T. C. Lawton, T. Rajwani (2017)Introduction: Revisiting the Roles and Responsibilities of Trade Associations, In: JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT INQUIRY27(1)pp. 3-4 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC

      We explain that the reasons for this Dialog stem from the enduring gaps in our understanding of what trade associations are, how they work, and what impact they have on members, industries, markets, and societies. The Dialog includes an opening paper by Thomas Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani and Amy Minto and is followed by contributions from Michael Barnett, Steven Kahl, Lyn Spillman, and Howard Aldrich. Building on previous and ongoing research, each author reflected on the key questions driving this Dialogue: Do trade associations matter and if so, how? We argue that not only do they matter but more attention needs to be given to their roles and responsibilities.

      T.A. Liedong, Tazeeb Rajwani, K. Mellahi (2017)Reality or Illusion? The Efficacy of Non-market Strategy in Institutional Risk Reduction, In: British Journal of Management28(4)pp. 609-628 Wiley

      Non-market strategy researchers have postulated that political and social strategies reduce the exposure of firms to risk, but those arguments have received little empirical attention. In this paper, we integrate social capital and institutional theories to examine the efficacy of managerial political ties (MPTs) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in institutional risk reduction. Using survey data from 179 firms in Ghana we find that, whereas CSR reduces institutional risk exposure, MPTs do not. We also find that the effect of MPTs on risk exposure is moderated by public affairs functions. Contrary to extant literature, we do not find evidence of complementarity between MPTs and CSR. Altogether, the findings not only show that the proposed efficacy of MPTs in risk reduction is illusive, but they also signal the need for scrutinizing the harmony between non-market political and social strategies.

      Thomas Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani (2011)Designing lobbying capabilities: managerial choices in unpredictable environments, In: European Business Review23(2)pp. 167-189 Emerald

      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how, in unpredictable policy environments, specific managerial choices play a vital role in designing lobbying capabilities through the choice of levels of investment in human capital, network relationships and structural modification. Design/methodology/approach Using an inductive case study approach, data were collected through 42 in‐depth, semi‐structured interviews and documented archival data. Cross‐case pattern sequencing was used to construct an interpretive model of lobbying capability design. Data were framed by the dynamic resource‐based theory of the firm. Findings Heterogeneous lobbying capabilities are adapted differently in private and state‐owned airlines as a result of diverse ownership structures and time compositions that interplay with organizational processes. The result is a divergence between private‐ and state‐owned airlines in how they engage with governmental actors and policies. Research limitations/implications The paper contributes to ongoing discourse in and between the dynamic capabilities and corporate political activity literatures, particularly on how state/non‐state‐owned airlines design their political lobbying capabilities. The research is limited in so far as it only studies the European airline industry. Originality/value The paper illustrates how a specific and far‐reaching unanticipated external policy stimulus (the 9/11 terrorist attacks) impacted on management choices for lobbying design in the European airline industry.

      Thomas Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani (2017)Introduction: Revisiting the Roles and Responsibilities of Trade Associations, In: Journal of Management Inquiry27(1)pp. 3-4 SAGE Publications

      We explain that the reasons for this Dialog stem from the enduring gaps in our understanding of what trade associations are, how they work, and what impact they have on members, industries, markets, and societies. The Dialog includes an opening paper by Thomas Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani and Amy Minto and is followed by contributions from Michael Barnett, Steven Kahl, Lyn Spillman, and Howard Aldrich. Building on previous and ongoing research, each author reflected on the key questions driving this Dialogue: Do trade associations matter and if so, how? We argue that not only do they matter but more attention needs to be given to their roles and responsibilities.

      Thomas Lawton, Tazeeb Rajwani, Amy Minto (2018)Why Trade Associations Matter: Exploring Function, Meaning, and Influence, In: Journal of Management Inquiry27(1)pp. 5-9 SAGE Publications

      We explore the organizational characteristics of trade associations (TAs) and suggest theoretical approaches for undertaking research into or involving TAs in management and organization studies. Through emphasizing the role of TAs within and between industries and at the interface of business and society, we consider how TAs generate meaning and influence.

      Tazeeb Rajwani, Thomas Lawton, Nelson Phillips (2015)The “Voice of Industry”: Why management researchers should pay more attention to trade associations, In: Strategic Organization13(3)pp. 224-232 SAGE Publications

      Trade associations work to influence regulation, government policy, and public opinion on behalf of the collective needs and objectives of their members. They also serve as agents for disseminating and exchanging information within industries, and often act as informal regulators by setting voluntary standards of behavior for industry members. Yet, despite the obvious importance of trade associations for firms, industries, and societies, management and organization researchers have devoted surprisingly little attention to understanding them. In this essay, we argue that researchers must develop a deeper understanding of their purpose, sources of influence, and impact on companies, industries, and society. We go on to discuss three examples of areas of management research—institutional theory, collective identity, and nonmarket strategy—where we believe trade associations are of particular relevance and where existing theoretical perspectives remain limited without an explicit consideration of these important organizations.

      Thomas Lawton, Jonathan P. Doh, Tazeeb Rajwani (2014)Aligning for Advantage: Competitive Strategies for the Political and Social Arenas Oxford University Press

      Takes a strategic management approach to a company's engagement with political, regulatory and social arenas and interests Develops a conceptual framework and managerial process for designing and delivering successful nonmarket strategies Compares and synthesizes nonmarket strategy best practices in a variety of company and country contexts. Advances an argument and logic for aligning nonmarket and market strategies to deliver competitive advantage Argues that regulatory and responsibility departments in companies should be functionally integrated and managerially elevated to ensure that the nonmarket environment is engaged at a strategic level in business organizations

      It is commonplace for today’s transnational enterprises to undertake political risk analysis when choosing foreign markets and creating entry strategies. Despite this, non-market elements of corporate strategy are less well researched than the traditional market-based perspectives. Providing comprehensive and leading edge overviews of current scholarship, this Companion surveys the current state of the field and provides a basis for improving our understanding of the non-market environment, encouraging new insights to improve strategies for enhancing a firm’s performance and legitimacy. With a foreword by David Baron, the international team of contributors includes Jean-Philippe Bonardi, Bennet Zelner, and Jonathan Doh, who combine to create a book that is essential reading for students and researchers in business, management, and politics, including those interested in business regulation, environmental policy, political risk and corporate social responsibility.

      Maria A. De Villa, Tazeeb Rajwani, Thomas Lawton (2015)Market entry modes in a multipolar world: Untangling the moderating effect of the political environment, In: International Business Review24(3)pp. 419-429 Elsevier

      We review the extant literature on market entry modes to explain the multi-levels of the political environment that can have a moderating effect on transnational corporations’ (TNC) market entry processes. Based on a systematic review of the Uppsala model, transaction cost analysis, real options, eclectic paradigm, industrial network, and institutional approaches, we show that the market entry modes literature has largely excluded some aspects of the political environment from market entry mode decisions. Consequently, we continue to struggle with the question of how TNCs can factor the political environment into their foreign market entry processes. We suggest a more detailed analysis of the political environment may enable future research to address this challenge using corporate political activity literature and institutional theory. In particular, a distinction between macro and micro levels of analysis can explain how the moderating effect of the political environment on market entry mode decisions can be untangled.

      Pei Sun, Jonathan P. Doh, TAZEEB SULTANALI RAJWANI, Donald Siegel (2021)Navigating Cross-Border Institutional Complexity: A Review and Assessment of Multinational Nonmarket Strategy Research, In: Journal of International Business Studies Palgrave Macmillan

      Multinational enterprises are deeply engaged in nonmarket strategy (NMS), including both corporate political activity (CPA) and strategic corporate social responsibility (SCSR). In this review, we document the multinational NMS research according to contributions’ theme, method, context, theory, and level of analysis. We then develop an institutional multiplicity framework to organize our analysis of this large and fragmented body of literature. In so doing, we identify the most impactful contributions within three major themes – multinational CPA, multinational SCSR, and the integration of CPA and SCSR – and their respective subthemes, and call attention to limitations in the extant research. We also highlight promising avenues for future research, including expanding the scope of NMS to incorporate micro-foundations research, integrating macro-level scholarship on global institutions, placing greater attention on the interaction between CPA and SCSR, and incorporating multi-actor global issues and movements. Our review underscores the growing importance and missed opportunities of NMS research in the international business (IB) field.

      Tahiru Azaaviele Liedong, Augustine Awuah Peprah, Abednego Okoe Amartey, Tazeeb Rajwani (2020)Institutional voids and firms' resource commitment in emerging markets: A review and future research agenda, In: Journal of International Management Elsevier

      The impact of institutional environments on firms' strategic decisions has been examined in strategy and international business literature. Yet, the current state of knowledge about how institutional voids affect firms' resource commitment in emerging markets is equivocal. This paper reviews and develops an integrative framework that maps the key conceptualizations, theoretical frames, mechanisms, contingencies and outcomes in the institutional voids – resource commitment literature. Altogether, this paper structures institutional voids and resource commitment research into salient themes to help scholars scope the field and explore value-adding avenues to further our understanding of internationalization and resource commitment decisions in emerging markets.

      Thomas C Lawton, Sinziana Dorobantu, Tazeeb S Rajwani, Pei Sun (2020)The implications of COVID-19 for nonmarket strategy research, In: Journal of Management Studies15(8)pp. 1732-1736 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

      The COVID‐19 virus ignited social and economic turmoil around the world. Not since the Spanish Flu of 1918 had we seen a pandemic of such scale and severity. The resultant global transformation of industries, supply chains, work, communication, and institutional frameworks suggests we are entering a period of non‐ergodic change, in which the future cannot be extrapolated from the past (North, 1999). This means that we do not know the probability distribution or the outcomes from the virus. So, we must find a way to coexist and build our resilience. Moreover, although pandemics cause short‐term fear and disruption, they can also initiate long‐term change for economies and societies. Thus, we suggest that although COVID‐19 challenges the foundations of modern business and management, it reinforces the core assumptions of nonmarket strategy research. In particular – and especially during times of crisis and uncertainty – competitive advantage is predicated on proactive political and social awareness and engagement, aligned with strategic business objectives.

      TAZEEB SULTANALI RAJWANI (2021)How Business Models Evolve in Weak Institutional Environments: The Case of Jumia, the Amazon.Com of Africa, In: Organization science (Providence, R.I.) INFORMS

      We advance research on the antecedents of business model design by integrating institutional and imitation theories to explore how the business model of new ventures evolves in a weak institutional environment. Based on a case study of Jumia—an online retailing company in Africa established with the aim to emulate the success of—we propose a process model entitled “imitate-but-modify” that explains how business models evolve through four distinct phases (i.e., clarification, legitimacy, localization, and consolidation). In essence, this model explains how new ventures surrounded by considerable uncertainty deliberately seek to learn vicariously by imitating the business model template of successful firms. However, because of significant institutional voids, the ventures’ intentional imitation is progressively replaced by experiential learning that blends business model imitation with innovation.

      Tahiru Azaaviele Liedong, TAZEEB SULTANALI RAJWANI (2021)Managerial ties and access to finance in weak institutional contexts: Does CEO duality matter?, In: Africa Journal of Management Taylor & Francis

      Though managerial ties are substitutes for the weak market-supporting institutions in developing and emerging countries, little is known about the contingent value of these ties in credit markets. In this study, we disintegrate managerial ties into political and financial ties, and examine their effect on access to finance. Using agency theory, we propose that political and financial ties reduce information asymmetry between firms, politicians and banks, culminating in increased access to bank loans for firms. We also propose that CEO duality, through its influence on corporate governance and information consolidation, strengthens (weakens) the effect of financial (political) ties on access to finance. Using survey data from Ghana, we found support for our propositions. Overall, this study shows that the value of managerial ties is contingent on CEO duality. It also suggests that CEO duality is a double-edged sword with corporate governance and information implications for credit access in developing economies.

      T. Rajwani, T.A. Liedong (2014)Political activity and firm performance within nonmarket research: A review and international comparative assessment, In: Journal of World Business50(2)pp. 273-283 Elsevier

      There is a widely held view that the performance of firms depends not only on the ability of managers to exploit economic markets but also on their ability to succeed in political markets. To test the value of political activism, recent scholarship has probed the impact of corporate political activity (CPA) on firm performance. However, mixed findings and the fragmented nature of the field raise more questions than answers as to the nature of this relationship. This systematic review examines scholarly articles for evidence of the impact of CPA on firm value. The findings suggest that CPA is more valuable in emerging countries and that relational CPA strategies are more common in emerging (versus developed) countries where social capital underlies political and economic exchange. We also document the paucity of research on informational CPA strategies and policy outcomes in the emerging country context. We consider the implications of these findings and others for local and multinational enterprises, and offer suggestions for further research. © 2014.

      T.A. Liedong, A. Ghobadian, T. Rajwani, N. O'Regan (2015)Toward a View of Complementarity: Trust and Policy Influence Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Political Activity, In: Group and Organization Management40(3)pp. 405-427 SAGE Publications Inc.

      The extant literature argues that nonmarket strategies can establish, sustain, or enhance a firm’s competitive advantage. Less clear is how and why effective nonmarket strategies influence a firm’s competitiveness. Moreover, the extant literature tends to examine the two building blocks of nonmarket strategy—corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate political activity (CPA)—separately. In this article, we extend trust to the nonmarket environment. We analyze how CSR and CPA complement each other to create strong trust between firms and the polity, and how they consequently influence government policy. We show the mediating role of trust in policy influence, and argue that CSR and CPA should be aligned for the successful influence of salient government policy.

      J.P. Doh, T.C. Lawton, T. Rajwani, S. Paroutis (2014)Why your company may need a chief external officer. Upgrading external affairs can help align strategy and improve competitive advantage, In: Organizational Dynamics43(2)pp. 96-104 Elsevier Science
      George O. White III, Stav Fainshmidt, Tazeeb Rajwani (2017)Antecedents and Outcomes of Political Tie Intensity: Institutional and Strategic Fit Perspectives, In: Journal of International Management24(1)pp. 1-15 Elsevier

      Although international nonmarket strategy research has highlighted the importance of political ties, it is still unclear why some foreign subsidiaries are more politically active than others and what conditions may render political practices beneficial in a host country. We argue that foreign subsidiary political tie intensity — the extent to which senior managers provide time and re- sources in informally dealing with government officials for nonmarket purposes — will be influ- enced by political institutions in their parent's home country, especially when the MNE parent attempts to protect foreign subsidiary resources. Additionally, we assert that fit between a par- ent's home country political institutions and foreign subsidiary political tie intensity will posi- tively affect subsidiary performance. We employ primary data collected from 181 foreign sub- sidiaries in the Philippines and find support for our hypotheses. This study advances international nonmarket strategy research by highlighting how an MNE's home country political institutions shape subsidiary political networking and strategic performance outcomes in host country en- vironments.

      C. Stadler, T. Rajwani, F. Karaba (2013)Solutions to the exploration/exploitation dilemma: Networks as a new level of analysis, In: International Journal of Management Reviews16(2)pp. 172-193 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

      This paper reviews the extant literature on the exploration/exploitation dilemma. Based on a systematic analysis of structural, behavioural, systemic and temporal solutions, the authors are able to show that the learning literature continues to struggle with the question of how exactly an organization can separate exploration and exploitation and at the same time enable necessary knowledge exchange and cooperation between these two notions. Paying closer attention to networks might enable future research to answer this question. In particular, a combination of structural aspects of networks and social ties has the potential to explain how the solutions currently on offer can be implemented successfully, how organizations can combine several of them, and how they can shift between them.

      Tahiru Azaaviele Liedong, Tazeeb Rajwani, Thomas C. Lawton (2020)Information and nonmarket strategy: Conceptualizing the interrelationship between big data and corporate political activity, In: Technological Forecasting and Social Change157120039 Elsevier

      While extant research acknowledges the importance of information for corporate political activity (CPA), there is limited understanding of how information is actually used to deploy political strategies. This gap reflects a broader problem in the literature whereby Big Data (BD) research is overly focused on the impact of information on market performance but overlooks the impact on nonmarket performance. In this paper, we draw on the resource-based view to conceptualize the interrelationship between BD (i.e. information) and CPA. We argue that CPA motivates BD investments, which, in turn, shape the organization of CPA and spur the development of data-driven political capabilities. Our conceptual model, which unpacks the intricate linkages between CPA success factors, BD and political capabilities, generates important theoretical, practical and further research implications.

      Edward M. Mungai, S. Wagura Ndiritu, Tazeeb Rajwani (2020)Do voluntary environmental management systems improve environmental performance? Evidence from waste management by Kenyan firms, In: Journal of Cleaner Production265121636 Elsevier

      We examine whether the adoption of global voluntary environmental management systems - United Nations Global Compact and ISO 14001 - lead to more effective environmental performance. Previous studies have presented inconclusive findings of voluntary environmental management systems on environmental performances. Possible reasons for conflicting results are the influence of observable and unobservable factors that affect environmental performance as well as the use of different measures of environmental performance indicators. Using primary data from Kenyan firms in 2019, waste management defined by wastewater recycling, solid waste reusing and use of environmentally safe disposal methods, we determine the effects of voluntary environmental management systems (VEMS) on firm-level environmental performance. We conclude that the adoption of VEMS are associated with significant improvement in environmental performance in developing economies. Our conclusions provide insights to corporate management and policy makers in developing countries on decisions regarding better environmental management. VEMS forms an environmental management tool suitable in confronting wastewater and physical refuse challenges as well as conducive waste disposal methods.

      George O. White III, Jean J. Boddewyn, Tazeeb Rajwani, Thomas A. Hemphill (2018)Regulator Vulnerabilities to Political Pressures and Political Tie Intensity: The Moderating Effects of Regulatory and Political Distance, In: Management International Review58(5)pp. 743-769 Springer

      This study applies the institution-based view and neo-institutional theory in addressing how managerial perceptions of regulator vulnerabilities to political pressure, and institutional distance, influence intensification of political ties. Our analysis of 181 wholly owned foreign subsidiary (WOFSs) operating in the Philippines suggests that managerial perceptions of regulator vulnerability to political pressures positively enhance the intensification of political ties. Our results also reveal that regulatory distance and, more importantly, the simultaneous presence of political and regulatory distance diminish the positive relationship between managerial perceptions of regulator vulnerability to political pressures and a WOFS’s propensity to enhance the intensification of political ties. Managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.

      Tahiru Azaaviele Liedong, Daniel Aghanya, Tazeeb Rajwani (2019)Corporate Political Strategies in Weak Institutional Environments: A Break from Conventions, In: Journal of Business Ethics Springer

      There is a lack of research about the political strategies used by firms in emerging countries, mainly because the literature often assumes that Western-oriented corporate political activity (CPA) has universal application. Drawing on resource-dependency logics, we explore why and how firms orchestrate CPA in the institutionally challenging context of Nigeria. Our findings show that firms deploy four context-fitting but ethically suspect political strategies: affective, financial, pseudo-attribution and kinship strategies. We leverage this understanding to contribute to CPA in emerging countries by arguing that corporate political strategies are shaped by the reciprocity and duality of dependency relationships between firms and politicians, and also by advancing that these strategies reflect institutional weaknesses and unique industry-level opportunities. Importantly, we shed light on the muttered dark side of CPA. We develop a CPA framework and discuss the research, practical and policy implications of our findings.

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