University roles and responsibilities

  • Widening Participation Lead for SHTM
  • Social Media Co-Lead for SHTM
  • Open Research Champion

    My qualifications

    MSc International Tourism Development
    Univeristy of Surrey
    BSc Geography with Economics
    London School of Economics and Political Science


    Research interests

    Research projects

    Research collaborations


    Postgraduate research supervision



    Yoo Ri Kim, Allan Williams, Sangwon Park, Jason Li Chen (2020)Spatial spillovers of agglomeration economies and productivity in the tourism industry: The case of the UK, In: Tourism Management82104201 Elsevier

    This research investigates the direct and (indirect) spatial spillover effects of agglomeration economies on the productivity of the tourism industry. With increasing concerns about the persistence of low (labour) productivity in tourism across many developed economies, there is an urgent need to address this productivity challenge. Using major under-exploited UK microeconomic panel data, spatial econometric modelling is employed to estimate the effects of agglomeration economies on productivity. Findings reveal the significant effects of agglomeration economies on productivity within a specific region, but also significant spatial spillover effects across neighbouring regions, suggesting the possibility of productivity convergences. Competitive and complementary effects of agglomeration economies on productivity are identified.

    Yoo Ri Kim, Shih-Chuan Lin (2021)The non-linear relationship between brand diversification and hotel owner performance: The roles of ownership structure and location as moderators, In: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management49pp. 235-243 Elsevier

    This study investigates the non-linear relationship between brand diversification and hotel owner performance. Using hotel owner level data from 2000 to 2018 in Texas, findings infer a concave relationship between brand diversification and hotel owner performance where the impact of brand diversification on performance is positive until a certain point and then becomes negative. The moderation effects of ownership structure and location are also estimated, showing significant effects on the relationship between brand diversification and hotel owner performance. Specifically, hotel owners who (a) have a portfolio with a higher percent of chain-affiliated hotels, and (b) are located further from the neighbouring hotels are more likely to benefit from brand diversification. We provide practical insights to help hotel entrepreneurs improve performance.

    Yoo Ri Kim, Anyu Liu, Jason Stienmetz, Yining Chen (2022)Visitor flow spillover effects on attraction demand: A spatial econometric model with multisource data, In: Tourism Management88104432 Elsevier

    The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of attraction demand and shed light on the spillover effects of visitor flows between/across attractions in London using spatial econometric modelling. Both global and local models reveal that income and search queries are significant determinants to attraction demand, while distance from city centre is only significant in the global model. Visitor flow spillovers from neighbouring attractions are found to have significant effects on attraction demand. The intensity and direction of visitor flows’ spillover effects vary by attraction locations. Furthermore, asymmetric spillover effects of visitor flows between a pair of attractions have been identified for the first time in the tourism literature. The adoption of novel spatial estimation methods generates a new dimension to investigate intra-destination demand across attractions. This can provide empirical evidence for decision-makers to optimise visitor flows within a destination.

    Anyu Liu, Yoo Ri Kim, John Frankie O'Connell (2021)COVID-19 and the aviation industry: The interrelationship between the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and the frequency of flights on the EU market, In: Annals of Tourism Research91103298 Elsevier

    This study aims to investigate the contribution of aviation related travel restrictions to control the spread of COVID-19 in Europe by using quasi-experiment approaches including the regression discontinuity design and a two-stage spatial Durbin model with an instrumental variable. The study provides concrete evidence that the severe curtailing of flights had a spontaneous impact in controlling the spread of COVID-19. The counterfactual analysis encapsulated the spillover effects deduced that a 1% decrease in flight frequency can decrease the number of confirmed cases by 0.908%. The study also reveals that during the lockdown, the aviation industry cancelled over 795,000 flights, which resulted in averting an additional six million people being from being infected and saving 101,309 lives.

    YOO RI KIM, ANYU LIU, ALLAN MORGAN WILLIAMS (2021)Competitiveness in the visitor economy: A systematic literature review, In: Tourism Economics SAGE Publications

    Competitiveness is a well-discussed research topic in various disciplines and fields, amongst which competitiveness in the visitor economy is a prominent research stream. With rapid transformations in the visitor economy, destinations, regions, sectors and businesses have had to adapt – with varying degrees of success – to internal and external changes, significantly affecting their competitiveness. Existing studies are dominantly based on a few pioneering models and indicators and relatively few empirically challenge the assumed causality of competitiveness factors at different scales. This article, therefore, conducts a systematic literature review of competitiveness in the visitor economy post-2005 and examines the intellectual and conceptual structures of the extant literature as a platform to identify knowledge gaps and emerging trends and perspectives for future research.

    ISABEL RODRIGUEZ, Alejandro Mantecón, ALLAN MORGAN WILLIAMS, Teemu Makkonen, YOO RI KIM (2021)Originality: The Holy Grail of Tourism Research, In: Journal of Travel research Sage

    Originality is an important goal of research. However, relatively little is known about the characteristics and motivations of individual researchers or about the facilitating or hindering factors that, in combination, can lead to original research outputs; a gap this study aims to fill. Interviews with twenty highly original academics (identified by their peers) active in the field of tourism identify four shared main traits amongst such researchers – nonconformism, commitment, self-confidence and interdisciplinarity – and the importance of situational factors. The findings also show that there is no single optimum way of “becoming original” and, therefore, efforts to “replicate” originality may constrain rather than enable originality. From a managerial perspective, this suggests that it is easier to remove barriers than to positively facilitate original research

    YOO RI KIM, ANYU LIU (2022)Social distancing, trust and post-COVID-19 recovery, In: Tourism Management88104416 Elsevier

    With the tourism and hospitality sector reopening post-lockdown of COVID-19, the recovery of customers' purchase intentions is essential to reboot the sector. This study aims to examine the relationship between social distancing measures and purchase intentions in the UK's restaurant and hotel sectors using a propensity score weighting experimental design method. The findings suggest that the impact of social distancing measures on purchase intentions is mediated by the trust in the targeted restaurant and hotel. Risk tolerance significantly moderates the influence of social distancing measures on trust; (non-) cash promotions have an insignificant impact on purchase intentions. The introduction of the propensity score weighting scheme addresses the endogeneity caused by the sampling bias in non-probability sampling experiment studies.

    Pattanapong Tiwasing, Yoo Ri Kim, Temitope Akinremi (2020)Spatial disparities in SME productivity: evidence from the service sector in England, In: Regional Studies, Regional Science7(1)pp. 589-602 Routledge

    This paper identifies the key determinants of spatial variability of productivity, focusing on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the service sector across England. Due to the hierarchically structured data, multilevel analysis is applied to distinguish the effects of a firm's internal variables and (sub)regional factors on productivity. Using cross-sectional data for 10,400 SMEs from the UK government's Small Business Survey, 2015, the results show that firm-specific determinants significantly influence productivity. The findings also indicate that location, local enterprise partnerships (LEPs) and where firms operate play a pivotal role in determining SME productivity. In particular, at the LEP level, increasing labour supply, promoting local funding and improving broadband speed potentially enhance firm productivity.

    Shih‐Chuan Lin, YOO RI KIM (2020)Heterogeneous effects of hotel ownership structure changes on localized market competition using multilevel mixed‐effect analyses, In: Managerial and Decision Economicspp. 1-13 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

    Ownership structure, a source of firm heterogeneity, can change competitive environments and market structures; the impact on the hospitality industry is unknown. This study investigates the impact of hotel ownership structure changes on the magnitude of localized competition of different quality segment hotels. Two‐level mixed‐effect analyses reveal that hotel ownership structure change from chain‐affiliated to independent increases the number of neighboring economy hotels, whereas the change from independent to chain‐affiliated increases the number of neighboring upper‐upscale hotels. Ownership structure changes in the same market can be a key driver of market dynamics, suggesting that hotels should colocate with caution.

    Shih-Chuan Lin, Yoo Ri Kim (2020)Diversification strategies and failure rates in the Texas lodging industry: Franchised versus company-operated hotels, In: International Journal of Hospitality Management88102525 Elsevier

    This research examines the relationship between geographic, brand, and segment diversification and hotel failure rates based on ownership structure, i.e. franchised and company-operated hotels, in the Texas lodging industry. Literature on diversification strategies is mainly based on financial measures of performance and offers mixed results; only few studies have assessed firm failure rates directly based on distinct diversification strategies at the establishment level. The performance outcomes are significantly heterogeneous not only based on the strategies, but also on the ownership structures, which are yet to be examined. Using data from the Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts from 2000 to 2018, a semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard model is estimated, and the findings reveal that failure rates are not significantly tied to particular types of diversification and ownership structures. This research provides insights on hotel diversification strategies and their relative dominance on hotel failure rates based on franchised and company-operated hotels.