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2021
Women in Computer Vision
Interview at ICCV Daily

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Yulia Gryaditskaya, Belen Masia, Piotr Didyk, Karol Myszkowski, Hans-Peter Seidel (2016)Gloss Editing in Light Fields, In: Proceedings of the Conference on Vision, Modeling and Visualization (VMV '16)pp. 127-135 The Eurographics Association

With the improvement of both acquisition techniques, and computational and storage capabilities, we are witnessing an increasing presence of multidimensional scene representations. Two-dimensional, conventional images are gradually losing their hegemony, leaving room for novel formats. Among these, light fields are gaining importance, further propelled by the recent reappearance of virtual reality. Content generation is one of the stumbling blocks in this realm, and light fields are one of the main input sources of content. As their use becomes more common, a key challenge is the ability to edit or modify the appearance of the objects in the light field. This paper presents a method for manipulating the appearance of gloss in light fields. In particular, we propose a multidimensional filtering approach in which the specular highlights are filtered in the spatial and angular domains to target a desired increase of the material roughness. The filtering kernel is computed based on surface normals and view direction. Our technique generates angularly-coherent plausible edits in both synthetic and captured light fields

Felix Hahnlein, YULIA GRYADITSKAYA, Alla Sheffer, Adrien Bousseau (2022)Symmetry-driven 3D Reconstruction from Concept Sketches

Concept sketches, ubiquitously used in industrial design, are inherently imprecise yet highly effective at communicating 3D shape to human observers. We present a new symmetry-driven algorithm for recovering designer-intended 3D geometry from concept sketches. We observe that most concept sketches of human-made shapes are structured around locally symmetric building blocks, defined by triplets of orthogonal symmetry planes. We identify potential building blocks using a combination of 2D symmetries and drawing order. We reconstruct each such building block by leveraging a combination of perceptual cues and observations about designer drawingchoices. We cast this reconstruction as an integer programming problem where we seek to identify, among the large set of candidate symmetry correspondences formed by approximate pen strokes, the subset that results in the most symmetric and well-connected shape. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach by reconstructing 82 sketches, which exhibit significant over-sketching, inaccurate perspective, partial symmetry, and other imperfections. In a comparative study, participants judged our results as superior to the state-of-the-art by a ratio of 2:1.

YUE ZHONG, YULIA GRYADITSKAYA, Honggang Zhang, YI-ZHE SONG (2022)A study of deep single sketch-based modeling: View/style invariance, sparsity and latent space disentanglement, In: Computers & Graphics106pp. 237-247 Elsevier

Deep image-based modeling has received a lot of attention in recent years. Sketch-based modeling in particular has gained popularity given the ubiquitous nature of touchscreen devices. In this paper, we (i) study and compare diverse single-image reconstruction methods on sketch input, comparing the different 3D shape representations: multi-view, voxel- and point-cloud-based, mesh-based and implicit ones; and (ii) analyze the main challenges and requirements of sketch-based modeling systems. We introduce the regression loss and provide two variants of its formulation for the two most promising 3D shape representations: point clouds and signed distance functions. We show that this loss can increase general reconstruction accuracy, and the view- and style-robustness of the reconstruction methods. Moreover, we demonstrate that this loss can benefit the disentanglement of latent space to view invariant and view-specific information, resulting in further improved performance. To address the figure-ground ambiguity typical for sparse freehand sketches, we propose a two-branch architecture that exploits sparse user labeling. We hope that our work will inform future research on sketch-based modeling.

LING LUO, YULIA GRYADITSKAYA, YONGXIN YANG, TAO XIANG, YI-ZHE SONG Towards 3D VR-Sketch to 3D Shape Retrieval

Growing free online 3D shapes collections dictated research on 3D retrieval. Active debate has however been had on (i) what the best input modality is to trigger retrieval, and (ii) the ultimate usage scenario for such retrieval. In this paper, we offer a different perspective towards answering these questions - we study the use of 3D sketches as an input modality and advocate a VR-scenario where retrieval is conducted. Thus, the ultimate vision is that users can freely retrieve a 3D model by air-doodling in a VR environment. As a first stab at this new 3D VR-sketch to 3D shape retrieval problem, we make four contributions. First, we code a VR utility to collect 3D VR-sketches and conduct retrieval. Second, we collect the first set of 167 3D VRsketches on two shape categories from ModelNet. Third, we propose a novel approach to generate a synthetic dataset of human-like 3D sketches of different abstract levels to train deep networks. At last, we compare the common multi-view and volumetric approaches: We show that, in contrast to 3D shape to 3D shape retrieval, volumetric point-based approaches exhibit superior performance on 3D sketch to 3D shape retrieval due to the sparse and abstract nature of 3D VR-sketches. We believe these contributions will collectively serve as enablers for future attempts at this problem. The VR interface, code and datasets are available at https://tinyurl.com/3DSketch3DV.

Yulia Gryaditskaya, Felix Hähnlein, Chenxi Liu, Alla Sheffer, Adrien Bousseau (2020)Lifting Freehand Concept Sketches into 3D, In: ACM Transactions on Graphics39(6)167 Association for Computing Machinery

We present the first algorithm capable of automatically lifting real-world, vector-format, industrial design sketches into 3D. Targeting real-world sketches raises numerous challenges due to inaccuracies, use of overdrawn strokes, and construction lines. In particular, while construction lines convey important 3D information, they add significant clutter and introduce multiple accidental 2D intersections. Our algorithm exploits the geometric cues provided by the construction lines and lifts them to 3D by computing their intended 3D intersections and depths. Once lifted to 3D, these lines provide valuable geometric constraints that we leverage to infer the 3D shape of other artist drawn strokes. The core challenge we address is inferring the 3D connectivity of construction and other lines from their 2D projections by separating 2D intersections into 3D intersections and accidental occlusions. We efficiently address this complex combinatorial problem using a dedicated search algorithm that leverages observations about designer drawing preferences , and uses those to explore only the most likely solutions of the 3D intersection detection problem. We demonstrate that our separator outputs are of comparable quality to human annotations, and that the 3D structures we recover enable a range of design editing and visualization applications, including novel view synthesis and 3D-aware scaling of the depicted shape.

LING LUO, YULIA GRYADITSKAYA, YONGXIN YANG, TAO XIANG, YI-ZHE SONG (2021)Fine-Grained VR Sketching: Dataset and Insights

We present the first fine-grained dataset of 1,497 3D VR sketch and 3D shape pairs of a chair category with large shapes diversity. Our dataset supports the recent trend in the sketch community on fine-grained data analysis, and extends it to an actively developing 3D domain. We argue for the most convenient sketching scenario where the sketch consists of sparse lines and does not require any sketching skills, prior training or time-consuming accurate drawing. We then, for the first time, study the scenario of fine-grained 3D VR sketch to 3D shape retrieval, as a novel VR sketching application and a proving ground to drive out generic insights to inform future research. By experimenting with carefully selected combinations of design factors on this new problem, we draw important conclusions to help follow-on work. We hope our dataset will enable other novel applications, especially those that require a fine-grained angle such as fine-grained 3D shape reconstruction. The dataset is available at tinyurl.com/ VRSketch3DV21.

Ayan Kumar Bhunia, Ayan Das, Umar Riaz Muhammad, Yongxin Yang, Timothy M. Hospedales, Tao Xiang, Yulia Gryaditskaya, Yi-Zhe Song (2020)Pixelor: A Competitive Sketching AI Agent. So you think you can sketch?, In: ACM Transactions on Graphics39(6) Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

We present the first competitive drawing agent Pixelor that exhibits human-level performance at a Pictionary-like sketching game, where the participant whose sketch is recognized first is a winner. Our AI agent can autonomously sketch a given visual concept, and achieve a recognizable rendition as quickly or faster than a human competitor. The key to victory for the agent’s goal is to learn the optimal stroke sequencing strategies that generate the most recognizable and distinguishable strokes first. Training Pixelor is done in two steps. First, we infer the stroke order that maximizes early recognizability of human training sketches. Second, this order is used to supervise the training of a sequence-to-sequence stroke generator. Our key technical contributions are a tractable search of the exponential space of orderings using neural sorting; and an improved Seq2Seq Wasserstein (S2S-WAE) generator that uses an optimal-transport loss to accommodate the multi-modal nature of the optimal stroke distribution. Our analysis shows that Pixelor is better than the human players of the Quick, Draw! game, under both AI and human judging of early recognition. To analyze the impact of human competitors’ strategies, we conducted a further human study with participants being given unlimited thinking time and training in early recognizability by feedback from an AI judge. The study shows that humans do gradually improve their strategies with training, but overall Pixelor still matches human performance. The code and the dataset are available at http://sketchx.ai/pixelor.

Yulia Gryaditskaya, Tania Pouli, Erik Reinhard, Hans-Peter Seidel (2014)Sky Based Light Metering for High Dynamic Range Images, In: Computer Graphics Forum33(7)pp. 61-69 Wiley

Image calibration requires both linearization of pixel values and scaling so that values in the image correspond to real-world luminances. In this paper we focus on the latter and rather than rely on camera characterization, we calibrate images by analysing their content and metadata, obviating the need for expensive measuring devices or modeling of lens and camera combinations. Our analysis correlates sky pixel values to luminances that would be expected based on geographical metadata. Combined with high dynamic range (HDR) imaging, which gives us linear pixel data, our algorithm allows us to find absolute luminance values for each pixel—effectively turning digital cameras into absolute light meters. To validate our algorithm we have collected and annotated a calibrated set of HDR images and compared our estimation with several other approaches, showing that our approach is able to more accurately recover absolute luminance. We discuss various applications and demonstrate the utility of our method in the context of calibrated color appearance reproduction and lighting design.

YI-ZHE SONG, YUE ZHONG, YULIA GRYADITSKAYA, Honggang Zhang Zhang (2020)Deep Sketch-Based Modelling: Tips and Tricks

Deep image-based modeling received lots of attention in recent years, yet the parallel problem of sketch-based modeling has only been briefly studied, often as a potential application. In this work, for the first time, we identify the main differences between sketch and image inputs: (i) style variance, (ii) imprecise perspective, and (iii) sparsity. We discuss why each of these differences can pose a challenge, and even make a certain class of image-based methods inapplicable. We study alternative solutions to address each of the difference. By doing so, we drive out a few important insights: (i) sparsity commonly results in an incorrect prediction of foreground versus background, (ii) diversity of human styles, if not taken into account, can lead to very poor generalization properties, and finally (iii) unless a dedicated sketching interface is used, one can not expect sketches to match a perspective of a fixed viewpoint. Finally, we compare a set of representative deep single-image modeling solutions and show how their performance can be improved to tackle sketch input by taking into consideration the identified critical differences.

ANRAN QI, YULIA GRYADITSKAYA, TAO XIANG, YI-ZHE SONG (2022)One Sketch for All: One-Shot Personalized Sketch Segmentation, In: IEEE transactions on image processing31pp. 2673-2682 IEEE

We present the first one-shot personalized sketch segmentation method. We aim to segment all sketches belonging to the same category provisioned with a single sketch with a given part annotation while (i) preserving the parts semantics embedded in the exemplar, and (ii) being robust to input style and abstraction. We refer to this scenario as personalized . With that, we importantly enable a much-desired personalization capability for downstream fine-grained sketch analysis tasks. To train a robust segmentation module, we deform the exemplar sketch to each of the available sketches of the same category. Our method generalizes to sketches not observed during training. Our central contribution is a sketch-specific hierarchical deformation network. Given a multi-level sketch-strokes encoding obtained via a graph convolutional network, our method estimates rigid-body transformation from the target to the exemplar, on the upper level. Finer deformation from the exemplar to the globally warped target sketch is further obtained through stroke-wise deformations, on the lower-level. Both levels of deformation are guided by mean squared distances between the keypoints learned without supervision, ensuring that the stroke semantics are preserved. We evaluate our method against the state-of-the-art segmentation and perceptual grouping baselines re-purposed for the one-shot setting and against two few-shot 3D shape segmentation methods. We show that our method outperforms all the alternatives by more than 10% on average. Ablation studies further demonstrate that our method is robust to personalization : changes in input part semantics and style differences.

Yulia Gryaditskaya, Mark Sypesteyn, Jan Willem Hoftijzer, Sylvia Pont, Fredo Durand, Adrien Bousseau (2019)OpenSketch: A Richly-Annotated Dataset of Product Design Sketches, In: ACM transactions on graphics38(6)232pp. 1-16 Assoc Computing Machinery

Product designers extensively use sketches to create and communicate 3D shapes and thus form an ideal audience for sketch-based modeling, nonphotorealistic rendering and sketch filtering. However, sketching requires significant expertise and time, making design sketches a scarce resource for the research community. We introduce OpenSketch, a dataset of product design sketches aimed at offering a rich source of information for a variety of computer-aided design tasks. OpenSketch contains more than 400 sketches representing 12 man-made objects drawn by 7 to 15 product designers of varying expertise. We provided participants with front, side and top views of these objects, and instructed them to draw from two novel perspective viewpoints. This drawing task forces designers to construct the shape front their mental vision rather than directly copy what they see. They achieve this task by employing a variety of sketching techniques and methods not observed in prior datasets. Together with industrial design teachers, we distilled a taxonomy of line types and used it to label each stroke of the 214 sketches drawn from one of the two viewpoints. While some of these lines have long been known in computer graphics, others remain to be reproduced algorithmically or exploited for shape inference. In addition, we also asked participants to produce clean presentation drawings from each of their sketches, resulting in aligned pairs of drawings of different styles. Finally, we registered each sketch to its reference 3D model by annotating sparse correspondences. We provide an analysis of our annotated sketches, which reveals systematic drawing strategies over time and shapes, as well as a positive correlation between presence of construction lines and accuracy. Our sketches, in combination with provided annotations, fonts challenging benchmarks for existing algorithms as well as a great source of inspiration for future developments. We illustrate the versatility of our data by using it to test a 3D reconstruction deep network trained on synthetic drawings, as well as to train a filtering network to convert concept sketches into presentation drawings. We distribute our dataset under the Creative Commons CC0 license: https://nsinria.fr/d3/OpenSketch.

YULIA GRYADITSKAYA, Tania Pouli, Erik Reinhard, Karol Myszkowski, H. Seidel (2015)Motion Aware Exposure Bracketing for HDR Video, In: Computer graphics forum34(4)pp. 119-130 Wiley

Mobile phones and tablets are rapidly gaining significance as omnipresent image and video capture devices. In this context we present an algorithm that allows such devices to capture high dynamic range (HDR) video. The design of the algorithm was informed by a perceptual study that assesses the relative importance of motion and dynamic range. We found that ghosting artefacts are more visually disturbing than a reduction in dynamic range, even if a comparable number of pixels is affected by each. We incorporated these findings into a real-time, adaptive metering algorithm that seamlessly adjusts its settings to take exposures that will lead to minimal visual artefacts after recombination into an HDR sequence. It is uniquely suitable for real-time selection of exposure settings. Finally, we present an off-line HDR reconstruction algorithm that is matched to the adaptive nature of our real-time metering approach.

ANRAN QI, YULIA GRYADITSKAYA, J. Song, YONGXIN YANG, Yonggang Qi, Timothy M. Hospedales, TAO XIANG, YI-ZHE SONG (2021)Toward Fine-Grained Sketch-Based 3D Shape Retrieval, In: IEEE transactions on image processing30pp. 8595-8606 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC

In this paper we study, for the first time, the problem of fine-grained sketch-based 3D shape retrieval. We advocate the use of sketches as a fine-grained input modality to retrieve 3D shapes at instance-level - e.g., given a sketch of a chair, we set out to retrieve a specific chair from a gallery of all chairs. Fine-grained sketch-based 3D shape retrieval (FG-SBSR) has not been possible till now due to a lack of datasets that exhibit one-to-one sketch-3D correspondences. The first key contribution of this paper is two new datasets, consisting a total of 4,680 sketch-3D pairings from two object categories. Even with the datasets, FG-SBSR is still highly challenging because (i) the inherent domain gap between 2D sketch and 3D shape is large, and (ii) retrieval needs to be conducted at the instance level instead of the coarse category level matching as in traditional SBSR. Thus, the second contribution of the paper is the first cross-modal deep embedding model for FG-SBSR, which specifically tackles the unique challenges presented by this new problem. Core to the deep embedding model is a novel cross-modal view attention module which automatically computes the optimal combination of 2D projections of a 3D shape given a query sketch.

Yue Zhong, Yonggang Qi, Yulia Gryaditskaya, Honggang Zhang, Yi-Zhe Song (2020)Towards Practical Sketch-based 3D Shape Generation: The Role of Professional Sketches, In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technologypp. 1-1 IEEE

In this paper, for the first time, we investigate the problem of generating 3D shapes from professional 2D sketches via deep learning. We target sketches done by professional artists, as these sketches are likely to contain more details than the ones produced by novices, and thus the reconstruction from such sketches poses a higher demand on the level of detail in the reconstructed models. This is importantly different to previous work, where the training and testing was conducted on either synthetic sketches or sketches done by novices. Novices sketches often depict shapes that are physically unrealistic, while models trained with synthetic sketches could not cope with the level of abstraction and style found in real sketches. To address this problem, we collected the first large-scale dataset of professional sketches, where each sketch is paired with a reference 3D shape, with a total of 1,500 professional sketches collected across 500 3D shapes. The dataset is available at http://sketchx.ai/downloads/. We introduce two bespoke designs within a deep adversarial network to tackle the imprecision of human sketches and the unique figure/ground ambiguity problem inherent to sketch-based reconstruction. We show that existing 3D shapes generation methods designed for images fail to be naively applied to our problem, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our method both qualitatively and quantitatively.