Dr Albert Kimbu

Reader, Head of Department of Tourism and Transport
+44 (0)1483 689010
07 AP 02
Mondays & Wednesdays 12.30pm - 1.30pm


Areas of specialism

Development, women, and social entrepreneurship; stakeholder networks; equity, diversity and inclusion (EDI); social sustainability in H&T.

University roles and responsibilities

  • Head of Department of Tourism and Transport
  • Director, Gender Entrepreneurship and Social Policy Institute (GESPi)

    Previous roles

    Oct 2015 - Sept 2019
    University Pathway Lead for ESRC DTP Development Studies Pathway
    30 June 2015 - 01 August 2017
    Programme Leader, BSc International Tourism Management
    01 October 2015 - 30 September 2017
    Early Career Researcher (ECR) Representative for SHTM
    01 October 2013 - 30 September 2015
    Academic Integrity Officer SHTM
    01 October 2011 - 30 June 2013
    Programme Leader, BSc International Tourism Management at Surrey International Institute – DUFE (China)
    July 2017 - July 2021
    Member of University Ethics Committee
    Sept 2018 - July 2021
    Director of Postgraduate Research SHTM

    Affiliations and memberships

    Higher Education Academy
    Royal Geographical Society
    Tourism Concern

    Business, industry and community links

    SHTM liaison with ABTA: June 2015 - Sept 2018


    Research interests

    Research projects


    Postgraduate research supervision

    Postgraduate research supervision


    Claudia Eckhardt, Albert N. Kimbu, Font Xavier (2021)Operationalising sustainability in volunteer tourism by power-sharing with the receiving organisation, In: Tourism Recreation Research Routledge

    The outcomes of volunteer tourism have rarely evaluated, and the sustainable practices, such as equality within this sector, are questionable. Extant research has indicated that miscommunication and poor volunteer placement management can lead to ineffectiveness and negative experiences for stakeholders such as host project staff and volunteers. Collaborative relations between the main stakeholders at a local level were evaluated and deconstructed to enable a better understanding of operational practices that influence sustainable outcomes for host projects. This evaluative study examined the role of the receiving organisation at the host destination in achieving sustainable outcomes utilising a case study in South Africa. An evaluative framework integrating realistic evaluation, collaboration theory and supply chain analysis offered in-depth insights into why the local contextual settings influence how collaborative relations among stakeholders can influence sustainable outcomes. The receiving organisation’s knowledge of the local socio-economic contextual settings of each host project is critical to the successful engagement between hosts and volunteers which leads to equality. The evaluative framework offers an understanding of how and why the local contextual settings and the prosocial approach by the local agent are essential in enabling sustainability performance in volunteer tourism.

    Bora Kim, Yoo Ri Kim, Albert Nsom Kimbu, SUMEETRA RAMAKRISHNAN, Whitney Estanita Smith (2023)Co-creating Equitable, Diverse and Inclusive Travel and Tourism: Post-workshop Report University of Surrey

    Equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) are receiving considerable attention in the travel and tourism workplace and the overall sector. At a global level, a wide range of agreements and pledges exist to ensure the advancement towards EDI in the sector (Ferguson, 2018) (i.e., 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development). Despite global commitments, there is a substantive disconnection between global policy and practices of equality, and its absence across the tourism sector (Ferguson, 2018). Consequently, progress is primarily gradual and inconsistent across the travel and tourism industry. There are several societal, cultural and industry barriers that contribute to the continued inequality and inequity across the industry. An overarching barrier or challenge is the variation across the travel and tourism sector about how to define the terms and address EDI issues. While there are examples of good industry practices, there has been a general lack of successful and sustainable implementation of EDI initiatives, agendas and programmes. The aim of the ESRC IAA Project was to identify key challenges and barriers inhibiting our understanding of EDI in travel and tourism to foster inclusive organisational cultures, achieve representation and progression of diverse groups (i.e., ethnicity, gender, age, sexuality etc.) across all areas of management in the industry. The EDI impact workshops (co-moderated by the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, & the Travel Foundation) in London held on October 14th and 21st 2022 explored the issues through three tasks (See Fig. 1). Collectively, the tasks contributed to building a greater understanding of different dimensions of EDI and create a flexible and usable toolkit that meets the different contexts and needs of stakeholders. The findings of the workshops contributed to the design of the EDI toolkit of strategies and interventions may be used to support and guide organisations and policy makers toward achieving the EDI agenda across the sector.

    Michael Zisuh Ngoasong, Ogechi Adeola, ALBERT NSOM KIMBU, Robert E Hinson (2021)New Frontiers in Hospitality and Tourism Management in Africa Springer International Publishing
    Frederick Dayour, Charles A. Adongo, Albert N. Kimbu (2020)Insurance uptake among small and medium-sized tourism and hospitality enterprises in a resource-scarce environment, In: Tourism Management Perspectives34100674 Elsevier

    Small and medium-sized tourism and hospitality enterprises (SMTHEs) are often susceptible to various hazards, which result in risk concerns. Insurance is recognised as one of the risk management strategies, but evidence indicates that insurance uptake among SMTHEs has been low. Yet, researchers have hardly researched into the factors that influence insurance uptake among SMTHEs. Two-hundred and fifty (250) respondents were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Confirmatory factor analysis, multivariate logit and probit regression techniques were used to determine factors underlying SMTHEs' insurance uptake. Risk concerns, the firm's characteristics, the perceived benefits of insurance and other informal risk coping mechanisms, as well as insurance service provision concerns were identified as determinants of insurance uptake. This is one of the first papers to offer a holistic understanding of the factors influencing SMTHEs' insurance subscription in a resource-scarce destination of Sub-Saharan Africa. The practical and theoretical implications of the paper are discussed.

    Albert Kimbu, MZ Ngoasong (2016)Women as vectors of social entrepreneurship, In: Annals of Tourism Research60pp. 63-79 Elsevier

    Drawing on the literature examining women in the tourism sector and social entrepreneurship, this article critically explores a theoretical framework for analyzing the role of women owner-managers of small tourism firms (STFs) as social entrepreneurs. Through a qualitative analysis of owner-managers of STFs, the article provides evidence of how women integrate social transformational and commercial goals in their business strategies, while serving defined communities around the tourism sector. By critically examining the operationalization of these goals and community needs, the development impacts of women-owned STFs and opportunities for women social entrepreneurship in the tourism sector are identified and discussed.

    AN Kimbu (2015)Cameroon, tourism, In: J Jafari, H Xiao (eds.), Encyclopaedia of Tourism Springer International Publishing
    Emmanuel Akwasi Adu-Ampong, Albert Nsom Kimbu (2019)The Past, Present and Future of Sustainability in Tourism Policy and Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa, In: Tourism Planning & Development16(2)pp. 119-123 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

    Tourism is currently growing faster in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and in many other developing regions compared to the rest of the world. The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) estimates that in absolute terms there were 63 million international tourist arrivals in SSA for the year ending 2017 – a 9% growth rate. However, this is only 5% of global international tourist arrivals with the share of receipts for SSA at 3% (World Tourism Organization [UNWTO], 2018). While tourism in SSA has long been touted as a potential vehicle for economic growth, job creation and poverty reduction (Novelli, 2015), the outcome has been inconsistent and implications at the local level questionable (Adu-Ampong, 2017, 2018a; Mbaiwa, 2005; Kimbu & Ngoasong, 2013). Nonetheless, the growing influence of the tourism sector in SSA calls for careful consideration of the past, present and future planning and policy contexts through which tourism can be leveraged to achieve sustainable outcomes. This Special Issue on Sustainability in tourism policy and planning in Sub-Saharan Africa: past, present and future, reassesses the process of tourism policy and planning in SSA over the years. This is set against the wider context of the UNWTO having declared 2017 as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development and the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) having three of the seventeen goals making an explicit reference to tourism in goal 8: economic growth and employment, goal 12: sustainable consumption and production, and goal 14: conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development (United Nations, 2016). The tourism sector is ergo being called upon to explicitly integrate sustainability in its economic, social and environmental dimensions than has been done previously. This Special Issue therefore considers how the increasing focus on sustainability in policy discourses are shaping current and future tourism policy and planning in the SSA context. The papers are drawn from across all the different sub-regions of sub- Saharan Africa and provide a critical (re)examination of the role of tourism policies, plans and practices in achieving sustainable development in SSA.

    MZ Ngoasong, AN Kimbu (2016)Informal microfinance institutions and development-led tourism entrepreneurship, In: Tourism Management52pp. 430-439 Elsevier

    This paper explores how informal microfinance institutions (IMFIs) support development-led tourism entrepreneurship through providing microcredit and development opportunities to small tourism firms (STFs), as well as undertaking communitarian projects and outreach activities that promote the business activities of STFs. Drawing on resilience and social capital as central concepts, the paper argues that the form of collective action found in IMFIs can be examined to understand their impact on development-led tourism entrepreneurship. Using Cameroon as a case study important policy challenges in destinations where regulatory constrains cause many STFs to become dependent on IMFIs as opposed to formal (regulated) financial institutions in development-led tourism are highlighted.

    Albert N. Kimbu, Tembi M. Tichaawa (2018)Sustainable development goals and Socio-economic development through Tourism in central Africa: myth or reality?, In: GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites23(3)pp. 780-796 University of Oradea, Romania

    The realisation by many developing countries in the last two decades that tourism can be an important tool in achieving the sustainable development goals of poverty elimination, environmental sustainability and decent work and economic growth in general has led many governments to introduce measures aimed at promoting the development of the industry. However unlike many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, countries in the biodiversity rich Central African sub-region only recently started to adopt measures aimed at the sustainable development of the industry geared towards the realisation of these goals. The travel and tourism industry here is still at an embryonic and chaotic stage of development, plagued with a multitude of challenges contributing less than 3% to GDP and employment. Using qualitative research methods i.e. semi-structured interviews and field observations, the paper examines the role of the tourism industry in the attainment of these goals and consequently tourism’s contribution to local economic development in Cameroon. It highlights the country’s diverse potentials as well as some of core challenges which are presently being encountered. The paper concludes by proposing a framework within which all stakeholders can actively work together towards the realisation of these goals.

    Paul Hanna, Sarah Wijesinghe, Ilias Paliatsos, Carl Walker, Matthew Adams, Albert Kimbu (2019)Active engagement with nature: outdoor adventure tourism, sustainability and wellbeing, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism27(9)pp. 1355-1373 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

    This article draws on the conflicting arguments surrounding outdoor adventure tourism activities to determine if such activities might usefully be considered beneficial for humans and nature, and how they might offer avenues for sustainable tourism practice. Research in the field has often examined outdoor adventure activities through a lens that either highlights their negative environmental impacts or has sought to conceptualise motivations and/or experiences. In this article, we argue that through practices that are often seen as destructive, there is the possibility to think differently about human-nature relationships and pro-environmentalism. To explore these issues, we draw on data collected from a series of semi-structured interviews with outdoor adventure tourists. Our analysis highlights how outdoor adventure tourism facilitates reconnections to nature, offering potential wellbeing impacts and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. We conclude that outdoor adventure activities as a form of sustainable tourism have potential implications for our understanding of, and engagement with, sustainability, mental health and wellbeing.

    AN Kimbu, MZ Ngoasong (2013)Centralized decentralization of tourism development: A network perspective, In: Annals of Tourism Research40pp. 235-259

    While there is increasing recognition of the positive impacts of tourism on economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa, existing relationships between tourism industry stakeholders is fraught with challenges that constrain its development. Drawing on social network theory and stakeholder theory and through a series of key informant semi-structured interviews with tourism industry stakeholders, the paper explores the nature of participation by destination stakeholders in formulating and implementing tourism policy in Cameroon. It then explores a model of tourism development built around a centrally coordinated but decentralized tourism network that reaches out to all representative stakeholders when formulating and implementing tourism policies. The challenges involved in mobilizing destination stakeholders into such a system to allow for effective tourism development are critically examined.

    Albert Kimbu (2017)Cameroon, In: Linda L Lowry (eds.), The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Travel and Tourismpp. 212-213 SAGE Publications, Inc
    Jaeyeon Choe, Michael O’ Regan, Albert N. Kimbu (2020)Filipino migrant workers’ leisure and subjective quality of life in Macao, In: World Leisure Journalpp. 1-19 Routledge

    Utilizing 14 semi-structured interviews in a non-western context, this exploratory study examines how Filipino migrant workers’ leisure satisfaction and QoL are intertwined in Macao, China. The study reveals that Filipino migrant workers regard “family and friends”, and a sense of community as central to their QoL. Regarding leisure, the Filipino migrant workers experienced a lack of time-off and long working hours (structural leisure constraints) whilst living without their families in the Philippines (interpersonal leisure constraints). In addition, the Filipino migrant workers noted that few leisure options were available to them, and given commercial options dominate in Macao, the perceived cost of leisure participation clashes with the Filipino migrant workers responsibility to send remittances home. It is recommended that authorities and employers explore the importance of subjective QoL indicators such as sense of community that emerge from marginalized social groups, such as migrant workers, into their measurement systems and policy deliberations, to create a livable and sustainable community for all. Our study enriches the extant research by broadening the research location to focus on “voices” from low income migrants in a non-western context.

    Michael Zisuh Ngoasong, Albert Kimbu (2019)Why Hurry? The Slow Process of High Growth in Women-owned Businesses in a Resource-Scarce Context, In: Journal of Small Business Management57(1)pp. 40-58 Wiley

    This article critically uncovers how embeddedness within a resource-scarce context influences high-growth women’s entrepreneurship. Research suggests that though highly embedded women entrepreneurs can easily access resources and attain legitimacy, resulting in high-growth businesses, they can also become locked into existing systems that constrain their growth development paths. Using 16 qualitative cases developed in Cameroon, we unpack and resolve this paradox by analyzing how entrepreneurial path creation by women entrepreneurs enables the realization of growth aspirations. Implications for initiatives to support high-growth women’s entrepreneurship in resource-scarce contexts are critically examined.

    Frederick Dayour, Sangwon Park, Albert Kimbu (2019)Backpackers’ perceived risks towards smartphone usage and risk reduction strategies: A mixed methods study, In: Tourism Management72pp. 52-68 Elsevier

    Backpackers' travel ideology and experiences are increasingly being mediated by mobile phones (i.e. smartphones). This study explored their risk perceptions towards smartphone usage and consequent risk reduction strategies. Importantly, this paper proposes an integrated model of perceived risk combining technology and destination related risk factors. Employing a quantitative-dominant concurrent nested mixed methods approach, 567 surveys (Study A) and 15 in depth, semi-structured interviews (Study B) were conducted in Ghana. Evidently, backpackers’ perceived risk towards smartphone usage is a function of both information technology and destination related risks. Their risk concerns are inhibited by trust in smartphones, innovativeness and familiarity. Levels of trust had a significant positive impact on their intentions to reuse the device, as did their satisfaction levels with the device and travel. Backpackers used a mix of both cognitive and non-cognitive measures to manage their risk perceptions. The theoretical, practical and methodological contributions of the study are discussed.

    Claudia Eckardt, Xavier Font, Albert Kimbu (2020)Realistic Evaluation as a Volunteer Tourism Supply Chain Methodology, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism28(5)pp. 647-662 Taylor and Francis

    Volunteer tourism organisations are largely unaccountable for the claims they make about generating benefits from the projects that they sell. The few evaluations of how volunteer tourism projects fail or succeed tend to underestimate the importance of contextual factors affecting the mechanisms introduced to achieve a desired sustainability outcome. Realistic evaluation is a recently developed methodology to critically develop testable context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) propositions that explain what works, for whom, under which circumstances. Our study makes a theoretical contribution by uniquely integrating realistic evaluation with collaboration theory to study the volunteer tourism supply chain, in order to demonstrate how to develop an evaluative framework to map out the components of CMO configurations. Our study also makes a methodological contribution by unpacking the black box of the mechanisms to deliver sustainable change through the supply chain of the volunteer tourism industry, which can be subsequently used to systematically monitor and evaluate context-specific circumstances that affect how different volunteering supply chains affect the sustainability of the projects’ outcomes.

    Carol X. Zhang, Albert Kimbu, Pearl Lin, Michael Z. Ngoasong (2020)Guanxi influences on women intrapreneurship, In: Tourism Management81104137 Elsevier

    Drawing on the literature examining women intrapreneurship, Chinese guanxi and tourism, this article critically explores a theoretical framework for understanding guanxi influences on women intrapreneurship in a non-western and highly patriarchal destination. Through a qualitative analysis of women managers from twenty-four medium and large tourism firms in China, the study provides evidence of Guanxi as socially embedded personal relationships for the exchange of favors, enabling women managers to initiate specific types of women intrapreneurship initiatives in their organizations. The findings reveal how the women managers draw on three forms of guanxi (external, within and back-stage) to display intrapreneurial actions as well as the firm-specific factors that constitute important determinants of women intrapreneurship. The managerial implications for encouraging and supporting women intrapreneurs are critically examined.

    Tembi M Tichaawa, Albert Kimbu (2018)Unlocking Policy Impediments for Service Delivery in Tourism Firms: Evidence from Small and Medium Sized Hotels in SubSaharan Africa, In: Tourism Planning and Development16(2)pp. 179-196 Taylor & Francis

    Attempts by many African governments to implement institutional reforms aimed at developing and implementing inclusive tourismrelated policies have met with mitigated success. This study ergo, critically unpacks policy-related impediments associated with the operations of tourism firms in Africa, drawing on evidence from small and medium sized hotels in Cameroon. Analysis of empirical data collected through semi-structured interviews with 30 hotel owner/managers in Cameroon revealed that: (i) their impact on employment was minimal, with a heavy reliance on family members/relatives; (ii) limited employee education and skills for effective service delivery; (iii) low hotel occupancy rates; and (iv) poor destination competitiveness. Important policy and planning recommendations are made, most notable of which is a critical (re-)examination of tourism policy and planning practices by means of developing and implementing cogent development plans that are cognisant of the local realities and geared towards guaranteeing effective service delivery, thereby ensuring destination competitiveness.

    Niels Frederik Lund, Albert Kimbu (2020)Applying the Hollywood scriptwriting formula to destination branding, In: Current Issues in Tourism Taylor and Francis

    This paper examines the prospects of applying the Hollywood scriptwriting formula to a destination transforming a range of potentially disconnected tourist destination experiences into a more immersive, interrelated narrative and thereby generating a cohesive destination brand that has an emotional and personal bond with tourists. A step-by-step conceptual model, based on Hollywood’s scriptwriting formula, is developed, contextualised and employed for the case study destination of Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. The model offers destination management organizations an innovative new method of developing a destination brand centred on storytelling while the findings demonstrate that the scriptwriting approach creates a narrative for the destination that connects the various experiences in an experiential framework which carves out a brand that promises strong emotional and experiential benefits for tourists. This paper provides an original and novel rethink of how to construct the destination experience and formulate the destination brand, employing scriptwriting capabilities, rather than traditional marketing concepts.

    This article investigates the significance and importance of transport and other service or non-transport (accommodation) infrastructure as important factors in the development of Cameroon as a future competitive eco/nature tourism destination. Based on the results of primary data collected in Cameroon, the article examines and sheds light on the evolution in Cameroon's service infrastructure since independence in 1960 with particular emphasis on the transport and accommodation infrastructure into and within Cameroon's natural parks, reserves, and other tourist attractions. Through an analysis of a tourist satisfaction survey, field observations, and discussions with tour operators, the article points out the sensitivity of tourists visiting the country to the service infrastructure especially with regards to the transport and accommodation infrastructure and how these services impacted on their general holiday experience and the image it portrays of Cameroon—an eco/nature tourism holiday destination. It also examines the current state of the transport system and infrastructure both into and within the country as well as its accommodation infrastructure, and in the process highlights shortcomings that are to be found in Cameroon's transport and other service infrastructure. The concluding section of the article proposes a way forward in alleviating some of the concerns raised after analyzing data from the survey, discussions, and field observation. Recommendations that should be taken into consideration by all stakeholders responsible for the conception, development, and implementation of policies dealing with transport, accommodation, and other service infrastructure to and within sites that attract tourists, nature lovers in particular, and Cameroon in general, thereby enhancing the image of the country as a favorable eco/nature tourism destination are proposed.

    Albert Kimbu, Tembi M. Tichaawa (2020)Determinants of impact investing for tourism development in emerging destinations of sub-Saharan Africa, In: Development Southern Africa Taylor and Francis

    Impact investing is making important and positive contributions to the socio-economic development of groups at the bottom-of-the-pyramid. Independent literature streams reveal how in resource scarce contexts of sub-Saharan Africa, businesses are increasingly tapping into this emerging opportunity which is extending loans and other forms of capital. However, to date, there is very limited understanding of this domain from a hospitality and tourism perspective. By synthesizing across these literature streams, we explore the opportunities, constrains and nature of impact investing, and theorize its key determinants in resource scarce contexts. To elaborate our theorization, we content analyse published accounts i.e. industry reports and academic literature to argue for the need for more impact investing in hospitality and tourism, a sector that has traditionally suffered from under-financing and limited politico-economic recognition. The study lays a foundation for future research on impact investing in hospitality and tourism and yield important policy and managerial implications.

    AN Kimbu (2011)The challenges of marketing destinations in the Central African sub-region: The Cameroon example, In: International Journal of Tourism Research13(4)pp. 324-336 Wiley

    During the last decade, Sub-Saharan Africa has consistently posted the one of the highest tourism growth with rates at an average +6% p.a. between 2007 and 2010. However, not all countries have profited from this growth. Countries in the Central African sub-region, which even though recognised internationally as potential hotspots for sustainable ecotourism development are still lagging behind those located in Western, Eastern and Southern Africa. This paper identifies some challenges inhibiting the development and marketing tourism destinations in the Central African sub-region and Cameroon in particular and proposes some concise measures whose implementation would help in redressing the situation.

    Frederick Dayour, Albert Kimbu, Sangwon Park (2017)Backpackers: The need for reconceptualisation, In: Annals of Tourism Research66pp. 191-193 Elsevier Masson

    Indubitably, an eclectic body of academic literature exists on backpacking dating back from the start of the 1990s. However, the characterisation of backpackers in several studies points evidently to incongruities among researchers. Consequently, there is as yet no standard operational criteria for defining backpackers. Ergo, this paper reviews the existing literature in tourism and rouses the need to rethink the definition of a backpacker for valid data gathering.

    Albert Nsom Kimbu, Michael Zisuh Ngoasong, Ogechi Adeola, Ewoenam Afenyo-Agbe (2018)Collaborative Networks for Sustainable Human Capital Management in Women's Tourism Entrepreneurship: The role of tourism policy., In: Tourism Planning & Development16(2)pp. 161-178 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

    Government policies to support women's empowerment in tourism through sustainable human capital management (HCM) is an emerging research theme. Tourism policies can contribute significantly to African women’s empowerment by breaking existing stereotypical barriers that impede women’s HCM. Based on a narrative analysis of published academic and policy literature, we uncover how policy support for collaborative networks can enhance women entrepreneur’s HCM and thereby increase their resiliency and that of their tourism businesses. Collaborative networks are regional and country-specific forums, programs and/or initiatives for networking, skills development and access to resources and agency for women tourism entrepreneurs. Drawing on findings from analyzing collaborative networks involving women entrepreneurs in Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon, the paper develops a conceptual framework that depicts four determinants of collaborative networks that influence the HCM of women entrepreneurs in tourism, namely type of network, resources, social capital dimensions and human capital management. Finally, the paper explicates how these determinants can inform national tourism policy to support women entrepreneurs.

    Cristina Figueroa-Domecq, Albert Kimbu, Anna de Jong, Allan Morgan Williams (2020)Sustainability through the tourism entrepreneurship journey: a gender perspective, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Routledge

    Women's tourism entrepreneurship has been identified as fundamental to meeting the UN's Sustainable Development Goals of both 'gender equality' and 'decent growth and economic growth' but neither entrepreneurship nor sustainability are gender neutral in the tourism industry. Therefore, further research is required into how gender influences sustainable entrepreneurship, providing insights for tourism entrepreneurship policy. In response to a prevalent essentialism in much of the literature, this paper adopts a post-structuralist framework, alongside a mixed-methods approach, to understand the complex role of gender and sustainability at different stages of entrepreneurship. The initial focus is on a survey of 539 tourism students (women and men) which analyses the latent and nascent entrepreneurship stages, while 19 interviews with established tourism entrepreneurs provide further insights into these issues. The analysis focusses especially on the individual characteristics of risk, personal attitudes to entrepreneurship and behavioural control. While broad gender differences are observed, notably in societal perceptions of risk aversion, there is also considerable blurring of the approaches of established entrepreneurs in particular to sustainability and entrepreneurship. If entrepreneurship is to enhance sustainability, policy needs to account for the non-essentialised gendered dimensions that inhibit and enable sustainable tourism entrepreneurship.

    Cristina Figueroa-Domecq, Anna de Jong, Albert Nsom Kimbu, Allan M. Williams (2022)Financing tourism entrepreneurship: a gender perspective on the reproduction of inequalities, In: Journal of sustainable tourism Routledge

    Market economies are often characterised by a failure to self-regulate. One of the most enduring of these 'market failures' is the ability to maximise the entrepreneurial potential to generate growth. Within this context, gender remains one of, and probably, the most prevalent dimension of this perceived failure to maximise entrepreneurial potential. Feminist political economy provides a starting point for understanding this reproduction of inequalities via policy interventions that have sought to address perceived market failure. This paper analyses how such gendered inequalities are reproduced. Through the critical assessment of Spain's Emprendetur funding scheme, active from 2012 to 2016, 996 applications were analysed, through a content analysis, applying a gender perspective. The findings, including a decision tree analysis, demonstrate not only that women participate less as applicants in the funding scheme but are also less successful. This can be partly explained because women apply via business typologies that are less successful in relation to the dominance of ICT and technologically informed innovations. However, the barriers extend beyond these typologies; for even when controlling for critical success factors like project size, women are less successful, experiencing a double gender gap, that underlines the need for a gender lens policy approach.

    ALBERT NSOM KIMBU, Jaeyeon Choe, Michael O’Regan, NIELS FREDERIK LUND, Adele Ladkin (2021)Quality of life perspectives for different social groups in a World Centre of Tourism and Leisure, In: Tourist Studies SAGE Publications

    While the quality of life (QoL) concept in tourism research has gained momentum, scholarly work has focused on host QoL and tourist-host relations, rather than exploring and analysing the perception, interpretation and understanding of QoL among different social groups in a given tourist destination. Macao is a densely populated tourism destination and designated World Centre of Tourism and Leisure, where local residents and migrants work and cohabit side by side. By broadening the scope of research through in-depth interviews, our research findings highlight how different social groups in Macao experience QoL differently. While all groups perceive positive economic impacts and appreciate career opportunities from tourism development, the analysis raises questions as to the QoL of residents and migrants, and the social sustainability of Macao. The study recommends that authorities embed a social sustainability focus in deliberations, policies and investment so as to achieve its goal of World Centre of Tourism and Leisure status, not only for tourists, but also for those who live and work there.

    Mohamed Nageh Ibrahim, Albert Nsom Kimbu, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2023)Recontextualising the determinants of external CSR in the services industry: A cross-cultural study, In: Tourism Management95104690 Elsevier

    Although the relationship between institutional pressures and corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been well studied, its underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions are not well understood. To remedy these gaps, we draw on institutional theory and the literature on organisational sensemaking, stakeholder salience and the resource-based view of the firm. We test our conceptual model using survey data from 442 managers of hospitality and tourism enterprises based in Egypt and the United Kingdom. SEM-based results show that both stakeholder issue salience and discretionary slack mediate the link between institutional pressures and external CSR. National culture moderates the effects of institutional pressures on both stakeholder issue salience and external CSR. Multi-group analyses reveal noticeable differences between Egyptian and British managers regarding their interpretations of CSR issues and the institutional environment. This study contributes to the emerging micro-institutional stream and cross-cultural CSR research, providing important insights for managers, policymakers and researchers.

    Albert Nsom Kimbu, Anna de Jong, Issahaku Adam, Manuel A Ribeiro, Ewoenam Afenyo-Agbe, Ogechi Adeola, Cristina Figueroa-Domecq (2021)Recontextualising gender in entrepreneurial leadership, In: Annals of tourism research88103176 Elsevier Ltd

    Drawing on the literature examining the nexus between gender, entrepreneurial leadership and entrepreneurial performance, this article critically explores a framework for analysing the role of gender in shaping entrepreneurial performance and leadership in tourism firms in a non-western context. Utilising a poststructural feminist lens that challenges normative accounts of entrepreneurial leadership practices, a qualitative analysis of interview data from tourism entrepreneurs in Ghana and Nigeria provides evidence of how entrepreneurial performances and leadership are gendered, fluid and constantly being negotiated. The article extends current discussions within tourism entrepreneurship to engage more meaningfully with gender, thereby assisting in deconstructing homogenous, fixed conceptualisation of entrepreneurial leadership - often evident within the broader leadership and entrepreneurship literature dominated by Anglo-Western approaches. •We examine the role of gender in entrepreneurial leadership in tourism.•Anglo-Western approaches dominate entrepreneurial leadership literature.•Context determines identity construction and leadership performances in tourism.•Entrepreneurial leadership journey is best unpacked through poststructural feminism.•Leadership performances are not fixed but gendered, fluid and constantly negotiated.

    Claudia Eckardt, Xavier Font, Albert Kimbu (2021)Collaborations in volunteer tourism, In: Current Issues in Tourismpp. 1-15 Routledge

    Despite Volunteer Tourism (VT) being firmly rooted in sustainability, there is a lack of detailed understanding of how the VT supply chain influences sustainability. Specifically, while recent analytical frameworks evaluating relations in the VT supply chain have detected power imbalances amongst the main stakeholders, little is known about how and why the different active components of VT stakeholders’ relations influence sustainability. Based on a case study of the four main stakeholders in VT (sending and receiving organizations, volunteers, and host projects), this paper illustrates the nuanced details of how collaborative relations within the supply chain can lead to sustainability. The study determines how and why VT organizations’ values are the main drivers for the VT supply chain to achieve sustainability outcomes. It demonstrates how operationalising power-sharing and shared decision-making throughout the whole supply chain enables VT to improve sustainability performance. In the surveyed host projects, accumulative short-term outcomes (based on skills transfer and confidence building) can facilitate long-term transformative change such as social mobility.

    Whitney E. Smith, Anna de Jong, Scott Cohen, Albert N. Kimbu (2023)‘Creamy and seductive’: Gender surveillance in flight attendant work, In: Annals of Tourism Research98103507 Elsevier

    Despite attempts by airlines and the wider tourism industry to cultivate more diverse working environments, gendered practices and pressures persist. A feminist poststructuralist approach involving interviews with flight attendants from three airlines is used to examine how airlines attempt to construct the ideal aesthetic flight attendant, and how individual workers may resist these gendered practices through their work. The findings demonstrate that airlines consistently shape and discipline flight attendants' gendered grooming performances through rules, peer-surveillance and engendering self-regulation. While flight attendants occasionally employ subtle forms of resistance, they primarily adhere to traditional gender norms. The paper provides a conceptual shift from binary perspectives on surveillance in tourism work to a relational understanding that reveals circulatory force.

    Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Issahaku Adam, Albert Nsom Kimbu, Ewoenam Afenyo-Agbe, Ogechi Adeola, Cristina Figueroa-Domecq, Anna de Jong (2021)Women entrepreneurship orientation, networks and firm performance in the tourism industry in resource-scarce contexts, In: Tourism management (1982)86104343 Elsevier

    Drawing on network theory, this study examines how the entrepreneurship orientation (EO)-performance nexus is intermediated by networks firms establish with government agencies, suppliers, and resource acquisition. Structural equation modelling is used to test the model on a sample of 556 women tourism entrepreneurs in Ghana and Nigeria. Findings indicate that EO positively influences firms’ social ties, resource acquisition, and performance. The results also indicate that establishing strong ties with government agencies leads to more resource acquisition among women owned tourism businesses than strong business ties with suppliers. Furthermore, business ties are more beneficial when they mediate the effect of EO on performance and become weak and negative when the effect is sequentially mediated by business ties and network resource acquisition. Political ties negatively influenced performance. This study provides novel insights into the EO, networks and performance nexus in resource-scarce contexts. The managerial implications for supporting women entrepreneurs are critically examined.

    WHITNEY ESTANITA SMITH, Albert Nsom Kimbu, Anna de Jong, Scott Cohen (2021)Gendered Instagram representations in the aviation industry, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourismahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)pp. 1-25 Routledge

    Air transport and tourism are interdependent systems wherein idealized gender performances are shaped by organizational cultures and particular commercial interests that have implications for gendered representations. Organizations use social media spaces to influence public perceptions, yet in doing so they may (re)construct hegemonic notions pertaining to images of masculinity and femininity. This paper utilizes a feminist poststructuralist approach to deconstruct normative gendered assumptions that exist within the aviation sector's use of Instagram. Netnography is used to uncover the dominant discourses, as well as the complex representations of gender as represented by airlines on Instagram. Findings reveal that despite a minority of images that defy stereotypes, the airlines consistently construct and distribute playful imagery that objectifies female staff and hyper-feminizes the cabin space. In uncovering how airline organizational images may portray employees in gendered ways, this paper contributes to the achievement of SDG 5 i.e. gender equality in tourism. The paper recommends that the industry incorporates more diverse performances across all aviation occupational roles so that images that challenge stereotypes become part of the everyday.

    Ikram Nur Muharam, Iis Patimah Tussyadiah, Albert Nsom Kimbu (2023)A theoretical model of user acceptance of blockchain-based peer-to-peer accommodation, In: Current Issues in Tourism Routledge

    Blockchain could disrupt traditional accommodation services by enabling safe, decentralised direct connections between guests and hosts. However, how users will accept and use blockchain-based services in tourism and hospitality remains unascertained. This study explores users’ perceptions of a blockchain-based peer-to-peer accommodation system and sets a theoretical basis to conceptualise the drivers of the acceptability of such system. By using a grounded theory approach involving theoretical sampling and three steps of coding and constant comparison procedures, this study revealed that users were drawn to the system because it delivers desirable characteristics that are absent from existing services, such as further reduction of transaction fees, instant transaction settlement, wider income distribution, data integrity, algorithm autonomy, and smart protocol. Personal and social contexts were also found to influence users’ preferences for blockchain type and system ownership models. By offering key predictors and a theoretical model of user acceptance of a blockchain-based peer-to-peer accommodation system, hence taking a bottom-up approach to complement the highly top-down extant literature, this paper allows stakeholders exploring the use of blockchain technology in the tourism and hospitality sectors to have a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon.

    Whitney E Smith, Scott Cohen, Albert N Kimbu, Anna de Jong (2021)Reshaping gender in airline employment, In: Annals of Tourism Research89103221 Elsevier

    Air transport and tourism are interdependent systems wherein representations of gender are shaped by organisational cultures. Although airlines have progressed their gender balance, cabin crew work remains archetypically feminine. Taking a feminist poststructuralist approach, this paper uses thematic document analysis to examine how gendered discourses are constituted within airline organisational narratives through text, gestures and symbolic signs. Findings reveal that while airlines work to increase gender equality in employment practices, their efforts predominantly focus on the cockpit, neglecting roles beyond the flight deck. The paper recommends airlines broaden their gender equity focus to all roles and provides a basis for reshaping airlines' gender policies and practices.

    ALBERT NSOM KIMBU, Irma Booyens, ANKE WINCHENBACH (2022)Livelihood Diversification Through Tourism: Identity, Well-Being, and Potential in Rural Coastal Communities, In: Tourism review international Cognizant Communication Corporation

    Traditional rural livelihoods are disappearing due to natural resource decline, climate pressure and, also modernization. This study explores livelihood diversification from primary economic activities into tourism employment in rural communities. We examine the developmental role of tourism in areas where traditional activities, in this case fishing, have declined and tourism is growing. This article presents the findings of two case studies: the coastal communities of Padstow (UK) and Paternoster (South Africa). The approach is qualitative and draws on sustainable livelihoods and social well-being notions to examine how affected people “cope with change” with respect to tourism diversification, and individual and community well-being. While the socioeconomic and sociopolitical contexts in the two research sites differ, the findings show that narratives about belonging and identity feature prominently with respect to fishing livelihoods in both cases. Small-scale fishing, perceived as a way of life for fishers, is under threat in both areas, yet there is limited evidence of concerted efforts to plan and manage the potential diversification processes into tourism. Nonetheless, we observe that tourism does provide some opportunities for fishing-dependent communities and outline some avenues for stronger collaboration, particularly by focusing on culinary tourism.

    Understanding the causal influence of financial anxiety on future work commitment with social support and socio-psychological wellbeing as mediators amongst crisis-induced redundant tourism employees remains limited. Using data collected from 547 COVID-19-induced redundant tourism employees, this paper examines the influence of financial anxiety on future work commitment with social support and socio-psychological wellbeing as mediators. The findings reveal that financial anxiety has a negative influence on social support and social and psychological wellbeing. Social support has a negative influence on social wellbeing, while social support has a positive influence on future work commitment. Both social and psychological wellbeing has a negative influence on future work commitment. Meanwhile, the influence of financial anxiety on future work is fully mediated by social support and socio-psychological wellbeing. Insurance uptake and establishment of welfare funds amongst tourism employees can be used to buffer the effects of financial anxiety on future work commitment.

    Drawing on social and psychological well-being literature underpinned by the concept of resilience, this study examines the impact of COVID-19 induced redundancy on the socio-psychological well-being of redundant employees (laid-off or working reduced hours), and its effect on their commitment to work and support recovery in the tourism industry. Utilizing a quantitative-dominant mixed methods design, 457 questionnaires were administered, and 15 interviews conducted with redundant employees in Ghana between May and August 2020. Results from a binary logistic regression analysis of the survey data supported by qualitative interview analysis indicate that marital status, education, status of dependents, and the types of tourism businesses employed in, significantly influenced psychological well-being while marital status, age, education, and rank in the organization influenced the social well-being of respondents. Meanwhile, psychological well-being significantly influenced future work commitment in the industry. Managerial implications for supporting employee resilience, well-being, and future recovery strategies are critically examined.

    Albert Kimbu, Michael Z. Ngoasong (2016)Embeddedness & (dis)empowerment in women tourism entrepreneurship, In: School of Hospitality and Tourism Management Conference - Making an impact: Creating constructive conversations, Guildford-Surrey UK, 19 – 22 July 2016. University of Surrey

    Introduction Embeddedness especially in developing countries triggers opportunities for networking and thereby has the potential of enabling women entrepreneurs to access resources for development (Le & Nguyen, 2009) which may facilitate subsequent business creation and thus their empowerment (Datta & Gailey, 2012; Amine & Staub, 2009). However, while embeddedness may empower women entrepreneurs, it may also lock them into a network (Mair & Marti, 2006) that disempowers their ability to maximize the value creation potential of their enterprises thereby reducing their societal impacts. The purpose of this paper which is a work in progress is to empirically explore how social embeddedness empowers and/or disempowers women entrepreneurs in the hospitality and tourism industry in an African country context. We address two key questions: To what extent does social embeddedness facilitate the (dis)empowerment of women (social) entrepreneurs? In what ways does empowerment affect women entrepreneurs and shape their actions as they sought to create and operate H&T enterprises with an embedded social value? To answer these questions we integrate concepts from social entrepreneurship, empowerment and social embeddedness literature (e.g. Duffy et al., 2015; Di Domenico et al, 2010; Zahra et al., 2009) in the context of the role of women as owner-managers of small tourism (social) enterprises in base-of-the-pyramid emerging markets. Methods & potential contribution to impact: Through thematic content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with women entrepreneurs of micro and small tourism firms (STFs) (18), related government (03), social welfare and community development agencies and NGOs (03) in Cameroon, we analyze the relationship between embeddedness and women (dis)empowerment from the perspective of women entrepreneurs who have experienced it. In so doing, we not only illuminate how and why embeddedness (dis)empowers women entrepreneurs and their actions and decisions but more importantly we develop a framework within which social embeddedness if well-articulated can serve as a powerful tool in unlocking the potentials and improving the standard of living of many women in developing country destinations. Findings & Discussion: This is a work in progress and there are no substantial findings yet. However, we will have some findings to present and discuss by the time of the conference.

    Michael Z. Ngoasong, Albert Kimbu (2017)Entrepreneurial innovations in small and medium-sized hotels: Does industry context play a role?, In: Critical Tourism Studies Proceedings: Proceedings of the International Critical Tourism Studies Conference VII, Mallorca Spain, 25 – 29 June 2017.2017/1 Digital Commons

    We integrate approaches to the study of contexts in entrepreneurship and innovation to develop and apply a theoretical framework for analyzing how industry context influence entrepreneurial innovations in small and medium-sized hotels (SMSHs). Industry context includes the sectors, structures and stakeholder groups that constitute an industry, all of which affects the scope for entrepreneurial entry, the nature of entrepreneurial innovations (new products, services, methods or organization), and the strategies that owners/managers adopt to sequence their market entry choices and post-entry decisions (Garud, Gehman & Giuliani, 2014). The framework argues that industry context can both be an asset (opportunities) and a liability (challenges and risks) (Welter 2011) to entrepreneurial innovations by SMSHs in resource-scarce emerging destinations, such as those in Africa. Empirically, our research setting is African economies, where it has been suggested that within the hospitality and tourism (H&T) industry, the competitive power of multinational hotel chains threatens the long-term survival of SMSHs (Mohammad, 2016; Sharma & Upneja, 2005), with implications for tourism development (Kimbu & Ngoasong, 2013). Empirical data was collected through in-depth qualitative interviews with owners and/or managers of six SMSHs in Kenya (02), Cameroon (02) and Ghana (02). The data was complemented by participant observation (authors stayed in each hotel for five days, using restaurants and facilities, holding informal discussions with staff and visitors) and informal interviews with senior representatives of related industry associations and government ministries. The selection of SMSHs was based on three criteria: 1) independent (i.e. not belonging to a hotel chain), 2) legal status as a limited company, and 3) having less than 120 rooms (e.g. Ahmad, 2015; Chaves et al., 2012; Sharma & Upneja, 2005). The data was content-analyzed to uncover the comparative dimensions of the H&T industry context across the three countries and the associated contextual influences on SMSHs, with a focus on entrepreneurial innovation. The findings reveal the circumstances under which the H&T context can be an asset and/or a liability for entrepreneurs seeking to create new SMSHs and for established owner-managers seeking new methods of organizing and sustaining the operations of their SMSHs. The findings are further presented in a revised theoretical framework that can be applicable to other resource-scare destinations. The practical and policy implications for developing the H&T industry in ways that provide incentives for the development of SMSHs are critically examined. For example, understanding whether the dimensions of industry context serve as an asset or liability is critical to making decisions about when to create a new SMSH and how to identify and respond to changes in the industry that can affect the survival and success of an existing SMSH. Limitations include small sample size (two hotels from three African countries); however, the wide variance in the managerial experiences and the age, size and scope of operations of the hotels is significant for cross-case analysis and theory development.

    Within the last decade, many developing countries have recognised and started adopting tourism as an important local economic development option especially in areas devoid of mineral resources but rich in cultural and natural biodiversity (Shackley, 2006; Sharpley & Telfer, 2002). Cameroon has been no exception. However, the relationships between the various stakeholders involved in the industry’s development and management has been fraught with challenges and contradictions. This paper examines how sustainable tourism whose main goal is to provide high-quality visitor experiences that can maximize the benefits to the destination stakeholders without compromising the destination’s environmental, social, and cultural integrity is framed and implemented in Cameroon. Achieving this goal obviously depends on the extent to which tourism destinations manage to integrate these major perspectives and diverse stakeholders in the policy formulation process. The paper therefore investigates the extent to which destination stakeholders initiate or influence sustainable tourism policy making in Cameroon. Firstly, stakeholder theory (Freeman et al., 2010, Mitchell et al., 1997; Freeman, 1984) is used to identify key destination stakeholders in sustainable tourism development and how their interests can be managed in formulating sustainable tourism policy. Secondly, (social) network theory is used to examine patterns of relationships among destination stakeholders (Scott et al., 2008; Carlsson 2000; Granovetter, 1985) and analyse the roles that tourism networks could play in enhancing the development of a sustainable tourism policy in Cameroon.

    Rationale: It is now an accepted fact that many developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have realised the importance of tourism as a key local economic development strategy and are actively promoting and encouraging its development. However, the majority of the touristic sites in Central African countries and Cameroon in particular are nature related and located in remote and often inaccessible national parks and other protected sites with very limited hard and soft infrastructure (Kimbu, 2011a). In addition, the local communities often lack the knowledge and capital to successfully develop and manage these sites, some of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites and MAB reserves. The few who have the necessary skills and are interested to go into the tourism sector are often plagued by the lack of investment or start-up capital (Kimbu, 2011b). This is primarily due to the fact that most government incentives are aimed at attracting Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) from foreign tour operators rather than encouraging and promoting the creation and expansion of local (domestic) tourism enterprises and businesses which are predominantly micro, small and medium size enterprises (MSMEs) in many developing countries. This situation was no different in Cameroon where, more than 90% of travel, tourism and hospitality operations were MSMEs, more than 80% of which were family owned and managed (Kimbu, 2010). One of the principal challenges of these local tourism SMEs is therefore the lack of investment and/or start-up capital, access to credit facilities as well as little financial support from national, regional and local governments. The growth of micro-finance institutions (MFI) in many SSA countries during the last decade has greatly increased the accessibility of small businesses to financial services especially in terms of credits, savings and loan facilities (IFC, 2010). This has empowered many citizens who have capitalised on the new found opportunities and expanded or started up their own businesses thereby contributing to poverty alleviation and local economic development. However, because tourism is still a relatively ‘young and unknown’ industry in the countries of the Central African sub-region such as Cameroon (with its development only recently being prioritised), micro-finance institutions have been wary of providing financial services to potential start-up investors in the sector (Kimbu, 2010). As a result even though other economic sectors have profited from the growth of micro-finance institutions during the last decade, the tourism industry has not benefitted because it is still looked upon with a lot of scepticism by MFIs. Consequently finance/capital or the lack thereof remains one of the main drawbacks of tourism development in Cameroon. Objectives: • Analyse the present contribution of MFIs to tourism micro, small and medium size enterprise (MSME) development in Central African countries and Cameroon in particular. • Propose a model which makes use of existing and deeply embedded and social and cultural capital in the co-creation of investment/start-up financial capital for tourism MSMEs in emerging tourism destinations such as Cameroon. Conceptual Framework: Initially microfinance generation theories are used to explore the present situation i.e. the organisation, functioning and viability of MFIs (in SSA and Cameroon which is used as the case study) in generating capital for local economic development (LED) in general and tourism development in particular. This is followed by an examination of cultural affinity theories (Cheptea, 2007) and personalised socio-cultural (network) theories (Carlsson 2000; Granovetter, 2005), and how these concepts could be transformed into social capital through Home Town Associations (HTAs) (Evans, 2010; Feldman-Savelsberg & Ndonkou, 2010) as well as Rotating (and nonrotating) Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCAS) (Low, 1995). These associations which are predominantly informal could serve as platforms for the generation of capital needed for tourism development. Based on these theories and in conjunction with the study findings, a model is developed which if successfully implemented could generate and facilitate access to financial capital for tourism businesses in SSA countries like Cameroon where informal social and cultural networks still play a crucial role in regulating daily life. Methods: Secondary data analysis of key industry statistics of MFIs in Cameroon with the goal of understanding and highlighting the volume and direction of flow of savings and loans provided by institutions to SMEs. This information came from public and private sector institutions involved in managing and regulating financial operations in Cameroon. Primary data came from 20 semi-structured interviews with private and public sector stakeholders drawn from Cameroon’s financial, tourism and LED sectors. This included government representatives, tour/travel agents, economic operators owning/working in MFIs, community groups and non-governmental organisations engaged in sustainable (tourism) development activities at national, regional and community levels in Cameroon. In addition, 15 focus group discussions were held with HTAs and ROSCAs in the towns of Yaounde, Douala, Bamenda, Buea, and Wum in Cameroon. Questions during these discussions focused on the role, efficiency, opportunities and challenges presented by formal & informal MFIs in generating capital for micro and small enterprise tourism establishments and LED in Cameroon. Other questions examined the challenges and properties that characterized the relationships among the different set of actors with emphasis on their participation and/or non-participation in tourism ventures and the reasons thereof especially from a financial perspective.

    AN Kimbu (2012)Tourism growth and societal transformation in Cameroon’s coastal resorts: Sex tourism and its implications for sustainable tourism development in Kribi and Limbe, In: M Ronaldson, L Marais (eds.), Small Town Geographies in Africa: Experiences from South Africa and Elsewherepp. 383-401 Nova Science Publishers Inc.
    Albert Kimbu, Michael Z. Ngoasong (2016)How embeddedness enables women owner-managers of small tourism firms to operate in institutional voids, In: Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) Annual International Conference - Nexus Thinking, London UK, 30 Aug. - 02 Sept. 2016. Royal Geographical Society

    Empowerment has been shown to provide beneficial experiences for women micro/small entrepreneurs as it contributes to social transformation, wealth creation, and community developmentas well as providing access to essential goods and services in poor and marginalized communities (Datta & Gailey, 2012; Amine & Staub, 2009). It is also reflected in the notion of embeddedness and associated with social entrepreneurship. Embeddedness especially in developing countries triggers opportunities for networking and thereby enables women entrepreneurs to access resources for development (Le & Nguyen, 2009) which may facilitate subsequent business creation by women and thus their empowerment (Datta & Gailey, 2012;Amine & Staub, 2009). However, while embeddedness may empower women entrepreneurs, it may also lock them into a network (Mair & Marti, 2006) that disempowers their ability to maximize the value creation potential of their enterprises thereby reducing the societal impacts. The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore how social embeddedness empowers and/or disempowers women social entrepreneurs in the hospitality and tourism industry in an African country context. In particular, we seek to understand the correlation between embeddedness and women (dis)empowerment from the perspective of women micro and small entrepreneurs who have experienced it and to illuminate how and why embeddedness (dis)empowers women entrepreneurs in their actions and decisions. We thus address two research questions: 1) To what extent does social embeddedness facilitate the (dis)empowerment of women entrepreneurs? 2) In what ways does empowerment affect women entrepreneurs and shape their actions as they sought to create and operate tourism social enterprises? To answer these questions we integrate concepts from social entrepreneurship, women (dis)empowerment and social embeddedness literature (e.g. Duffy et al., 2015; Zahra et al., 2009) in the context of the role of women as owner-managers of tourism social enterprises in bottom-of-the-pyramid emerging markets (Datta & Gailey, 2012).

    ALBERT NSOM KIMBU, Emmanuel Akwasi Adu-Ampong (2020)Sustainable Tourism Policy and Planning in Africa Routledge

    Sustainable Tourism Policy and Planning in Africa offers an accessible and understandable overview of the challenges of integrating sustainability into tourism policy and planning in Sub-Saharan Africa and provides some interesting recommendations on how these could be overcome. Tourism is currently growing faster in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and in many other developing regions compared to the rest of the world. Using case examples from different segments of the tourism sector in different country contexts, this volume therefore reassesses context specific tourism policies and planning mechanisms in SSA over the years. It considers how the increasing focus on sustainability is reflected in different areas of the tourism sector including food security, the human capacity management, service delivery, local communities and heritage management, climate change and the influence of colonial legacies on tourism policy planning.  For many SSA countries, it has only been in the last two decades that the development of sustainable and achievable context specific policies and planning mechanisms has become the norm. The chapters provide examples of how different dimensions of sustainability are integrated into tourism policy and practice, and examine the extent to which these are shaping the present, and their implications for the future sustainability of the tourism sector. Sustainable Tourism Policy and Planning in Africa will be of great value to academics, private and third sector employees to better understand tourism in Sub-Saharan Africa. Eight of the chapters were originally published as a special issue of Tourism Planning and Development. These are now complimented with a new introductory chapter and a concluding chapter that sets out a future research agenda for sustainable tourism policy and planning.

    Albert N Kimbu, Michael Ngoasong (2015)Women as social entrepreneurs in the hospitality and tourism industry: Does (dis)empowerment play a role?, In: 10 Year CTS: Reflections on the road less travelled and the journey aheadpp. 71-71 Critical Tourism Studies

    This paper which is a work in progress presents a qualitative study exploring the nature, motivations and extent to which female entrepreneurs use their H&T businesses as platforms for engagement in various forms of social entrepreneurship (SE) leading to value creation, economic and community development. Although SE is seen as a key contributor to the creation and diversification of entrepreneurial activity, women empowerment and local economic development, there is limited research on the role of female H&T entrepreneurs in emerging non-western destinations. We focus on two research questions: 1) In what ways can female entrepreneurs in H&T be considered as social entrepreneurs and how does the structure and organization of society shape the nature of female participation in SE? 2) What are the challenges involved in mobilizing female entrepreneurs into a system that allows for effective engagement in H&T ventures with SE as the key guiding philosophy for maximising value creation, and meaningfully higher level of satisfaction for all participants? Concepts from women-owned H&T enterprises, SE and women empowerment are drawn upon. We argue that women are embedded in male-dominated traditions/customs, community associations and government bureaucracies that may either empowered or dis-empower them. Using the case of Cameroon, we examine how embeddedness enhances the capacity of women to engage in SE in the H&T industry, thereby contributing to local economic development. Empirically we adopt a mixed methods approach using multiple case studies: survey questionnaire, focus groups and in-depth interviews with selected female providers and beneficiaries of social enterprise ventures. The findings clarify the role of women in SE in H&T and policy implications for maximising social value creation through the participation of women in SE. Key Words: Social entrepreneurship, women empowerment, embeddedness, women-owned hospitality and tourism businesses

    AN Kimbu (2013)Political instability in the Central African sub-region and its impact on the image of Cameroon as a tourism destination, In: T Mihalic (eds.), Tourism and Developments: Issues and Challenges(14)pp. 335-364 Nova Science Publishers Inc

    Issues of tourist safety and risk are as engrossing as they are weighty when tourism destination image, promotion and marketing are concerned. Consequently, how regions burdened with political instability and civil strife and those located close by but relatively stable deal with negative images become very important issues and challenges because the ramifications can be difficult and expensive to recover from. Being the first of its kind to be conducted in the biodiversity rich but essentially politically volatile Central African sub-region, this chapter considers the findings of a series of in-depth interviews with private and public sector tourism industry stakeholders in Cameroon and from tourists before and after visiting countries in the sub-region. The first half of the chapter examines the literature on political instability and its impact on destination image and tourism in general. It also provides an overview of the geopolitical situation and tourism development in Cameroon and other neighbouring countries. The second half is an analysis of primary data collected during fieldwork. The findings reveal the existence of two contrasting different pre and post-visit images of the sub-region held by tourists. These include the absence of a destination marketing strategy, no strategic tourism planning and management, and limited sub-regional cooperation amongst others. It concludes by proposing some strategic tourism promotion and marketing elements which have to be addressed by destination managers when formulating destination management strategies that would make destinations in Cameroon and the sub-region more appealing to a wider range of potential visitors.

    Jaeyeon Choe, Michael O’Regan, Albert Kimbu, Niels Frederik Lund (2017)Social sustainability and quality of life in tourism destinations: a cross-cultural analysis, In: Visitor Economy: Strategies and Innovations, Bournemouth University UK, 4-6th September 2017 Bournemouth University

    Drawing on literature examining tourism development and quality of life (QoL), this study critically explores and analyses the perception, interpretation and understanding of QoL by local residents and foreign migrant workers in a rapidly developing tourism destination. This presentation fills an empirical gap by exploring the perception of QoL among migrant workers and local residents in Macao during the era of unparalleled tourism development. Macao’s casino-based economic growth and intensity of 30 million annual visitors to a territory of just 29 square kilometers raises many questions as to the QoL of its residents and social sustainability for Special Administered Region of China and other tourist destinations. A bottom-up approach using in-depth interview data enabled the identification of new QoL indicators and clarifies the importance of social and emotional well-being constructs in understanding and researching QoL. By moving beyond economic indicators (e.g employment), towards socio-cultural values and emotional and psychological well-being, this study identifies and explores the importance of social sustainability (e.g. social equity, health equity, community development, livability, social capital, social support, human rights, labour rights, social justice and community resilience). Future policy and planning policies by government, businesses and NGOs are recommended to incorporate more perceived social indicators emerging from the bottom and across cultures. The research also provides recommendations for key stakeholders in government and industry on how to support local residents and migrant workers’ quality of life and to better understand and achieve social sustainability.

    This paper examines the role and contribution of tourism to local economic development and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals of poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in the biodiversity endowed Central African sub-region. The concept of local economic development is examined and through field observations and semi-structured interviews with tourism industry stakeholders in Cameroon, an analysis of tourism’s role and future in local economic development and in the attainment of these goals is undertaken. The core challenges presently inhibiting tourism’s development thereby limiting its contribution to economic development, poverty reduction and environmental conservation in Cameroon are identified and a framework within which tourism’s contribution can be increased is proposed.

    AN Kimbu (2009)Issues affecting data collection for tourism research in sub-Saharan Africa, In: PhD Networking Conference Proceedings

    This paper examines the role and contribution of tourism to local economic development and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals one and seven dealing with extreme poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in the biodiversity endowed Central African sub-region. The concepts of sustainable tourism development and local economic development (in sub-Saharan Africa) are examined. Through field observations and semi-structured interviews with 21 tourism industry stakeholders in Cameroon, an analysis of tourism’s role and future in LED and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals 1 & 7 is undertaken. The core challenges presently inhibiting tourism’s development thereby limiting its contribution to local economic development and the attainment of these goals in Cameroon are identified and a framework within which tourism’s contribution can be increased is proposed.

    Albert Kimbu, Michael Z. Ngoasong (2017)Collaborative networks for human capital management in women tourism entrepreneurship., In: Sustainable HRM in Tourism in Africa, University of Johannesburg South Africa, 25-30 Sept. 2017. University of Johannesburg

    The presentation discusses the findings of a recently completed scoping study which mapped the existing/accessible collaborative networks involving women entrepreneurs in (three) African countries and internationally. It analysed the membership structures/requirements and support mechanisms available to women members (especially owner/managers of small tourism firms) for skills acquisition and business development (e.g. access to capital, learning resources and practices, modes of learning, networking and mentorship opportunities) with the goal of developing a larger bid /that will ultimately: • Produce a self-assessment toolkit for women (owner-managers) to self-assess their human development needs as the basis for sustaining the success and transformational impact of their businesses in tourism development. • Establish self-governing collaborative learning networks hosted through African country-specific support infrastructure (e.g. HEIs) to implement the toolkit and provide a forum for knowledge exchange, professional development and mentoring opportunities, linked to resources and agencies that can support women’s participation in tourism in Africa. We belief that well-structured/organised collaborative networks can contribute not only to sustainable employment and HCD but ultimately to women’s empowerment and development-led entrepreneurship in tourism in Africa.