Clift R, Druckman A (2015) Introduction: The Industrial Ecology Paradigm, In: Clift R, Druckman A (eds.), Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology Springer
The article introduces an integrated market-segmentation and tourism yield estimation framework for inbound tourism. Conventional approaches to yield estimation based on country of origin segmentation and total expenditure comparisons do not provide sufficient detail, especially for mature destinations dominated by large single-country source markets. By employing different segmentation approaches along with Tourism Satellite Accounts and various yield estimates, this article estimates direct economic contribution for subsegments of the UK market on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. Overall expenditure across segments varies greatly, as do the spending ratios in different categories. In the case of Cyprus, the most potential for improving economic contribution currently lies in increasing spending on ?food and beverages? and ?culture and recreation.? Mass tourism therefore appears to offer the best return per monetary unit spent. Conducting similar studies in other destinations could identify priority spending sectors and enable different segments to be targeted appropriately.
Governments estimate the social and economic impacts of crime, but its environmental impact is largely unacknowledged. Our study addresses this by estimating the carbon footprint of crime in England and Wales, and identifies the largest sources of emissions. By applying Environmentally-Extended Input-Output Analysis (EE-IOA) derived carbon emission factors to the monetised costs of crime, we estimate that crime committed in 2011 in England and Wales gave rise to over four million tonnes CO2e. Burglary resulted in the largest proportion of the total footprint (30%), due to the carbon associated with replacement of stolen/damaged goods. Emissions arising from criminal justice system services also accounted for a large proportion (21% of all offences; 49% of police recorded offences). Focus on these offences and the carbon efficiency of these services may help reduce the overall emissions that result from crime. However, cutting crime does not automatically result in a net reduction in carbon, as we need to take account of potential rebound effects. As an example, we consider the impact of reducing domestic burglary by 5%. Calculating this is inherently uncertain as it depends on assumptions concerning how money would be spent in the absence of crime. We find that this may result in a rebound effect of between 3% less and 23% more emissions. Despite this uncertainty concerning the carbon savings, our study goes some way towards informing policy makers of the scale of the environmental consequences of crime and thus enables it to be taken into account in policy appraisals.
Cox J-A, Jesson DA, Mulheron MJ, Druckman A, Smyth M, Trew H (2015) Municipal Solid Waste as a Resource Pt 1: A case study in specifying composition, Waste and Resource Management
Waste is a complex societal problem that brings together various stakeholders in order
to manage it. However, a lack of sufficient information on the quantities and types of
material in the waste stream can make sustainable waste management difficult. Since
waste in one sector can be valuable as a resource in another, there is a need to
understand the distribution of materials within the resource stream, especially those
that go to landfill. Current work is seeking to address this; whilst much material is
already recycled, this is not the only management option and there remain several
problematic materials/components to be removed from residual waste. This paper, the
first of two case studies, presents a more comprehensive waste composition
specification in order to better manage municipal waste. In developing this approach,
waste composition specifications currently in use have been reviewed and compared
with the solid municipal (household) waste collected at community recycling centres
and from the kerbside. Key primary and secondary descriptors for the better
management of resources arising from municipal waste have been determined, and
the impact of these changes on the information arising from composition analysis is
The SPREE Country Feasibility Study is the key deliverable for Work Package (WP) 7.
The objectives of WP7 are:
" To test the identified Servicizing systems1
and their impacts on achieving absolute decoupling and
social benefits using three sector specific models with local country conditions;
" To assess the feasibility of pursuing Servicizing opportunities and anticipated policy outcomes for
the different partner countries;
" To set the ground for the preparation of the more general Policy Packages using the insights from
qualitative assessment, models simulations, and sensitivity analysis.
This study estimates the combined direct and indirect rebound effects from various types of energy efficiency improvement and behavioural change by UK households and explores how these effects vary with total expenditure. The methodology is based upon estimates of the expenditure elasticity and GHG intensity of 16 categories of goods and services, and allows for the capital cost and embodied emissions of the energy efficiency measures themselves. The study finds that rebound effects, in GHG terms, are modest (0-32%) for measures affecting domestic energy use, larger (25-65%) for measures affecting vehicle fuel use and very large (66-106%) for measures that reduce food waste. Furthermore, measures undertaken by low income households are associated with the largest rebound effects, with direct emissions forming a larger proportion of the total rebound effect for those households. Measures that are subsidised or affect highly taxed energy commodities may be less effective in reducing aggregate emissions. These findings highlight the importance of allowing for rebound effects within policy appraisals, as well as reinforcing the case for economy-wide carbon pricing. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Schiller F, Penn A, Druckman A, Basson L, Royston K (2014) Exploring Space, Exploiting Opportunities: The Case for Analyzing Space in Industrial Ecology Schiller et al. Exploring Space, Exploiting Opportunities, Journal of Industrial Ecology 18 (6) pp. 792-798
© 2014 by Yale University.Summary: Industrial ecology (IE) has recognized the relevance of space in various areas of the field. In particular, industrial symbiosis has argued for proximity and the colocation of firms to reduce emissions and costs from transport. But, space is also relevant for industrial ecosystems more widely. These spatial principles have rarely been spelled out analytically and this article does so. From economic geography, we now have frameworks and analytical tools to undertake this kind of analysis. Using the example of ports and their hinterland, we argue for spatial analyses in IE.
The SPREE Water Research (Work Package 4) objectives are:
- To develop sector-specific methodological tools in the water sector to measure the impacts
derived from the shift towards servicizing;
- To broader the understanding why previous policies in the water sector haven't led to absolute
- To explore existing examples and best practices (if exist) in servicizing systems within the water
sector and to identify additional potential servicizing systems opportunities;
- To understand the role of ICT and eco-innovation in servicizing in the water sector;
- To build a conceptual framework for assessing social aspects of servicizing systems in the water
sector, in particular, the links between water and wellbeing;
- To identify potential servicizing policy paradigms that can lead to an absolute decoupling in the
- To collect relevant data for the servicizing system and servicizing policy in the sector, according
to the general methodologies developed in WP3 (?Methodology development?) and the sectorspecific
methodologies developed in WP4.
Following pre-defined tasks set out under WP4, the aim of this deliverable is twofold: (1) It sets out
the conceptual and methodological frameworks of servicizing in the water sector, and (2) It serves to
identify the specific water system to be investigated in the project and presents the appropriate
methodologies to be employed for researching this system in the SPREE water sector countries (UK,
Spain and Israel). Exploring the key elements and aspects of servicizing in the water sector seeks to
clarify also the links between water and well-being and the role of servicizing in decoupling water
Using the modelling tool ELESA (Econometric Lifestyle Environment Scenario Analysis), this paper describes
forecast scenarios to 2030 for UK household expenditure and associated (direct and indirect) greenhouse gas
(GHG) emissions for 16 expenditure categories. Using assumptions for real household disposable income,
real prices, ?exogenous non-economic factors? (ExNEF), average UK temperatures and GHG intensities,
three future scenarios are constructed. In each scenario, real expenditure for almost all categories of UK expenditure
continues to grow up to 2030; the exceptions being ?alcoholic beverages and tobacco? and ?other
fuels? (and ?gas? and ?electricity? in the ?low? scenario) leading to an increase in associated GHG emissions
for most of the categories in the ?reference? and ?high? scenarios other than ?food and non-alcoholic beverages?,
?alcoholic beverages and tobacco?, ?electricity?, ?other fuels? and ?recreation and culture?. Of the future
GHG emissions, about 30% is attributed to ?direct energy? use by households and nearly 70% attributable to
?indirect energy?. UK policy makers therefore need to consider a range of policies if they wish to curtail emissions
associated with household expenditure, including, for example, economic measures such as taxes
alongside measures that reflect the important contribution of ExNEF to changes in expenditure for most categories
Penn AS, Jensen PD, Woodward A, Basson L, Schiller F, Druckman A (2014) Sketching a network portrait of the humber region, Complexity 19 (6) pp. 54-72
Industrial systems can be represented as networks of organizations connected by flows of materials, energy, and money. This network context may produce unexpected consequences in response to policy intervention, so improved understanding is vital; however, industrial network data are commonly unavailable publically. Using a case study in the Humber region, UK, we present a novel methodology of "network coding" of semistructured interviews with key industrial and political stakeholders, in combination with an "industrial taxonomy" of network archetypes developed to construct an approximation of the region's networks when data are incomplete. This article describes our methodology and presents the resulting network. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Purpose: This paper describes the development of a comprehensive categorisation of food scares.
" Design/methodology/approach: Following an initial desk top study, the categorisation was developed collaboratively with industry experts through a workshop and series of semi-structured interviews.
" Findings: The new categorisation developed is in Venn diagram format allowing overlapping categories. It is organised around the two major types of contamination (Biological and Chemical/Physical Contaminants) and the two major causes of contamination (Wilful Deception and Transparency and Awareness Issues).
" Practical implications: The long and complex supply chains characteristic of current food production systems have resulted in a rising number of food scares. There is thus an increased emphasis on developing strategies to reduce both the number of incidents of food scares, and their associated economic, social and environmental impacts. The new categorisation developed in this study enables experts to address categories of food scares. Inclusion of the cause of contamination is particularly important as the method through which contamination occurs is key in devising food scare prevention strategies.
" Originality/value: The new categorisation, unlike previous categorisations, enables food scares to fall into multiple categories, as appropriate. Also, again in contrast to previous categorisations, it takes into account not only the physical problem of a food scare but also the mechanism through which it arises.
Energy efficiency improvements by households lead to rebound effects that offset the potential energy and emissions savings. Direct rebound effects result from increased demand for cheaper energy services, while indirect rebound effects result from increased demand for other goods and services that also require energy to provide. Research to date has focused upon the former, but both are important for climate change. This study estimates the combined direct and indirect rebound effects from seven measures that improve the energy efficiency of UK dwellings. The methodology is based upon estimates of the income elasticity and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of 16 categories of household goods and services, and allows for the embodied emissions of the energy efficiency measures themselves, as well as the capital cost of the measures. Rebound effects are measured in GHG terms and relate to the adoption of these measures by an average UK household. The study finds that the rebound effects from these measures are typically in the range 5-15% and arise mostly from indirect effects. This is largely because expenditure on gas and electricity is more GHG-intensive than expenditure on other goods and services. However, the anticipated shift towards a low carbon electricity system in the UK may lead to much larger rebound effects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Druckman A, Jackson TD (2009) The bare necessities: how much household carbon do we really need?, RESOLVE Working Paper Series 05-09
Torriti J, Hanna R, Anderson B, Yeboah G, Druckman A (2015) Peak residential electricity demand and social practices: Deriving flexibility and greenhouse gas intensities from time use and locational data, INDOOR AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT 24 (7) pp. 891-912 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Lopez-Aviles A, Chenoweth J, Druckman A, Morse S, Kauffmann D, Hayoon L, Pereira A, Vence X, Carballo A, González M, Turne A, Feitelson E, Givoni M (2015) Servicizing Policy Packages for the Water sector, SPREE
A policy package is a combination of policy instruments1
(PIs) designed to address one or more policy
objectives, created in order to improve the effectiveness of the individual policy instruments, and
implemented while minimizing possible unintended effects, and/or facilitating interventions?
legitimacy and feasibility in order to increase efficiency. The Water sector is one of the three sectors for which the options and contribution of servicizing to
absolute decoupling2 were examined (the other two sectors are Mobility and Agri-food). Specifically,
servicizing the introduction of greywater recycling (GWR) and rainwater harvesting (RWH) were
analyzed. Examining the potential in the UK indicates that servicizing the introduction of GWR and
RWH does have the potential to contribute to decoupling, both in terms of GHG emissions and in
terms of water that needs to be delivered in mains. The decoupling indicator chosen for the mobility
sector in this project was chosen to be the ratio between the economic cost and environmental
impact (emissions/mains water use) of abstracting, treating, delivering and disposing of water in the
servicizing options (GWR&RWH solutions). However, the extent to which such decoupling will
materialize is a function of the degree to which such systems are indeed adopted. To facilitate the adoption of GWR and RWH systems a policy packaging approach is used, whereby
different policy instruments (PI) are combined so they will have synergetic effects, and potential
contradictions among them are addressed. The Policy Packages are designed in several steps. First all the PIs that are likely to advance GWR and
RWH are identified. Then the potential contribution of each, and the likely cost of implementing it are
assessed, in order to identify the most effective PIs ? those PIs with the highest potential to both
advance decoupling and the implementation of which does not incur excessive cost. Then the preconditions
for implementing these most promising, ?low hanging fruits? are identified, as well as
instruments that may facilitate decoupling if enacted with these primary PIs and PIs that have
synergetic relations with the primary PIs. On this basis basic packages are formed. In the case of GWR
and RWH in the UK, the leading country in this sector study, three basic packages were originally
identified, based on the primary tools they use. Then, by using agent-based modeling simulation
results and causal mapping an Effective Package is forme
The international trade in commodities forms a complex network of economic interdependencies. This network now plays a central role in promoting global economic development and security. However, significant asymmetries have been noted in terms of access to this network, and in the unequal distribution of the benefits and risks accrued from the system as a whole. Understanding the statistical properties and dynamics of the trade network have therefore, become important tools for investigating a multitude of real-world policy concerns relevant to economics, public policy, and international development. This thesis focuses on investigating three of these issues---market growth, price inequality, and supply risks. The first of these projects focuses on modelling the growth of commodity markets, and the resulting effect on network topology. The second, looks at how asymmetries in network can lead to varying prices for the same good, and explores the implications for developing more equitable market structures. The final project contributes to our understanding of how export restrictions affect the network structure of trade and how these risks can undermine global food security. Throughout, a network science approach is employed, whereby trade is modelled as a graph-like structure, with the topology of trade being the primary focus of analysis. To support this approach, we introduce several theoretical models, and apply simulations on both real-world, and artificially produced trade network data. The outcome of this research improves on our ability to identify and target key participants within a market, and predict policies that favour more stable and equitable structures that better facilitate trade.
Druckman A, Buck I, Hayward B, Jackson T (2012) Time, gender and carbon: A study of the carbon implications of British adults' use of time, Ecological Economics 84 pp. 153-163
In order to meet the UK's challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets, behaviour change will be necessary in addition to changes in technology. Traditionally this has been approached from the angle of shifting the goods people purchase towards lower impact options. But an equally valid angle is through changing the way people use their time. This study explores the GHG emissions per unit time for different types of activities. It focuses on 'non-work' time, and examines how different activities, such as household chores and leisure pursuits, give rise to varying amounts of household carbon emissions. We do this first for an average British adult, and then examine how time use varies within households, and how this impacts on resulting carbon emissions. We find, for example, that leisure activities are generally associated with lower carbon emissions than non-leisure activities, and that a higher proportion of an average man's carbon footprint is due to leisure than an average woman's. In the discussion we explore the implications of our findings for the varying roles carried out within different types of household, we investigate the concept of carbon as a potential marker for social justice, and discuss the implications for work-time reduction policies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
York E, Druckman A, Woodward A Food Scares Categorisation, University of Surrey
Clift R, Druckman A (2015) Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology, Springer
How can we design more sustainable industrial and urban systems that reduce environmental impacts while supporting a high quality of life for everyone? What progress has been made towards reducing resource use and waste, and what are the prospects for more resilient, material-efficient economies? What are the environmental and social impacts of global supply chains and how can they be measured and improved?Such questions are at the heart of the emerging discipline of industrial ecology, covered in Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology.
Cox J-A, Druckman A, Jesson DA, Mulheron M, Smyth M, Trew H (2015) MSW as a Resource Pt 2: A case study in sustainable management, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Waste and Resource Management
WX Weight of material to be managed by a particular option
Waste is intricate to manage. With greater attention now being paid to the use of waste as a resource, there is an increasing need to develop sustainable and secure management options for the most complex material resource streams. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to look to those materials, which due to their complex structure have not traditionally been recycled, and so remain in the residual waste stream.
This paper presents a methodology that has been developed to enable local authorities, or their equivalents, to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of collecting complex material streams separately, in order to improve their management of municipal solid waste. The methodology utilises available data from a number of sources, to determine the feasibility of options available.
The methodology is applied to a case study in Surrey, England, in relation to the management of Absorbent Hygiene Products. Currently this waste is collected as part of the residual stream, and dealt with either through landfill or energy from waste. The result of applying the new methodology suggests that the optimum solution is the separate collection of Absorbent Hygiene Products and subsequent the sterilisation and recycling.
Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) is a widely used participatory modelling methodology in which stakeholders collaboratively develop a 'cognitive map' (a weighted, directed graph), representing the perceived causal structure of their system. This can be directly transformed by a workshop facilitator into simple mathematical models to be interrogated by participants by the end of the session. Such simple models provide thinking tools which can be used for discussion and exploration of complex issues, as well as sense checking the implications of suggested causal links. They increase stakeholder motivation and understanding of whole systems approaches, but cannot be separated from an intersubjective participatory context. Standard FCM methodologies make simplifying assumptions, which may strongly influence results, presenting particular challenges and opportunities. We report on a participatory process, involving local companies and organisations, focussing on the development of a bio-based economy in the Humber region. The initial cognitive map generated consisted of factors considered key for the development of the regional bio-based economy and their directional, weighted, causal interconnections. A verification and scenario generation procedure, to check the structure of the map and suggest modifications, was carried out with a second session. Participants agreed on updates to the original map and described two alternate potential causal structures. In a novel analysis all map structures were tested using two standard methodologies usually used independently: linear and sigmoidal FCMs, demonstrating some significantly different results alongside some broad similarities. We suggest a development of FCM methodology involving a sensitivity analysis with different mappings and discuss the use of this technique in the context of our case study. Using the results and analysis of our process, we discuss the limitations and benefits of the FCM methodology in this case and in general. We conclude by proposing an extended FCM methodology, including multiple functional mappings within one participant-constructed graph.
Cutting carbon emissions, wherever they occur, is a global priority and those associated with crime are no exception. We show that between 1995 and 2015 the carbon footprint of acquisitive and violent crime has dropped by 62%, a total reduction of 54 million tonnes CO2e throughout this period. Although the environmental harm associated with crime is likely to be considered lower in importance than social or economic impacts, a focus on reducing high carbon crimes (burglary and vehicle offences) and high carbon aspects of the footprint (the need to replace stolen/damaged property) could be encouraged. Failure to acknowledge these potential environmental benefits may result in crime prevention strategies being unsustainable and carbon reduction targets being missed.
Bradley P, Thomas C, Druckman A, Jackson T (2009) Accounting for food waste: Comparative analysis within the UK, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Waste and Resource Management 162 (1) pp. 5-13
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Rising demand for cheaper textiles and clothing in Western Europe is well documented, as are changes in the Textiles and Clothing industry's globalised production structure. We apply a sub-systems global multi-regional input-output accounting framework to examine the sustainability implications of meeting Western European demand for textiles and clothing goods between 1995 and 2009. Our framework estimates environmental and socio-economic impacts of consumption in a consistent manner and shows where these occur both geographically and in the value chain. The results demonstrate that Western European textiles and clothing consumption remains dependent on low-cost labour from Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC), principally in the Textiles and Clothing and Agricultural sectors. Conversely, we show that the wage rate for BRIC workers in the global value chains serving Western European textiles and clothing consumption has risen over time but remains low relative to the wage rate paid to Western European workers. Likewise, we find that profits are increasingly generated within BRIC and that they are now at comparable levels to those generated in Western Europe. We find a slight overall decrease in the amount of carbon emitted in the production of textiles and clothing goods for Western Europe between 1995 and 2009. However, the trend is not linear and the importance of different underlying drivers varies over the timeseries. We conclude by discussing the implications of these results for a more sustainable future for Western European textiles and clothing consumption.
Households are expected to play a pivotal role in reducing the UK?s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the UK Government is encouraging specific household actions to help meet its targets. However, due to there bound effect, only a portion of the GHG emission reductions estimated by simple engineering calculations are generally achieved in practice. For example, replacing short car journeys by walking or cycling reduces consumption of motorfuels. But this frees up money that may be spent on, for example, purchasing extra clothes or flying on vacation. Alternatively, the money may be put into savings. Since all of these options lead to GHG emissions, total GHG savings may be less than anticipated. Indeed, in some instances, emissions may increase ? a phenomenon known as ?backfire?. We estimate that there bound effect for a combination of three abatement actions by UK households is approximately 34%. Targeting re-spending on goods and services with a low GHG intensity reduces this to a minimum of around 12%, while re-spending on goods and services with a high GHG intensity leads to backfire. Our study highlights the importance of shifting consumption to lower GHG intensive categories and investing in low carbon investments.
Druckman A, Buck I, Hayward B, Jackson TD (2013) Time, gender and carbon: how British adults use their leisure time, In: Coote A, Franklin J (eds.), Time on our side: why we all need a shorter working week. pp. 101-112 New Economics Foundation
Clift R, Sim S, King H, Chenoweth JL, Christie IP, Clavreul J, Mueller C, Posthuma L, Boulay A, Chaplin-Kramer R, Chatterton J, DeClerck F, Druckman A, France CM, Franco A, Gerten D, Goedkoop M, Hauschild M, Huijbregts M, Koellner T, Lambin E, Lee J, Mair SJ, Marshall S, McLachlan M, Milà i Canals L, Mitchell C, Price E, Rockström J, Suckling JR, Murphy RJ (2017) The Challenges of Applying Planetary Boundaries as a Basis for Strategic Decision-Making in Companies with Global Supply Chains, Sustainability 9 (2)
The Planetary Boundaries (PB) framework represents a significant advance in specifying the ecological constraints on human development. However, to enable decision-makers in business and public policy to respect these constraints in strategic planning, the PB framework needs to be developed to generate practical tools. With this objective in mind, we analyse the recent literature and highlight three major scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the PB approach in decision-making: first, identification of thresholds or boundaries with associated metrics for different geographical scales; second, the need to frame approaches to allocate fair shares in the ?safe operating space? bounded by the PBs across the value chain and; third, the need for international bodies to co-ordinate the implementation of the measures needed to respect the Planetary Boundaries. For the first two of these challenges, we consider how they might be addressed for four PBs: climate change, freshwater use, biosphere integrity and chemical pollution and other novel entities. Four key opportunities are identified: (1) development of a common system of metrics that can be applied consistently at and across different scales; (2) setting ?distance from boundary? measures that can be applied at different scales; (3) development of global, preferably open-source, databases and models; and (4) advancing understanding of the interactions between the different PBs. Addressing the scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the planetary boundaries needs be complemented with progress in addressing the equity and ethical issues in allocating the safe operating space between companies and sectors.
There has been limited study to date on the environmental impacts of prevention measures. We address this shortfall by estimating the carbon footprint associated with the most widely used burglary prevention measures: door locks, window locks, burglar alarms, lighting and CCTV cameras. We compare these footprints with a measure of their effectiveness, the Security Protection Factor (SPF), allowing us to identify those measures that are both low carbon and effective in preventing burglary. Window locks are found to be the most effective and low carbon measure available individually. Combinations of window locks, door locks, external and indoor lighting are also shown to be effective and low carbon. Burglar alarms and CCTV do not perform as strongly, with low security against burglary and higher carbon footprints. This information can be used to help inform more sustainable choices of burglary prevention within households as well as for crime prevention product design.
While having basic access to water resources is clearly critical for survival, the extent to which water consumption contributes to wellbeing once basic needs have been met is not clear. In this study the link between household water consumption and wellbeing is assessed via a household survey conducted in southern England and actual water consumption data for the same households received from their water supply company. While the study revealed a few correlations, in general no link was found between actual water use and wellbeing. This suggests that high wellbeing is attainable regardless of low water use (assuming basic needs are met). In fact, when assessed through individual rather than composite measures of wellbeing, a weak but statistically significant link was shown between higher water use and some indicators of low wellbeing. Our results also show that actual water use appears to be unlinked to environmental attitudes, attitudes to water use or willingness to adopt water saving measures. This suggests that seeking a sustained reduction in water consumption via attitudinal change alone is unlikely to be effective.
Cutting carbon emissions is a global priority, wherever they occur, and those associated with crime are no exception. This research project explores the carbon cost of crime and crime prevention to ensure that carbon emissions can be considered wherever possible. Although this study focuses on crime in England and Wales as a case study, this can be applied elsewhere around the world.
A lifecycle perspective was adopted throughout, to ensure that all aspects of the carbon footprint were accounted for. The carbon footprint of crime was estimated using Environmentally-Extended Input-Output Analysis (EE-IOA) multipliers, and crime prevention measures were analysed by systematically reviewing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) environmental declarations.
The study estimated that crime in England and Wales gave rise to over 4 million tCO2e in the year 2011, representing the ?carbon cost of crime?. The falling number of criminal offences has resulted in a reduced carbon footprint from around 7 million tCO2e in 1995 to below 3 million tCO2e in 2015 (a cumulative reduction of over 54 million tCO2e).
To explore burglary prevention measures, the carbon footprint was combined with an indicator of how secure against burglary the products were. Window and door locks were shown to be the highest performing individual measures with low carbon footprints and the highest chance of preventing crime. The highest performing combinations included window locks, internal lighting, door locks and external lighting. Burglar alarms were the worst performing measure, from both environmental and security perspectives.
Overall, it is clear that crime and crime prevention have a carbon cost, and that carbon emissions need to be assessed and reduced wherever possible. The study has contributed towards informing practitioners and policy-makers of this connection between crime and the environment. If a low crime and low-carbon future is to be achieved, the encouraging trend of a decreasing carbon footprint attributable to crime needs to be maintained, and strategies must take into account environmental considerations alongside social and economic benefits.
Meeting near future UK greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions targets will require all parts of the UK economy to contribute, and in particular significant changes in business practices are required at the local level. From review it was found that there is a lack of detailed business accounting and reporting of GHG emissions at the local level, especially concerning supply chain impacts and small and medium sized enterprises. This paper presents a framework model to generate detailed benchmark estimates of GHGs (both on site and supply chain related) for individual businesses and all businesses of a sector within an area. The model makes use of available economic and environmental data, and, with similar datasets existing in other parts of the world, such models may be used elsewhere. The framework model is applied to an empirical case study. Estimates from such a framework can be used in a step-by-step approach to move businesses and local areas towards improved accounting, reporting and sustainability (including procurement). The model makes use of two different accounting perspectives: the production perspective (on site GHGs) and the provision perspective (supply chain GHGs attributable to purchased inputs of a business or sectors production). The new provision perspective and its consequences are explored and explained.
This paper explores the issue of fairness in global supply chains. Taking the Western European clothing supply chain as a case study, we demonstrate how applying a normative indicator in Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) can contribute academic and practical insights into debates on fairness. To do so, we develop a new indicator that addresses some of the limitations of the living wage for SLCA.
We extend the standard form of living wage available for developing countries to include income tax and social security contributions. We call this extension ?living labour compensation?. Using publically available data, we estimate net living wages, gross living wages, and living labour compensation rates for Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) in 2005. We then integrate living labour compensation rates into an input-output framework, which we use to compare living labour compensation and actual labour compensation in the BRIC countries in the Western European clothing supply chain in 2005.
Results and discussion
We find that in 2005, actual labour compensation in the Western European clothing supply chain was around half of the living labour compensation level, with the greatest difference being in the Agricultural sector. Therefore, we argue that BRIC pay in the Western European clothing supply chain was unfair. Furthermore, our living labour compensation estimates for BRIC in 2005 are ~ 35% higher than standard living wage estimates. Indeed, adding income taxes and employee social security contributions alone increases the living wage by ~ 10%. Consequently, we argue there is a risk that investigations based on living wages are not using a representative measure of fairness from the employee?s perspective and are substantially underestimating the cost of living wages from an employer?s perspective. Finally, we discuss implications for retailers and living wage advocacy groups.
Living labour compensation extends the living wage, maintaining its strengths and addressing key weaknesses. It can be estimated for multiple countries from publically available data and can be applied in an input-output framework. Therefore, it is able to provide a normative assessment of fairness in complex global supply chains. Applying it to the Western European clothing supply chain, we were able to show that pay for workers in Brazil, Russia, India, and China is unfair, and draw substantive conclusions for practice.
We solve the problem of identifying one or more optimal patterns of anaerobic digestion (AD) installation across the UK, by considering existing installations, the current feedstock potential and the project growth of the potential via population, demography and urbanization. We test several scenarios for the level of adoption of the AD operations in the community under varying amounts of feedstock supply, which may arise from change in food waste or energy crops generation via other policies and incentives. For the most resilient scales of solutions, we demonstrate for the UK the net energy production (bio-gas and electricity) from AD (and so the avoided emissions from grid energy), the mass of bio-waste processed (and avoided land-fill), and the quantum of digestate produced (as a proxy for avoided irrigation and fertilizer production). In order to simulate the AD innovation within WEF nexus we use agent based modelling (ABM) owing to its bottom-up approach and capability of modelling complex systems with relatively low level data and information.
Hoolohan C., Larkin A., McLachlan C., Falconer R., Soutar I., Suckling James, Varga L., Haltas I., Druckman Angela, Lumbroso D., Scott M., Gilmour D., Ledbetter R., McGrane S., Mitchell C., Yu D. (2018) Engaging stakeholders in research to address water-energy-food (WEF) nexus challenges, Sustainability Science 13 (5) pp. 1415-1426
The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus has become a popular, and potentially powerful, frame through which to analyse interactions and interdependencies between these three systems. Though the case for transdisciplinary research in this space has been made, the extent of stakeholder engagement in research remains limited with stakeholders most commonly incorporated in research as end-users. Yet stakeholders interact with nexus issues in a variety of ways, consequently there is much that collaboration might offer to develop nexus research and enhance its application. This paper outlines four aspects of nexus research and considers the value and potential challenges for transdisciplinary research in each. We focus on assessing and visualising nexus systems; understanding governance and capacity building; the importance of scale; and the implications of future change. The paper then proceeds to describe a novel mixed-method study that deeply integrates stakeholder knowledge with insights from multiple disciplines. We argue that mixed-method research designs ? in this case orientated around a number of cases studies ? are best suited to understanding and addressing real-world nexus challenges, with their inevitable complex, non-linear system characteristics. Moreover, integrating multiple forms of knowledge in the manner described in this paper enables research to assess the potential for, and processes of, scaling up innovations in the nexus space, in order to contribute insights to policy and decision making.
Grand societal challenges such as climate change, poverty and biodiversity loss call for rapid and radical changes to systems of production and consumption. Consequently, there is a growing interest in the dynamics of innovation, both social and technical, to accelerate innovation diffusion so as increase the possibility of a step-change or large-scale transition. Research on the water-energy-food nexus adds an additional dimension to existing discussions, calling for transitions that recognise the sustainability challenges facing three major resource domains, and the synergies and tensions involved in their management. This paper examines Anaerobic Digestion (AD) ? an example of innovation with potential benefits across the water-energy-food nexus ? to understand the conditions that influence the rate of AD implementation and the achievement of its potential multi-sectoral benefits across the water-energy-food nexus. Interview data regarding 15 AD plants are examined alongside complementary data from interviews and workshops using the Technological Innovation Systems framework. This framework provides an analytical structure through which the processes that enable and constrain the implementation of AD in the UK can be examined, enabling the identification of potential mechanisms to support AD?s wider and more effective deployment. The findings call for recognition of the unintended consequences of sectoral support mechanisms for technological adaptation, and consequent performance of AD in other resource domains and call for greater integration between policy mechanisms to enable AD to perform across the nexus. They also highlight a need to assimilate knowledge from multiple sources (including site-specific understanding gained from experimentation) to enhance the base on which policy and decision-making occurs. These findings contribute to existing literature on sustainable transitions by examining the complexities of multi-sectoral resource management in the context of nexus research.
The Sustainable Development Goals are a high level development plan for a world free of poverty, with decent work for all and less environmentally damaging patterns of production and consumption. This thesis explores whether paying living wages to Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese (BRIC) workers in the Western European clothing supply chain could contribute towards the realisation of the Sustainable Development Goals.
This thesis principally uses two modelling frameworks. A global multi-regional input-output framework, extended to enable assessment of fairness in global supply chains, and a system dynamics model of the Western European clothing supply chain. This allows us to explore both the different ways in which clothing retailers might be able to pay for a living wage in their supply chains and associated sustainability impacts.
Our analysis makes three key contributions. (1) Empirical evidence suggesting that in the Western European clothing supply chain, consumption drives environmental impact, and BRIC wages are ?unfair? and unable to support a ?decent? quality of life. (2) Extension of the limited evidence base on the employment effects of living wages in developing countries. We point to a potentially powerful employment multiplier effect (which may mean that living wages increase employment). However, we also suggest that productivity gains following wage increases could exacerbate job losses. (3) Mixed evidence on the environmental impacts of paying a supply chain living wage. While this is likely to marginally reduce the environmental impacts of affluent country consumption our findings also suggest that global environmental impacts could rise due to increased developing country consumption.
Based on these findings, we argue that paying a living wage to those developing country workers employed in affluent country supply chains could contribute to a more sustainable world by reducing poverty and improving working conditions. We further argue that the risk of increased total environmental damage could be minimised through investment in more sustainable infrastructure in developing countries themselves, and we also highlight the need for additional reductions in the environmental impacts of affluent country consumption, beyond supply chain living wage initiatives. Finally, we suggest that efforts to move to craft based production methods could be used to resist labour productivity growth, minimising the risk of job losses.
In this paper we explore how paying a living wage in global supply chains might affect employment and carbon emissions: Sustainable Development Goals 8 and 13. Previous work has advocated using wage increases for poorer workers to increase prices for wealthier consumers, thereby reducing consumption and associated environmental damage. However, the likely effects of such an approach remain unclear. Using an input-output framework extended with income and demand elasticities, we estimate the employment and carbon effects of paying a living wage to Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese (BRIC) workers in the Western European clothing supply chain. We find negligible effects on carbon emissions but a substantial increase in BRIC employment under 3 scenarios of consumer behaviour. Changes in Western European consumption lead to small decreases in global carbon emissions and BRIC employment. However, the increase in BRIC wages increases demand in BRIC. This increased demand increases production which largely cancels out the carbon savings and generates net increases in BRIC employment. We conclude by arguing that paying higher wages in global supply chains represents a good but not sufficient step toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
Purpose: This paper addresses the question: which leisure activities are relatively low carbon and conducive to high levels of subjective wellbeing? Underlying this question is the premise that to combat climate change, carbon emissions must be radically reduced. Technological change alone will not be sufficient: lifestyles must also change. Whereas mainstream strategies generally address the challenge of reducing carbon emissions through reviewing consumption, approaching it through the lens of how we use our time, in particular, leisure time, may be a promising complementary avenue.
Design/methodology/approach: The paper brings together three areas of research that are hitherto largely unlinked: subjective wellbeing/happiness studies, studies on how we use our time, and studies on low-carbon lifestyles.
Findings: The paper shows that low carbon leisure activities conducive to high subjective wellbeing include social activities such as spending time in the home with family and friends, and physical activities that involve challenge such as partaking in sports. However, depending how they are done, some such activities may induce high carbon emissions, especially through travel. Therefore appropriate local infrastructure, such as local sports and community centres are required, along with facilities for active travel. Policy-making developed from a time-use perspective would encourage investment to support this.
Originality/value: Win-win opportunities for spending leisure time engaged in activities conducive to high subjective wellbeing in low carbon ways are identified. This is done by bringing three research topics together in a novel way.
How can we design more sustainable industrial and urban systems that reduce environmental impacts while supporting a high quality of life for everyone? What progress has been made towards reducing resource use and waste, and what are the prospects for more resilient, material-efficient economies? What are the environmental and social impacts of global supply chains and how can they be measured and improved?
This dissertation presents a stock-flow consistent (SFC) model with an integrated input-output (IO) model for the study of the economic mechanisms by which capital assets might be stranded in the fossil fuel extraction and energy generation sectors. It assesses the major macroeconomic and financial implications of both capital asset stranding in these sectors and different transitions to a low carbon economy. The model is that of a pure credit economy that consists of three firm sectors, two household sectors and a banking sector. The three firm sectors are a fossil fuel energy sector (the ?brown? sector), a renewable energy sector (the ?green? sector), and a firm sector that produces non-energy goods (the ?other? sector). The two household sectors are an ?ethical? household sector and a ?normal? household sector.
The model is used to investigate a number of claims from the stranded assets literature regarding the effects of different types of transitions to a low carbon economy (slow, fast, anticipated and unanticipated) and different changes in market conditions (due to changes in policy, financing conditions, technology or social norms). The results of the transition simulations support a number of the arguments made in the stranded assets literature, namely that faster transitions and unanticipated transitions are likely to strand more assets and have more disruptive effects on financial markets than slower transitions and anticipated transitions. The results of the market conditions simulations suggest that changes in market conditions that affect the real side of the economy are likely to lead to larger effects on demand and asset stranding than changes in market conditions that primarily affect firms? borrowing costs. In addition, these simulations suggest that changes in market conditions are unlikely to have a large effect on the demand for different types of energy (and therefore on stranding) unless renewable energy becomes a close substitute for fossil fuel energy.
This concept paper discusses how energy sufficiency and the rebound effect interact.
Rebound effects can constrain the energy savings from energy efficiency improvements. The paper examines the nature of these effects, and ask the question: can greater use of sufficiency policies and actions help to tackle negative rebounds, or will it create rebounds itself?