Angela Druckman

Professor Angela Druckman

Emerita Professor of Sustainable Consumption & Production

Academic and research departments

Centre for Environment and Sustainability.



Research interests



Simon Mair, Angela Druckman, Tim Jackson (2020)A tale of two utopias: Work in a post-growth world, In: Ecological Economics173106653 Elsevier

In this paper, we aim to contribute to the literature on post-growth futures. Modern imaginings of the future are constrained by the assumptions of growth-based capitalism. To escape these assumptions we turn to utopian fiction. We explore depictions of work in Cokaygne, a utopian tradition dating back to the 12th century, and William Morris's 19th century News from Nowhere. Cokaygne is a land of excessive consumption without work, while in News from Nowhere work is the route to the good life. These competing notions provide inspiration for a post-growth vision of work. We argue that biophysical and social dynamics mean that in a post-growth economy we are likely to have to be less productive and work more. But, this can be a utopian vision. By breaking the link between work and consumption at the level of the individual, we can remove some of the coercion in work. This would free us to do jobs that contribute to the social good, rather than generate exchange value, and empower us to fight for good work. Finally, we draw on eco-feminist analyses of capitalism to argue that by challenging labour productivity growth we can also challenge wider forces of oppression.

M Chitnis, A Druckman, LC Hunt, T Jackson, S Milne (2012)Forecasting scenarios for UK household expenditure and associated GHG emissions: Outlook to 2030, In: Ecological Economics84pp. 129-141 Elsevier

Using the modelling tool ELESA (Econometric Lifestyle Environment Scenario Analysis), this paper describes forecast scenarios to 2030 for UK household expenditure and associated (direct and indirect) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 16 expenditure categories. Using assumptions for real household disposable income, real prices, ‘exogenous non-economic factors’ (ExNEF), average UK temperatures and GHG intensities, three future scenarios are constructed. In each scenario, real expenditure for almost all categories of UK expenditure continues to grow up to 2030; the exceptions being ‘alcoholic beverages and tobacco’ and ‘other fuels’ (and ‘gas’ and ‘electricity’ in the ‘low’ scenario) leading to an increase in associated GHG emissions for most of the categories in the ‘reference’ and ‘high’ scenarios other than ‘food and non-alcoholic beverages’, ‘alcoholic beverages and tobacco’, ‘electricity’, ‘other fuels’ and ‘recreation and culture’. Of the future GHG emissions, about 30% is attributed to ‘direct energy’ use by households and nearly 70% attributable to ‘indirect energy’. UK policy makers therefore need to consider a range of policies if they wish to curtail emissions associated with household expenditure, including, for example, economic measures such as taxes alongside measures that reflect the important contribution of ExNEF to changes in expenditure for most categories of consumption.

Prashant Kumar, Angela Druckman, John Gallagher, Birgitta Gatersleben, Sarah Allison, Theodore S. Eisenman, Uy Hoang, Sarkawt Hama, Arvind Tiwari, Ashish Sharma, K V Abhijith, Deepti Adlakha, Aonghus McNabola, Thomas Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng, Anne Skeldon, Simon de Lusignan, Lidia Morawska (2019)The Nexus between Air Pollution, Green Infrastructure and Human Health, In: Environment International133 A105181 Elsevier

Cities are constantly evolving and so are the living conditions within and between them. Rapid urbanization and the ever-growing need for housing have turned large areas of many cities into concrete landscapes that lack greenery. Green infrastructure can support human health, provide socio-economic and environmental benefits, and bring color to an otherwise grey urban landscape. Sometimes, benefits come with downsides in relation to its impact on air quality and human health, requiring suitable data and guidelines to implement effective greening strategies. Air pollution and human health, as well as green infrastructure and human health, are often studied together. Linking green infrastructure with air quality and human health together is a unique aspect of this article. A holistic understanding of these links is key to enabling policymakers and urban planners to make informed decisions. By critically evaluating the link between green infrastructure and human health via air pollution mitigation, we also discuss if our existing understanding of such interventions is enabling their uptake in practice. Both the natural science and epidemiology approach the topic of green infrastructure and human health very differently. The pathways linking health benefits to pollution reduction by urban vegetation remain unclear and that the mode of green infrastructure deployment is critical to avoid unintended consequences. Strategic deployment of green infrastructure may reduce downwind pollution exposure. However, the development of bespoke design guidelines is vital to promote and optimize greening benefits and measuring green infrastructure’s socio-economic and health benefits are key for their uptake. Greening cities to mitigate pollution effects is on the rise and these needs to be matched by scientific evidence and appropriate guidelines. We conclude that urban vegetation can facilitate broad health benefits, but there is little empirical evidence linking these benefits to air pollution reduction by urban vegetation, and appreciable efforts are needed to establish the underlying policies, design and engineering guidelines governing its deployment.

Jonathan Chenoweth, Alma Lopez-Aviles, Stephen Morse, Angela Druckman (2016)Water consumption and subjective wellbeing: An analysis of British households, In: Ecological Economics130pp. 186-194 Elsevier

While having basic access to water resources is clearly critical for survival, the extent to which water consumption contributes to wellbeing once basic needs have been met is not clear. In this study the link between household water consumption and wellbeing is assessed via a household survey conducted in southern England and actual water consumption data for the same households received from their water supply company. While the study revealed a few correlations, in general no link was found between actual water use and wellbeing. This suggests that high wellbeing is attainable regardless of low water use (assuming basic needs are met). In fact, when assessed through individual rather than composite measures of wellbeing, a weak but statistically significant link was shown between higher water use and some indicators of low wellbeing. Our results also show that actual water use appears to be unlinked to environmental attitudes, attitudes to water use or willingness to adopt water saving measures. This suggests that seeking a sustained reduction in water consumption via attitudinal change alone is unlikely to be effective.

S Mair, A Druckman, T Jackson (2015)Global inequities and emissions in Western European textiles and clothing consumption, In: Journal of Cleaner Production

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Rising demand for cheaper textiles and clothing in Western Europe is well documented, as are changes in the Textiles and Clothing industry's globalised production structure. We apply a sub-systems global multi-regional input-output accounting framework to examine the sustainability implications of meeting Western European demand for textiles and clothing goods between 1995 and 2009. Our framework estimates environmental and socio-economic impacts of consumption in a consistent manner and shows where these occur both geographically and in the value chain. The results demonstrate that Western European textiles and clothing consumption remains dependent on low-cost labour from Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC), principally in the Textiles and Clothing and Agricultural sectors. Conversely, we show that the wage rate for BRIC workers in the global value chains serving Western European textiles and clothing consumption has risen over time but remains low relative to the wage rate paid to Western European workers. Likewise, we find that profits are increasingly generated within BRIC and that they are now at comparable levels to those generated in Western Europe. We find a slight overall decrease in the amount of carbon emitted in the production of textiles and clothing goods for Western Europe between 1995 and 2009. However, the trend is not linear and the importance of different underlying drivers varies over the timeseries. We conclude by discussing the implications of these results for a more sustainable future for Western European textiles and clothing consumption.

A Druckman, J Torriti, R Hanna, B Anderson, G Yeboah (2015)Peak residential electricity demand and social practices: Deriving flexibility and greenhouse gas intensities from time use and locational data, In: Indoor and Built Environment24(7)pp. 891-912 Sage

Peak residential electricity demand takes place when people conduct simultaneous activities at specific times of the day. Social practices generate patterns of demand and can help understand why, where, with whom and when energy services are used at peak time. The aim of this work is to make use of recent UK time use and locational data to better understand: (i) how a set of component indices on synchronisation, variation, sharing and mobility indicate flexibility to shift demand; and (ii) the links between people’s activities and peaks in greenhouse gases’ intensities. The analysis is based on a recent UK time use dataset, providing 1-min interval data from GPS devices and 10-min data from diaries and questionnaires for 175 data days comprising 153 respondents. Findings show how greenhouse gases’ intensities and flexibility to shift activities vary throughout the day. Morning peaks are characterised by high levels of synchronisation, shared activities and occupancy, with low variation of activities. Evening peaks feature low synchronisation, and high spatial mobility variation of activities. From a network operator perspective, the results indicate that periods with lower flexibility may be prone to more significant local network loads due to the synchronisation of electricity-demanding activities.

R Clift, A Druckman (2015)Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology Springer

How can we design more sustainable industrial and urban systems that reduce environmental impacts while supporting a high quality of life for everyone? What progress has been made towards reducing resource use and waste, and what are the prospects for more resilient, material-efficient economies? What are the environmental and social impacts of global supply chains and how can they be measured and improved?Such questions are at the heart of the emerging discipline of industrial ecology, covered in Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology.

A Druckman, M Chitnis, S Sorrell, T Jackson (2012)Missing carbon reductions? Exploring rebound and backfire effects in UK households (vol 39, pg 3572, 2011), In: ENERGY POLICY49pp. 778-778 ELSEVIER SCI LTD

Households are expected to play a pivotal role in reducing the UK’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the UK Government is encouraging specific household actions to help meet its targets. However, due to there bound effect, only a portion of the GHG emission reductions estimated by simple engineering calculations are generally achieved in practice. For example, replacing short car journeys by walking or cycling reduces consumption of motorfuels. But this frees up money that may be spent on, for example, purchasing extra clothes or flying on vacation. Alternatively, the money may be put into savings. Since all of these options lead to GHG emissions, total GHG savings may be less than anticipated. Indeed, in some instances, emissions may increase — a phenomenon known as ‘backfire’. We estimate that there bound effect for a combination of three abatement actions by UK households is approximately 34%. Targeting re-spending on goods and services with a low GHG intensity reduces this to a minimum of around 12%, while re-spending on goods and services with a high GHG intensity leads to backfire. Our study highlights the importance of shifting consumption to lower GHG intensive categories and investing in low carbon investments.

ANGELA DRUCKMAN, PRABOD DHARSHANA MUNASINGHE, D.G.K Dissanayake (2021)An Investigation of the Mass-Market Fashion Design Process, In: Research journal of textile and apparel Emerald
A Druckman, I Buck, B Hayward, TD Jackson (2013)Time, gender and carbon: how British adults use their leisure time, In: A Coote, J Franklin (eds.), Time on our side: why we all need a shorter working week.pp. 101-112 New Economics Foundation
A Druckman, I Buck, B Hayward, TD Jackson (2012)Carbon and time: A study of the carbon implications of British adults use of time, In: RESOLVE Working Paper SEries 01-12 University of Surrey
Steve Sorrell, Birgitta Gatersleben, Angela Druckman (2018)Energy sufficiency and rebound effects European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE)

This concept paper discusses how energy sufficiency and the rebound effect interact. Rebound effects can constrain the energy savings from energy efficiency improvements. The paper examines the nature of these effects, and ask the question: can greater use of sufficiency policies and actions help to tackle negative rebounds, or will it create rebounds itself?

H Skudder, A Druckman, J Cole, A McInnes, IR Brunton-Smith, GP Ansaloni (2016)Addressing the carbon-crime blind spot: A carbon footprint approach, In: Journal of Industrial Ecology Wiley

Governments estimate the social and economic impacts of crime, but its environmental impact is largely unacknowledged. Our study addresses this by estimating the carbon footprint of crime in England and Wales, and identifies the largest sources of emissions. By applying Environmentally-Extended Input-Output Analysis (EE-IOA) derived carbon emission factors to the monetised costs of crime, we estimate that crime committed in 2011 in England and Wales gave rise to over four million tonnes CO2e. Burglary resulted in the largest proportion of the total footprint (30%), due to the carbon associated with replacement of stolen/damaged goods. Emissions arising from criminal justice system services also accounted for a large proportion (21% of all offences; 49% of police recorded offences). Focus on these offences and the carbon efficiency of these services may help reduce the overall emissions that result from crime. However, cutting crime does not automatically result in a net reduction in carbon, as we need to take account of potential rebound effects. As an example, we consider the impact of reducing domestic burglary by 5%. Calculating this is inherently uncertain as it depends on assumptions concerning how money would be spent in the absence of crime. We find that this may result in a rebound effect of between 3% less and 23% more emissions. Despite this uncertainty concerning the carbon savings, our study goes some way towards informing policy makers of the scale of the environmental consequences of crime and thus enables it to be taken into account in policy appraisals.

Mona Chitnis, Angela Druckman, LC Hunt, T Jackson, S Milne (2012)Forecasting UK household expenditure and associated GHG emissions: outlook to 2030
Jade-Ashlee Cox-Rawlings, Angela Druckman, Michael Mulheron, Matthew Smyth, Helen Trew, David Jesson (2019)Treatment of problematic waste: a case study using wood, In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management172(WR4)pp. 118-137 Thomas Telford (ICE Publishing)

Waste is a complex societal problem: municipal solid waste (MSW) should be considered a resource, but the methods for capturing, treating, and utilising this resource are varied and often dependent on geopolitical factors. Previous research has, on the one hand explored the need for a more comprehensive waste composition specification in order to better manage municipal waste, and on the other focused on a problematic waste stream and the options available for dealing with it. The current work considers the use of multi-criteria decision making in order to assess the relative merits of different treatment options. A complex and problematic waste stream, wood, has been selected as a case study. For the purpose of the study, the work considers the options available to Surrey County Council in the UK. At the present time, for the conditions selected, energy from waste was considered to be the best option available for the treatment of wood with no discernible value for upcycling or reuse, but not contaminated with hazardous chemicals. When considering a different location with different circumstances, a different solution might be found.

A Druckman, M Chitnis, S Sorrell, T Jackson (2012)Missing carbon reductions? Exploring rebound and backfire effects in UK households, In: Energy Policy49pp. 778-778 Elsevier

Households are expected to play a pivotal role in reducing the UK’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the UK Government is encouraging specific household actions to help meet its targets. However, due to there bound effect, only a portion of the GHG emission reductions estimated by simple engineering calculations are generally achieved in practice. For example, replacing short car journeys by walking or cycling reduces consumption of motorfuels. But this frees up money that may be spent on, for example, purchasing extra clothes or flying on vacation. Alternatively, the money may be put into savings. Since all of these options lead to GHG emissions, total GHG savings may be less than anticipated. Indeed, in some instances, emissions may increase — a phenomenon known as ‘backfire’. We estimate that there bound effect for a combination of three abatement actions by UK households is approximately 34%. Targeting re-spending on goods and services with a low GHG intensity reduces this to a minimum of around 12%, while re-spending on goods and services with a high GHG intensity leads to backfire. Our study highlights the importance of shifting consumption to lower GHG intensive categories and investing in low carbon investments.

James Suckling, Angela Druckman, C.D Moore, Daniel Driscoll (2020)The environmental impact of rearing crickets for live pet food in the UK, and implications of a transition to a hybrid business model combining production for live pet food with production for human consumption., In: International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment25pp. 1693-1709 Springer

Purpose: Rearing crickets in the UK for the live pet food market is already a well-established industry. However, there is interest in also producing food for human consumption. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a current live pet food business. Using results from this LCA, the papers explores how current business practices could be improved to reduce environmental impacts, and discusses the potential benefits of a hybrid live pet food/human consumption business model. Methods: An attributional, cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment was conducted on rearing crickets for the live pet food market, with data collected on-site at a case study business. Results are reported in multiple impact categories from the ILCD 2011 Midpoint+ method. Comparison is made to the only other similar study: an LCA of rearing crickets in Thailand for human consumption (Halloran et al. 2017). The sources of the different environmental impacts between the two studies are explored and inefficiencies in the live pet food rearing process identified. Subsequently, scenarios are used to explore how the inefficiencies may be mitigated, and environmental impact of the live pet food production process reduced through adoption of a hybrid live pet food/human food production model. Results and Discussions: The environmental impact was found to be larger across all impact categories than the only known comparable study, which is for rearing crickets in Thailand for human consumption (Halloran et al. 2017). Some of this difference is due to the heating required for rearing crickets in a climate such as the UK, and some is due to the requirements of the live pet food market being much more demanding on resources than the human food model. The current study identifies improvements in practices that would make this contrast less stark, such as optimizing feeding practices, and the benefits of moving to a hybrid live pet food/human consumption business model. Conclusions: This is the first LCA of crickets reared in the UK. The results highlight inefficiencies in the rearing process that are now being addressed by the case study business. The study also shows the potential co-benefits of a hybrid business model, in which crickets for human consumption are produced alongside crickets for the live pet food market.

Harry Saunders, Joyashree Roy, Inês M.L. Azevedo, Debalina Chakravarty, Shyamasree Dasgupta, Stephane de la Rue du Can, ANGELA DRUCKMAN, Roger Fouquet, Michael Grubb, Boqiang Lin, Robert Lowe Lowe, Reinhard Madlener, Daire McCoy, Luis Mundaca, Tadj Oreszczyn, Steve Sorrell, David Stern, Kanako Tanaka, Taoyuan Wei (2021)Energy Efficiency: what has research delivered in the last 40 years?, In: Annual review of environment and resources

This article presents a critical assessment of research over the last 40 years that may be brought under the umbrella of “energy efficiency,” spanning different aggregations and domains – from individual producing and consuming agents to economy-wide effects, the role of innovation, and the influence of policy. After 40 years of research, energy efficiency initiatives are generally perceived as being highly effective. Innovation has contributed to lowering energy technology costs and increasing energy productivity. Energy efficiency programs in many cases have reduced energy use per economic output and have been associated with net improvements in either welfare or emission reductions or both. Rebound effects at the macro level still warrant careful policy attention as they may be non-trivial. Complexity of energy efficiency dynamics calls for further methodological and empirical advances, multidisciplinary approaches, and granular data at the service level for research in this field to be of greatest societal benefit.

JAMES ROWLAND SUCKLING, Claire Hoolohan, Iain Soutar, ANGELA DRUCKMAN (2021)Unintended consequences: Unknowable and unavoidable, or knowable and unforgivable?, In: Frontiers in Climate3737929 Frontiers Media

Recognizing that there are multiple environmental limits within which humanity can safely operate, it is essential that potential negative outcomes of seemingly positive actions are accounted for. This alertness to unintended consequences underscores the importance of so called ‘nexus’ research, which recognizes the integrated and interactive nature of water, energy and food systems, and aims to understand the broader implications of developments in any one of these systems. This article presents a novel framework for categorizing such detrimental unintended consequences, based upon how much is known about the system in question and the scope for avoiding any such unintended consequences. The framework comprises four categories (Knowable and Avoidable; Knowable and Unavoidable; Unknowable and Avoidable, and Unknowable and Unavoidable). The categories are explored with reference to examples in both the water-energy-food nexus and planetary boundary frameworks. The examples highlight the potential for the unexpected to happen and explore dynamic nature of the situations that give rise to the unexpected. The article concludes with guidance on how the framework can be used to increase confidence that best efforts have been made to navigate our way towards secure and sustainable water, energy and food systems, avoiding and/or managing unintended consequences along the way.

Sarah Gray, Angela Druckman, Jhuma Sadhukhan, Keith James (2022)Reducing the Environmental Impact of Clothing: An Exploration of the Potential of Alternative Business Models, In: Sustainability14(10)6292 MDPI

Business models providing used clothing to consumers have the potential to increase the use of each garment and thereby reduce pressure on raw materials and primary production. This research used in-depth interviews complemented by a literature review to improve the understanding of the business models and the ways in which they can impact the environment. In total, the interviews were carried out with seven business owners and six experts in clothing sustainability, product lifespan extension, and circular business models. Examples of business models of interest include businesses selling secondhand clothes and businesses renting clothes to customers. A typology of business models is used to understand how each model impacts the environment and to highlight the factors that contribute most to the impacts that need to be managed. Business models vary in how they impact the environment, through differences in the way they manage transport, storage, and cleaning. Business models also vary in how successfully they reduce the environmental impacts from the production of new garments by increasing the number of times different wearers wear a garment and reducing the need to buy new garments. This effect is referred to as displacement, and the displacement rate provides an indication of the efficiency of reuse models in reducing total volumes of throughput. Indeed, some new business models may not have reduced throughput as a goal at all, and appraisal of this is crucial to understanding the environmental impacts of the various models.

J Chenoweth, A Lopez-Aviles, A Druckman, S Morse (2016)Options for reducing household water use in the UK: the potential of servicised systems, In: Built Environment42(2)pp. 294-305 Alexandrine Press

Household water consumption in most high-income countries is well above that required to meet basic needs, but consumption levels vary significantly between these countries. In those where consumption levels are at the lower end of the spectrum as a result of improved efficiency of household appliances, scope for further significant reduction from improvements in efficiency alone is limited. Product-service systems are suggested as a means of significantly further lowering water consumption, there being a diverse range of such systems which could be developed in the water sector. In the theoretical analysis described here servicized greywater recycling systems are shown to have real potential in that they can help overcome maintenance and water quality issues associated with such systems. If servicized greywater recycling systems were introduced in all new-build dwellings in England and also when making major bathroom renovations, an absolute decoupling of population and economic growth, and household water consumption would be possible as a result of savings in mains water consumption.

M Hadjikakou, Jonathan Chenoweth, Graham Miller, Angela Druckman, Gang Li (2014)Rethinking the Economic Contribution of Tourism: Case Study from a Mediterranean Island, In: Journal of Travel Research53(5)pp. 610-624 SAGE

The article introduces an integrated market-segmentation and tourism yield estimation framework for inbound tourism. Conventional approaches to yield estimation based on country of origin segmentation and total expenditure comparisons do not provide sufficient detail, especially for mature destinations dominated by large single-country source markets. By employing different segmentation approaches along with Tourism Satellite Accounts and various yield estimates, this article estimates direct economic contribution for subsegments of the UK market on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. Overall expenditure across segments varies greatly, as do the spending ratios in different categories. In the case of Cyprus, the most potential for improving economic contribution currently lies in increasing spending on “food and beverages” and “culture and recreation.” Mass tourism therefore appears to offer the best return per monetary unit spent. Conducting similar studies in other destinations could identify priority spending sectors and enable different segments to be targeted appropriately.

Christine Corlet Walker, Angela Druckman, Tim Jackson (2021)Welfare systems without economic growth: A review of the challenges and next steps for the field, In: Ecological Economics186107066 Elsevier B.V

Welfare systems across the OECD face many combined challenges, with rising inequality, demographic changes and environmental crises likely to drive up welfare demand in the coming decades. Economic growth is no longer a sustainable solution to these problems. It is therefore imperative that we consider how welfare systems will cope with these challenges in the absence of economic growth. We review the literature tackling this complex problem. We identify five interconnected dilemmas for a post-growth welfare system: 1) how to maintain funding for the welfare system in a non-growing economy; 2) how to manage the increasing relative costs of welfare; 3) how to overcome structural and behavioural growth dependencies within the welfare system; 4) how to manage increasing need on a finite planet; and 5) how to overcome political barriers to the transformation of the welfare state. There is now need for further research investigating the macro-economic dynamics of post-growth welfare systems; trialling preventative, relational, low-resource models of welfare provision; and seeking to better understand political barriers to a post-growth welfare transition. We also make the case for considering post-growth welfare studies as a field in its own right, with the aim of improving coherence and cross-fertilisation between disciplines. •Economic growth can no longer be relied on to solve problems facing welfare systems.•Five core dilemmas for post-growth welfare systems are identified in the literature.•Declining funding, increasing costs and structural growth dependence are key issues.•Increasing welfare demand and political barriers to transition are other challenges.•A more integrated research approach would benefit post-growth welfare studies.

A Druckman, P Bradley, E Papathanasopoulou, T Jackson (2008)Measuring progress towards carbon reduction in the UK, In: ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS66(4)pp. 594-604 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
A Druckman, TD Jackson (2007)The local Area Resource Analysis (Lara) Model: Concepts, Methodology and Applications., In: RESOLVE Working Paper series02-07 University of Surrey
A Druckman, I Buck, B Hayward, T Jackson (2012)Time, gender and carbon: A study of the carbon implications of British adults' use of time, In: Ecological Economics84pp. 153-163 Elsevier

In order to meet the UK's challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets, behaviour change will be necessary in addition to changes in technology. Traditionally this has been approached from the angle of shifting the goods people purchase towards lower impact options. But an equally valid angle is through changing the way people use their time. This study explores the GHG emissions per unit time for different types of activities. It focuses on ‘non-work’ time, and examines how different activities, such as household chores and leisure pursuits, give rise to varying amounts of household carbon emissions. We do this first for an average British adult, and then examine how time use varies within households, and how this impacts on resulting carbon emissions. We find, for example, that leisure activities are generally associated with lower carbon emissions than non-leisure activities, and that a higher proportion of an average man's carbon footprint is due to leisure than an average woman's. In the discussion we explore the implications of our findings for the varying roles carried out within different types of household, we investigate the concept of carbon as a potential marker for social justice, and discuss the implications for work-time reduction policies.

ANGELA DRUCKMAN, SIMON JAMES MAIR (2021)Assessing the suitability of sustainability frameworks for embedding sustainability in higher education curricula: pragmatism versus transformation, In: International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education

Purpose This viewpoint paper addresses the use of sustainability frameworks in embedding education for sustainability into the curriculum of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). We focus on the paradox that sustainability frameworks must facilitate transformation of existing structures whilst also being well-enough aligned with current conditions to be readily adopted by today’s HEIs. Design/methodology/approach We propose a set of four criteria for assessing the suitability of sustainability frameworks for use across the curriculum: Relevance to Current Curricula; Language; Institutional Fit; and Concept of the Future. Using these criteria, we assess how various frameworks align with the current (unsustainable) state of affairs, and their transformative potential. The frameworks assessed are: the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); the Three Pillars Framework; and the Capitals Approach. Findings We find that each of the frameworks has strengths and weaknesses: the SDGs and the Capitals Approach perform well on alignment, but less well on transformational criteria. Conversely, the Three Pillars Framework perform well on transformation and less well on alignment criteria. By applying the criteria set out in this paper, we hope those working to embed sustainability into the curricula of HEIs will be better equipped to navigate the tensions presented by sustainability transitions. Originality Using a novel set of criteria for assessing sustainability frameworks, this paper provides guidance that was previously lacking to education for sustainability professionals who are attempting to embed sustainability into the curriculum at HEIs.

Mona Chitnis, S Sorrell, A Druckman, S Firth, TD Jackson (2014)Who rebounds most? Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for different UK socioeconomic groups., In: SLRG Working Paper Sesries 01-2014
A Druckman, AI Buck, B Hayward, T Jackson (2012)Time, gender, carbon: A study of the carbon implications of British adults' use of time., In: International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics84pp. 153-163 Elsevier
(2016)Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology, In: Roland Clift, Angela Druckman (eds.), Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology Springer International Publishing

How can we design more sustainable industrial and urban systems that reduce environmental impacts while supporting a high quality of life for everyone? What progress has been made towards reducing resource use and waste, and what are the prospects for more resilient, material-efficient economies? What are the environmental and social impacts of global supply chains and how can they be measured and improved?

Claudia Peña, Bárbara Civit, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid, ANGELA DRUCKMAN, Armando Caldeira- Pires, Bo Weidema, Eric Mieras, Feng-Bin Wang, Jim Fava, Llorenç Milà i Canals, Mauro Cordella, Peter Arbuckle, Sonia Valdivia, Sophie Fallaha, Wladmir Motta (2021)Using life cycle assessment to achieve a circular economy, In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Springer

The current global interest in circular economy (CE) opens an opportunity to make society’s consumption and production patterns more resource efficient and sustainable. However, such growing interest calls for precaution as well, as there is yet no harmonised method to assess whether a specific CE strategy contributes towards sustainable consumption and production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is very well suited to assess the sustainability impacts of CE strategies. This position paper of the Life Cycle Initiative (hosted by UNEP) provides an LCA perspective on the development, adoption, and implementation of CE, while pointing out strengths and challenges in LCA as an assessment methodology for CE strategies.

Christine Corlet Walker, Angela Druckman, Tim Jackson (2022)A critique of the marketisation of long-term residential and nursing home care, In: The Lancet Healthy Longevity Elsevier

Long-term care across the OECD has undergone a progressive marketisation and financialisation in recent decades, characterised by the embedding of neoliberal market values such as competition, consumer choice and the profit motive. In this Personal View, we argue that these make poor guiding principles for the care sector, identifying the dysfunctional dynamics that arise as a result, and reflecting on the clinical implications of each, with a focus on facility-based care. We outline why providers can scarcely respond to competitive forces without compromising care quality. We explain why the promotion of consumer choice cannot effectively motivate improvements to quality of care. And we explore how privatisation opens the door to predatory financial practices. We conclude by considering how far proposals for reform can take us, ultimately arguing for a rejection of neoliberal market ideology, and calling for sector-wide discussions about what principles would be more fitting for a caring economy.

Helen Skudder, Ian Brunton-Smith, Angela Druckman, J Cole, A McInnes (2017)The falling carbon footprint of acquisitive and violent offences, In: The British Journal of Criminology: an international review of crime and society Oxford University Press

Cutting carbon emissions, wherever they occur, is a global priority and those associated with crime are no exception. We show that between 1995 and 2015 the carbon footprint of acquisitive and violent crime has dropped by 62%, a total reduction of 54 million tonnes CO2e throughout this period. Although the environmental harm associated with crime is likely to be considered lower in importance than social or economic impacts, a focus on reducing high carbon crimes (burglary and vehicle offences) and high carbon aspects of the footprint (the need to replace stolen/damaged property) could be encouraged. Failure to acknowledge these potential environmental benefits may result in crime prevention strategies being unsustainable and carbon reduction targets being missed.

NATASHA ZOE PARKER, Tim Kasser, BIRGITTA CAROLINA MARIA GATERSLEBEN, ANGELA DRUCKMAN (2021)Associations of pro-environmental behaviours with hedonic and eudemonic well-being among young, working adults from three European nations, In: European Journal of Applied Positive Psychology National Wellbeing Service

Background A growing body of research demonstrates that well-being is positively correlated with ecologically sustainable behaviours, yet there is still much to understand about the nature of this association. There is a lack of clarity in the extant research as to whether pro-environmental behaviours have a stronger or more consistent relationship with pleasure-based, hedonic well-being or with virtue-based, eudemonic well-being. It is also unclear if a third variable, materialism, which has consistently been linked to lower wellbeing and engagement in fewer pro-environmental behaviours, might explain the co-occurrence of these variables. Method The current study addresses these questions in a survey of young working adults across three European nations: the UK, Italy, and Hungary. Results The results showed that pro-environmental behaviours were positively associated with wellbeing in all three countries, including two nations (Italy and Hungary) where this relationship had not previously been studied. Pro-environmental behaviours were positively associated with both hedonic and eudemonic well-being, with no difference in the strengths of the associations. Hedonic well-being was more consistently associated with pro-environmental behaviours than was eudemonic well-being across the three nations. We found that materialism did not explain the relationship between pro-environmental behaviours and wellbeing. We also demonstrated that a range of demographic factors did not diminish the size of the relationship between pro-environmental behaviours and wellbeing. Conclusions Our findings suggest that pro-environmental behaviours are not only compatible with wellbeing due to a virtuous sense of “doing good,” but they may be inherently pleasurable. We discuss the implications of this finding for two explanations of why well-being and pro-environmental behaviours are related.

Simon Mair, Angela Druckman, Tim Jackson (2019)Higher Wages for Sustainable Development? Employment and Carbon Effects of Paying a Living Wage in Global Apparel Supply Chains, In: Ecological Economics159pp. 11-23 Elsevier

In this paper we explore how paying a living wage in global supply chains might affect employment and carbon emissions: Sustainable Development Goals 8 and 13. Previous work has advocated using wage increases for poorer workers to increase prices for wealthier consumers, thereby reducing consumption and associated environmental damage. However, the likely effects of such an approach remain unclear. Using an input-output framework extended with income and demand elasticities, we estimate the employment and carbon effects of paying a living wage to Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese (BRIC) workers in the Western European clothing supply chain. We find negligible effects on carbon emissions but a substantial increase in BRIC employment under 3 scenarios of consumer behaviour. Changes in Western European consumption lead to small decreases in global carbon emissions and BRIC employment. However, the increase in BRIC wages increases demand in BRIC. This increased demand increases production which largely cancels out the carbon savings and generates net increases in BRIC employment. We conclude by arguing that paying higher wages in global supply chains represents a good but not sufficient step toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

A Lopez-Aviles, J Chenoweth, A Druckman, S Morse (2015)SPREE Country Feasibility Study Report: Water Sector in the UK SPREE

The SPREE Country Feasibility Study is the key deliverable for Work Package (WP) 7. The objectives of WP7 are: • To test the identified Servicizing systems1 and their impacts on achieving absolute decoupling and social benefits using three sector specific models with local country conditions; • To assess the feasibility of pursuing Servicizing opportunities and anticipated policy outcomes for the different partner countries; • To set the ground for the preparation of the more general Policy Packages using the insights from qualitative assessment, models simulations, and sensitivity analysis.

JAMES ROWLAND SUCKLING, ANGELA DRUCKMAN, Richard Small, FRANJO CECELJA, MADELEINE JEAN BUSSEMAKER (2021)Supply chain optimization and analysis of Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly) bioconversion of surplus foodstuffs, In: Journal of Cleaner Production128711 Elsevier

The human food supply chain is placing great strain upon the environment. This is compounded by the creation of wastes at all points along the supply chain. Yet many of these “wastes” are instead surplus foodstuffs that may yet have the potential to be used. Recapturing the value in these surplus foodstuffs is essential in reducing environmental impact of the food supply chain. Insect bioconversion of such surplus foodstuffs back into animal feed is one promising way of doing this. In this study an optimization-based decision support tool is developed to inform bioconversion businesses what locations to source surplus foodstuffs from, where to locate processing facilities and what business model to pursue. A case study business is presented, which utilizes Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly larvae, BSFL) in small bioconversion units which have flexible location options, i.e. close to individual sources of surplus foodstuffs. Spent brewer's grains (SBG) are used as a case study surplus foodstuff. The quantities and locations of SBG are identified within the South East UK. Three business models are evaluated, one using the live BSFL to feed local poultry and two based upon dried BSFL-meal used in aquaculture feeds. The live BSFL business model is shown to be most viable at present with the best margins, and greatest resilience to model perturbations. The novelty of this study is the application of optimization understand the reality of how insect bioconversion may operate within current supply chains, as opposed to the technical or social aspects more usually studied.

Prabod Munasinghe, Angela Druckman, D.G.K Dissanayake (2021)A systematic review of the life cycle inventory of clothing, In: Journal of Cleaner Production320128852 Elsevier

The clothing industry is a significant contributor to environmental degradation. Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been conducted to analyse its environmental impacts, however the majority of studies focus on either just one or a few stages of the product life cycle, and/or on a specific type of product. Therefore, easily accessible life cycle inventory (LCI) data that can be used in decision making by practitioners and researchers are lacking. This study addresses this gap. By collating data through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, it provides LCI data on energy use, water use and greenhouse gas emissions for a range of materials across all stages of the life cycle on a consistent basis. A framework is developed that groups each material at each life cycle stage according to the intensity of its energy and water use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis revealed that the raw material extraction stage generally has the highest environmental impact. In this life cycle stage, flax is the virgin fibre with the lowest environmental impacts, recycled cotton is the recycled fibre which has the lowest environmental impacts and Indian silk is found to have the highest impacts. The review identifies the gaps in the availability of LCI data and provides recommendations for LCA studies to address these gaps, as without comprehensive data, robust decisions cannot be made. The results presented in this paper must be looked at in the wider context of consumption: the best way to reduce impacts is to reduce consumption. However, noting that production cannot be reduced to zero, the results of this study will aid pro-environmental decision making by stakeholders of the fashion industry, such as designers and consumers, as well as being of use to researchers.

PRABOD DHARSHANA MUNASINGHE, D.G.K Dissanayake, ANGELA DRUCKMAN (2021)An investigation of the mass-market fashion design process, In: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel Emerald

Purpose The process of fashion design varies between market segments, yet these variations have not yet been properly explored. This study aims to examine the fashion design process as practised at the mass-market level, as this is the most vibrant and the largest market segment in terms of production volumes and sales. Design/methodology/approach It is observed that 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted with mass-market fashion designers. Key activities of the mass-market design process were identified and a comparative analysis was conducted with the general design process. Findings The mass-market design process is found to prioritise profits rather than aesthetic aspects, with the buyer exercising more power than the designer. This hinders creativity, which, in turn, may impede a move towards more environmentally benign designs. Originality/value The clothing industry is responsible for high environmental impacts and many of these impacts arise through decisions made in the design stage. In particular, the mass-market for clothing because of its high volume of sales and fast throughput, accounts for a great deal of the impact. However, little is understood about the design process that is practised in the mass-fashion market. This paper fills the gap by developing a framework that describes the mass-market design process. Understanding the design process will enable progress to be made towards achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 12: Responsible Consumption and Production.

A Druckman, T Jackson (2008)Measuring resource inequalities: The concepts and methodology for an area-based Gini coefficient, In: ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS65(2)pp. 242-252 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Steve Sorrell, Birgitta Gatersleben, Angela Druckman (2020)The limits of energy sufficiency: A review of the evidence for rebound effects and negative spillovers from behavioural change, In: Energy Research and Social Science Elsevier

‘Energy sufficiency’ involves reducing consumption of energy services in order to minimise the associated environmental impacts. This may either be through individual actions, such as reducing car travel, or through reducing working time, income and aggregate consumption (‘downshifting’). However, the environmental benefits of both strategies may be less than anticipated. First, people may save money that they can spend on other goods and services that also require energy to provide (rebounds). Second, people may feel they have ‘done her bit’ for the environment and can spend time and money on more energy-intensive goods and activities (spillovers). Third, people may save time that they can spend on other activities that also require energy to participate in (time-use rebounds). This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on rebounds and spillovers from sufficiency actions, and on time-use rebounds from downshifting. It concludes that: first, rebound effects can erode a significant proportion of the anticipated energy and emission savings from sufficiency actions; second, that such actions appear to have a very limited influence on aggregate energy use and emissions; and third, that downshifting should reduce energy use and emissions, but by proportionately less than the reduction in working hours and income.

A Druckman, P Sinclair, T Jackson (2008)A geographically and socio-economically disaggregated local household consumption model for the UK, In: JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION16(7)pp. 870-880 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
C. Hoolohan, A. Larkin, C. McLachlan, R. Falconer, I. Soutar, James Suckling, L. Varga, I. Haltas, Angela Druckman, D. Lumbroso, M. Scott, D. Gilmour, R. Ledbetter, S. McGrane, C. Mitchell, D. Yu (2018)Engaging stakeholders in research to address water-energy-food (WEF) nexus challenges, In: Sustainability Science13(5)pp. 1415-1426 Springer Verlag

The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus has become a popular, and potentially powerful, frame through which to analyse interactions and interdependencies between these three systems. Though the case for transdisciplinary research in this space has been made, the extent of stakeholder engagement in research remains limited with stakeholders most commonly incorporated in research as end-users. Yet stakeholders interact with nexus issues in a variety of ways, consequently there is much that collaboration might offer to develop nexus research and enhance its application. This paper outlines four aspects of nexus research and considers the value and potential challenges for transdisciplinary research in each. We focus on assessing and visualising nexus systems; understanding governance and capacity building; the importance of scale; and the implications of future change. The paper then proceeds to describe a novel mixed-method study that deeply integrates stakeholder knowledge with insights from multiple disciplines. We argue that mixed-method research designs – in this case orientated around a number of cases studies – are best suited to understanding and addressing real-world nexus challenges, with their inevitable complex, non-linear system characteristics. Moreover, integrating multiple forms of knowledge in the manner described in this paper enables research to assess the potential for, and processes of, scaling up innovations in the nexus space, in order to contribute insights to policy and decision making.

Roland Clift, S Sim, H King, Jonathan Chenoweth, Ian Christie, J Clavreul, C Mueller, L Posthuma, A-M Boulay, R Chaplin-Kramer, J Chatterton, F DeClerck, Angela Druckman, Christopher France, A Franco, D Gerten, M Goedkoop, MZ Hauschild, MAJ Huijbregts, T Koellner, EF Lambin, Jacquetta Lee, Simon Mair, S Marshall, MS McLachlan, L Milà i Canals, C Mitchell, E Price, J Rockström, James Suckling, Richard Murphy (2017)The Challenges of Applying Planetary Boundaries as a Basis for Strategic Decision-Making in Companies with Global Supply Chains, In: Sustainability9(2) MDPI

The Planetary Boundaries (PB) framework represents a significant advance in specifying the ecological constraints on human development. However, to enable decision-makers in business and public policy to respect these constraints in strategic planning, the PB framework needs to be developed to generate practical tools. With this objective in mind, we analyse the recent literature and highlight three major scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the PB approach in decision-making: first, identification of thresholds or boundaries with associated metrics for different geographical scales; second, the need to frame approaches to allocate fair shares in the ‘safe operating space’ bounded by the PBs across the value chain and; third, the need for international bodies to co-ordinate the implementation of the measures needed to respect the Planetary Boundaries. For the first two of these challenges, we consider how they might be addressed for four PBs: climate change, freshwater use, biosphere integrity and chemical pollution and other novel entities. Four key opportunities are identified: (1) development of a common system of metrics that can be applied consistently at and across different scales; (2) setting ‘distance from boundary’ measures that can be applied at different scales; (3) development of global, preferably open-source, databases and models; and (4) advancing understanding of the interactions between the different PBs. Addressing the scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the planetary boundaries needs be complemented with progress in addressing the equity and ethical issues in allocating the safe operating space between companies and sectors.

JL Chenoweth, A Lopez-Aviles, S Morse, A Druckman (2016)SPREE project Water Use and Wellbeing Survey in SE England University of Surrey
P Bradley, Angela Druckman, Timothy Jackson (2013)The development of commercial local area resource and emissions modelling - navigating towards new perspectives and applications, In: Journal of Cleaner Production42pp. 241-253 Elsevier

Meeting near future UK greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions targets will require all parts of the UK economy to contribute, and in particular significant changes in business practices are required at the local level. From review it was found that there is a lack of detailed business accounting and reporting of GHG emissions at the local level, especially concerning supply chain impacts and small and medium sized enterprises. This paper presents a framework model to generate detailed benchmark estimates of GHGs (both on site and supply chain related) for individual businesses and all businesses of a sector within an area. The model makes use of available economic and environmental data, and, with similar datasets existing in other parts of the world, such models may be used elsewhere. The framework model is applied to an empirical case study. Estimates from such a framework can be used in a step-by-step approach to move businesses and local areas towards improved accounting, reporting and sustainability (including procurement). The model makes use of two different accounting perspectives: the production perspective (on site GHGs) and the provision perspective (supply chain GHGs attributable to purchased inputs of a business or sectors production). The new provision perspective and its consequences are explored and explained.

AS Penn, CJ Knight, David Lloyd, D Avitabile, K Kok, F Schiller, A Woodward, Angela Druckman, L Basson (2013)Participatory development and analysis of a fuzzy cognitive map of the establishment of a bio-based economy in the Humber region., In: PLoS One8(11)pp. e78319-?

Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) is a widely used participatory modelling methodology in which stakeholders collaboratively develop a 'cognitive map' (a weighted, directed graph), representing the perceived causal structure of their system. This can be directly transformed by a workshop facilitator into simple mathematical models to be interrogated by participants by the end of the session. Such simple models provide thinking tools which can be used for discussion and exploration of complex issues, as well as sense checking the implications of suggested causal links. They increase stakeholder motivation and understanding of whole systems approaches, but cannot be separated from an intersubjective participatory context. Standard FCM methodologies make simplifying assumptions, which may strongly influence results, presenting particular challenges and opportunities. We report on a participatory process, involving local companies and organisations, focussing on the development of a bio-based economy in the Humber region. The initial cognitive map generated consisted of factors considered key for the development of the regional bio-based economy and their directional, weighted, causal interconnections. A verification and scenario generation procedure, to check the structure of the map and suggest modifications, was carried out with a second session. Participants agreed on updates to the original map and described two alternate potential causal structures. In a novel analysis all map structures were tested using two standard methodologies usually used independently: linear and sigmoidal FCMs, demonstrating some significantly different results alongside some broad similarities. We suggest a development of FCM methodology involving a sensitivity analysis with different mappings and discuss the use of this technique in the context of our case study. Using the results and analysis of our process, we discuss the limitations and benefits of the FCM methodology in this case and in general. We conclude by proposing an extended FCM methodology, including multiple functional mappings within one participant-constructed graph.

Christine Corlet Walker, Angela Druckman, Claudio Cattaneo (2020)Understanding the (non-)use of societal wellbeing indicators in national policy development: What can we learn from civil servants? A UK case study, In: Social Indicators Research Springer

Gross Domestic Product is often used as a proxy for societal well-being in the context of policy development. Its shortcomings in this context are, however, well documented and numerous alternative indicator sets have been developed. Despite this, there is limited evidence of widespread use of these alternative indicator sets by people working in policy areas relevant to societal wellbeing. Civil servants are an important group of indicator end-users, and better understanding their views about measuring societal wellbeing may contribute to broader discussions of what factors determine indicator use and influence in policy decision-making. Taking the UK as a case study, we ask: what views exist among civil servants in the UK about measuring societal well-being? To answer this question, we used a bootstrapped Q methodology, interviewing 20 civil servants to elicit their views about measuring societal well-being. Three distinct discourses emerged from our analysis: one that was concerned about the consequences of ignoring natural, social and human capital in decision making; one that emphasised opportunity and autonomy as key determinants of well-being; and one that focused on the technical aspects of measuring societal well-being. Each of these discourses has direct implications for the way that we integrate societal wellbeing into policy making, and highlights the potential benefits of including end-users in indicator development and strategy, more broadly.

Helen Skudder, Ian Brunton-Smith, A Tseloni, A McInnes, J Cole, R Thompson, Angela Druckman (2017)Can Burglary Prevention be Low Carbon and Effective? Investigating the environmental performance of burglary prevention measures, In: Security Journalpp. 1-28 Palgrave Macmillan

There has been limited study to date on the environmental impacts of prevention measures. We address this shortfall by estimating the carbon footprint associated with the most widely used burglary prevention measures: door locks, window locks, burglar alarms, lighting and CCTV cameras. We compare these footprints with a measure of their effectiveness, the Security Protection Factor (SPF), allowing us to identify those measures that are both low carbon and effective in preventing burglary. Window locks are found to be the most effective and low carbon measure available individually. Combinations of window locks, door locks, external and indoor lighting are also shown to be effective and low carbon. Burglar alarms and CCTV do not perform as strongly, with low security against burglary and higher carbon footprints. This information can be used to help inform more sustainable choices of burglary prevention within households as well as for crime prevention product design.

M Hadjikakou, Graham Miller, Jonathan Chenoweth, Angela Druckman, C Zoumides (2015)A comprehensive framework for comparing water use intensity across different tourist types, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Taylor & Francis

© 2015 Taylor & Francis Tourism products vary in their direct and indirect (supply chain) water use, as well as in their economic contribution. Hence, water-scarce destinations require a method to estimate and compare water use intensity (water use in relation to economic output) for different kinds of tourist products in order to optimise their tourism offering. The present study develops an original framework that integrates segmentation with an environmentally extended input–output (EEIO) framework based on detailed tourism expenditure data and tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) in order to quantify the total (direct and indirect) economic impact and water use for multiple tourism segments. To demonstrate the rigour of the methodology, it is applied to the eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus. The results show that cheaper forms of tourism tend to have a significantly lower total water use and, depending on the economic impact indicator of interest, may have above-average economic contribution per unit of expenditure. The proposed framework provides a significant step towards achieving sustainable water use through destination-specific estimates of water use intensity which take into consideration segment-specific attributes. It is envisaged that this could eventually lead to customised interventions for diverse tourism market segments.

C Hoolohan, I Soutar, James Suckling, Angela Druckman, A Larkin, C McLachlan (2018)Stepping-Up innovations in the water-energy-food nexus: A case study of Anaerobic Digestion in the UK, In: The Geographical Journal Wiley

Grand societal challenges such as climate change, poverty and biodiversity loss call for rapid and radical changes to systems of production and consumption. Consequently, there is a growing interest in the dynamics of innovation, both social and technical, to accelerate innovation diffusion so as increase the possibility of a step-change or large-scale transition. Research on the water-energy-food nexus adds an additional dimension to existing discussions, calling for transitions that recognise the sustainability challenges facing three major resource domains, and the synergies and tensions involved in their management. This paper examines Anaerobic Digestion (AD) – an example of innovation with potential benefits across the water-energy-food nexus – to understand the conditions that influence the rate of AD implementation and the achievement of its potential multi-sectoral benefits across the water-energy-food nexus. Interview data regarding 15 AD plants are examined alongside complementary data from interviews and workshops using the Technological Innovation Systems framework. This framework provides an analytical structure through which the processes that enable and constrain the implementation of AD in the UK can be examined, enabling the identification of potential mechanisms to support AD’s wider and more effective deployment. The findings call for recognition of the unintended consequences of sectoral support mechanisms for technological adaptation, and consequent performance of AD in other resource domains and call for greater integration between policy mechanisms to enable AD to perform across the nexus. They also highlight a need to assimilate knowledge from multiple sources (including site-specific understanding gained from experimentation) to enhance the base on which policy and decision-making occurs. These findings contribute to existing literature on sustainable transitions by examining the complexities of multi-sectoral resource management in the context of nexus research.

A Lopez-Aviles, J Chenoweth, A Druckman, S Morse, D Kauffmann, L Hayoon, A Pereira, X Vence, A Carballo, M González, A Turne, E Feitelson, M Givoni (2015)Servicizing Policy Packages for the Water sector SPREE

A policy package is a combination of policy instruments1 (PIs) designed to address one or more policy objectives, created in order to improve the effectiveness of the individual policy instruments, and implemented while minimizing possible unintended effects, and/or facilitating interventions’ legitimacy and feasibility in order to increase efficiency. The Water sector is one of the three sectors for which the options and contribution of servicizing to absolute decoupling2 were examined (the other two sectors are Mobility and Agri-food). Specifically, servicizing the introduction of greywater recycling (GWR) and rainwater harvesting (RWH) were analyzed. Examining the potential in the UK indicates that servicizing the introduction of GWR and RWH does have the potential to contribute to decoupling, both in terms of GHG emissions and in terms of water that needs to be delivered in mains. The decoupling indicator chosen for the mobility sector in this project was chosen to be the ratio between the economic cost and environmental impact (emissions/mains water use) of abstracting, treating, delivering and disposing of water in the servicizing options (GWR&RWH solutions). However, the extent to which such decoupling will materialize is a function of the degree to which such systems are indeed adopted. To facilitate the adoption of GWR and RWH systems a policy packaging approach is used, whereby different policy instruments (PI) are combined so they will have synergetic effects, and potential contradictions among them are addressed. The Policy Packages are designed in several steps. First all the PIs that are likely to advance GWR and RWH are identified. Then the potential contribution of each, and the likely cost of implementing it are assessed, in order to identify the most effective PIs – those PIs with the highest potential to both advance decoupling and the implementation of which does not incur excessive cost. Then the preconditions for implementing these most promising, “low hanging fruits” are identified, as well as instruments that may facilitate decoupling if enacted with these primary PIs and PIs that have synergetic relations with the primary PIs. On this basis basic packages are formed. In the case of GWR and RWH in the UK, the leading country in this sector study, three basic packages were originally identified, based on the primary tools they use. Then, by using agent-based modeling simulation results and causal mapping an Effective Package is formed. This package accounts for the likelihood of reaching the objective in the most effective way. In the UK some 100 PIs were whittled down to 15 at this stage.But an Effective Package is not necessarily implementable. Hence, the distribution facets of the Effective Package were identified, as well as the institutions and interest groups that will be involved in the decision-making and implementation stages. To this end the beneficiaries and losers from each PI included in the Effective Package were identified, as well as measures that can attenuate the losses. In addition the potential implementation barriers faced by each of the PIs in the package were identified. On this basis the Effective Package was modified, to assure that it is viable – viable package. To this end several PIs were removed from the Policy Packages. The background conditions, as well as the socio-political circumstances of each country differ. Hence, the viability of the policy package formulated in the UK has to be modified to address other countries’ particularities. In this study the cases of Israel and Galicia, Spain, were examined. In both cases the particular features of the setting required that the list of PIs in the British Effective Package s will be modified. Thus, in both Israel and Spain, water is metered, there is no need to include this PI, which was a central PI in the UK case. Hence, this PI was removed in both the Israeli and Spanish cases. But while Israel is mostly dry, Galicia is the wettest part of Spain. Hence, while Israel focused on GWR, the Spanish team focused on RWH. Barriers to implementation and decision making structures also differ among the countries. In Israel, for example, GWR is not legal at present, and thus a law allowing for GWR (already being discussed) is a pre-requisite for all other PIs. This PI was added therefore to the Israeli viable package. Similarly, in the Spanish case it lack of staff for developing RWH was seen as an impediment and hence subsidies for the social insurance of such staff was added as a PI. In summary, GWR and RWH can contribute to decoupling, and servicizing can be important for the introduction of such systems. But in order for these benefits to materialize a place-modified Policy Packages are needed. Three viable packages were formulated in the study, demonstrating how a combination of servicizing and policy packaging can contribute to decoupling.

M Chitnis, S Sorrell, A Druckman, SK Firth, T Jackson (2013)Turning lights into flights: Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for UK households, In: Energy Policy55pp. 234-250

Energy efficiency improvements by households lead to rebound effects that offset the potential energy and emissions savings. Direct rebound effects result from increased demand for cheaper energy services, while indirect rebound effects result from increased demand for other goods and services that also require energy to provide. Research to date has focused upon the former, but both are important for climate change. This study estimates the combined direct and indirect rebound effects from seven measures that improve the energy efficiency of UK dwellings. The methodology is based upon estimates of the income elasticity and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of 16 categories of household goods and services, and allows for the embodied emissions of the energy efficiency measures themselves, as well as the capital cost of the measures. Rebound effects are measured in GHG terms and relate to the adoption of these measures by an average UK household. The study finds that the rebound effects from these measures are typically in the range 5-15% and arise mostly from indirect effects. This is largely because expenditure on gas and electricity is more GHG-intensive than expenditure on other goods and services. However, the anticipated shift towards a low carbon electricity system in the UK may lead to much larger rebound effects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

I Haltas, James Suckling, I Soutar, Angela Druckman, L Varga (2017)Anaerobic digestion: a prime solution for water, energy and food nexus challenges, In: Energy Procedia123pp. 22-29 Elsevier

We solve the problem of identifying one or more optimal patterns of anaerobic digestion (AD) installation across the UK, by considering existing installations, the current feedstock potential and the project growth of the potential via population, demography and urbanization. We test several scenarios for the level of adoption of the AD operations in the community under varying amounts of feedstock supply, which may arise from change in food waste or energy crops generation via other policies and incentives. For the most resilient scales of solutions, we demonstrate for the UK the net energy production (bio-gas and electricity) from AD (and so the avoided emissions from grid energy), the mass of bio-waste processed (and avoided land-fill), and the quantum of digestate produced (as a proxy for avoided irrigation and fertilizer production). In order to simulate the AD innovation within WEF nexus we use agent based modelling (ABM) owing to its bottom-up approach and capability of modelling complex systems with relatively low level data and information.

F Schiller, A Penn, A Druckman, L Basson, K Royston (2014)Exploring Space, Exploiting Opportunities The Case for Analyzing Space in Industrial Ecology, In: JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY18(6)pp. 792-798 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Angela Druckman, Birgitta Gatersleben (2019)A time-use approach: high subjective wellbeing, low carbon leisure., In: Journal of Public Mental Health18(2)pp. 85-93 Emerald Publishing Limited

Purpose: This paper addresses the question: which leisure activities are relatively low carbon and conducive to high levels of subjective wellbeing? Underlying this question is the premise that to combat climate change, carbon emissions must be radically reduced. Technological change alone will not be sufficient: lifestyles must also change. Whereas mainstream strategies generally address the challenge of reducing carbon emissions through reviewing consumption, approaching it through the lens of how we use our time, in particular, leisure time, may be a promising complementary avenue. Design/methodology/approach: The paper brings together three areas of research that are hitherto largely unlinked: subjective wellbeing/happiness studies, studies on how we use our time, and studies on low-carbon lifestyles. Findings: The paper shows that low carbon leisure activities conducive to high subjective wellbeing include social activities such as spending time in the home with family and friends, and physical activities that involve challenge such as partaking in sports. However, depending how they are done, some such activities may induce high carbon emissions, especially through travel. Therefore appropriate local infrastructure, such as local sports and community centres are required, along with facilities for active travel. Policy-making developed from a time-use perspective would encourage investment to support this. Originality/value: Win-win opportunities for spending leisure time engaged in activities conducive to high subjective wellbeing in low carbon ways are identified. This is done by bringing three research topics together in a novel way.

E York, A Druckman, A Woodward (2017)Food scares: a comprehensive categorisation, In: British Food Journal119(1)pp. 131-142

Purpose: This paper describes the development of a comprehensive categorisation of food scares. • Design/methodology/approach: Following an initial desk top study, the categorisation was developed collaboratively with industry experts through a workshop and series of semi-structured interviews. • Findings: The new categorisation developed is in Venn diagram format allowing overlapping categories. It is organised around the two major types of contamination (Biological and Chemical/Physical Contaminants) and the two major causes of contamination (Wilful Deception and Transparency and Awareness Issues). • Practical implications: The long and complex supply chains characteristic of current food production systems have resulted in a rising number of food scares. There is thus an increased emphasis on developing strategies to reduce both the number of incidents of food scares, and their associated economic, social and environmental impacts. The new categorisation developed in this study enables experts to address categories of food scares. Inclusion of the cause of contamination is particularly important as the method through which contamination occurs is key in devising food scare prevention strategies. • Originality/value: The new categorisation, unlike previous categorisations, enables food scares to fall into multiple categories, as appropriate. Also, again in contrast to previous categorisations, it takes into account not only the physical problem of a food scare but also the mechanism through which it arises.

A Druckman, TD Jackson (2009)The bare necessities: how much household carbon do we really need?, In: RESOLVE Working Paper Series 05-09
A Druckman, T Jackson (2010)The bare necessities: How much household carbon do we really need?, In: Ecological Economics69(9)pp. 1794-1804 Elsevier

The consumption patterns of Western nations are generally deemed to be unsustainable. Yet there is little attempt to restrain either material throughput or income growth. Nonetheless, in the face of the need to make ‘deep’ cuts in carbon emissions (for instance), consumption restraint may be a perfectly legitimate response. This paper explores the potential for a Reduced Consumption Scenario in the UK constructed by assuming that households achieve a specific ‘minimum income standard’ which is deemed to provide a decent life for each household type. The minimum income standards are taken from a recent study for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and include not only subsistence commodities such as food, warmth and shelter but also the means to participate effectively in society. The Joseph Rowntree Foundation study produced detailed household expenditure budgets for these income standards. The paper uses an environmentally extended Quasi-Multi-Regional Input–Output model to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions required in the production and distribution of all goods and services purchased according to these budgets. Our results show that average household GHG emissions in the UK would be around 37% lower in the Reduced Consumption Scenario than they are currently. We explore several implications of these findings including: the need to change social norms around consumption, the need for investment to improve the thermal performance of homes and the need to develop new transport infrastructures. We also address the potential to reduce emissions below the level achieved in this Scenario and discuss the implications for policy.

Simon Mair, Angela Druckman, Timothy Jackson (2017)Investigating fairness in global supply chains: applying an extension of the living wage to the Western European clothing supply chain, In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment23pp. 1862-1873 Springer Verlag

Purpose This paper explores the issue of fairness in global supply chains. Taking the Western European clothing supply chain as a case study, we demonstrate how applying a normative indicator in Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) can contribute academic and practical insights into debates on fairness. To do so, we develop a new indicator that addresses some of the limitations of the living wage for SLCA. Methods We extend the standard form of living wage available for developing countries to include income tax and social security contributions. We call this extension ‘living labour compensation’. Using publically available data, we estimate net living wages, gross living wages, and living labour compensation rates for Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) in 2005. We then integrate living labour compensation rates into an input-output framework, which we use to compare living labour compensation and actual labour compensation in the BRIC countries in the Western European clothing supply chain in 2005. Results and discussion We find that in 2005, actual labour compensation in the Western European clothing supply chain was around half of the living labour compensation level, with the greatest difference being in the Agricultural sector. Therefore, we argue that BRIC pay in the Western European clothing supply chain was unfair. Furthermore, our living labour compensation estimates for BRIC in 2005 are ~ 35% higher than standard living wage estimates. Indeed, adding income taxes and employee social security contributions alone increases the living wage by ~ 10%. Consequently, we argue there is a risk that investigations based on living wages are not using a representative measure of fairness from the employee’s perspective and are substantially underestimating the cost of living wages from an employer’s perspective. Finally, we discuss implications for retailers and living wage advocacy groups. Conclusions Living labour compensation extends the living wage, maintaining its strengths and addressing key weaknesses. It can be estimated for multiple countries from publically available data and can be applied in an input-output framework. Therefore, it is able to provide a normative assessment of fairness in complex global supply chains. Applying it to the Western European clothing supply chain, we were able to show that pay for workers in Brazil, Russia, India, and China is unfair, and draw substantive conclusions for practice.

Natasha Parker, Tim Kasser, Anat Bardi, Angela Druckman, Birgitta Gatersleben (2020)Goals for Good: Testing an Intervention to Reduce Materialism in Three European Countries., In: Europen Journal of Applied Positive Psychology National Wellbeing Service

Background Materialism is associated with a broad range of negative outcomes for individuals, societies, and the planet. We therefore experimentally tested whether a three-session intervention could cause sustained reductions in materialism. Methods Employed young adults (aged 18-30) in three European countries (UK, Italy, Hungary) were either encouraged to set intrinsic goals and reflect on self-transcendence values or were assigned to an active control group. We measured materialistic value and goal orientations, and we followed up two months after the completion of the intervention. Results Participants in the experimental group significantly decreased in their materialistic goal orientation by the end of the intervention and 2 months later, but showed no significant changes in their materialistic value orientation. Among the active control group, no changes in materialistic goal or value orientations were noted. Findings were independent of the cultures studied, of commitment to, self-concordance with, and progress made on chosen goals, and of engagement in the intervention. Conclusion This study demonstrated that encouraging and activating self-transcendence values and intrinsic goals is an effective strategy to reduce a materialistic goal orientation. This result was robust across a range of potential moderating factors, which suggests this intervention may be widely useful to reduce a materialistic goal orientations. We discuss why the intervention may have reduced materialistic goal orientations but not materialistic value orientations.