Dr Anna-Stiina Wallinheimo

Research Fellow (B)
BA (Stockholm); MSc (Bath); MSc (Kingston); and PhD (Surrey)
+44 (0)1483 688971
21 AC 04


Research interests



Anna-Stiina Wallinheimo, Anesa Hosein, David Barrie, Andrey Chernyavskiy, Irina Agafonova, Peter Williams (2022)How Online Gaming Could Enhance Your Career Prospects, In: Simulation & gaming SAGE Publications

Background Online gaming motivations are differently associated with career interests. However, very little is known about online gaming behaviour based on the actual games played and how career interests are reflected in what people play. Hence, we investigated the actual gaming behaviour of individuals from an extensive secondary data set to further support gamers’ future career planning and professional training. Methods The study comprised 16,033 participants playing a different number of games on Steam. Our study was based on the 800 most played games only and included participants where we had access to gender and job details. We employed a secondary data analysis approach by using an existing data set (O’Neill et al., 2016), looking into the actual gaming behaviour of Steam users and additional administrative data (i.e., job details and gender) provided by Game Academy Limited. We used logistic regression on the participants’ top ten games, allowing us to investigate any possible associations between different professions, gender, and the games played. Results We found that IT professionals and engineers played puzzle-platform games, allowing for enhanced spatial skills. Managers showed an interest in action roleplay games where organisational and planning skills can be improved. Finally, engineers were associated with strategy games that required problem-solving and spatial skills. There were apparent gender differences too: females preferred playing single-player games, whereas males played shooting games. Conclusion Our study found that online gaming behaviour varied between different job categories, allowing the participants to gain different soft skills. The soft skills gained could assist gamers with training that leads to a particular career path. The reasons for these findings and suggestions for future research will be discussed.

Concerns have been raised regarding middle-aged and older adults’ mental health during the coronavirus outbreak. The aim of the current study was to characterise associations between internet use (frequency and purpose), depression symptoms and Quality of Life (QoL) during the pandemic, in individuals aged 55–75. Data (N = 3491) were drawn from the English longitudinal study of ageing (ELSA) cohort study collected in June/July 2020 (while social distancing measures were in place). Associations with frequency of use were tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVAS), controlling for covariates such as wealth and education. Type of internet use (for communication, information search) was also analysed amongst frequent users. Significant effects of frequency of use were observed (p = 0.01 for depression, p < 0.001 for QoL), with lower depression symptoms and higher QoL scores amongst more frequent users. Regarding purpose of use, those who reported using the internet for communication purposes had higher QoL. However, use for health-related or Government services information searching was associated with more depression symptoms. Results provide important information regarding the potential benefits of internet use for middle-aged and older people, suggesting that strategies to increase internet usage (particularly for communication) might benefit middle-aged and older adults’ mental health and counter isolation as the coronavirus crisis continues to evolve.

Loneliness among older adults is a major societal problem with consequences for health and wellbeing; this has been exacerbated by the coronavirus pandemic. The present study investigated associations between internet use, including frequency and type of use, and loneliness in a large UK sample of middle-aged and older adults, aged 55–75 (n = 3500) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort study. Our findings indicated a clear relationship between the frequency of internet use and subjective loneliness. Those who used the internet more than once a day reported feeling less lonely than those who used the internet once a week or less. We also found that those who used the internet for e-mail communication were less lonely. However, individuals indicated higher levels of loneliness when the internet was used for information searches about health. Regarding sociodemographic factors underlying internet usage, less frequent use was seen amongst individuals who lived alone, people who were not employed, who had lower education levels, and lower sociodemographic status. Additionally, gender differences were found in the type of internet use: males report using the internet for e-mail communication more than females, while females’ internet use for health-related information searches was higher than in males. In sum, findings suggest that intervention strategies that promote internet access amongst middle-aged and older people could be useful for tackling loneliness and point to the groups within society that should be the focus of such interventions.

Jamie Rutland-Lawes, ANNA-STIINA WALLINHEIMO, SIMON EVANS (2021)Risk factors for depression during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study in middle-aged and older adults, In: BJPsych Open7(5)161 Cambridge University Press

Background The COVID-19 pandemic and resultant social restrictions have had widespread psychological ramifications, including a rise in depression prevalence. However, longitudinal studies on sociodemographic risk factors are lacking. Aims To quantify longitudinal changes in depression symptoms during the pandemic compared with a pre-pandemic baseline, in middle-aged and older adults, and identify the risk factors contributing to this. Method A total of 5331 participants aged ≥50 years were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Self-reported depression symptoms in June/July 2020 were compared with baseline data from 2–3 years prior. Regression models investigated sociodemographic and lifestyle variables that could explain variance in change in depression. Results Within-participant depression scores increased significantly from pre-pandemic levels: 14% met the criteria for clinical depression at baseline, compared with 26% during the pandemic. Younger age, female gender, higher depression scores at baseline, living alone and having a long-standing illness were significant risk factors. Gender-stratified regression models indicated that older age was protective for women only, whereas urban living increased risk among women only. Being an alcohol consumer was a protective factor among men only. Conclusions Depression in UK adults aged ≥50 years increased significantly during the pandemic. Being female, living alone and having a long-standing illness were prominent risk factors. Younger women living in urban areas were at particularly high risk, suggesting such individuals should be prioritised for support. Findings are also informative for future risk stratification and intervention strategies, particularly if social restrictions are reimposed as the COVID-19 crisis continues to unfold.

Lauren Spinner, HARRIET TENENBAUM, Lindsey Cameron, ANNA-STIINA WALLINHEIMO (2021)A school-based intervention to reduce gender-stereotyping, In: School Psychology International SAGE Publications

Children’s adherence to gender stereotypes can be detrimental, yet interventions to tackle stereotyping have achieved mixed success. Few studies have examined interventions developed collaboratively by educators and researchers, and the impact of interventions that focus on increasing perceived similarities between genders has yet to be tested. The present study evaluated an intervention among 6- to 10-year-old British children (47 boys; 37 girls) compared to a control group (61 boys; 47 girls). Led by their class teacher via weekly 30-minute lessons, over a four-month period, children learned to identify and challenge stereotypes, and explored similarities between genders and diversity within gender (e.g., not all girls like pink). Key measures of gender flexibility in relation to toy play, occupations, and perceived similarity to gender groups were utilised. After controlling for baseline scores, the intervention group felt more similar to the other gender and reported that they could do a wider range of occupations in the future. Those who showed less flexibility around toy play at baseline were more flexible after the intervention. Boys in the intervention group reported that gender stereotypes were more unfair than did the control group. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of gender stereotyping and intervention research.

Elena Davitti, Anna-Stiina Wallinheimo (2024)Shaping Multilingual Access through Respeaking Technology, Project Data, 2021, In: Training in new forms of human-AI interaction improves complex working memory and switching skills of language professionals UK Data Service

The recent global surge in audiovisual content has emphasized the importance of accessibility for wider audiences. The SMART project addressed this by exploring interlingual respeaking, a novel practice combining speech recognition technology with human interpreting and subtitling skills to produce real-time, high-quality speech-to-text services across languages. This method evolved from intralingual respeaking, which is widely used in broadcasting to create live subtitles for the deaf and hard-of-hearing. Interlingual respeaking, which involves translating live content into another language and subtitling it, could revolutionize subtitle production for foreign-language content, overcoming sensory and language barriers.. Interlingual respeaking is defined as a type of simultaneous interpreting, producing text with minimal delay. It involves two shifts: interlingual (from one language to another) and intermodal (from spoken to written). This practice combines the challenges of simultaneous interpreting with the requirements of subtitling. Respeakers must accurately convey messages in another language to a speech recognition system, adding punctuation and making real-time edits for clarity and readability. This method leverages speech recognition technology and human translation skills to ensure efficient and high-quality translated subtitles.. Interlingual respeaking offers immense potential for making multilingual content accessible to international and hearing-impaired audiences. It's particularly relevant for television, conferences, and live events. However, research into its feasibility, accuracy, and the skills required for language professionals is still in its early stages.. The SMART project aimed to address these research gaps. It focused on the cognitive and interpersonal profiles needed for successful interlingual respeaking. The project extended a pilot study, including language professionals from interpreting, subtitling, translation, and intralingual respeaking, to explore how cognitive and interpersonal factors influence learning and performance in this field.. The SMART project's main goals were to study interlingual respeaking's complexity, focusing on the acquisition and implementation of relevant skills, and the accuracy of the final subtitles. The research involved 23 postgraduate students with backgrounds in interpreting, subtitling, and intralingual respeaking.. The research program examined three areas: process, product, and upskilling. It sought to understand the variables contributing to language professionals' performance, challenges faced during performance, and how performance can be sustained. Regarding the product, it aimed to identify factors affecting the accuracy of interlingual respeaking and the impact of various individual and content characteristics on accuracy. For upskilling, the focus was on the challenges and strengths of the training course.. Key findings included the importance of working memory in predicting high performance and the enhancement of certain cognitive abilities through training. Interpersonal traits like conscientiousness and integrated regulation were also examined. In terms of product accuracy, the average was 95.37%, with omissions being the strongest negative predictor of accuracy. High performers outperformed low performers across all scenarios.. The upskilling course was innovative, focusing on modular training and combining intralingual and interlingual practices. It addressed real-world challenges and was tailored to different professional backgrounds. The approach proved effective, with 82% of participants finding the course met their expectations and 86% acknowledging its challenging nature. The study confirmed the benefits of a modular and personalized training approach, highlighting the need for flexibility and adaptability to different skill levels and backgrounds.

Anna-Stiina Wallinheimo, Simon L. Evans, Elena Davitti (2023)Training in new forms of human-AI interaction improves complex working memory and switching skills of language professionals, In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence6 Frontiers Media

AI-related technologies used in the language industry, including automatic speech recognition (ASR) and machine translation (MT), are designed to improve human efficiency. However, humans are still in the loop for accuracy and quality, creating a working environment based on Human-AI Interaction (HAII). Very little is known about these newly-created working environments and their effects on cognition. The present study focused on a novel practice, interlingual respeaking (IRSP), where real-time subtitles in another language are created through the interaction between a human and ASR software. To this end, we set up an experiment that included a purpose-made training course on IRSP over 5 weeks, investigating its effects on cognition, and focusing on executive functioning (EF) and working memory (WM). We compared the cognitive performance of 51 language professionals before and after the course. Our variables were reading span (a complex WM measure), switching skills, and sustained attention. IRSP training course improved complex WM and switching skills but not sustained attention. However, the participants were slower after the training, indicating increased vigilance with the sustained attention tasks. Finally, complex WM was confirmed as the primary competence in IRSP. The reasons and implications of these findings will be discussed.

ANNA-STIINA WALLINHEIMO, ADRIAN PAUL BANKS, HARRIET TENENBAUM (2019)Achievement Goals and Mental Arithmetic: The Role of Distributed Cognition, In: 41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2019) : Creativity + Cognition + Computation

The purpose of these studies was to investigate the role of distributed cognition in defusing the impact of evaluative pressure caused by performance-approach goals on mental arithmetic performance. Performance-approach goals can generate worrying thoughts that can deplete working memory resources. However, some of these working memory limitations can be compensated by off-loading the internal cognitive process to the external environment. We tested this prediction in two experiments. Participants carried out modular arithmetic tasks in a performance-approach goal or mastery-approach goal condition crossed with interactivity or no interactivity. Performance-approach goal manipulation hampered cognitive performance (accuracies), (Experiment 1). However, these negative effects were defused with the help of interactivity (Experiment 2). Interestingly, the mastery-focused individuals had a performance drop in the interactive condition (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2). Finally, experiment 2 reported higher maths anxiety levels for the performance-focused individuals. Reasons for the findings and future implications will be discussed.

Additional publications